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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 361, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Realimentation can compensate for weight loss from poor-quality feedstuffs or drought. Mature cows fluctuate in body weight throughout the year due to nutrient availability. The objective of this study was to determine whether cows that differ in weight gain during realimentation also differ in the abundance of transcripts for enzymes associated with energy utilization in skeletal muscle. Mature cows were subjected to feed restriction followed by ad libitum feed. Skeletal muscle transcriptome expression differences during the two feeding periods were determined from cows with greater (n = 6) and less (n = 6) weight gain during the ad libitum feeding period. RESULTS: A total of 567 differentially expressed genes (408 up- and 159 down-regulated) were identified for the comparison of restriction and ad libitum periods (PBonferroni < 0.05). These genes were over-represented in lysosome, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and glutathione metabolism pathways. Validation of the expression of five of the genes was performed and four were confirmed. These data suggest that realimentation weight gain for all cows is partially controlled by protein turnover, but oxidative stress and cellular signaling pathways are also involved in the muscle tissue. This dataset provides insight into molecular mechanisms utilized by mature cows during realimentation after a period of low abundance feed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Transcriptoma , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Feminino , Músculo Esquelético , Ganho de Peso
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 374, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities are a pressing global issue among children of all ages, particularly among low-income populations. Rapid weight gain (RWG) in the first 6 months of infancy contributes to childhood obesity. Suboptimal sleep-wake patterns and gut microbiota (GM) have also been associated with childhood obesity, but little is known about their influences on early infant RWG. Sleep may alter the GM and infant metabolism, and ultimately impact obesity; however, data on the interaction between sleep-wake patterns and GM development on infant growth are scarce. In this study, we aim to investigate associations of infant sleep-wake patterns and GM development with RWG at 6 months and weight gain at 12 months. We also aim to evaluate whether temporal interactions exist between infant sleep-wake patterns and GM, and if these relations influence RWG. METHODS: The Snuggle Bug/ Acurrucadito study is an observational, longitudinal study investigating whether 24-h, actigraphy-assessed, sleep-wake patterns and GM development are associated with RWG among infants in their first year. Based on the Ecological Model of Growth, we propose a novel conceptual framework to incorporate sleep-wake patterns and the GM as metabolic contributors for RWG in the context of maternal-infant interactions, and familial and socio-physical environments. In total, 192 mother-infant pairs will be recruited, and sleep-wake patterns and GM development assessed at 3 and 8 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpartum. Covariates including maternal and child characteristics, family and environmental factors, feeding practices and dietary intake of infants and mothers, and stool-derived metabolome and exfoliome data will be assessed. The study will apply machine learning techniques combined with logistic time-varying effect models to capture infant growth and aid in elucidating the dynamic associations between study variables and RWG. DISCUSSION: Repeated, valid, and objective assessment at clinically and developmentally meaningful intervals will provide robust measures of longitudinal sleep, GM, and growth. Project findings will provide evidence for future interventions to prevent RWG in infancy and subsequent obesity. The work also may spur the development of evidence-based guidelines to address modifiable factors that influence sleep-wake and GM development and prevent childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Ganho de Peso
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48397

RESUMO

A obesidade infantil é um problema de saúde e vai muito além de um número na balança: a avaliação da obesidade infantil precisa considerar outros fatores, como acesso à alimentos saudáveis, acompanhamento do crescimento e desenvolvimento, entre outros


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Ganho de Peso , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Criança
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445008

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over a 6 month follow up (period of weight regain) in overweight, postmenopausal women having previously completed a 6 month weight loss (WL) intervention with and without aerobic exercise (AEX). Women (BMI > 25 kg/m2) underwent VO2max and DEXA scans at baseline, after 6 months of WL or AEX + WL, and at 12 months ad libitum follow up. Both groups lost ~9% body weight from 0 to 6 months and regained ~2% from 6 to 12 months, while losing ~4% of appendicular lean mass (ALM) across the 12-month study duration. VO2max increased 10% from 0 to 6 months and declined 12% from 6 to 12 months for AEX + WL, with no changes for WL. Total body (p < 0.01) and total femur (p = 0.03) BMD decreased similar between groups across time (combined groups: 0-6 months: total body: -1.2% and total femur: -1.2%; 6-12 months: total body: -0.26% and total femur: -0.09%). Less ALM loss and greater VO2max increases during the WL phase were associated with attenuated BMD loss at various anatomical sites during periods of weight regain (6-12 months) p's < 0.05). Results suggest that BMD loss may continue following WL, despite weight regain. Further, this study adds to the literature by suggesting that preventing declines in muscle quality and function during WL may attenuate the loss of BMD during weight regain. Future studies are needed to identify mechanisms underlying WL-induced bone loss so that effective practices can be designed to minimize the loss of BMD during WL and weight maintenance in older women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Dieta Saudável , Terapia por Exercício , Sobrepeso/terapia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Baltimore , Composição Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Feminino , Humanos , Corrida Moderada , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física , Pós-Menopausa , Treinamento de Força , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1504, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although global nutrition/dietary transition resulting from industrialisation and urbanisation has been identified as a major contributor to widespread trends of obesity, there is limited data in pregnant women, including those living with HIV in South Africa. We examined food-based dietary intake in pregnant women with and without HIV at first antenatal care (ANC) visit, and associations with maternal overweight/obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG). METHODS: In an urban South African community, consecutive women living with (n = 479) and without (n = 510) HIV were enrolled and prospectively followed to delivery. Interviewer-administered non-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake (starch, protein, dairy, fruits, vegetables, legumes, oils/fats) at enrolment. Associations with maternal body mass index (BMI) and GWG were examined using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among women (median age 29 years, IQR 25-34), the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) at first ANC was 43% and that of excessive GWG (per IOM guidelines) was 37% overall; HIV prevalence was 48%. In women without HIV, consumption of potato (any preparation) (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.02-3.84) and pumpkin/butternut (aOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.29-3.49) for 1-3 days a week increased the odds of overweight/obesity compared to not consuming any; milk in tea/coffee (aOR 6.04, 95% CI 1.37-26.50) increased the odds of excessive GWG. Consumption of eggs (any) (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32-0.86) for 1-3 days a week reduced the odds of overweight/obesity while peanut and nuts consumption for 4-7 days a week reduced the odds (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.80) of excessive GWG. In women with HIV, consumption of milk/yoghurt/maas to drink/on cereals (aOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18-0.68), tomato (raw/cooked) (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.84), green beans (aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.86), mixed vegetables (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.84) and legumes e.g. baked beans, lentils (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.86) for 4-7 days a week reduced the odds of overweight/obesity; tomato (raw/cooked) (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.96) and mixed vegetables (aOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.78) also reduced the odds of excessive GWG. CONCLUSIONS: Diet modification may promote healthy weight in pregnant women living with and without HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1521, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak holds public health concerns. The stay-at-home increases sedentary behavior, with unintended adverse outcomes. Since organized recreation and sports facilities were closed, we aimed to study how the crisis of closure affected exercise habits and weight gain among the trainee population in Israel. We examined differences in weight gain among individuals with different PA activities and assessed their ability to adapt to digital media as an alternative training structure. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey consisted of a multiple-choice questionnaire obtained using a web-based survey application. Trainees (1202) who exercised steadily anonymously answered the questionnaire sent by their coaches regarding their activity and weight gain during lockdown times. RESULTS: Results confirmed that 70% of Israelis trained less than their usual routine, 60% used digital media for training, 55% gained weight. Half of the respondents gained more than 2 kg, with an average increase of 1.2 kg. However, those who exhibited a higher physical activity level gained less weight. Using digital media for training was associated with higher physical activity levels. The aged population was less likely to use digital media. CONCLUSIONS: Since increased sedentary behavior could increase the risk for potential worsening of health conditions, health agencies should look for strategies, including digital remote media training to promote physical activity and subsequently, preventing the increased burden of future comorbidities worsening by a sedentary lifestyle. Approval: by the Helsinki ethics committee of Sheba Medical Center (6504-19-SMC).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Internet , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Ganho de Peso
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444883

RESUMO

The school closures, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, required teachers to convert their entire classroom curricula to online formats, taught from home. This shift to a more sedentary teaching environment, coupled with the stresses related to the pandemic, may correlate with weight gain. In total, 52% of study participants reported weight gain, with a higher prevalence observed among kindergarten and elementary school teachers when compared to high school teachers (p < 0.05). Deviations in physical activity, emotional eating, and dietary patterns were assessed among 129 teachers (using the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire, and a short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire, respectively) to uncover possible associations with the observed weight gain. Increases in sedentariness (p < 0.005), emotional eating (p < 0.001), the consumption of potatoes, fries, breads, cheese, cake (p < 0.05), chips, candy, ice-cream, and soft drinks (p < 0.005) were all positively correlated with weight gain. Decreases in exercise frequency (p < 0.001), and the consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and beans (p < 0.005), were also positively correlated with weight gain. Weight gain, observed among teachers during school closures, was associated with changes in diet, emotional eating and physical activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414634

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of including low-fat dried distillers grains (DDG) on young Nellore bulls performance, nutritional parameters, and nitrogen metabolism. Thirty-five Nellore cattle were randomly divided into four diets: without dried distillers grains (D0) or with the inclusion of DDG at 150 g/kg (D150), 300 g/kg (D300), or 450 g/kg (D450). The evaluation period lasted 126 days, and three periods of collection of feces and urine were carried out. Final body weight (P = 0.099) and average daily gain (P = 0.097) tended to decrease linearly; the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), ether extract (P < 0.001) and nonfiber carbohydrates (P < 0.001), and intakes of total digestible nutrients (TDN, P < 0.001) decreased linearly. The increase in crude protein intake (P < 0.001) did not result in an increase in the amount of nitrogen retained (P = 0.540). We concluded that the inclusion of low-fat DDG in finishing diets up to the level of 450 g/kg tends to reduce animal performance and the intake of TDN.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Animais , Peso Corporal , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049903, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between weight retention at 6 weeks postpartum after the first pregnancy and large-for-gestational age (LGA) risk in a subsequent pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary hospital of China. PARTICIPANTS: 5950 Chinese singleton pregnancies that delivered their second singletons between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation. OUTCOMES MEASURES: We calculated the weight retention at 6 weeks postpartum after the first pregnancy (the body mass index (BMI) at 6 weeks after the first birth minus the prepregnant BMI of the first pregnancy) and the gestational weight gain in the second pregnancy. We used the logistic regression to obtain adjusted OR. We determined the relationship between maternal BMI change at 6 weeks after the first pregnancy and LGA risk in the second pregnancy. RESULTS: Relative to other categories of BMI change at 6 weeks postpartum, women who gained ≥3 kg/m2 compared with the prepregnancy BMI were at increased LGA risk. The stratified analysis showed that LGA risk was increased in the second pregnancy in underweight and normal weight women who gained ≥3 kg/m2 when using remain stable women as the reference group (OR=3.35, 95% CI 1.11 to 10.12 for underweight women; OR=2.23, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.45 for normal weight women) at 6 weeks postpartum. For the women who gained ≥3 kg/m2 at 6 weeks postpartum, LGA risk was increased in normal weight women with an adequate (OR=3.21, 95% CI 1.10 to 9.33) and excessive (OR=2.62, 95% CI 1.02 to 6.76) gestational weight in the second pregnancy when using obese women as the reference. CONCLUSION: Postpartum weight retention at 6 weeks after the first pregnancy provides us a new early window to identify LGA risk in a subsequent pregnancy and allows us to implement primary preventative strategies.


Assuntos
Período Pós-Parto , Ganho de Peso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444226

RESUMO

Previous cross-sectional studies showed that immigrants from low-income to high-income countries have higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the association between weight gain during the resettlement in South Korea and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among North Korean refugees (NKRs) in this cross-sectional study. In total, 932 NKRs aged 20-80 years in South Korea voluntarily underwent health examination from 2008 to 2017. We compared the risk of MetS and its components between the weight gain group (gained ≥5 kg) and the non-weight gain group (gained <5 kg, maintained or lost body weight) during resettlement in South Korea after defection from North Korea. Multiple logistic regression analysis predicted odds ratio of MetS on the basis of weight change, adjusting for covariates and current body mass index (BMI). We also evaluated the difference in body composition of NKRs between two groups. The prevalence of MetS in the weight gain group was 26%, compared to 10% in the non-weight gain group (p-value < 0.001). The weight gain group had a two-fold higher risk of MetS than the non-weight gain group after adjusting for current BMI (odds ratio 1.875, p-value = 0.045). The prevalence of central obesity, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and hypertriglyceridemia were higher in the weight gain group than the non-weight gain group (36% vs. 12%, p-value < 0.001; 32% vs. 19%, p-value < 0.001; 34 vs. 25%, p-value = 0.008; 19% vs. 13%, p-value = 0.025, respectively). The analysis of body composition showed that the percentage of body fat in the weight gain group was higher than in the non-weight gain group, indicating increased fat mass rather than muscle mass in the weight gain group as their body weight increased during resettlement (33.4 ± 6.53% vs. 28.88 ± 7.40%, p < 0.005). Excess weight gain after defection from North Korea increased the risk of MetS among NKRs in South Korea. It is necessary to monitor weight change among NKRs and their effect on their metabolic health in the long term.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Refugiados , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27047, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449491

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Evaluate the impact of switching to an anti-retroviral regimen containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) on weight and the development of metabolic complications compared to remaining on a non-TAF containing regimen.Single-center retrospective case-control study.We evaluated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) who were on an anti-retroviral regimen not containing TAF and were switched to a regimen containing TAF between January 1, 2016 and September 30, 2018. The control group included PLWH on a TAF free regimen throughout the study period. The primary outcome was change in weight from baseline to 12 months postswitch. Secondary outcomes included percent change in weight, change in body mass index (BMI), change in BMI class, and new diagnoses of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia (HLD) during the study period.PLWH switched to TAF (n = 446) demonstrated significantly greater mean increase in weight compared to the control group (n = 162) (1.97 vs 0.88 kg, P = .01), however the effect was only seen in those switched from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Those that switched to TAF also had a significantly higher percent increase in weight, increase in BMI, and BMI class. We observed a higher rate of new diagnosis of HLD in the control group compared to the TAF switch group during the study period.PLWH switched to TAF had greater increases in weight after 1 year as compared to those continuing on a TAF free regimen. However, this did not translate to higher rates of obesity related illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and HLD during the follow up period.


Assuntos
Alanina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/análogos & derivados , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444801

RESUMO

Nutrition during childhood and adolescence is very important for growth and can have long-term health implications. The COVID-19 lockdown caused significant changes in everyday life, including in children and adolescents. This study evaluated the effects of the first COVID-19 lockdown on eating habits and body weight in children and adolescents. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out among the parents of children (5-9 years) and adolescents (10-14 years) living in Italy. The online self-administered questionnaire included demographic and anthropometric data (reported weight and height) weight and dietary habit changes during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy (March to June 2020). A total of 439 participants were included. We found a change in eating habits with an increase in consumption of sweet packaged snacks (34%) and processed meat (25%), as well as bread, pizza and bakery products (47%). We also found an increase in vegetable, fresh fruit and legume intake (19%), and a reduction in sweet beverage and candy intake. A total of 59.7% of the participants reported body weight gain, with adolescents gaining more than children (67% vs. 55%, p = 0.010, respectively). In children, body weight gain was associated with a change in body height and increased consumption of dairy products and sweet packaged snacks, while in adolescents it was associated with an increased intake of comfort foods and processed meat. Our data highlighted the need to carefully monitor eating behaviors to avoid the establishment of unhealthy eating habits and prevent obesity in children and adolescents during periods of self-isolation.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras , Ganho de Peso
14.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444644

RESUMO

Polar lipids, which are found in human milk, serve essential functions within biological membranes, hence their importance in brain development and cognition. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the longitudinal effects on brain macrostructural and microstructural development and recognition memory of early-life polar lipid supplementation using the translational pig model. Twenty-eight intact (i.e., not castrated) male pigs were provided either a control diet (n = 14) or the control diet supplemented with polar lipids (n = 14) from postnatal day 2 until postnatal week 4. After postnatal week 4, all animals were provided the same nutritionally-adequate diets until postnatal week 24. Pigs underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 8 longitudinal time-points to model brain macrostructural and microstructural developmental trajectories. The novel object recognition task was implemented at postnatal weeks 4 and 8 to evaluate recognition memory. Subtle differences were observed between groups in hippocampal absolute brain volumes and fractional anisotropy, and no differences in myelin water fraction developmental patterns were noted. Behavioral outcomes did not differ in recognition memory, and only minimal differences were observed in exploratory behaviors. Our findings suggest that early-life dietary supplementation of polar lipids has limited effect on brain developmental patterns, object recognition memory, and exploratory behaviors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Exploratório , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Suínos , Ganho de Peso
15.
Appetite ; 167: 105638, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388592

RESUMO

Changes in lifestyle and body weight were examined retrospectively in students at a German university during the first COVID-19 lockdown period (March 12- May 3, 2020) using an online survey. Data from a total of 827 participants was used. Almost half of the students reported perceived body weight changes with about 27% gaining weight and around 22% losing weight. Regression analyses showed that consumption changes in the following food categories: fruits, sweets and cakes, bread and bakery products, pasta, savoury snacks, and meats and sausages were predictive of weight changes. Additionally, changes in the frequency of cooking with fresh ingredients, physical activity, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption as well as pre-lockdown BMI were all predictive of weight changes. Given the continuous global pandemic, increased and innovative public health efforts to support this population group are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ganho de Peso
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012322, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is presently no certainty about the ideal feeding intervals for preterm infants. Shorter feeding intervals of, for example, two hours, have the theoretical advantage of allowing smaller volumes of milk. This may have the potential to reduce the incidence and severity of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Longer feeding intervals have the theoretical advantage of allowing more gastric emptying between two feeds. This potentially provides periods of rest (and thus less hyperaemia) for an immature digestive tract. OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety of shorter feeding intervals (two hours or shorter) versus longer feeding intervals (three hours or more) and to compare the effects in terms of days taken to regain birth weight and to achieve full feeding. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to run comprehensive searches in CENTRAL (2020, Issue 6) and Ovid MEDLINE and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions, and CINAHL on 25 June 2020. We searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs and quasi-RCTs comparing short (e.g. one or two hours) versus long (e.g. three or four hours) feeding intervals in preterm infants of any birth weight, all or most of whom were less than 32 weeks' gestation. Infants could be of any postnatal age at trial entry, but eligible infants should not have received feeds before study entry, with the exception of minimal enteral feeding. We included studies of nasogastric or orogastric bolus feeding, breast milk or formula, in which the feeding interval is the intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Our primary outcomes were days taken to achieve full enteral feeding and days to regain birth weight. Our other outcomes were duration of hospital stay, episodes of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and growth during hospital stay (weight, length and head circumference). MAIN RESULTS: We included four RCTs, involving 417 infants in the review. One study involving 350 infants is awaiting classification. All studies compared two-hourly versus three-hourly feeding interval. The risk of bias of the included studies was generally low, but all studies had high risk of performance bias due to lack of blinding of the intervention. Three studies were included in meta-analysis for the number of days taken to achieve full enteral feeding (351 participants). The mean days to achieve full feeds was between eight and 11 days. There was little or no difference in days taken to achieve full enteral feeding between two-hourly and three-hourly feeding, but this finding was of low certainty (mean difference (MD) ‒0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) ‒1.60 to 0.36). There was low-certainty evidence that the days taken to regain birth weight may be slightly longer in infants receiving two-hourly feeding than in those receiving three-hourly feeding (MD 1.15, 95% CI 0.11 to 2.20; 3 studies, 350 participants). We are uncertain whether shorter feeding intervals have any effect on any of our secondary outcomes including the duration of hospital stay (MD ‒3.36, 95% CI ‒9.18 to 2.46; 2 studies, 207 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and the risk of NEC (typical risk ratio 1.07, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.11; 4 studies, 417 participants; low-certainty evidence). No study reported growth during hospital stay. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The low-certainty evidence we found in this review suggests that there may be no clinically important differences between two- and three-hourly feeding intervals. There is insufficient information about potential feeding complications and in particular NEC. No studies have looked at the effect of other feeding intervals and there is no long-term data on neurodevelopment or growth.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Ganho de Peso , Peso ao Nascer , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444945

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe eating disorder where caloric restriction, excessive physical activity and metabolic alterations lead to life-threatening situations. Despite weight restoration after treatment, a significant part of patients experience relapses. In this translational study, we combined clinical and preclinical approaches. We describe preliminary data about the effect of weight gain on the symptomatology of patients suffering from acute AN (n = 225) and partially recovered (n = 41). We measured more precisely physical activity with continuous cardiac monitoring in a sub-group (n = 68). Using a mouse model, we investigated whether a long-term food restriction followed by nutritional recovery associated or not with physical activity may differentially impact peripheral and central homeostatic regulation. We assessed the plasma concentration of acyl ghrelin, desacyl ghrelin and leptin and the mRNA expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and their receptors. Our data show an effect of undernutrition history on the level of physical activity in AN. The preclinical model supports an important role of physical activity in the recovery process and points out the leptin system as one factor that can drive a reliable restoration of metabolic variables through the hypothalamic regulation of neuropeptides involved in feeding behavior.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/metabolismo , Anorexia Nervosa/reabilitação , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Grelina/análogos & derivados , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Recidiva , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 320-328, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402264

RESUMO

To explore the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain and blood lipid level during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome in patients with and without gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). A total of 12 650 singleton pregnant women without history of hypertension and diabetes who were admitted at Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine for delivery from January 2018 to April 2019 were enrolled in the study. There were 2381 cases complicated with gestational diabetes (GDM group) and 10 269 cases without GDM (non-GDM group). The pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy were documented in two groups. The factors related to perinatal outcome were analyzed. In both GDM and non-GDM pregnant women, pre-pregnancy overweight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy were independent factors of large for gestational age infant (LGA), small for gestational age infant (SGA) and first cesarean section (<0.01 or <0.05). Excessive weight gain during pregnancy was also an independent risk factor of preeclampsia (<0.05). Triglyceride levels in the second trimester were independently associated with multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as LGA, preeclampsia, initial cesarean delivery, premature delivery. Controlling excessive or insufficient weight gain during pregnancy can significantly reduce the incidence of LGA and SGA. And controlling BMI before pregnancy can effectively reduce the incidence of LGA, preeclampsia and the first cesarean section. For non-GDM pregnant women, abnormal blood lipid levels in the second trimester may be closely related to multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, and active dietary guidance or treatment is also required.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Ganho de Peso
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371889

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health of people worldwide. An increase in perceived stress can lead to unhealthy behaviors such as increased food consumption. The aim of this study was to find the level of perceived stress and its relationship with increased food consumption during the "third wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. This was a cross-sectional study that employed anonline self-reported frequency of consumption questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale-10. A total of 637 subjects participated and 83.6% of respondents had moderate or high stress-more prevalent in the female and young respondents. Moreover, 36.1% of respondents reported that they had increased the frequency of consumption of some foods, mainly nuts, snacks, and jellybeans, along with coffee, tea, cocoa, and soft drinks. Eating between meals was more pronounced in those with high stress (65.1%) than in those with moderate stress (40.4%) and low stress (20.2%). Furthermore, the respondents with high stress reported greater weight gain. Thus, the results show that the level of perceived stress during the 'third wave' of this pandemic increased food consumption.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Hiperfagia/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371915

RESUMO

Poor health and diet quality are associated with living within a low socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to investigate the impact of SES on diet quality and body mass index in Latin America. Data from the "Latin American Health and Nutrition Study (ELANS)", a multi-country, population-based study of 9218 participants, were used. Dietary intake was collected through two 24 h recalls from participants of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. Diet quality was assessed using the dietary quality score (DQS), the dietary diversity score (DDS) and the nutrients adequacy ratio (NAR). Chi-squared and multivariate-variance analyses were used to estimate possible associations. We found that participants from the low SES consumed less fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fiber and fish and seafood and more legumes than those in the high SES. Also, the diet quality level, assessed by DQS, DDS and NAR mean, increased with SES. Women in the low SES also showed a larger prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess weight than those in the middle and high SES. Health policies and behavioral-change strategies should be addressed to reduce the impact of socioeconomic factors on diet quality and body weight, with gender as an additional level of vulnerability.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
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