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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4765, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958780

RESUMO

Fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutrients, but how they are transported into cells remains unclear. Here, we show that FAs trigger caveolae-dependent CD36 internalization, which in turn delivers FAs into adipocytes. During the process, binding of FAs to CD36 activates its downstream kinase LYN, which phosphorylates DHHC5, the palmitoyl acyltransferase of CD36, at Tyr91 and inactivates it. CD36 then gets depalmitoylated by APT1 and recruits another tyrosine kinase SYK to phosphorylate JNK and VAVs to initiate endocytic uptake of FAs. Blocking CD36 internalization by inhibiting APT1, LYN or SYK abolishes CD36-dependent FA uptake. Restricting CD36 at either palmitoylated or depalmitoylated state eliminates its FA uptake activity, indicating an essential role of dynamic palmitoylation of CD36. Furthermore, blocking endocytosis by targeting LYN or SYK inhibits CD36-dependent lipid droplet growth in adipocytes and high-fat-diet induced weight gain in mice. Our study has uncovered a dynamic palmitoylation-regulated endocytic pathway to take up FAs.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Endocitose/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipoilação , Células 3T3-L1 , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD36/deficiência , Antígenos CD36/genética , Cavéolas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Quinase Syk/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase Syk/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases da Família src/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764777

RESUMO

Current antidepressant therapy has several disadvantages related to the properties of antidepressants. Considering their unfavourable features, the process of searching for new antidepressant drugs with better safety and tolerability requires consistent efforts and many complementary studies. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is considered as an interesting target of antidepressant therapy. In the present study, the intrinsic activity at different signaling pathways coupled to serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, antidepressant-like and pharmacokinetic properties, and the safety profile of two novel imidazopurine-2,4-dione derivatives, namely compounds AZ-853 (8-(4-(4-(2-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1H- imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione) and AZ-861 (1,3-dimethyl-8-(4-(4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-1H-imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione), were studied in animal models through in vitro and in vivo experiments. We demonstrated that AZ-853 and AZ-861, which structurally differ by one substituent and its placement in the phenyl ring, showed varied functional, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic properties as well as side effect profiles. AZ-861 exhibited stronger agonistic action in all functional assays. After acute and repeated administration in mice, both compounds showed antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test, which was partially mediated by 5-HT1A receptor activation. AZ-853 showed a more potent antidepressant-like effect, presumably due to its better penetration into brain structures. Both compounds did not show anticholinergic properties, but after repeated administration, they induced weak sedation and lipid metabolism disturbances without affecting serum glucose level. The stronger α1-adrenolytic effect of AZ-853 is responsible for decreased systolic blood pressure, and in contrast to AZ-861, AZ-853 induced weight gain in mice. The interesting comparative pharmacological profiles of AZ-853 and AZ-861 encourage to conduct further experiments to fully understand their mechanisms and differences in action.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/química , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of nutritional supplements on weight gain in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment (ART) remains uncertain. Starting supplements depends upon current weight-for-age or other acute malnutrition indicators, producing time-dependent confounding. However, weight-for-age at ART initiation may affect subsequent weight gain, independent of supplement use. Implications for marginal structural models (MSMs) with inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) are unclear. METHODS: In the ARROW trial, non-randomised supplement use and weight-for-age were recorded monthly from ART initiation. The effect of supplements on weight-for-age over the first year was estimated using generalised estimating equation MSMs with IPTW, both with and without interaction terms between baseline weight-for-age and time. Separately, data were simulated assuming no supplement effect, with use depending on current weight-for-age, and weight-for-age trajectory depending on baseline weight-for-age to investigate potential bias associated with different MSM specifications. RESULTS: In simulations, despite correctly specifying IPTW, omitting an interaction in the MSM between baseline weight-for-age and time produced increasingly biased estimates as associations between baseline weight-for-age and subsequent weight trajectory increased. Estimates were unbiased when the interaction between baseline weight-for-age and time was included, even if the data were simulated with no such interaction. In ARROW, without an interaction the estimated effect was +0.09 (95%CI +0.02,+0.16) greater weight-for-age gain per month's supplement use; this reduced to +0.03 (-0.04,+0.10) including the interaction. DISCUSSION: This study highlights a specific situation in which MSM model misspecification can occur and impact the resulting estimate. Since an interaction in the MSM (outcome) model does not bias the estimate of effect if the interaction does not exist, it may be advisable to include such a term when fitting MSMs for repeated measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520965

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of oral administration of ß-glucan 1,3 (pharmaceutical grade 10%) on growth performance and carcass traits in two breeds of weanling rabbits adapted to survive in Egypt, New Zealand White (NZW) and Animal Production Research Institute (APRI) rabbits, with special attention to relative mRNA expression of interleukins and antioxidant enzyme genes, biochemical, and histological alterations. Oral administration of ß-glucan with doses 0.25 and 0.5 ml per one-liter of drinking water significantly accelerated body weight gain (BWG) in both rabbits' breeds, reduced total feed consumption (FC), and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR), especially the 0.5 ml per one-liter dose in both rabbit breeds. There are remarkable differences in all the growth performance traits due to breed effect. The interaction effect between ß-glucan and breed significantly improved BWG, FC, and FCR. There were non-significant differences in all carcass traits studied due to oral administration of ß-glucan with both doses, except in dressing percentages. The highest of the dressing percentages were observed at doses 0.25 ml per one-liter (51%) and 0.5 ml per one-liter (52%) compared with control (50%). Our findings show significant variations in the final BW, total daily gain, feed consumption, and total feed conversion ratio between NZW and APRI rabbits. Absence of significant differences in the hot carcass weight and dressing percentage between the genetic groups had been reported in this study. Supplementing NZW and APRI rabbits with ß-glucan increased blood total protein and globulin. The duodenal villi dimensions, splenic lymphoid diameter, muscular fiber diameter, and muscular glycogen areas were significantly increased by ß-glucan administration. Expression of intestinal interleukin-18 (IL-18) in NZW rabbits treated with 0.25 and 0.5 doses of ß-glucan was significantly upregulated and enhanced the immune response. ß-glucan upregulated the expression of intestinal occludin mRNA particularly at dose 0.5 ß-glucan as well as upregulated intestinal superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), which modulates anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In conclusion, oral administration of ß-glucan at a dose of 0.25 or 0.5 ml per one-liter drinking water provided beneficial effects in the growth performance and health status of rabbits.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Duodeno/metabolismo , Duodeno/patologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Coelhos , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524726

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the comparative acidifying properties of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and a combination of DL-methionine (DLM) and acidifier in male broiler production. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatments: A (low HMTBA, 0.057% HMTBA); B (low acidifier, 0.05% DLM + 0.057% acidifier); C (high HMTBA, 0.284% HMTBA); and D (high acidifier, 0.25% DLM + 0.284% acidifier). At 21 d, growth performance, chyme pH, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora were measured. The pH of crop, gizzard, and ileum contents was higher in the HMTBA treatment group than in DLM + acidifier treatment group. Furthermore, acidifier supplementation promoted growth of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, whereas high HMTBA (0.284%) inhibited the proliferation of acid-producing bacteria including Roseburia and Collinsella. The chymotrypsin activity was lower in the HMTBA group than in the DLM + acidifier group. In contrast, high-level HMTBA group showed higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than the DLM + acidifier group. These results suggested that HMTBA work through different pathways with DLM plus acidifier.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/farmacologia , Animais , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Papo das Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Moela das Aves , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íleo , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(6): 1023-1030, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Weight regain (WR) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) starts to occur 2 years after surgery, ultimately affecting at least 25% of patients. A limited number of studies have evaluated the impact of antiobesity medications (AOMs) on this phenomenon. METHODS: This study reviewed the electronic medical records of 1,196 patients who underwent RYGB between 2004 and 2015. WR was evaluated by comparing each patient's weight during subsequent postoperative office visits to nadir weight (lowest weight after RYGB, n = 760), taking into consideration the interval during which WR occurred. Patients who were prescribed AOMs and came to follow-up visits were classified as adherent users, whereas those who missed their follow-up visits were considered nonadherent. This study used a linear mixed model, Cox regression, and generalized equation estimator to determine the impact of AOMs on WR trajectory, hazard ratio for time to event, and odds ratio for repeated event occurrence, respectively. RESULTS: Despite the lack of a unified protocol for using AOMs, the three statistical models converged to show that phentermine and topiramate, used individually or in combination, can significantly reduce WR after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS: Phentermine and topiramate are effective in mitigating WR after RYGB. Further studies are needed to help ascertain optimal use of AOMs after bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Fentermina/uso terapêutico , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fentermina/farmacologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Topiramato/farmacologia
8.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 502-511, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447572

RESUMO

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a well-established but poorly understood clinical phenomenon. New mechanistic insights into how antipsychotics modulate adipose physiology are sorely needed, in hopes of either devising a therapeutic intervention to ameliorate weight gain or contributing to improved design of future agents. In this study, we have hypothesized that the weight gain-associated tricyclic antipsychotics clozapine and chlorpromazine directly impact adipose tissue by potentiating adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes. Utilizing a well-established in vitro model system (3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line), we demonstrate that, when applied specifically during induction of adipogenic differentiation, both clozapine and chlorpromazine significantly potentiate in vitro adipogenesis, observed as morphological changes and increased intracellular lipid accumulation. These persistent effects, observed at endpoints well after the end of antipsychotic exposure, are accompanied by increased transcript- and protein-level expression of the mature adipocyte marker perilipin-1, as indicated by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, but not by further upregulation of pro-adipogenic transcription factors versus positive controls. Our findings point to a possible physiological mechanism of antipsychotic-induced hyperplasia, with potentiated expression of mature adipocyte markers enhancing the differentiation and maturation of preadipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/efeitos adversos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1955-1968, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399722

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is a crucial parasitic disease of the poultry industry. As a result of the enormous global economic losses and the increased resistance to the conventional anticoccidial agents, there is a continuous need to find new anticoccidials. Here, the anticoccidial effect of the fluoroquinolone lomefloxacin versus diclazuril in experimentally infected broilers was tested for the treatment of Eimeria tenella infection. Ninety 14-day-old Cobb strain broiler chickens were allocated into five groups, each with 18 chicks. Group 1 (G1) was separated as an uninfected negative control and received no treatment; group 2 (G2), infected untreated (positive control); group 3 (G3), infected and treated with lomefloxacin at a dose rate of 100 ppm in drinking water; group 4 (G4), infected and treated with diclazuril at a dose rate of 2.5 ppm in drinking water; group 5 (G5), infected and treated with lomefloxacin at a dose rate of 100 ppm plus diclazuril at dose rate of 2.5 ppm in drinking water. Clinical signs, mortality rates, number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG), growth performance parameters (weight gain: WG and feed conversion ratio: FCR), lesion scoring, haematological and serum biochemical analyses, antioxidant biomarkers and histopathologic inspection of the caeca were used as evaluation criteria for the anticoccidial efficacy of both lomefloxacin and diclazuril. The findings herein showed that administration of lomefloxacin and/or diclazuril improved growth performance parameters (WG, FCR) and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced OPG, and diminished the severity of bloody diarrhoea and mortalities. Additionally, haematological indices and serum biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, uric acid, total proteins, albumin and globulin were improved. Finally, a significant elevation in the levels of the antioxidant biomarkers was observed in the chicks of G3, G4 and G5 as compared with those of G2.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria tenella , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ceco/patologia , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Fezes/parasitologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386296

RESUMO

Thirty five barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 15.1 ± 1.0 kg) were used to determine the effect of partially replacing Gly + Ser with Thr in reduced crude protein (CP) diets on growth performance, protein deposition in carcass and viscera, and skin collagen abundance during the late nursery phase to 25 kg BW. Pigs were individually fed one of five iso-nitrogenous diets (n = 7) for 21 d. The basal diet met estimated essential amino acids (AA) requirements by using all essential AA plus Gly and Ser in free form (CON; 12.1% CP; as-fed, analyzed contents). The remaining four diets were formulated by reducing total Gly and Ser concentrations to 60% or 20% of the CON diet. The N removed with Gly and Ser was replaced with either crystalline Thr or Glu. Total analyzed Thr made up either 1.59% (T1; 12.5% CP) or 2.34% (T2; 12.2% CP) of the Thr-supplemented diets, and total analyzed Glu made up either 3.47% (G1; 12.7% CP) or 4.64% (G2; 12.9% CP) of the Glu-supplemented diets. Pigs were slaughtered on day 21 to determine body composition and skin collagen abundance via bright field microscopy. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and G:F and final carcass weights were greater for pigs fed diets supplemented with Glu (G1 + G2) vs. those fed diets supplemented with Thr (T1 + T2; P < 0.05, P = 0.060, and P = 0.050 for ADG, G:F, and final carcass weight, respectively); intermediate values were observed for CON. Nitrogen retention in carcass plus viscera and the AA profile of deposited protein in the carcass were not influenced by dietary treatment. Pigs fed the T2 and G2 diets had greater retention of Thr (vs. CON and G2) and Glu (vs. CON and T2) in the viscera protein, respectively (P < 0.05). The apparent utilization efficiency of standardized ileal digestible Thr for protein deposition in carcass plus viscera was less for pigs fed T2 (15.1%) vs. those fed CON (56.7%) or G2 (58.6% ± 2.9%) diets (P < 0.001). Only pigs fed T1 had skin collagen abundance not different from CON; pigs fed G1, G2, and T2 had reduced skin collagen abundance compared with CON and T1 (P < 0.01). Using Glu as an N source when Gly and Ser were reduced to 60% and 20% of CON in reduced CP diets maintained ADG for pigs between 15 and 25 kg BW, whereas supplying Thr as a N source reduced ADG and carcass weight. When dietary Gly and Ser were supplied at 60% of CON, only Thr supplementation rescued skin collagen abundance. Therefore, supplemental Thr at excess levels is not sufficient to replace N from Gly and Ser in reduced CP diets fed to late nursery pigs, despite supporting skin collagen abundance as a secondary indicator of Gly status.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Serina/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Treonina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Serina/administração & dosagem , Pele/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Treonina/administração & dosagem , Vísceras , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Vasc Res ; 57(4): 213-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although both glucose and fructose are hexoses, their catabolism is quite different: the catabolism of fructose is initiated by ketohexokinase and is not regulated by negative feedback, which results in oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that fructose impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation via oxidative stress in rat aortic rings. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were offered 20% fructose solution or tap water for 2 weeks, after which vascular reactivity was measured in isolated aortic rings. In a separate experiment, vascular reactivity was measured after acute exposure to ∼10 mM fructose in isolated aortic rings from untreated rats. RESULTS: Although high-fructose intake statistically significantly increased blood pressure and body weight, it did not affect contraction and relaxation in aortic rings. The substitution of fructose for glucose in Krebs solution inhibited vascular relaxation in aortic rings, which was abolished by pretreatment with antioxidants. Decreasing the glucose concentration in Krebs solution inhibited vascular relaxation, whereas decreasing the fructose concentration in Krebs solution improved vascular relaxation in the aortic rings. Pretreatment with antioxidants improved the vascular relaxation in Krebs solution with fructose substituted for glucose. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that fructose impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation via oxidative stress in isolated rat aortic rings.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutose/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 83(4): 135-152, 2020 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114934

RESUMO

Triplaris gardneriana Wedd. is a tree used in folk medicine to treat venereal diseases and inflammation as well as a source of biological compounds with antioxidant capacity. In order to assess the safety of these bioactive compounds, the present study aimed to determine the toxicity of an ethanolic extract of T. gardneriana, (EETg). Toxicological tests included hemolytic activity, toxicity toward the brine shrimp Artemia, cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (MCF7) and acute oral toxicity in rodents. In addition, toxicogenomics techniques were used to determine genome expression in MCF7 cells exposed to EETg. The results showed that the extract exhibits approximately 60% of hemolytic activity at the highest tested concentration (64 µg/ml) and toxicity against nauplii of Artemia sp. (LC50 of 67.85 µg/ml). Further, EETg appears to be cytotoxic to MCF7 (cell viability reduced to 40% at 250 µg/ml after 24 hr). Genomic data demonstrated differential expression of 14 genes. Data analysis indicated possible altered pathways (e.g., xenobiotic metabolism), possible adverse health risks (e.g., hepatotoxicity), and drugs with similar gene expression profile (e.g., antimicrobials). The investigation provides important information on potentially adverse aspects of EETg, which need to be considered prior to the therapeutic utilization of this plant.Abbreviations: EETg: ethanolic extract of T. gardneriana seeds; MCF7: michigan cancer foundation-7 which refers to a human breast cell line (adenocarcinoma); NGS: next-generation sequencing; edgeR: empirical analysis of digital gene expression data in R; Consensus: consensus path database; FDR: false discovery rate; NCBI: national center for biotechnology information; KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes; Ingenuity: ingenuity pathway analysis software; CMAP: connectivity map; OECD: organization for economic co-operation and development; HL-60: human promyelocytic leukemia cells; PC3: prostate cancer cells.


Assuntos
Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Polygonaceae/química , Sementes/química , Adulto , Animais , Artemia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transcriptoma , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1873(2): 188359, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222610

RESUMO

Advanced cancer patients exhibit cachexia, a condition characterized by a significant reduction in the body weight predominantly from loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Decreased food intake and multi-organ energy imbalance in cancer patients worsen the cachexia syndrome. Cachectic cancer patients have a low tolerance for chemo- and radiation therapies and also have a reduced quality of life. The presence of tumors and the current treatment options for cancer further exacerbate the cachexia condition, which remains an unmet medical need. The onset of cachexia involves crosstalk between different organs leading to muscle wasting. Recent advancements in understanding the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy and adipose tissue wasting/browning provide a platform for the development of new targeted therapies. Therefore, a better understanding of this multifactorial disorder will help to improve the quality of life of cachectic patients. In this review, we summarize the metabolic mediators of cachexia, their molecular functions, affected organs especially with respect to muscle atrophy and adipose browning and then discuss advanced therapeutic approaches to cancer cachexia.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Caquexia/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos da radiação , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Apetite/farmacologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos da radiação , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/metabolismo , Caquexia/terapia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos da radiação , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos da radiação , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos da radiação , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/efeitos da radiação , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000688, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218572

RESUMO

Obesity leads to multiple health problems, including diabetes, fatty liver, and even cancer. Here, we report that urolithin A (UA), a gut-microflora-derived metabolite of pomegranate ellagitannins (ETs), prevents diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunctions in mice without causing adverse effects. UA treatment increases energy expenditure (EE) by enhancing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducing browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Mechanistically, UA-mediated increased thermogenesis is caused by an elevation of triiodothyronine (T3) levels in BAT and inguinal fat depots. This is also confirmed in UA-treated white and brown adipocytes. Consistent with this mechanism, UA loses its beneficial effects on activation of BAT, browning of white fat, body weight control, and glucose homeostasis when thyroid hormone (TH) production is blocked by its inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). Conversely, administration of exogenous tetraiodothyronine (T4) to PTU-treated mice restores UA-induced activation of BAT and browning of white fat and its preventive role on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain. Together, these results suggest that UA is a potent antiobesity agent with potential for human clinical applications.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Intolerância à Glucose/prevenção & controle , Resistência à Insulina , Reação de Maillard , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Propiltiouracila/toxicidade , Termogênese , Tri-Iodotironina/antagonistas & inibidores , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the optimal choice for feeding premature babies. However, the prevalence rate of extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants remains high. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze the macronutrients present in human milk and the correlation with the growth of in-hospital preterm infants. METHODS: This prospective study is based on data from 99 in-hospital preterm infants younger than 37 weeks of gestational age on an exclusively human milk diet. Infants who had previously received parenteral nutrition were eligible, but they had to have reached full enteral feeding at the time that the samples were taken. A total of 3282 samples of raw human milk or donor pasteurized milk were collected. The levels of lactose, protein, fat, and energy in the samples were measured using a Miris human milk analyzer. The primary outcome was weight growth velocity (g/kg/day) which was obtained using two-point approach. RESULTS: The mean (±standard deviation) macronutrient composition per 100 mL of milk was 7.2 (±0.3) g of lactose, 1.1 (±0.2) g of true protein, 3.5 (±0.9) g of fat, and 66.9 (±6.5) kcal of energy. The protein concentration in human milk had a positive, significant correlation with body weight gain, with a coefficient of 0.41 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for gestational age, postmenstrual age, small-for-gestational age, intraventricular hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus or congestive heart failure, duration of total parenteral nutrition support, bottle feeding or use of orogastric tube, and ventilator support, total daily protein intake was associated with body weight growth (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both the protein concentration in human milk and the daily total protein intake had a positive correlation with the body weight gain of premature infants. Routine analysis of breast milk and individualized fortification might be indicated to optimize the growth of preterm infants.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144425

RESUMO

The ability to positively alter immune and stress response with nutritional compounds is of great interest and importance to the beef industry. There is a proprietary product (OmniGen-AF [OG]; Phibro Animal Health, Quincy, IL) reported to have performance-enhancing benefits by altering animal response to stress and immune challenges. The objective of this 2-yr research project was to study the effect of supplementing OG to beef cows and their calves on breeding and growth performance. One hundred and twelve multiparous beef cows and 48 primiparous cows were randomly assigned to treatment in year 1; control (CON, no OG; n = 56 multiparous and 24 primiparous) or treatment (OG fed at 8.8 g/100 kg body weight [BW]; n = 56 multiparous and 24 primiparous). Multiparous cows (mean ± SD = 6.4 ± 0.4 yr; BW = 589 ± 9.2 kg; body condition score [BCS] 6.2 ± 0.07) were used in both years of the experiment and primiparous cows (mean ± SD = 2.1 ± 0.04 yr of age, weighed 400 ± 7.5 kg, and BSC of 5.6 ± 0.06) were only used in the first year of the experiment. CON and OG supplements were offered over two production cycles beginning in December approximately 60 d prior to projected calving through pre-breeding in May of each year. Calves from treatment cows were offered treatments in a creep supplement limited to a daily rate of 1% as-fed of BW prorated for 3-d/wk feeding from mid-July through weaning with OG offered at 8.8 g/100 kg BW. Primiparous cow's BW, BCS, and calf performance were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.15) in year 1. BW of multiparous OG cows tended (P = 0.10) to be heavier at weaning in year 1 and was greater (P = 0.05) at the onset of the experiment in year 2. Body condition of OG cows was greater (P ≤ 0.02) at weaning in both years 1 and 2, as well as at the onset of the experiment in year 2. Calves fed OG from the mature cows gained more (P = 0.05) BW during the creep feeding period than CON. Core body temperatures of OG heifers measured during the late summer with intravaginal temperature data loggers tended (P ≤ 0.10) to be less at 1400 and 1700 hours and were less (P = 0.05) at 1800 hours than CON heifers. Feeding OG did not result in changes (P = 0.25) in serum titer response to the BVD virus of calves during year 2. The results of the current experiment indicate feeding OG to beef cows and calves can result in improvement in BCS of cows, enhance weight gain of calves preweaning, and reduce heat loads in heifer calves during the late summer.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Paridade , Estações do Ano , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 83(2): 45-65, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024444

RESUMO

Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed to imidacloprid by gavage once daily for 7 consecutive days at 0, 0.03, 0.34, 3.42, 10.25, and 15.5 mg/kg/day (n = 20 per group; 5 6-week-old males, 5 6-week-old females, 5 9-week-old males, and 5 9-week-old females). The severity and duration of neurobehavioral abnormalities were recorded. Components of the innate and adaptive immune system were assessed with 7 standard functional assays. Temporary neurobehavioral abnormalities were observed in a dose-dependent manner, including muscle tremors, ataxia, and depressed mentation. Based upon mean clinical severity scores, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 3.42 mg/kg/day, and the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was 10.25 mg/kg/day. The effective dose value for the presence of any neurobehavioral abnormalities in 50% of the test group (ED50) was 4.62 ± 0.98 mg/kg/day. The ED50 for an adjusted score that included both severity and duration of neurobehavioral abnormalities was 11.24 ± 9.33 mg/kg/day. These ED50 values are equivalent to a 1 kg bird ingesting 29 or 70 imidacloprid treated soybean seeds respectively. Immunotoxicity was not documented, possible causes include the assays were insensitive, relevant immune functions were not examined, or imidacloprid is not immunotoxic at this dosing schedule in this species. Neurobehavioral abnormalities were a more sensitive indicator of the sublethal effects of imidacloprid than immunotoxicity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/induzido quimicamente , Galinhas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oral , Animais , Papo das Aves/efeitos dos fármacos , Papo das Aves/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064529

RESUMO

Pigs exposed to heat stress (HS) increase body temperature in which can damage the intestinal epithelia and affect the absorption and availability of amino acids (AA). Protein digestion and metabolism further increase body temperature. An experiment was conducted with six pairs of pigs (of 47.3 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) exposed to natural HS to assess the effect of substituting dietary protein-bound AA by free AA on morphology and gene expression of intestinal epithelial and serum concentration (SC) of free AA. Treatments were: high protein, 21.9% crude protein (CP) diet (HShp) and low protein, 13.5% CP diet supplemented with crystalline Lys, Thr, Met, Trp, His, Ile, Leu, Phe, and Val (HSaa). The HShp diet met or exceeded all AA requirements. The HSaa diet was formulated on the basis of ideal protein. Pigs were fed the same amount at 0700 and 1900 hours during the 21-d study. Blood samples were collected at 1700 hours (2.0 h before the evening meal), 2030 hours, and 2130 hours (1.5 and 2.5 h after the evening meal). At the end, all pigs were sacrificed to collect intestinal mucosa and a 5-cm section from each segment of the small intestine from each pig. Villi measures, expression of AA transporters (y+L and B0) in mucosa, and SC of AA were analyzed. Ambient temperature fluctuated daily from 24.5 to 42.6 °C. Weight gain and G.F were not affected by dietary treatment. Villi height tended to be larger (P ≤ 0.10) and the villi height:crypt depth ratio was higher in duodenum and jejunum of pigs fed the HSaa diet (P < 0.05). Gene expression of transporter y+L in jejunum tended to be lower (P < 0.10) and transporter B0 in the ileum was lower (P < 0.05) in HSaa pigs. Preprandial (1700 hours) SC of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Thr, Trp, and Val was higher (P < 0.05), and Phe tended to be higher (P < 0.10) in HShp pigs. At 2030 hours (1.5 h postprandial), serum Lys, Met, and Thr were higher in the HSaa pigs (P < 0.05). At 2130 hours (2.5 h), Arg, His, Ile, Phe, and Trp were lower (P < 0.05); Met was higher (P < 0.05); and Lys tended to be higher (P < 0.10) in HSaa pigs. In conclusion, feeding HS pigs with low protein diets supplemented with free AA reduces the damage of the intestinal epithelia and seems to improve its absorption capacity, in comparison with HS pigs fed diets containing solely protein-bound AA. This information is useful to formulate diets that correct the reduced AA consumption associated with the decreased voluntary feed intake of pigs under HS.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Suínos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(5): 1459-1470, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002559

RESUMO

RATIONALE: What is the difference between aripiprazole and brexpiprazole? OBJECTIVES: This systematic review, network meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluated the efficacy and safety/tolerability of aripiprazole and brexpiprazole for treating acute schizophrenia. METHODS: We searched Scopus, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library from inception until May 22, 2019. The response rate was set as the primary outcome. Other outcomes were discontinuation rate and incidence of individual adverse events. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% credible interval (95%CrI) were calculated. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were identified (n = 3925). Response rates of both aripiprazole and brexpiprazole were superior to that of the placebo (RR [95%CrI]: aripiprazole = 0.84 [0.78, 0.92], brexpiprazole = 0.84 [0.77, 0.92]). Aripiprazole and brexpiprazole were associated with a lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation (0.80 [0.71, 0.89], 0.83 [0.72, 0.95]), adverse events (0.67 [0.47, 0.97], 0.64 [0.46, 0.94]), and inefficacy (0.56 [0.40, 0.77], 0.68 [0.48, 0.99]) compared with the placebo. Although brexpiprazole was associated with a lower incidence of schizophrenia as an adverse event compared with the placebo (0.57 [0.37, 0.85]), aripiprazole and brexpiprazole were associated with a higher incidence of weight gain compared with the placebo (2.12 [1.28, 3.68], 2.14 [1.35, 3.42]). No significant differences were found in other individual adverse events, such as somnolence, akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms, and dizziness between aripiprazole or brexpiprazole and placebo. Any outcome between aripiprazole and brexpiprazole were not different. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in short-term efficacy and safety for acute schizophrenia were not apparent between aripiprazole and brexpiprazole. Future studies are warranted to evaluate whether there are differences in the long-term outcome between treatments.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Aripiprazol/uso terapêutico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Acatisia Induzida por Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Aripiprazol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
20.
Metabolism ; 105: 154171, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on the metabolic effect of exogenous ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) on glucose metabolism, we tested whether IF1 treatment is effective in ameliorating weight gain and whether its effects are sex specific. METHODS: HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were treated with IF1 (5 mg/kg body weight, injected intraperitoneally). The underlying mechanisms of effect of IF1 on body weight were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Associations between genotypes of IF1 and obesity and relevant phenotype were further tested at the population level. RESULTS: Chronic treatment with IF1 significantly decreased body weight gain by regulating food intake of HFD-fed male mice. IF1 activated the AKT/mTORC pathway and modulated the expression of appetite genes in the hypothalamus of HFD-fed male mice and its effect was confirmed in hypothalamic cell lines as well as hypothalamic primary cells. This required the interaction of IF1 with ß-F1-ATPase on the plasma membrane of hypothalamic cells, which led to an increase in extracellular ATP production. In addition, IF1 treatment showed sympathetic nerve activation as measured by serum norepinephrine levels and UCP-1 expression in the subcutaneous fat of HFD-fed male mice. Notably, administration of recombinant IF1 to HFD-fed ovariectomized female mice showed remarkable reductions in food intake as well as body weight, which was not observed in wild-type 5-week female mice. Lastly, sex-specific genotype associations of IF1 with obesity prevalence and metabolic traits were demonstrated at the population level in humans. IF1 genetic variant (rs3767303) was significantly associated with lower prevalence of obesity and lower levels of body mass index, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c, and glucose response area only in male participants. CONCLUSION: IF1 is involved in weight regulation by controlling food intake and potentially sympathetic nerve activation in a sex-specific manner.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/farmacologia , Animais , Apetite/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ovariectomia , Prevalência , Caracteres Sexuais , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
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