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1.
Zootaxa ; 4577(2): zootaxa.4577.2.9, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715728

RESUMO

Neognathophausia ingens (Dohrn, 1870) is a bathypelagic crustacean distributed worldwide. In the western Atlantic it has been recorded off the La Plata region, Argentina, and off the coast of Brazil, from the state of Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. We provide new records of N. ingens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, about 1188 km south of its previous distribution limit off Brazil, filling the gap between the central West Atlantic and Argentina. Five specimens were analyzed and drawings for all body regions and appendages are presented. Mandible, thoracopods 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 and pleopods are illustrated and described for the first time. An updated synonym list and a distribution map for this species in Brazil are provided.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Gambás , Animais , Argentina , Brasil
2.
Parasite ; 26: 50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432779

RESUMO

Tlacuatzoxyuris simpsoni n. gen. n. sp. is described from the cecum of the gray opossum, Tlacuatzin canescens, a species endemic to the deciduous dry forest of Mexico. The digestive tracts of four specimens were examined for parasites; three of these were archived in the American Museum of Natural History and one was a live capture. Relative to the other four monotypic genera of pinworms known to infect opossums, the new genus is diagnosed on the basis of a round cephalic plate with a semicircular stoma surrounded by a rim. In addition, males feature a prominent cephalic vesicle not fully developed in females, accounting for sexual dimorphism. The new species includes small worms that feature a conspicuous, not reticulated cephalic vesicle and semicircular stoma and lateral alae with two crests. In addition, the postcloacal cuticle of males features a small area with ornamentation between cloaca and submedial papillae. Finally, both spicule and gubernaculum are relatively short. Although the eggs of Tlacuatzoxyuris n. gen. are unknown, the conspicuous differences in traits used in the diagnosis of genera prompted us to propose a new genus for the new species. This is the first species of Oxyuridae reported in mouse opossums outside South America, and the fifth species of the family occurring in didelphimorph marsupials. This is an example of the usefulness of documenting the diversity of parasites associated with this unique clade of mammals through the examination of preserved tissues.


Assuntos
Enterobíase/veterinária , Enterobius/classificação , Enterobius/isolamento & purificação , Gambás/parasitologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Enterobius/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 797-801, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390439

RESUMO

Opossums are marsupials from the New World of the genus Didelphis and known as synanthropic animals due to their proximity with human beings. To date, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphis' has been solely found infecting the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Accordingly, the aim of this study was to screen eight white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from a public park in Maringa city, Paraná State, southern Brazil, for hemoplasma infection. Blood samples were taken from caudal venipuncture, and DNA was extracted and further screened by a pan-hemoplasma PCR assay. Seven out of eight (87.50%; CI 95%: 47.35-99.68%) white-eared opossums were positive for Mycoplasma spp. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA fragment showed 98,97% identity with 'Ca. M. haemodidelphis' detected in the USA. Three out of eight (37.50%; CI 95%: 8.52-75.51%) white-eared opossums were infested by Amblyomma dubitatum ticks. This is the first report on detection of a potentially novel hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. infecting opossums from South America.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Gambás/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Ecol Lett ; 22(10): 1578-1586, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313436

RESUMO

Apex predators such as large carnivores can have cascading, landscape-scale impacts across wildlife communities, which could result largely from the fear they inspire, although this has yet to be experimentally demonstrated. Humans have supplanted large carnivores as apex predators in many systems, and similarly pervasive impacts may now result from fear of the human 'super predator'. We conducted a landscape-scale playback experiment demonstrating that the sound of humans speaking generates a landscape of fear with pervasive effects across wildlife communities. Large carnivores avoided human voices and moved more cautiously when hearing humans, while medium-sized carnivores became more elusive and reduced foraging. Small mammals evidently benefited, increasing habitat use and foraging. Thus, just the sound of a predator can have landscape-scale effects at multiple trophic levels. Our results indicate that many of the globally observed impacts on wildlife attributed to anthropogenic activity may be explained by fear of humans.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Medo , Comportamento Predatório , Puma , Animais , California , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Lynx , Masculino , Mephitidae , Camundongos , Gambás
5.
Nature ; 571(7766): 510-514, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243368

RESUMO

Although many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in human and other mammalian genomes, there has been limited systematic functional characterization of these elements. In particular, the contribution of lncRNAs to organ development remains largely unexplored. Here we analyse the expression patterns of lncRNAs across developmental time points in seven major organs, from early organogenesis to adulthood, in seven species (human, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat, rabbit, opossum and chicken). Our analyses identified approximately 15,000 to 35,000 candidate lncRNAs in each species, most of which show species specificity. We characterized the expression patterns of lncRNAs across developmental stages, and found many with dynamic expression patterns across time that show signatures of enrichment for functionality. During development, there is a transition from broadly expressed and conserved lncRNAs towards an increasing number of lineage- and organ-specific lncRNAs. Our study provides a resource of candidate lncRNAs and their patterns of expression and evolutionary conservation across mammalian organ development.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Organogênese/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Atlas como Assunto , Galinhas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Gambás/genética , Proteínas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Coelhos , Ratos
6.
Nature ; 571(7766): 505-509, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243369

RESUMO

The evolution of gene expression in mammalian organ development remains largely uncharacterized. Here we report the transcriptomes of seven organs (cerebrum, cerebellum, heart, kidney, liver, ovary and testis) across developmental time points from early organogenesis to adulthood for human, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat, rabbit, opossum and chicken. Comparisons of gene expression patterns identified correspondences of developmental stages across species, and differences in the timing of key events during the development of the gonads. We found that the breadth of gene expression and the extent of purifying selection gradually decrease during development, whereas the amount of positive selection and expression of new genes increase. We identified differences in the temporal trajectories of expression of individual genes across species, with brain tissues showing the smallest percentage of trajectory changes, and the liver and testis showing the largest. Our work provides a resource of developmental transcriptomes of seven organs across seven species, and comparative analyses that characterize the development and evolution of mammalian organs.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Organogênese/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Gambás/genética , Coelhos , Ratos
7.
Theriogenology ; 136: 101-110, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254723

RESUMO

To investigate subtle pregnancy-associated changes in the lab opossum, Monodelphis domestica, an induced ovulator, we compared pregnant with non-pregnant and pseudopregnant animals with regard to serum P4 levels and progesterone receptor (PR) expression. Using video-verified, time-mated lab opossums as sources of biological material, we compared ovaries, uteri and sera obtained on odd-numbered days of the 14.5-day pregnancy in this animal. Females that mated successfully but did not produce embryos were classified as pseudopregnant. P4 levels differed significantly between pregnant (N = 21) and either non-pregnant (N = 3) or pseudopregnant (N = 3) opossums, but not between the non-pregnant and pseudopregnant groups. A significant decline in serum P4 occurred between pregnancy days 3 and 5, coinciding with an elevated probability of pregnancy failure between days 5 and 9. PR was detected in the nuclei of uterine-gland epithelial cells on pregnancy days 5 and 7 as well as variably in the corpora lutea (CL) of animals on pregnancy days 3-11. PR expression in the CL suggests that P4 may be autostimulatory in lab opossums and that certain levels of this steroid are required during normal pregnancy. The significant day-3 drop in P4 may explain why pregnancy failure in this polyovular metatherian is likeliest to occur between days 5 and 9, an interval during which the extended period of blastocyst morphogenesis and expansion occurs. Taken together, these results suggest that P4 may have unrecognized signaling roles not only in pregnancy but perhaps embryonic development as well in the lab opossum.


Assuntos
Gambás/fisiologia , Prenhez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Aborto Animal , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Pseudogravidez
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 308, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates among triatomines insects and animal reservoirs has been studied in independent studies, but little information has been systematised to allow pooled and comparative estimates. Unravelling the main patterns of this heterogeneity could contribute to a further understanding of T. cruzi transmission in Colombia. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, LILACS, Embase, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and secondary sources with no filters of language or time and until April 2018. Based on selection criteria, all relevant studies reporting T. cruzi infection rates in reservoirs or triatomines were chosen. For pooled analyses, a random effects model for binomial distribution was used. Heterogeneity among studies is reported as I2. Subgroup analyses included: taxonomic classification, ecotope and diagnostic methods. Publication bias and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 39 studies reporting infection rates in Colombia were found (22 for potential reservoirs and 28 for triatomine insects) for a total sample of 22,838 potential animals and 11,307 triatomines evaluated for T. cruzi infection. We have found evidence of 38/71 different animal species as potential T. cruzi reservoirs and 14/18 species as triatomine vectors for T. cruzi. Among animals, the species with the highest pooled prevalence were opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) with 48.0% (95% CI: 26-71%; I2 = 88%, τ2 = 0.07, P < 0.01) and domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) with 22.0% (95% CI: 4-48%; I2 = 96%, τ2 = 0.01, P < 0.01). Among triatomines, the highest prevalence was found for Triatoma maculata in the peridomestic ecotope (68.0%, 95% CI: 62-74%; I2 = 0%, τ2 = 0, P < 0.0001), followed by Rhodnius prolixus (62.0%, 95% CI: 38-84%; I2 = 95%, τ2 = 0.05, P < 0.01) and Rhodnius pallescens (54.0%, 95% CI: 37-71%; I2 = 86%, τ2 = 0.035, P < 0.01) in the sylvatic ecotope. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first systematic and quantitative analyses of triatomine insects and potential animal reservoirs for T. cruzi infection in Colombia. The results highlight a marked heterogeneity between species and provide initial estimates of infection rates heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Distribuição Binomial , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Genótipo , Gambás/parasitologia , Prevalência , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi
9.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(4): 406-416, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985994

RESUMO

The role of free-ranging wildlife in the epidemiology of enteropathogens causing clinical illness in humans and domestic animals is unclear. Salmonella enterica and anti-microbial resistant bacteria have been detected in the faeces of raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the carriage of these bacteria in other sympatric meso-mammals. Our objectives were to: (a) report the prevalence of Salmonella and associated anti-microbial resistance, Campylobacter spp, Clostridium difficile, and anti-microbial resistant Escherichia coli in the faeces of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in southern Ontario; and (b) compare the prevalence of these bacteria in the faeces of these meso-mammal hosts with raccoons from a previously reported study. Faecal swabs were collected from striped skunks and Virginia opossums on five swine farms and five conservation areas from 2011 to 2013. Salmonella was detected in 41% (9/22) and 5% (5/95) of faecal swabs from Virginia opossums and striped skunks, respectively. None of the Salmonella serovars carried resistance to anti-microbials. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. difficile, and anti-microbial resistant E. coli ranged from 6% to 22% in striped skunk and Virginia opossums. Using exact logistic regression, Salmonella was significantly more likely to be detected in faecal swabs of Virginia opossums than skunks and significantly less likely in faecal swabs from skunks than raccoons from a previously reported study. In addition, Campylobacter spp. was significantly more likely to be detected in raccoons than opossums. Salmonella Give was detected in 8/9 (89%) of Salmonella-positive Virginia opossum faecal swabs. Our results suggest that striped skunks and Virginia opossums have the potential to carry pathogenic enteric bacteria in their faeces. The high prevalence of Salmonella Give in Virginia opossum faecal swabs in this study as well as its common occurrence in other Virginia opossum studies throughout North America suggests Virginia opossums may be reservoirs of this serovar.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Masculino , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gambás/microbiologia , Prevalência , Guaxinins/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão
10.
J Parasitol ; 105(2): 371-378, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033388

RESUMO

Sarcocystis neurona is a ubiquitous parasite in the eastern United States, which is the principal causative agent in the neurologic disorder equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). While much is known about this protozoa's life cycle in its natural host, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), little is known of how it acts in the aberrant equine host, which displays a high incidence of exposure with a relatively low rate of morbidity. For this study, we employed the popular interferon gamma knockout mouse model to determine the potential for recrudescence of S. neurona infection after treatment with the anticoccidial drug diclazuril. Mice were infected with S. neurona merozoites, and 7-days post-infection (DPI) they were treated with diclazuril for 30 or 60 days or not treated at all. All infected non-treated mice developed neurologic signs consistent with S. neurona infection within 30 DPI. All diclazuril-treated infected mice remained clinically normal while on treatment but developed neurologic signs within 60 days of treatment cessation. Histological examination of cerebella from all infected mice demonstrated characteristic lesions of S. neurona infection, regardless of treatment status. Cerebellar samples collected from infected treated mice, displaying neurologic signs, produced viable S. neurona in culture. However, cerebellar samples collected from infected and neurologically normal mice at the end of a 30-day treatment period did not produce viable S. neurona in culture. Analysis of the humoral immune response in infected mice showed that during treatment IgM antibody production decreased, suggesting the organism was sequestered from immune surveillance. The cessation of treatment and subsequent development of neurologic disease resulted in increased IgM antibody production, suggesting recognition by the immune system at that time. Based on the study results the authors propose that diclazuril was able to inhibit the replication and migration of S. neurona but not fully eliminate the parasite, suggesting recrudescence of infection after treatment is possible.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Encefalomielite/parasitologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Sarcocystis/patogenicidade , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Cerebelo/parasitologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Encefalomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interferon gama/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Gambás/parasitologia , Recidiva , Sarcocystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcocistose/tratamento farmacológico , Triazinas/farmacologia , Células Vero
11.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 23(7): 898-907, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH) rapidly stimulates renal Pi excretion, in part by downregulating NaPi-IIa (Npt2a/SLC34A1) and NaPi-IIc (Npt2c/SLC34A3) transporters. The mechanisms underlying the effects of PTH on NaPi-IIc are not fully elucidated. METHODS: We analyzed the effect of PTH on inorganic phosphate (Pi) reabsorption in Npt2a-/- mice to eliminate the influence of Npt2a on renal Pi reabsorption. In opossum kidney (OK) cells and Xenopus oocytes, we investigated the effect of NaPi-IIc transporter phosphorylation. Studies of mice with mutations of NaPi-IIc protein in which serine and threonine were replaced with either alanine (A), which prevents phosphorylation, or aspartic acid (D), which mimics the charged state of phosphorylated NaPi-IIc, were also performed to evaluate the involvement of phosphorylation in the regulation of transport function. RESULTS: The Npt2a-/- experiments showed that PTH administration rapidly inactivated NaPi-IIc function in the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells. Analysis of mutant proteins (S71, S138, T151, S174, T583) at putative protein kinase C sites, revealed that S138 markedly suppressed the function and cellular expression of mouse NaPi-IIc in Xenopus oocytes and OK cells. In addition, 138D had a short half-life compared with wild-type protein. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that acute regulation of NaPi-IIc protein by PTH is involved in the inactivation of Na+-dependent Pi cotransporter activity and that phosphorylation of the transporter is involved in the rapid modification.


Assuntos
Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Paratireóideo/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIc/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Gambás , Fosforilação , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIa/deficiência , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIa/genética , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIc/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Xenopus
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(3): 1195-1201, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703279

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a common worldwide bacterial zoonosis and has been studied in One Health approaches. Small mammals are described as the most important maintenance reservoirs of several pathogens in nature, including leptospires. The aim of this study was to identify infection by leptospires among small mammals on the Atlantic forest biome and evaluate their potential as carriers of these spirochetes. A total of 153 small mammals belonging to orders Rodentia and Didelphimorphia (distributed on 17 genera and 22 species) were captured. Blood and kidney samples were collected from animals and a conventional PCR targeted on lipL32 gene was conducted on renal tissues. Species identification was performed in eight samples by sequencing of rrs gene. A total of 28% of the animals presented lipL32 PCR-positive, and four pathogenic Leptospira species (L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. santarosai and L. noguchii) were identified. This study highlights the role of small mammals as carriers of leptospires on the Atlantic Forest representing a potential source of pathogenic Leptospira spp infection for both humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Gambás/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Florestas , Humanos , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Zoonoses
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(1): 61-65, Jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990233

RESUMO

The establishment of parameters for tear production in different species is important for better understanding eye´s health and is one of the components of the ophthalmic semiological technique. Particularities derived from the anatomophysiology of non-domestic species induce the search for more reliable methodologies. The aim was to evaluate and compare tear production of white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris) and Brazilian common opossum (Didelphis aurita) by three different methods. Fifteen individuals of each species, juveniles, healthy, of both sexes, with 60 to 90 days of life, were physically restrained. Phenol red thread test (PRTT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT) and modified -Schirmer tear test (mSTT) were performed. PRTT was the most difficult to perform because of the wire malleability, while EAPPTT was more feasible for both species. The median ± semi-quartile range for PRTT were 19.79±2.61mm/15 "and 5.22±2.92mm/15", for EAPPTT were 16.25±1.82mm/min and 10.9±3.04mm/min, and for STTm were 0±1.63mm/min and 0±1.63mm/min for white-eared opossum and Brazilian common opossum respectively. There was no difference between the right and left eye neither sex. A significant difference was obtained for the same test to different species. No significant correlation was found between the tests for both species. The description of tear production parameters for juvenile white-eared opossum and Brazilian common opossum may be used as a tool, which will allow the early diagnosis of ocular diseases.(AU)


O estabelecimento do parâmetro de produção lacrimal nas diferentes espécies é importante para o entendimento da saúde do olho e é um dos componentes da semiotécnica oftálmica. Particularidades derivadas da anatomofisiologia das espécies não domésticas induzem a busca de metodologias que sejam mais fidedignas aos parâmetros. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar e comparar a produção lacrimal de gambás-de-orelha-branca (Didelphis albiventris) e gambás-de-orelha-preta (Didelphis aurita) por três diferentes métodos. Quinze indivíduos de cada espécie, juvenis, hígidos, de ambos os sexos, com 60 a 90 dias de vida, foram contidos fisicamente para realização do teste lacrimal do vermelho de fenol (TLVF), da ponta de papel absorvente estéril e do teste lacrimal de Schirmer modificado (TLSm). O TLVF foi o mais difícil de ser executado devido à maleabilidade do fio, enquanto a TEPA se mostrou mais exequível para ambas as espécies. A mediana ± intervalo semi-interquartil para o TLVF foi de 19,79±2,61mm/15" e 5,22±2,92mm/15", para a TEPA foram de 16,25±1,82mm/min e 10,93±3,04mm/min, e para o TLSm foram de 0±1,63mm/min e 0±1,63mm/min, para gambás-de-orelha-branca e gambás-de-orelha-preta, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre o olho direito e esquerdo e nem quanto ao sexo. Obteve-se diferença significativa para um mesmo teste entre as espécies. Não foi encontrada correlação significativa entre os testes para ambas as espécies. A quantificação da porção aquosa da lágrima poderá auxiliar no diagnóstico precoce de doenças oculares nas espécies estudadas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gambás/fisiologia , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/veterinária , Fenolsulfonaftaleína
14.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 26(1): 8-11, jan.-mar. 2019. il
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016189

RESUMO

El Didelphis aurita, conocido como comadreja de orejas negras, es un marsupial con amplia distribución en la América del Sur, frecuente tanto en los ambientes silvestres como antrópicos debido a su gran plasticidad ecológica. Animales de esta especie son comúnmente atendidos en la medicina de animales silvestres y vienen siendo empleados como modelos experimentales alternativos a especies tradicionales. El objetivo de ese trabajo fue relatar la ocurrencia de un caso de vena renal doble en un espécimen adulto, macho, de D. aurita. Para eso, se ha disecado un cadáver fijado y conservado en solución de formaldehído 10%, previamente inyectado con látex de color azul por la porción torácica de la arteria aorta para facilitar la disección. El espécimen poseía dos venas renales derechas, una vena craneal (11,3 mm) y otra caudal (10,0 mm) que drenaban distintamente para una vena cava caudal. La vena renal izquierda y las arterias renales eran únicas. Aunque la duplicidad de la vena renal es reportada en otras especies como perros, gatos y felideos silvestres, este es el primer relato en el género Didelphis. El conocimiento de las variaciones anatómicas vasculares es relevante para la correcta ejecución de procedimientos veterinarios y en la interpretación de hallazgos experimentales en relación con el sistema urogenital.


Didelphis aurita, known as black eared oposum, is a marsupial widely distributed in South America, frequently seen in both wild and anthropogenic environments due to its great ecological plasticity. This species is commonly treated in wildlife veterinary services and has been used as alternative experimental models instead of conventional species. The aim of this report was to describe a case of double renal vein in a male, adult, specimen of D. aurita. In order to make the dissection easier, the cadaver was fixed and preserved in 10 % formaldehyde solution, and previously injected with latex in blue color by the thoracic aorta to facilitate dissection. The specimen had two right renal veins, one cranial (11.3 mm) and other caudal (10.0 mm) that drained distinctly for caudal vena cava. The left renal vein and the renal arteries were single. Although double renal vein has been reported in other species, such as dogs, cats and wild felids, this is the first mention in the genus Didelphis. The knowledge of the vascular anatomical variations is relevant for the correct execution of veterinary procedures and the interpretation of experimental findings in urogenital system research.


Assuntos
Animais , Gambás , Animais Selvagens , Sistema Cardiovascular , Didelphis , Marsupiais
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 197: 68-75, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades some outbreaks of food-borne acute Chagas disease (ACD) in humans were identified by clinical and epidemiological characterization after association through the ingestion of açaí pulp probably contaminated with Trypanosoma cruzi. Whereas Belém and Abaetetuba stood out as important risk regions for disease transmission, the importance of Rhodnius pictipes, and Philander opossum for the biological cycle of T. cruzi, and data from agribusiness market of açaí, to study T. cruzi from vector and reservoir of the Brazilian Amazon region is critical for this context. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the infective capacity and the virulence of T. cruzi in açaí pulp from vector and reservoir at Pará State experimentally. METHODS: 105T. cruzi I in in natura açaí pulp from Belém at Pará State, at room temperature, after forced sieving, by intraperitoneal, gavage or oral route of inoculation in B6.129S7Rag1-/-tmMom/J Unib allowed food-borne ACD analysis using common light microscopy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. cruzi in in natura açaí pulp from R. pictipes (Val-De-Cans Forest, Belém, and Ajuaí River, Abaetetuba, Pará), and P. opossum (Combu Island, Belém, Pará) caused ACD and death between 17 and 52 days after experimental infections in murine immunodeficient hosts. CONCLUSIONS: T. cruzi from different sources and locations at Pará State in in natura açaí pulp retained its infective capacity and virulence, and can cause new outbreaks of ACD by oral transmission. Additionally, quality basic education will facilitate efficient hygiene practices throughout the açaí productive chain can eradicate food-borne ACD in the coming decades.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Euterpe/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Doença Aguda , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Gambás/parasitologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/mortalidade , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Virulência
16.
Exp Physiol ; 104(1): 149-161, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379374

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The opossum kidney (OK) cell line is the main in vitro model of proximal tubular Pi transport, but it is incomplete because only the NaPiIIa Pi transporter has been identified. What is the main finding and its importance? We have cloned and characterized the Pi transporters NaPiIIc, PiT1 and PiT2 from OK cells and have analysed the relevance of the four transporters to Pi transport. All four transporters are involved in the upregulated Pi transport of cells incubated using a low-Pi medium, and only PiT1 is not involved in basal transport. ABSTRACT: The apical membrane of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells is the main controller of phosphate homeostasis, because it determines the rate of urinary Pi excretion. The opossum kidney (OK) cell line is a good model for studying this function, but only NaPiIIa (NaPi4) has been identified to date as a Pi transporter in this cell line. In this work, we have identified three additional Pi transporters that are present in OK cells: NaPiIIc, PiT1 and PiT2. All three sequences are similar to the corresponding orthologues, but PiT1 is missing the first transmembrane domain. Confluent cells exhibit characteristics of type II Pi transport, which increases with alkalinity and is inhibited by phosphonoformic acid (PFA), and they mainly express NaPiIIa and NaPiIIc, with a low abundance of PiT1 and PiT2. Proliferating cells show a higher expression of PiT1 and PiT2 and a low expression of NaPiIIa and NaPiIIc. Adaptation to a low Pi concentration for 24 h induces the expression of RNA from NaPiIIa and NaPiIIc, which is not prevented by actinomycin D. Small interfering RNA transfections revealed that PiT1 is not necessary for Pi transport, but it is necessary for adaptation to a low Pi , similar to NaPiIIa and PiT2. Our study reveals the complexity of the coordination between the four Pi transporters, the variability of RNA expression according to confluence and the heterogeneous correlation between Pi transport and RNA levels.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Rim/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Gambás/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
17.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(1): 39-53, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295892

RESUMO

ThPOK is a "master regulator" of T lymphocyte lineage choice, whose presence or absence is sufficient to dictate development to the CD4 or CD8 lineages, respectively. Induction of ThPOK is transcriptionally regulated, via a lineage-specific silencer element, SilThPOK. Here, we take advantage of the available genome sequence data as well as site-specific gene targeting technology, to evaluate the functional conservation of ThPOK regulation across mammalian evolution, and assess the importance of motif grammar (order and orientation of TF binding sites) on SilThPOK function in vivo. We make three important points: First, the SilThPOK is present in marsupial and placental mammals, but is not found in available genome assemblies of nonmammalian vertebrates, indicating that it arose after divergence of mammals from other vertebrates. Secondly, by replacing the murine SilThPOK in situ with its marsupial equivalent using a knockin approach, we demonstrate that the marsupial SilThPOK supports correct CD4 T lymphocyte lineage-specification in mice. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo demonstration of functional equivalency for a silencer element between marsupial and placental mammals using a definitive knockin approach. Finally, we show that alteration of the position/orientation of a highly conserved region within the murine SilThPOK is sufficient to destroy silencer activity in vivo, demonstrating that motif grammar of this "solid" synteny block is critical for silencer function. Dependence of SilThPOK function on motif grammar conserved since the mid-Jurassic age, 165 Ma, suggests that the SilThPOK operates as a silenceosome, by analogy with the previously proposed enhanceosome model.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gambás/genética , Elementos Silenciadores Transcricionais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência Conservada , Humanos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 23(3): 313-324, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters in the human kidney is not fully clarified. Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the IIc Na+-dependent Pi transporter (NPT2c/Npt2c/NaPi-IIc) gene. Another Na+-dependent type II transporter, (NPT2A/Npt2a/NaPi-IIa), is also important for renal Pi reabsorption in humans. In mice, Npt2c deletion does not lead to hypophosphatemia and rickets because Npt2a compensates for the impaired Pi reabsorption. To clarify the differences between mouse and human, we investigated the relation between NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc functions in opossum kidney (OK) cells. METHODS: We cloned NaPi-IIc from OK cells and created opossum NaPi-IIc (oNaPi-IIc) antibodies. We used oNaPi-IIc small interference (si)RNA and investigated the role of NaPi-IIc in Pi transport in OK cells. RESULTS: We cloned opossum kidney NaPi-IIc cDNAs encoding 622 amino acid proteins (variant1) and examined their pH- and sodium-dependency. The antibodies reacted specifically with 75-kDa and 150-kDa protein bands, and the siRNA of NaPi-IIc markedly suppressed endogenous oNaPi-IIc in OK cells. Treatment with siRNA significantly suppressed the expression of NaPi-4 (NaPi-IIa) protein and mRNA. oNaPi-IIc siRNA also suppressed Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 expression in OK cells. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that NaPi-IIc is important for the expression of NaPi-IIa (NaPi-4) protein in OK cells. Suppression of Npt2c may downregulate Npt2a function in HHRH patients.


Assuntos
Rim/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/fisiologia , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/etiologia , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/etiologia , Camundongos , Gambás , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIc/fisiologia , Xenopus laevis
19.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 24(1): 121-126, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240283

RESUMO

AIM: Albumin can be covalently modified at surface lysine residues and thus the circulation contains a mixture of native albumin (i.e. not modified) and albumin with varying degrees of modification. Uptake and lysosomal degradation of glomerular filtered albumin by proximal tubular cells via the megalin scavenger receptor is considered an important mechanism to limit albumin loss in the urine. However, whether this is a general mechanism of tubular uptake of albumin or if this is restricted to modified albumin is unknown. To address this question, we investigated the uptake of modified versus native albumin by proximal tubular cells. METHODS: A well-characterized proximal tubular cell model of albumin uptake was used to compare the uptake of modified albumin (covalent labelling of lysine residues with fluorescent probes) to that of native recombinant human albumin (rHA) labelled with 14 C during protein synthesis (14 C-rHA). RESULTS: Opossum kidney (OK) cells showed significant uptake of fluorescence-labelled albumin via an endocytosis mechanism. This uptake was inhibited by an equimolar ratio of different types of covalently modified albumin; however, purified bovine serum albumin and rHA failed to compete with the uptake of fluorescence-labelled albumin. In contrast, OK cells failed to endocytose native 14 C-rHA despite efficiently endocytosing covalently modified rHA. CONCLUSION: Our studies show that OK cells preferentially endocytose covalently-modified albumin compared to native albumin. This apparent selectivity of the megalin scavenger receptor complex suggests a specific role for this pathway in the removal of modified albumin from the circulation.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Proteína-2 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Lisina , Gambás , Ligação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
20.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 76(4): 523-535, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443697

RESUMO

We report tick infestations and rickettsial detection in ticks infesting free-living wild mammals (Monodelphis domestica, Tolypeutes tricinctus, Thrichomys inermis and Kerodon rupestris) captured in the Caatinga ecoregion of Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, during September to December 2016. Overall, 117 ticks (61 larvae, 25 nymphs, 25 males, 6 females) belonging to two genera, and at least three species were collected: Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma sp., Ornithodoros rietcorreai and an unidentified Ornithodoros sp. We provide new host records to the rodent T. inermis parasitized by larva and nymphs of A. auricularium and to the marsupial M. domestica infested by larvae of A. auricularium. Furthermore, we describe new tick-host association for larvae of O. rietcorreai on the rodents K. rupestris and T. inermis. Concerning tick-Rickettsia associations, we detected Rickettsia amblyommatis and an uncharacterized species of Rickettsia belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) in both A. auricularium and A. parvum. Additionally, 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae' was detected in A. parvum as well.


Assuntos
Tatus , Gambás , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Ornithodoros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ornithodoros/microbiologia , Ornithodoros/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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