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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0253635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610035

RESUMO

Hunter harvest is a potential factor contributing to population declines of sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). As a result, wildlife agencies throughout western North America have set increasingly more conservative harvest regulations over the past 25 years to reduce or eliminate hunter success and concomitant numbers of harvested greater (C. urophasianus) and Gunnison (C. minimus) sage-grouse. Sage-grouse hunting has varied widely over time and space, which has made a comprehensive summary of hunting management challenging. We compiled data on harvest regulations among 11 western U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces from 1870-2019 to create a timeline representative of hunting regulations. We compared annual harvest boundaries and area-weighted average hunting regulations, 1995-2018, relative to administrative boundaries and areas of high probability of sage-grouse occupation. We also summarized estimated numbers of birds harvested and hunters afield, 1995-2018, across both species' ranges. From 1995-2018, there was a 30% reduction in administrative harvest boundaries across the greater sage-grouse range compared to a 16.6% reduction in area open to harvest within 8 km from active leks. Temporary closures occurred in response to wildfires, disease outbreaks, low population numbers, and two research projects; whereas, permanent closures primarily occurred in small populations and areas on the periphery of the species distribution. Similarly, area-weighted possession limits and season length for greater sage-grouse decreased 52.6% and 61.0%, respectively, while season start date stayed relatively stable (mean start date ~259 [mid-September]). In contrast, hunting of the now federally-threatened Gunnison sage-grouse ended after 1999. While restrictions in harvest regulations were large in area, closures near areas of high greater sage-grouse occupancy were relatively smaller with the same trend for Gunnison sage-grouse until hunting ceased. For greater sage-grouse, most states reduced bag and possession limits and appeared to adhere to recommendations for later and shorter hunting seasons, reducing potential for additive mortality.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , América do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Codorniz/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543290

RESUMO

Habitat loss from land-use change is one of the top causes of declines in wildlife species of concern. As such, it is critical to assess and reassess habitat suitability as land cover and anthropogenic features change for both monitoring and developing current information to inform management decisions. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to develop consistent assessments through time. A range-wide lek habitat suitability model for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), currently under review by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for potential listing under the Endangered Species Act, was published in 2016. This model was based on lek data from 2002 to 2012, land cover data ranging from 2001 to 2013, and anthropogenic features from circa 2011, and has been used to help guide lesser prairie-chicken management and anthropogenic development actions. We created a second iteration model based on new lek surveys (2015 to 2019) and updated predictors (2016 land cover and cleaned/updated anthropogenic data) to evaluate changes in lek suitability and to quantify current range-wide habitat suitability. Only three of 11 predictor variables were directly comparable between the iterations, making it difficult to directly assess what predicted changes resulted from changes in model inputs versus actual landscape change. The second iteration model showed a similar positive relationship with land cover and negative relationship with anthropogenic features to the first iteration, but exhibited more variation among candidate models. Range-wide, more suitable habitat was predicted in the second iteration. The Shinnery Oak Ecoregion, however, exhibited a loss in predicted suitable habitat that could be due to predictor source changes. Iterated models such as this are important to ensure current information is being used in conservation and development decisions.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Codorniz/fisiologia
3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1836): 20200247, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482722

RESUMO

Understanding when learning begins is critical for identifying the factors that shape both the developmental course and the function of information acquisition. Until recently, sufficient development of the neural substrates for any sort of vocal learning to begin in songbirds was thought to be reached well after hatching. New research shows that embryonic gene activation and the outcome of vocal learning can be modulated by sound exposure in ovo. We tested whether avian embryos across lineages differ in their auditory response strength and sound learning in ovo, which we studied in vocal learning (Maluridae, Geospizidae) and vocal non-learning (Phasianidae, Spheniscidae) taxa. While measuring heart rate in ovo, we exposed embryos to (i) conspecific or heterospecific vocalizations, to determine their response strength, and (ii) conspecific vocalizations repeatedly, to quantify cardiac habituation, a form of non-associative learning. Response strength towards conspecific vocalizations was greater in two species with vocal production learning compared to two species without. Response patterns consistent with non-associative auditory learning occurred in all species. Our results demonstrate a capacity to perceive and learn to recognize sounds in ovo, as evidenced by habituation, even in species that were previously assumed to have little, if any, vocal production learning. This article is part of the theme issue 'Vocal learning in animals and humans'.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Social
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255483, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411127

RESUMO

Intensification of agricultural practices has drastically shaped farmland landscapes and generally caused a decline in spatial and temporal heterogeneity, thus leading to changes in habitat quality and food resources and a decline for most farmland birds Europe-wide. The relationship between complex landscape changes and habitat preferences of animals still remains poorly understood. Particularly, temporal and spatial changes in diversity may affect not only habitat choice but also population sizes. To answer that question, we have looked into a severely declining typical farmland bird species, the grey partridge Perdix perdix in a diverse farmland landscape near Vienna to investigate the specific habitat preferences in respect to the change of agricultural landscape over two decades and geographic scales. Using a dataset collected over 7.64 km² and between 2001 and 2017 around Vienna, we calculated Chesson's electivity index to study the partridge's change of habitat selection over time on two scales and between winter and spring in 2017. Although the farmland landscape underwent an ongoing diversification over the two decades, the grey partridges declined in numbers and shifted habitat use to less diverse habitats. During covey period in winter, partridges preferred also human infrastructure reservoirs such as roads and used more diverse areas with smaller fields than during breeding where they selected harvested fields but surprisingly, avoided hedges, fallow land and greening. Known as best partridge habitats, those structures when inappropriately managed might rather function as predator reservoirs. The avoidance behaviour may further be a consequence of increasing landscape structuring and edge effects by civilisation constructions. Besides, the loss in size and quality of partridge farmland is altered by crop choice and pesticides reducing plant and insect food. With declining breeding pairs, the grey partridge does not seem to adjust to these unsustainable landscape changes and farmland practices.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Galliformes/fisiologia , Planejamento Social , Animais , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica
5.
Zoo Biol ; 40(4): 346-351, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724508

RESUMO

We describe unique reproductive features of two threatened Galliformes species, the Malaysian peacock-pheasant (Polyplectron malacense) and Bornean peacock-pheasant (P. schleiermacheri). These features pose challenges to successful captive breeding to build up sustainable populations for conservation purposes. Single egg clutches in both species mean that reproductive rates are low and population increase is slow. The very rounded eggs of Bornean Peacock-pheasant cause difficulties for egg orientation in incubators. Single chicks with special requirements are poorly suited to rearing by broody bantams and successful husbandry requires increased human time, commitment, and skills.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Galliformes/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino , Óvulo , Comportamento Sexual Animal
6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 158: 107091, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545275

RESUMO

Building taxon-rich phylogenies is foundational for macroevolutionary studies. One approach to improve taxon sampling beyond individual studies is to build supermatricies of publicly available data, incorporating taxa sampled across different studies and utilizing different loci. Most existing supermatrix studies have focused on loci commonly sequenced with Sanger technology ("legacy" markers, such as mitochondrial data and small numbers of nuclear loci). However, incorporating phylogenomic studies into supermatrices allows problem nodes to be targeted and resolved with considerable amounts of data, while improving taxon sampling with legacy data. Here we estimate phylogeny from a galliform supermatrix which includes well-known model and agricultural species such as the chicken and turkey. We assembled a supermatrix comprising 4500 ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) collected as part of recent phylogenomic studies in this group and legacy mitochondrial and nuclear (intron and exon) sequences. Our resulting phylogeny included 88% of extant species and recovered well-accepted relationships with strong support. However, branch lengths, which are particularly important in down-stream macroevolutionary studies, appeared vastly skewed. Taxa represented only by rapidly evolving mitochondrial data had high proportions of missing data and exhibited long terminal branches. Conversely, taxa sampled for slowly evolving UCEs with low proportions of missing data exhibited substantially shorter terminal branches. We explored several branch length re-estimation methods with particular attention to terminal branches and conclude that re-estimation using well-sampled mitochondrial sequences may be a pragmatic approach to obtain trees suitable for macroevolutionary analysis.


Assuntos
Galliformes/classificação , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Galliformes/genética , Galliformes/fisiologia , Íntrons , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 89, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415538

RESUMO

Three guinea fowl populations from Northern Ghana were compared in terms of their body weight, growth rates, and survivability during the first 11 weeks of life. Keets (n = 865) were hatched from eggs collected from 32 sampling areas divided into eleven subpopulations within three populations in Northern Ghana. Together with an experimental flock maintained at Animal Research Institute (ARI flock), these birds were raised and appraised for weekly body weights, weekly growth rates, and survivability. Weekly body weights did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the three populations, although ARI flock were significantly heavier (p Ë‚ 0.05) compared to the main populations until the fourth week. In contrast, among the subpopulations, significant differences emerged in body weights from the second week and were more pronounced from the sixth week. Growth rates measured as weekly weight gains also differed significantly among subpopulations beyond the second week, although differences in growth rates were not significantly different among whole populations. The mean values for total feed intake, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) between the populations. Therefore, although the variations in body weight and growth rates were limited among the populations, there existed significant variations among subpopulations, creating opportunities to establish genetically divergent populations for growth rate and to improve early growth rates and body weights in local guinea fowls by selection. High survivability observed in the ARI flock compared to keets from the three populations of Northern Ghana was likely due to good breeder stock management practices despite their common ancestry.


Assuntos
Galliformes/fisiologia , Longevidade , Animais , Galliformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gana , Ganho de Peso
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 3755-3767, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011906

RESUMO

A survey was conducted in Dry Savannah and Atakora agroecological zones in northern Togo, between March and July 2018, to characterise indigenous guinea fowl management practices. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 82 farmers in 28 villages. The data were analysed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, independent-sample t test and the multiple correspondence analysis with SPSS and XLSTAT. The results showed that guinea fowl production was mainly practised by men (91.5%) who did not have training in guinea fowl production (68.4%). In traditional poultry farming, the most popular management method was the semi-intensive system (86.2%). Guinea fowl, which was raised primarily for sale (100%), was the main bird species with 68.2 ± 92.5 birds per farmer. All respondents provided a dietary supplement to guinea fowl with a feeding management that varied according to the birds' developmental stage. Wing drooping (89.3%), diarrhoea (67.4%) and drowsiness (64.7%) were the main clinical symptoms of diseases observed. The majority of respondents (68.2%) used both conventional veterinary products and ethno-veterinary plant products as drugs in order to control guinea fowl diseases. Guinea fowl started laying at 8.4 ± 1.6 months and had 128.5 ± 51.2 eggs per year. The indigenous hen that hatched eggs naturally had 43.6 ± 17.1 hatching eggs per year with a hatchability of 85.0%. For 85.4% of the respondents, survivability was the main problem in guinea fowl production. Improving the survivability of the birds could improve their productivity, as they play an important socio-economic role for most rural households.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galliformes/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Oviposição , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Togo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025058

RESUMO

Despite the excitement that followed the report of infrasound sensitivity in pigeons 40 years ago, there has been limited followup, with only eleven species of birds having auditory thresholds at frequencies below 250 Hz. With such sparse data on low-frequency hearing, there is little understanding of why some birds hear very low frequencies while others do not. To begin to expand the phylogenetic and ecological sample of low-frequency hearing in birds, we determined the behavioral audiogram of the Indian peafowl, Pavo cristatus. Peafowl are thought to use low frequencies generated by the males' tail feathers and wing flutters during courtship displays, and their crest feathers are reported to resonate at infrasound frequencies. The peafowl were able to respond to frequencies as low as 4 Hz, and their hearing range at 60 dB SPL extended from 29 Hz to 7.065 kHz (7.9 octaves). Removing the crest feathers reduced sensitivity at their resonant frequencies by as much as 7.5 dB, indicating a modest contribution to detectability in that range. However, perforation of the tympanic membranes severely reduced sensitivity to low frequencies, indicating that sensitivity to low frequencies is mediated primarily by the ears and cannot be attributed to some other sensory modality.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Plumas/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Animais , Limiar Auditivo , Filogenia
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200609, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900309

RESUMO

For overwintering species, individuals' ability to find refugia from inclement weather and predators probably confers strong fitness benefits. How animals use their environment can be mediated by their personality (e.g. risk-taking), but does personality mediate how overwintering species select refugia? Snow cover is a dynamic winter characteristic that can influence crypsis or provide below-the-snow refugia. We explored how wintering ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) selected snow roosting sites, a behaviour that reduces stress and cold exposure. We linked selection for approximately 700 roosts with survival of 42 grouse, and showed that grouse generally selected deeper snow and warmer areas. Grouse found in shallow snow were less likely to survive winter. However, individuals that selected deep snow improved their survival, suggesting that demographic consequences of selecting winter refugia are mediated by differences in personality. Our study provides a crucial, and seldom addressed, link between personality in resource selection and resulting demographic consequences.


Assuntos
Galliformes/fisiologia , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Animais , Demografia , Personalidade , Estações do Ano , Neve
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886720

RESUMO

As many other wild living species, black grouse Tetrao tetrix has to cope with anthropogenic disturbances in many habitats. Impacts of tourism and outdoor recreation on grouse species Tetraoninae have been subject to several studies in mountainous habitats in Central Europe and the United Kingdom. The geographically isolated and critically endangered black grouse population of Lower Saxony (North Germany) has been consistently monitored but beyond that poorly studied. This also applies to the key habitats of the nature reserve Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide) which, in turn, serves as a recreational area as well. In this study, the impact of tourism activity on habitat use of black grouse was investigated using data of GPS-tracked individuals. Additionally, visitor numbers on public and (usually undisturbed) closed routes were monitored using infrared light barriers. The spatio-temporal distribution of locations and the recreational activity were evaluated by linear mixed-effects models. Tagged individuals avoided the vicinity of public routes and avoiding distances were directly related to intensity of human activity. There was no seasonal change of black grouse habitat use alongside public routes. However, towards closed routes, significantly higher distances appeared during peak phases of visitor numbers (August and September), implying temporary increased disturbance levels within a key refuge area. Diurnal adaptation of habitat use was strongly dependent on the route density within the home range. Individuals used the vicinity of public trails at night and dawn but evaded these habitats during peak human activity around noon and afternoon. Recreational disturbances appeared to significantly affect the effective habitat availability for black grouse in the nature reserve. Visual cover by vegetation, however, seemed to diminish negative effects emerging from hiking trails. This provides an effective protective measure which requires minimal effort for the local conservation management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Galliformes/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Geografia , Alemanha , Atividades Humanas , Modelos Lineares , Estações do Ano , Telemetria , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Elife ; 92020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573432

RESUMO

Animals must integrate feedforward, feedback and intrinsic mechanical control mechanisms to maintain stable locomotion. Recent studies of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) revealed that the distal leg muscles rapidly modulate force and work output to minimize perturbations in uneven terrain. Here we probe the role of reflexes in the rapid perturbation responses of muscle by studying the effects of proprioceptive loss. We induced bilateral loss of autogenic proprioception in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle (LG) using self-reinnervation. We compared in vivo muscle dynamics and ankle kinematics in birds with reinnervated and intact LG. Reinnervated and intact LG exhibit similar steady state mechanical function and similar work modulation in response to obstacle encounters. Reinnervated LG exhibits 23ms earlier steady-state activation, consistent with feedforward tuning of activation phase to compensate for lost proprioception. Modulation of activity duration is impaired in rLG, confirming the role of reflex feedback in regulating force duration in intact muscle.


Assuntos
Galliformes/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Retroalimentação Sensorial
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497098

RESUMO

Habitat selection links individual behavior to population abundance and dynamics, so evaluation of habitat selection is necessary for conservation and management. Land management can potentially alter both the structure and composition of habitats, thus influencing habitat selection and population size. Livestock grazing is the dominant land use worldwide and, while overstocking has been linked to the decline of many wildlife species, properly managed grazing could improve habitat quality and maintain native rangeland habitats. We evaluated breeding season habitat selection of female sharp-tailed grouse, an indicator species for grassland ecosystems, in relation to grazing management and landscape features in eastern Montana and western North Dakota. At broad spatial scales, females selected for multiple landscape features, including grassland, but exhibited no selection for either landscape or management variables when selecting habitat at smaller spatial scales. Females selected for pastures managed with rest-rotation grazing when choosing a home range, but selection did not equate to improved fitness. Moreover, we observed strong individual variation in both home range size and third-order habitat selection. While the high variability among individuals makes specific management recommendations difficult, selection for grassland habitats at broad scales suggests that strategies that maintain intact native rangelands are important for the conservation of sharp-tailed grouse.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Galliformes/fisiologia , Pradaria , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Modelos Lineares , Montana , North Dakota , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2667-2675, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474755

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E (vit. E), selenium yeast (Se yeast), or both on egg incubation response, embryonic development, keet quality, and posthatch growth of helmeted guinea fowls. Two hundred and forty 24-week old helmeted guinea fowl hens (average weight 1.75 + 0.22 kg) and cocks (average weight 2.15 + 0.20 kg) were assigned into 24 pens; each pen housed 10 hens and 2 cocks. There were four dietary treatments consisting of a basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with vit. E (30 IU/kg), Se yeast (0.3 mg/kg Se), or both. Six pens were assigned to each treatment. Egg incubation response were estimated using 504 settable eggs sampled from each treatment collected during 15 to 17 weeks in lay. A total of 72 fertile eggs sampled from each treatment were used for the estimation of embryonic development. Quality of day-old keets hatched was scored based on physical conditions, while posthatch growth was measured for 21 days. Guinea fowl breeders fed diet supplemented with both vit. E and Se yeast produced the highest (P < 0.05) number of fertile eggs, percentage fertility, number of hatchlings, hatchability of total eggs, and hatchability of fertile eggs. Supplementation with vit. E + Se yeast resulted in the heaviest (P < 0.05) embryo weight, relative embryo weight, least (P < 0.05) yolk sac weight, and relative yolk sac weight on 25 days of incubation. Hatchlings from breeders fed diet supplemented with Se yeast and vit. E + Se yeast showed normal swallowed yolk. Supplementation of maternal diet with vit. E, Se yeast, and vit. E + Se yeast resulted in improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio of subsequent hatchlings during 1 to 7-day posthatch growth. It can be concluded that dietary supplementation of vit. E + Se yeast in guinea fowl breeders resulted in improved egg fertility, hatchability, heavier embryo weights, hatchlings of good quality, and improved posthatch growth during the first 7 days.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Galliformes/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação , Selênio/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Fermento Seco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Galliformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Comportamento de Nidação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 342-349, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416819

RESUMO

A total of 144 French selected breed (Galor) female guinea fowl (GF) of 42 wk of age were enrolled for a feeding trial of 15, 30, and 45 D duration. The birds were randomly assigned to 18 cages, each containing 8 birds. A total of 3 isonitrogenous and isocaloric dietary treatments were trialed, each diet comprising 6 replications (cages), which meant a total of 48 birds per diet. The GF were fed either a control diet C (commercial diet "FACI ponte 20", SIPRA, Ivory Coast, usually used for all poultry species) or the diet C supplemented with 5% Euphorbia heterophylla seeds (diet E) and the diet C supplemented with 5% Hevea seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis) (diet H). Animal performance were assessed for 3 periods (days 0 to 15, 0 to 30, and 0 to 45), and egg quality and composition were assessed at 15, 30, and 45 D of the trial. The results indicated no mortality during the trial. The laying rate was the highest (43.9%) with diet E and the lowest with diet C (32.5%), the laying rate with diet H being intermediate (38.5%). Diet E containing Euphorbia seeds led to a reduced cholesterol content of the eggs. Additionally, inclusion of Euphorbia seeds and, to a lesser extent, of the Hevea seed meal in the diet led to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched GF eggs, with thereby, improved nutritional value. A sensory test did not find any difference between the 3 diets on trial.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Ovos/análise , Euphorbia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Hevea , Adulto , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Costa do Marfim , Gema de Ovo/classificação , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes , Sementes , Paladar
16.
Zoology (Jena) ; 138: 125740, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935616

RESUMO

The ever-increasing biotic homogenization - especially when associated with introgressive hybridization - raises concern for the reduction of the spatial component of diversity in wildlife worldwide. Nonetheless, there is a growing attention to the potential conservation value of hybridization in fastening the adaptive evolutionary responses to rapidly changing selective pressures. Under these premises, we investigated the genetic affinity of the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) population inhabiting Elba Island (Italy) in the context of the overall species phylogeography and particularly of the nominate subspecies it is traditionally ascribed to. Although notoriously hybrid with the congeneric A. chukar, this island population is of undisputedly value because of its long natural history and self-sustainability. As such, its adaptive conservation management calls for a comprehensive knowledge including the assessment of its geographic origin. For this purpose, 110 fecal samples were collected across Elba, genotyped at their joint Cytochrome-b and Control Region genes (2,249 characters), and compared with 149 conspecifics from all over the species distribution range. We confirmed a widespread A. chukar mitochondrial DNA introgression in Elba partridges, whereas their expected formal assignment to the nominate subspecies from Italy and France was rejected, since these turned out to be closely related to conspecifics from the Iberian Peninsula. This counterintuitive result found support in a large variety of literary sources and compelling evidences from personal testimonies revealing recent intense management with farm-reared birds of Spanish origin. Although the nativeness of Elba partridges was disproved, we advise local authorities to keep warranting the ongoing conservation efforts - and especially restore the connectivity between the western and eastern island sub-populations - as this resource may still be conceived as the ultimate repository for part of the otherwise extinct Italian A. r. rufa genome. Indeed, the admixture with conspecifics from the Iberian Peninsula does not necessarily mean that the entirety of the native nuclear genome of Elba partridges has been wiped out. Furthermore, these latter represent an interesting case study in conservation biology to investigate the possible role played by introgressive hybridization in the adaptation to recent land use and vegetation cover changes associated with rural abandonment in an insular yet heavily anthropized context.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Galliformes/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial , Galliformes/genética , Haplótipos , Hibridização Genética , Itália , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Animal ; 14(1): 206-214, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414652

RESUMO

Guinea fowl production is increasing in developing countries and has a crucial role in the fight against poverty. However, the feed cost is very high, especially the soya bean meal cost, and farmers cannot afford to buy commercial feed. Consequently, animals do not receive feed adapted to their nutritional needs and they exhibit poor performance. The aim of this paper is to partially substitute soya bean meal by local by-products, discarded, in abundant supply and not used in human nutrition. French Galor guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and local African guinea fowl (150 birds per breed) were reared for 16 weeks and fed the same starter diet for the initial 4 weeks. From 4 weeks of age, experimental birds from each breed were randomly assigned to three grower isoproteic and isolipidic dietary treatments, each containing five replications (floor pens); each replication included 10 birds of the same breed. The guinea fowl of each breed were fed either control grower diet using soya bean meal as the protein supplement GS, or trial grower diet GN (soya bean meal supplement partially substituted by 15% cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) meal) or trial grower diet GH (soya bean meal supplement partially substituted by 15% hevea seed (Hevea brasiliensis) meal). The results indicated that hevea seed meal contained a high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (21.2% of total fatty acids (FAs)). The use of hevea seed meal in guinea fowl grower diet was found to exert no adverse effect on growth performance and carcass yield. However, the use of cashew nut meal led to negative effects on performance like daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Therefore, cashew nut meal cannot be considered as a suitable partial substitute for soya bean meal in diets. The use of hevea seed meal led to a very low abdominal fat proportion and low blood triglyceride and cholesterol content. Additionally, inclusion of dietary hevea seed meal resulted in guinea fowl meat enriched in PUFAs, especially n-3 FAs, thereby significantly improving the nutritional value.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Galliformes/fisiologia , Hevea/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Valor Nutritivo , Distribuição Aleatória , Sementes/química
18.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 128(1): 50-58, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751181

RESUMO

Decreases in activity levels in children worldwide are feared to have long-term health repercussions. Yet, because of the difficulty of performing controlled long-term studies in humans, we do not yet understand how decreases in childhood activity influence adult functional capacity. Here, in an avian bipedal model, we evaluated the elimination of all high-intensity activity during growth on adult performance. We evaluated three alternative hypotheses: Elimination of high-intensity activity 1) does not influence adult function, 2) results in task-specific deficits in adulthood, or 3) results in deficits that generalize across locomotor tasks. We found that animals restricted from jumping and sprinting during growth showed detriments as adults in maximal jump performance in comparison to controls, but did not require more metabolic energy during steady-state running or standing. From this, we conclude that functional deficits from elimination of high-intensity exercise are task specific and do not generalize across all locomotor functions.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Decreasing childhood activity levels are feared to have long-term health repercussions, but testing this hypothesis is hampered by restrictions of human experimentation. Here, in a bipedal animal model, we examine how the elimination of high-intensity activity during all of maturation influences adult locomotor capacity. We found restricted activity during growth reduced mechanical power capacity but not submaximal metabolic cost. This suggests that reduced childhood activity may result in task-specific, rather than generalized locomotor deficits.


Assuntos
Galliformes/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Galliformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19278, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848414

RESUMO

Sperm competition is often considered the primary selective force underlying the rapid and diversifying evolution of ejaculate traits. Yet, several recent studies have drawn attention to other forms of selection with the potential of exceeding the effects of sperm competition. Since ejaculates are complex, multivariate traits, it seems plausible that different ejaculate components vary in their responses to different selective pressures. Such information, however, is generally lacking as individual ejaculate traits tend to be studied in isolation. Here, we studied the macroevolutionary patterns of ejaculate volume, sperm number, sperm length and the proportion of viable normal sperm in response to varying levels of sperm competition, body size and the duration of female sperm storage in pheasants and allies (Phasianidae). Ejaculate volume, sperm number and sperm viability were all relatively higher in polygamous than in monogamous mating systems. However, whereas ejaculate volume additionally covaried with body size, sperm number instead increased with the female sperm-storage duration, in conjunction with a decrease in sperm length. Overall, our results revealed important details on how different forms of selection can jointly shape ejaculates as complex, composite traits.


Assuntos
Galliformes/fisiologia , Codorniz/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espermatozoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides
20.
Zool Res ; 40(6): 580-582, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592586

RESUMO

The green peafowl (Pavo muticus) is one of the most threatened pheasants in the world. In China, it is widely appreciated for its beauty as well as historical and cultural value, but current populations number less than 500 individuals. Recently, Tang and colleagues reported in Science that the green peafowl is likely to become extinct due to the construction of the Jiasajiang Level 1 Hydropower Station within the Red River Upstream District (RRUD) and thus called for a stop to this project (Tang et al., 2019). According to our recent surveys, however, this species is still extant in 22 counties of Yunnan Province, China, among which, only two within the RRUD have been predicted to be affected by floods from the hydropower station. Therefore, the conclusion that the species will likely go extinct in China upon completion of the dam is unwarranted. In fact, construction of the Jiasajiang Level 1 Hydropower Station was stopped in August 2017. The main challenge for green peafowl conservation is that over 65% of the population occurs outside of protected reserves in China. Fortunately, the Chinese government has adopted an Ecological Redline (ERL) strategy to achieve ecological civilization plans, thus bringing new hope to the conservation of green peafowls both inside and outside of protected reserves. As a top conservation priority for China, the government is fully committed to conserving this peafowl.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Galliformes/classificação , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , China
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