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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073283


Infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6. Although they facilitate local antiviral immunity, their excessive release leads to life-threatening cytokine release syndrome, exemplified by the severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, we investigated the roles of the integrated stress response (ISR) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) family proteins in regulating coronavirus-induced IL-8 and IL-6 upregulation. The mRNA expression of IL-8 and IL-6 was significantly induced in cells infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a gammacoronavirus, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, an alphacoronavirus. Overexpression of a constitutively active phosphomimetic mutant of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), chemical inhibition of its dephosphorylation, or overexpression of its upstream double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) significantly enhanced IL-8 mRNA expression in IBV-infected cells. Overexpression of the AP-1 protein cJUN or its upstream kinase also increased the IBV-induced IL-8 mRNA expression, which was synergistically enhanced by overexpression of cFOS. Taken together, this study demonstrated the important regulatory roles of ISR and AP-1 proteins in IL-8 production during coronavirus infection, highlighting the complex interactions between cellular stress pathways and the innate immune response.

Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética , Alphacoronavirus/metabolismo , Alphacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/metabolismo , Gammacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/metabolismo , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Interleucina-8/genética , Fosforilação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/metabolismo , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/patogenicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Células Vero , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108513, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902509


Two viruses were isolated in 2017 from commercial pheasants with severe clinical signs and mortality in Shandong and Anhui provinces, China, respectively. We examined the pathogenic effects of the viruses in chicken embryos and the size and morphology of the virus particles, performed phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene and complete genomic sequences, and examined the antibody responses against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The results suggested that the viruses I0623/17 and I0710/17 were avian coronaviruses and were identified as pheasant coronaviruses (PhCoV), with greatest similarity to IBV. Further investigations of the antigenicity, complete genome organization, substitutions in multiple genes, and viral pathogenicity, replication, and shedding in chickens and pheasants showed obvious differences between PhCoV and IBV in terms of antigenicity, and viral pathogenicity, replication, and shedding in chickens and pheasants. The close genetic relationship, but obvious differences between PhCoVs and IBVs suggested the IBVs could be the ancestors of PhCoVs, and that PhCoVs isolated from different outbreaks may have evolved independently from IBVs circulating in the specific region by adaption in pheasants. This hypothesis was supported by analysis of the S1 gene fragments of the two PhCoVs isolated in the current study, as well as PhCoVs isolated in the UK and selected IBV strains. Such analyses indicated different evolution patterns and different tissue tropisms between PhCoVs isolated in different outbreaks. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis by studying the complete genomic sequences of PhCoVs from different outbreaks and the pathogenicity of IBVs in pheasants to compare and clarify the relationships between PhCoVs and IBVs.

Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Gammacoronavirus/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Codorniz/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
Avian Pathol ; 47(3): 286-293, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29517348


The detection of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) in wild birds and the emergence of new AvCoV have increased in the past few years. In the present study, the pathogenicity of three AvCoV isolates was investigated in day-old chicks. One AvCoV isolated from a pigeon, which clustered with the Massachusetts vaccine serotype, and two AvCoV isolated from chickens, which grouped with a Brazilian genotype lineage, were used. Clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathological changes, ciliary activity, viral RNA detection, and serology were evaluated during 42 days post infection. All AvCoV isolates induced clinical signs, gross lesions in the trachea, moderate histopathological changes in the respiratory tract, and mild changes in other tissues. AvCoV isolated from the pigeon sample caused complete tracheal ciliostasis over a longer time span. Specific viral RNA was detected in all tissues, but the highest RNA loads were detected in the digestive tract (cloacal swabs and ileum). The highest antibody levels were also detected in the group infected with an isolate from the pigeon. These results confirm the pathogenicity of Brazilian variants, which can cause disease and induce gross lesions and histopathological changes in chickens. Our results suggest that non-Galliformes birds can also play a role in the ecology of AvCoV.

Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/virologia , Columbidae/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças da Traqueia/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/imunologia , Gammacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Traqueia/virologia , Doenças da Traqueia/virologia
Sci Rep ; 6: 27126, 2016 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27255716


Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses rearrange cellular membranes during replication, possibly in order to concentrate and arrange viral replication machinery for efficient viral RNA synthesis. Our previous work showed that in addition to the conserved coronavirus double membrane vesicles (DMVs), Beau-R, an apathogenic strain of avian Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), induces regions of ER that are zippered together and tethered open-necked double membrane spherules that resemble replication organelles induced by other +RNA viruses. Here we compared structures induced by Beau-R with the pathogenic lab strain M41 to determine whether membrane rearrangements are strain dependent. Interestingly, M41 was found to have a low spherule phenotype. We then compared a panel of pathogenic, mild and attenuated IBV strains in ex vivo tracheal organ culture (TOC). Although the low spherule phenotype of M41 was conserved in TOCs, each of the other tested IBV strains produced DMVs, zippered ER and spherules. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation for the presence of DMVs with spherules, suggesting that these structures are spatially and temporally linked. Our data indicate that virus induced membrane rearrangements are fundamentally linked to the viral replicative machinery. However, coronavirus replicative apparatus clearly has the plasticity to function in different structural contexts.

Membrana Celular/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/virologia , Gammacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Gammacoronavirus/classificação , Gammacoronavirus/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Traqueia/virologia , Virulência , Replicação Viral