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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 32(3): e1450, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644670

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a disease of high prevalence in Brazil and in the world, and bariatric surgery, with its different techniques, is an alternative treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare techniques: adjustable gastric band (AGB), sleeve gastrectomy), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) analyzing leaks, bleeding, death, weight loss, resolution of type 2 diabetes, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Were selected studies in the PubMed database from 2003 to 2014 using the descriptors: obesity surgery; bariatric surgery; biliopancreatic diversion; sleeve gastrectomy; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding. Two hundred and forty-four articles were found with the search strategy of which there were selected 116 studies through the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Excess weight loss (EWL) after five years in AGB was 48.35%; 52.7% in SG; 71.04% in RYGB and 77.90% in BPD. The postoperative mortality was 0.05% in the AGB; 0.16% on SG; 0.60% in RYGB and 2.52% in BPD. The occurrence of leak was 0.68% for GBA; 1.93% for SG; 2.18% for RYGB and 5.23% for BPD. The incidence of bleeding was 0.44% in AGB; 1.29% in SG; 0.81% in RYGB and 2.09% in BPD. The rate of DM2 resolved was 46.80% in AGB, 79.38% in SG, 79.86% in RYGB and 90.78% in BPD. The rate of dyslipidemia, apnea and hypertension resolved showed no statistical differences between the techniques. CONCLUSION: The AGB has the lowest morbidity and mortality and it is the worst in EWL and resolution of type 2 diabetes. The SG has low morbidity and mortality, good resolution of comorbidities and EWL lower than in RYGB and BPD. The RYGB has higher morbidity and mortality than AGB, good resolution of comorbidities and EWL similar to BPD. The BPD is the worst in mortality and bleeding and better in EWL and resolution of comorbidities.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desvio Biliopancreático/métodos , Brasil , Gastroplastia/métodos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 887-893, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599256

RESUMO

Severe malnutrition is an important cause of death in children. According to new WHO-growth chart 2006, the proportion of children with severe wasting is 3.1% thus the total number being 4, 65000 (BDHS 2014). Overall risk of death among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is 9 times more than well nourished children. The death rate among hospitalized children of SAM was as high as 15%. Once properly treated, severely malnourished children would grow up leading a normal life. Severe malnutrition in children can be successfully treated by using WHO guidelines that have been shown to be feasible and sustainable even in small district hospital with limited resources. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2014 to September 2015. The trial enrolled 92 SAM patients (46 cases + 46 controls) aged 06 months to 59 months of either sex who meet the inclusion criteria consecutively. Enrolled children were randomized by lottery method into two groups, Group I and Group II. Patients in Group I was treated with F-75 and F-100 recipes and managed in two phases, initial stabilization phase with F-75 recipes then subsequently rehabilitation phase by F-100 recipes. Patients in Group II was treated with prepackaged F-75 & F-100 formulae and feeding was given in two phases i.e. initial stabilization phase and subsequently rehabilitation phase according to national guidelines for the management of severe malnourished children. Then play therapy was given for half an hour daily with red colored toy in Ashic play centre Dhaka Medical College Hospital for patients of both groups. The time (days) taken to return of appetite (mean±SD) was 5.1±1.16 and 4.8±1.34 in Group I and Group II respectively, disappearance of edema (mean±SD) 4.8±1.53 in and 4.9±1.05 for Group I Group II respectively, to gain target weight (mean±SD) 13.8±2.20 days and 13.5±1.74 days in Group I and Group II respectively, rate of weight gain (mean±SD) 17.70±7.07gm/kg/day for Group I and 16.20±4.63gm/kg/day for Group II. The side effects, diarrhea was equal in both group, vomiting was more in Group II, combined diarrhea and vomiting was more in Group I but the differences were not statistically significant. The treatment cost (mean±SD) was higher in Group II (97.2±78.24 BDT/child/day) than in Group I (58.5±54.36 BDT/child/day). Return of appetite and disappearance of oedema and target weight gain were similar in both groups but treatment cost was higher in Group II than Group I, which was statistically significant.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Bangladesh , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Humanos , Lactente , Ganho de Peso
4.
BMJ ; 367: l5584, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weight changes across adulthood and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-94 and 1999-2014. PARTICIPANTS: 36 051 people aged 40 years or over with measured body weight and height at baseline and recalled weight at young adulthood (25 years old) and middle adulthood (10 years before baseline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality from baseline until 31 December 2015. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, 10 500 deaths occurred. Compared with participants who remained at normal weight, those moving from the non-obese to obese category between young and middle adulthood had a 22% (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33) and 49% (1.49, 1.21 to 1.83) higher risk of all cause mortality and heart disease mortality, respectively. Changing from obese to non-obese body mass index over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. An obese to non-obese weight change pattern from middle to late adulthood was associated with increased risk of all cause mortality (1.30, 1.16 to 1.45) and heart disease mortality (1.48, 1.14 to 1.92), whereas moving from the non-obese to obese category over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. Maintaining obesity across adulthood was consistently associated with increased risk of all cause mortality; the hazard ratio was 1.72 (1.52 to 1.95) from young to middle adulthood, 1.61 (1.41 to 1.84) from young to late adulthood, and 1.20 (1.09 to 1.32) from middle to late adulthood. Maximum overweight had a very modest or null association with mortality across adulthood. No significant associations were found between various weight change patterns and cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Stable obesity across adulthood, weight gain from young to middle adulthood, and weight loss from middle to late adulthood were associated with increased risks of mortality. The findings imply that maintaining normal weight across adulthood, especially preventing weight gain in early adulthood, is important for preventing premature deaths in later life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Razão Cintura-Estatura
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(665): 1770-1774, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580022

RESUMO

Nowadays, new psychotropic treatments might result on rapid onset of weight gain also related to other factors such as individual vulnerability, poor diet and lack of exercise. Many studies have reported that weight gain is only the premise of a series of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular complications. In this context, we have established since June 2017 in an ambulatory centre in Geneva, a 4F program (Fit, Fun, Feel and Food), to optimize the measures and strategies needed to prevent and reduce weight gain in these patients. This transversal program is naturalistically and systematically centered on physical activity, healthy diet and improved body perception. We will show some preliminary results of 4F program.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício , Dieta Saudável , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Ganho de Peso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Imagem Corporal , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Suíça , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644641

RESUMO

In order to evaluate iron chelate in diets for sows during gestation and lactation and its effects on iron supplementation for piglets, a total of 50 pregnant sows in the third parity order were distributed according to a randomized block design with two treatments: diet without iron chelate supplementation (n=20); diet supplemented with 0.15% of iron chelate (n=30). The litters of sows were distributed into five different treatments: sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets without iron supplementation. No influence of dietary supplementation of iron chelate was verified on the productive parameters of the sows. For the piglets, iron-dextran supplementation promoted higher weaning weight in comparison to non-supplemented piglets, although not differing to those received oral iron supplementation. Thus, iron chelate supplementation did not improve the productive parameters of sows, but it increased iron excretion in the feces, thus requiring iron supplementation for the piglets after birth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Quelantes de Ferro/análise , Lactação , Gravidez
9.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(9): 686-693, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530354

RESUMO

Objective: To observe and compare the effects of two standards on the overweight trend in urban Shanghai infants and young children. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 19 communities in two districts of Shanghai, and the subjects (n=15 019) were divided into S-group and W-group by sealed envelope randomization. The subjects were newborns born between November 2013 and December 2014. The 2005 Shanghai growth standard was applied in the S-group and the 2006 WHO growth standard was used in the W-group. At each follow-up time point age of 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months, the outpatient physician assessed the length and weight of the infants according to the standard adopted by each group and provided feeding guidance. The weight-for-age Z scores (WAZ), length-for-age Z scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z scores (WLZ) were calculated according to the WHO standard. Weight, length, WAZ, LAZ, WLZ and overweight ratio (WLZ≥2) were compared between the two groups using t test, Wilcoxon test and χ(2) test. Results: A total of 6 509 infants (3 391 were boys, 3 118 were girls) were in the W-group, and 8 510 infants (4 374 were boys, 4 136 were girls) were in the S-group. Among the boys, the weight values at the age of 4, 6, 9, 12, 18 months in the W-group were all lower than those in the S-group ((7.5±0.8) vs. (7.7±0.8) kg, (8.6±0.8) vs. (8.7±0.8) kg, (9.6±0.9) vs. (9.7±0.9) kg, (10.4±1.0) vs. (10.5±1.0) kg, (11.5±1.1) vs.(11.7±1.1) kg; t=4.329, 2.422, 3.739, 2.451, 2.736; P<0.01, 0.015,<0.01, 0.014, 0.009). The length had no significant difference between two groups at all months of age(all P>0.05). The overweight ratio in the W-group was lower than that in the S-group at the age of 9, 12, 18 months(3.3% (71/2 170) vs. 4.9% (143/2 927), 2.5% (51/2 037) vs. 4.5% (126/2 818), 0.8% (7/832) vs. 3.1% (39/1 266); χ(2)=6.520, 14.209, 12.350; P=0.011,<0.01,<0.01).Among the girls, except at the age of 2 months (W-group (5.6±0.6) vs. S-group (5.7±0.6), t=2.935, P=0.003), weight values had no significant difference between the two groups at other age months (all P>0.05).The length in the W-group was higher than that in the S-group at 12 and 18 months of age ((75.6±2.4) vs.(75.5±2.3)cm, (82.4±2.9) vs.(82.2±2.7) cm; t=2.351, 2.197; P=0.019, 0.028). The ratio of overweight in the W-group was lower than that of S-group at the age of 12 and 18 months (1.8% (33/1 871) vs.3.0% (80/2 658), 0.6% (5/790) vs.1.7% (20/1 178); χ(2)=6.764,4.276; P=0.009, 0.039). Conclusions: The application of WHO growth standard can help to reduce the weight gain rate of boys, promote the linear growth of girls, and thus alleviate the overweight trend of infants within 18 months. It suggested that 2006 WHO growth standard should be applied to infants within 1 year of age in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Padrões de Referência , População Urbana , Ganho de Peso , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD000371, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. Global advocacy organizations claim routine deworming has substantive health and societal effects beyond the removal of worms. In this update of the 2015 edition we included six new trials, additional data from included trials, and addressed comments and criticisms. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the effects of public health programmes to regularly treat all children with deworming drugs on child growth, haemoglobin, cognition, school attendance, school performance, physical fitness, and mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; Embase; LILACS; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); reference lists; and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 19 September 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, height, haemoglobin, and formal tests of cognition. We also sought data on other measures of growth, school attendance, school performance, physical fitness, and mortality. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion, risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We stratified the analysis based on the background burden of STH infection. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 51 trials, including 10 cluster-RCTs, that met the inclusion criteria. One trial evaluating mortality included over one million children, and the remaining 50 trials included a total of 84,336 participants. Twenty-four trials were in populations categorized as high burden, including nine trials in children selected because they were helminth-stool positive; 18 with intermediate burden; and nine as low burden.First or single dose of deworming drugsFourteen trials reported on weight after a single dose of deworming drugs (4970 participants, 14 RCTs). The effects were variable. There was little or no effect in studies conducted in low and intermediate worm burden groups. In the high-burden group, there was little or no effect in most studies, except for a large effect detected from one study area in Kenya reported in two trials carried out over 30 years ago. These trials result in qualitative heterogeneity and uncertainty in the meta-analysis across all studies (I2 statistic = 90%), with GRADE assessment assessed as very low-certainty, which means we do not know if a first dose or single dose of deworming impacts on weight.For height, most studies showed little or no effect after a single dose, with one of the two trials in Kenya from 30 years ago showing a large average difference (2621 participants, 10 trials, low-certainty evidence). Single dose probably had no effect on average haemoglobin (MD 0.10 g/dL, 95% CI 0.03 lower to 0.22 higher; 1252 participants, five trials, moderate-certainty evidence), or on average cognition (1596 participants, five trials, low-certainty evidence). The data are insufficient to know if there is an effect on school attendance and performance (304 participants, one trial, low-certainty evidence), or on physical fitness (280 participants, three trials, very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported on mortality.Multiple doses of deworming drugsThe effect of regularly treating children with deworming drugs given every three to six months on weight was reported in 18 trials, with follow-up times of between six months and three years; there was little or no effect on average weight in all but two trials, irrespective of worm prevalence-intensity. The two trials with large average weight gain included one in the high burden area in Kenya carried out over 30 years ago, and one study from India in a low prevalence area where subsequent studies in the same area did not show an effect. This heterogeneity causes uncertainty in any meta-analysis (I2 = 78%). Post-hoc analysis excluding trials published prior to 2000 gave an estimate of average difference in weight gain of 0.02 kg (95%CI from 0.04 kg loss to 0.08 gain, I2 = 0%). Thus we conclude that we do not know if repeated doses of deworming drugs impact on average weight, with a fewer older studies showing large gains, and studies since 2000 showing little or no average gain.Regular treatment probably had little or no effect on the following parameters: average height (MD 0.02 cm higher, 95% CI 0.09 lower to 0.13 cm higher; 13,700 participants, 13 trials, moderate-certainty evidence); average haemoglobin (MD 0.01 g/dL lower; 95% CI 0.05 g/dL lower to 0.07 g/dL higher; 5498 participants, nine trials, moderate-certainty evidence); formal tests of cognition (35,394 participants, 8 trials, moderate-certainty evidence); school performance (34,967 participants, four trials, moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence assessing an effect on school attendance is inconsistent, and at risk of bias (mean attendance 2% higher, 95% CI 5% lower to 8% higher; 20,650 participants, three trials, very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported on physical fitness. No effect was shown on mortality (1,005,135 participants, three trials, low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Public health programmes to regularly treat all children with deworming drugs do not appear to improve height, haemoglobin, cognition, school performance, or mortality. We do not know if there is an effect on school attendance, since the evidence is inconsistent and at risk of bias, and there is insufficient data on physical fitness. Studies conducted in two settings over 20 years ago showed large effects on weight gain, but this is not a finding in more recent, larger studies. We would caution against selecting only the evidence from these older studies as a rationale for contemporary mass treatment programmes as this ignores the recent studies that have not shown benefit.The conclusions of the 2015 edition have not changed in this update.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Estado Nutricional , Solo/parasitologia , Ganho de Peso , Peso Corporal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Pública , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD002972, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial formula can be manipulated to contain higher amounts of macro-nutrients than maternal breast milk but breast milk confers important immuno-nutritional advantages for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of feeding preterm or LBW infants with formula compared with maternal breast milk on growth and developmental outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 9), and Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Maternity & Infant Care Database, and CINAHL to October 2018. We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula versus maternal breast milk. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors planned independently to assess trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extract data. We planned to analyse treatment effects as described in the individual trials and report risk ratios and risk differences for dichotomous data, and mean differences for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals. We planned to use a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and to explore potential causes of heterogeneity in subgroup analyses. We planned to use the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We did not identify any eligible trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are no trials of formula versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Such trials are unlikely to be conducted because of the difficulty of allocating an alternative form of nutrition to an infant whose mother wishes to feed with her own breast milk. Maternal breast milk remains the default choice of enteral nutrition because observational studies, and meta-analyses of trials comparing feeding with formula versus donor breast milk, suggest that feeding with breast milk has major immuno-nutritional advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
13.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(8): 783-788, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of pre-pregnancy parental body mass index (BMI), maternal weight gain during pregnancy, and their interaction on neonatal birth weight. METHODS: A total of 1 127 pregnant women who underwent regular prenatal examinations and full-term singleton delivery in the First Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from January 2017 to October 2018 were enrolled. The data on their pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI of the husband, and neonatal birth weight were collected. The interaction between pre-pregnancy parental BMI and maternal weight gain during pregnancy was analyzed, and their correlation with neonatal birth weight was analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 1 127 full-term neonates, the detection rates of low birth weight neonates and macrosomia were 2.22% (25/1 127) and 3.82% (43/1 127) respectively. There were significant differences in pre-pregnancy parental BMI and maternal weight gain during pregnancy among the low birth weight, normal birth weight, and macrosomia groups (P<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with pre-pregnancy parental BMI and maternal weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.097-0.322, P<0.05). Low maternal weight before pregnancy increased the risk of low birth weight (RR=4.17, 95%CI: 1.86-9.38), and maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy (RR=3.59, 95%CI: 1.93-6.67) and excessive weight gain during pregnancy (RR=3.21, 95%CI: 1.39-7.37) increased the risk of macrosomia. No interaction between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and maternal weight gain during pregnancy was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pregnancy parental BMI and maternal weight gain during pregnancy are related to neonatal birth weight, and there is no interaction between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and maternal weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16996, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464951

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hormone imbalance and menstrual irregularities are normal for postpill women. Pharmacopuncture and moxibustion can stimulate acupoints with herbal extract and heat, respectively, to regulate the function of qi and blood, expel pathogens, and support health. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old female patient presented with amenorrhea, >6 months after she had stopped taking the oral contraceptive pill, which she had taken for more than 10 years, and possible associated infertility. Additionally, she reported sudden weight gain of approximately 12 kg in 1 year. DIAGNOSES: In this study, we examined the amenorrhea lasted more than 6 months for postpill patient. INTERVENTIONS: She refused a strong acupuncture stimulus; she underwent lower abdomen pharmacopuncture with wild ginseng complex (WGC) and moxibustion at CV4, 5 times during 1 month. As a secondary treatment, 1 g Geoseub-hwan pills were prescribed for overeating and during social events. After 5 weekly primary treatments, Geoseub-hwan was prescribed intermittently. OUTCOME: After 3 primary treatments, she began menstruation without menstrual cramps or discomfort. After 5 treatments, she exhibited improvement of body weight and body composition. At 1- and 3-month follow-up examinations, she confirmed regular menstruation without discomfort. LESSONS: Pharmacopuncture with WGC and moxibustion may be effective for the treatment of postpill amenorrhea with abdominal obesity and can be used for patients with fear of a strong acupuncture stimulus.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Amenorreia/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Coreana/métodos , Adulto , Amenorreia/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Anticoncepcionais Orais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Moxibustão/métodos , Panax , República da Coreia , Ganho de Peso
16.
BJOG ; 126(12): 1424-1433, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity has been associated with elevated risk of urinary incontinence in epidemiological studies; however, the strength of the association has differed between studies. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies on adiposity and risk of urinary incontinence. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched PubMed and Embase databases up to 19 July 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Prospective cohort studies were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked for accuracy by a second reviewer. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-four prospective studies were included. The summary RR per 5 kg/m2 increment in body mass index (BMI) was 1.20 (95% CI 1.16-1.25, I2  = 62%, n = 11) for population-based studies and 1.19 (95% CI 1.08-1.30, I2  = 87.1%, n = 8) for pregnancy-based studies, 1.18 (95% CI 1.14-1.22, I2  = 0%, n = 2) per 10 cm increase in waist circumference and 1.34 (95% CI 1.11-1.62, I2  = 90%, n = 2) per 10 kg of weight gain. Although the test for nonlinearity was significant for BMI, P = 0.04, the association was approximately linear. For subtypes of urinary incontinence the summary RR per 5 BMI units was 1.45 (95% CI 1.25-1.68, I2  = 85%, n = 3) for frequent incontinence, 1.52 (95% CI 1.37-1.68, I2  = 34%, n = 4) for severe incontinence, 1.33 (95% CI 1.26-1.41, I2  = 0%, n = 8) for stress incontinence, 1.26 (95% CI 1.14-1.40, I2  = 70%, n = 7) for urge incontinence, and 1.52 (95% CI 1.36-1.69, I2  = 0%, n = 3) for mixed incontinence. CONCLUSION: These results suggest excess weight may increase risk of urinary incontinence. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity increase the risk of urinary incontinence.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10107-10115, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434473

RESUMO

We examined the antiobesity effect of a limonoid 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin, named CG-1, purified from the seeds of Carapa guianensis, Meliaceae, known as andiroba in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet or an HFD and orally administered CG-1 (20 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. CG-1 lowered the body weight gain and improved the serum triglyceride level and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. The expression level of the adipogenesis-related genes was lowered by CG-1 in the visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT). The mRNA expression level of the macrophage-related genes decreased in vWAT following the administration of CG-1 to HFD-fed mice. It is noteworthy that CG-1 activated the brown adipose tissue (BAT) with enhanced expression of uncoupling protein 1 and increased the rectal temperature in HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that the limonoid CG-1 decreased body weight gain and ameliorated hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance with the activation of BAT in HFD-fed mice.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Limoninas/administração & dosagem , Meliaceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Acta Clin Croat ; 58(1): 37-41, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363323

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes involves disorder of glucose metabolism first diagnosed in pregnancy. Obese women undoubtedly have more often complications in reproductive age, such as fertility difficulties, spontaneous and recurrent miscarriages, premature births, and various obstetric and surgical complications related to the course of pregnancy, delivery and puerperium. Children of obese pregnant women are more likely to develop obesity in childhood and adulthood. We analyzed the outcome of 51 pregnancies in obese pregnant women and 50 pregnant women with normal body mass index. All women in both groups were diagnosed with gestational diabetes by the IADPSG criteria. We analyzed gestational age at delivery and mode of delivery, gestational weight gain, presence of concomitant diagnosis of gestational or chronic hypertension, difference in birth weight, and prevalence of hypertrophic newborns. There was no significant difference in gestational age at pregnancy termination and in the mode of delivery. There was a significant difference in gestational weight gain, number of pregnant women with hypertension, neonatal birth weight and number of hypertrophic children. Based on the data presented, we conclude that obesity is an unfavorable factor for pregnancy outcome. It also influences birth weight and fetal hypertrophy, as well as gestational weight gain.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 239, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics are important for pigs to enhance health and intestinal development, which are potential alternative to antibiotics. Many studies have reported the functions of single bacterial strain as probiotic on the animals. In this study, we evaluated effects of combined probiotics on growth performance, inflammation and intestinal microbiota in weaned pigs. One hundred and eight pigs, weaned at 28 day old (7.12 ± 0.08 kg), were randomly divided into the 3 dietary treatments with 6 pens and 6 pigs per pen (half male and half female). The experimental period lasted for 28 days and treatments were as follows: i. CONTROL: basal diet; ii. Antibiotic: the basal diet plus 75 mg· kg- 1 chlortetracycline; and iii. Probiotics: basal diet plus 4% compound probiotics. RESULTS: Supplementation probiotics improved average daily gain over the entire 28 days (P < 0.01) and feed efficiency in the last 14 days (P < 0.05) compared with the other two groups. Both probiotics and antibiotic supplementation decreased concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (P < 0.05) and interferon-γ (P < 0.01). Probiotics group had greater abundance of Lactobacillus in the caecal digesta and Firmicutes in the colonic digesta, while both probiotics and antibiotic supplementation inhibited Treponema_2 and Anaerovibrio in the caecal digesta. Caecal acetic and propionic acid (P < 0.05) of probiotics group were higher than the other two groups, whereas concentrations of colonic lactic acid and propionic acid (P < 0.05) of antibiotic group were lower than control and probiotics groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that combined supplementation of Lactobacillus fermentum and Pediococcus acidilactici regulate the gut health and improve the host ADG and F/G by decreasing serum pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IFN-γ), promoting beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus in the caecal digesta and Firmicutes in the colonic digesta), enhancing production of short chain fatty acids, and inhibiting pathogens (Treponema_2, Anaerovibrio in the caecal digesta).


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Animais , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD004204, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants may accumulate nutrient deficits leading to extrauterine growth restriction. Feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched rather than standard formula might increase nutrient accretion and growth rates and might improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of feeding with nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula on growth and development of preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the Cochrane Neonatal standard search strategy. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 11), MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (until November 2018), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and clinical trials databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched formula (protein and energy plus minerals, vitamins, or other nutrients) versus standard formula. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the Cochrane Neonatal standard methods. Two review authors separately evaluated trial quality and extracted and synthesised data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences, and mean differences (MDs). We assessed certainty of evidence at the outcome level using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. MAIN RESULTS: We identified seven trials in which a total of 590 preterm infants participated. Most participants were clinically stable preterm infants of birth weight less than 1850 g. Few participants were extremely preterm, extremely low birth weight, or growth restricted at birth. Trials were conducted more than 30 years ago, were formula industry funded, and were small with methodological weaknesses (including lack of masking) that might bias effect estimates. Meta-analyses of in-hospital growth parameters were limited by statistical heterogeneity. There is no evidence of an effect on time to regain birth weight (MD -1.48 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -4.73 to 1.77) and low-certainty evidence suggests that feeding with nutrient-enriched formula increases in-hospital rates of weight gain (MD 2.43 g/kg/d, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.26) and head circumference growth (MD 1.04 mm/week, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.89). Meta-analysis did not show an effect on the average rate of length gain (MD 0.22 mm/week, 95% CI -0.70 to 1.13). Fewer data are available for growth and developmental outcomes assessed beyond infancy, and these do not show consistent effects of nutrient-enriched formula feeding. Data from two trials did not show an effect on Bayley Mental Development Index scores at 18 months post term (MD 2.87, 95% CI -1.38 to 7.12; moderate-certainty evidence). Infants who received nutrient-enriched formula had higher Bayley Psychomotor Development Index scores at 18 months post term (MD 6.56. 95% CI 2.87 to 10.26; low-certainty evidence), but no evidence suggested an effect on cerebral palsy (typical RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.07; 2 studies, 377 infants). Available data did not indicate any other benefits or harms and provided low-certainty evidence about the effect of nutrient-enriched formula feeding on the risk of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants (typical RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.25; 3 studies, 489 infants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available trial data show that feeding preterm infants nutrient-enriched (compared with standard) formulas has only modest effects on growth rates during their initial hospital admission. No evidence suggests effects on long-term growth or development. The GRADE assessment indicates that the certainty of this evidence is low, and that these findings should be interpreted and applied with caution. Further randomised trials would be needed to resolve this uncertainty.


Assuntos
Alimentos Formulados , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
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