Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.844
Filtrar
1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644641

RESUMO

In order to evaluate iron chelate in diets for sows during gestation and lactation and its effects on iron supplementation for piglets, a total of 50 pregnant sows in the third parity order were distributed according to a randomized block design with two treatments: diet without iron chelate supplementation (n=20); diet supplemented with 0.15% of iron chelate (n=30). The litters of sows were distributed into five different treatments: sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets without iron supplementation. No influence of dietary supplementation of iron chelate was verified on the productive parameters of the sows. For the piglets, iron-dextran supplementation promoted higher weaning weight in comparison to non-supplemented piglets, although not differing to those received oral iron supplementation. Thus, iron chelate supplementation did not improve the productive parameters of sows, but it increased iron excretion in the feces, thus requiring iron supplementation for the piglets after birth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Quelantes de Ferro/análise , Lactação , Gravidez
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(665): 1770-1774, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580022

RESUMO

Nowadays, new psychotropic treatments might result on rapid onset of weight gain also related to other factors such as individual vulnerability, poor diet and lack of exercise. Many studies have reported that weight gain is only the premise of a series of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular complications. In this context, we have established since June 2017 in an ambulatory centre in Geneva, a 4F program (Fit, Fun, Feel and Food), to optimize the measures and strategies needed to prevent and reduce weight gain in these patients. This transversal program is naturalistically and systematically centered on physical activity, healthy diet and improved body perception. We will show some preliminary results of 4F program.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício , Dieta Saudável , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Ganho de Peso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Imagem Corporal , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Suíça , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Nature ; 574(7776): 63-68, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554967

RESUMO

The gp130 receptor cytokines IL-6 and CNTF improve metabolic homeostasis but have limited therapeutic use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Accordingly, we engineered the gp130 ligand IC7Fc, in which one gp130-binding site is removed from IL-6 and replaced with the LIF-receptor-binding site from CNTF, fused with the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G, creating a cytokine with CNTF-like, but IL-6-receptor-dependent, signalling. Here we show that IC7Fc improves glucose tolerance and hyperglycaemia and prevents weight gain and liver steatosis in mice. In addition, IC7Fc either increases, or prevents the loss of, skeletal muscle mass by activation of the transcriptional regulator YAP1. In human-cell-based assays, and in non-human primates, IC7Fc treatment results in no signs of inflammation or immunogenicity. Thus, IC7Fc is a realistic next-generation biological agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and muscle atrophy, disorders that are currently pandemic.


Assuntos
Receptor gp130 de Citocina/metabolismo , Citocinas/síntese química , Citocinas/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Citocinas/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Desenho de Drogas , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Incretinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Receptores de Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10107-10115, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434473

RESUMO

We examined the antiobesity effect of a limonoid 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin, named CG-1, purified from the seeds of Carapa guianensis, Meliaceae, known as andiroba in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet or an HFD and orally administered CG-1 (20 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. CG-1 lowered the body weight gain and improved the serum triglyceride level and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. The expression level of the adipogenesis-related genes was lowered by CG-1 in the visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT). The mRNA expression level of the macrophage-related genes decreased in vWAT following the administration of CG-1 to HFD-fed mice. It is noteworthy that CG-1 activated the brown adipose tissue (BAT) with enhanced expression of uncoupling protein 1 and increased the rectal temperature in HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that the limonoid CG-1 decreased body weight gain and ameliorated hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance with the activation of BAT in HFD-fed mice.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Limoninas/administração & dosagem , Meliaceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 239, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics are important for pigs to enhance health and intestinal development, which are potential alternative to antibiotics. Many studies have reported the functions of single bacterial strain as probiotic on the animals. In this study, we evaluated effects of combined probiotics on growth performance, inflammation and intestinal microbiota in weaned pigs. One hundred and eight pigs, weaned at 28 day old (7.12 ± 0.08 kg), were randomly divided into the 3 dietary treatments with 6 pens and 6 pigs per pen (half male and half female). The experimental period lasted for 28 days and treatments were as follows: i. CONTROL: basal diet; ii. Antibiotic: the basal diet plus 75 mg· kg- 1 chlortetracycline; and iii. Probiotics: basal diet plus 4% compound probiotics. RESULTS: Supplementation probiotics improved average daily gain over the entire 28 days (P < 0.01) and feed efficiency in the last 14 days (P < 0.05) compared with the other two groups. Both probiotics and antibiotic supplementation decreased concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (P < 0.05) and interferon-γ (P < 0.01). Probiotics group had greater abundance of Lactobacillus in the caecal digesta and Firmicutes in the colonic digesta, while both probiotics and antibiotic supplementation inhibited Treponema_2 and Anaerovibrio in the caecal digesta. Caecal acetic and propionic acid (P < 0.05) of probiotics group were higher than the other two groups, whereas concentrations of colonic lactic acid and propionic acid (P < 0.05) of antibiotic group were lower than control and probiotics groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that combined supplementation of Lactobacillus fermentum and Pediococcus acidilactici regulate the gut health and improve the host ADG and F/G by decreasing serum pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IFN-γ), promoting beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus in the caecal digesta and Firmicutes in the colonic digesta), enhancing production of short chain fatty acids, and inhibiting pathogens (Treponema_2, Anaerovibrio in the caecal digesta).


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Animais , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 343, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coccidiosis represents a serious threat to the poultry industry, affecting production and causing high morbidity, mortality and significant costs resulting from treatment and prophylaxis. In-feed anticoccidials have been used for decades for managing avian coccidiosis and were very effective until drug resistance emerged. The use of natural remedies has become a promising alternative in combating coccidiosis in chickens. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficiency of a commercial herbal formula (H), as oral liquid preparations, in experimental chicken coccidiosis. METHODS: Two independent controlled battery experiments (BE1 and BE2) were designed and the product was tested in 3 different formulas (H1, H2 and H3): H1 contained a propylene glycol extract of Allium sativum and Thymus serpyllum; H2 contained Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis and Chelidonium majus; and H3 contained Allium sativum, Urtica dioica, Inula helenium, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Thymus serpyllum, Tanacetum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum. Chickens were divided into five groups for each BE as follows: (i) uninfected untreated control (UU1, UU2); (ii) infected untreated control (IU1, IU2); (iii) infected treated with amprolium (ITA1, ITA2); and (iv, v) two experimental groups infected treated with H1 (ITH1) and H2 (ITH2) formulas in the BE1 and with H3 (ITH3-5 and ITH3-10) formula in the BE2. The chickens from infected groups were challenged with 5000 (BE1) and 50,000 (BE2) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. (E. acervulina, E. tenella and E. maxima), respectively. The anticoccidial efficacy was assessed by recording the following: oocysts output (OPG), lesion score (LS), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and anticoccidial index (ACI). Additionally, polyphenolics and flavonoids (caffeic-chlorogenic acid, apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercitin, quercitrin) from herb extracts found in H3 formula were determined by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. RESULTS: H1 and H2 reduced the WG, and increased the FCR and OPG compared with controls. H1 reduced the duodenal lesions, whilst H2 reduced the caecal lesions, compared with control. H3 decreased the OPG of Eimeria spp., reduced the total lesion score and improved the zootechnical performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio). According to ACI value, H1 and H2 had no efficacy on Eimeria spp. infection, but H3 had good to marked anticoccidial effect, the ACI being slightly greater in the group ITH3-5. According to the results of LC-MS/MS, the concentration of polyphenols in H3 formula was the highest, the sum of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid being 914.9 µg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: H3 formula is a promising natural anticoccidial and field trials are recommended in order to validate the obtained data.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiostáticos/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
N Engl J Med ; 381(9): 816-826, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An efavirenz-based regimen (with a 600-mg dose of efavirenz, known as EFV600) was the World Health Organization preferred first-line treatment for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection until June 2018. Given concerns about side effects, dolutegravir-based and low-dose efavirenz-based combinations have been considered as first-line treatments for HIV-1 in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase 3 noninferiority trial in Cameroon. Adults with HIV-1 infection who had not received antiretroviral therapy and had an HIV-1 RNA level (viral load) of at least 1000 copies per milliliter were randomly assigned to receive either dolutegravir or the reference treatment of low-dose efavirenz (a 400-mg dose, known as EFV400), combined with tenofovir and lamivudine. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter at week 48, on the basis of the Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm. The difference between treatment groups was calculated, and noninferiority was tested with a margin of 10 percentage points. RESULTS: A total of 613 participants received at least one dose of the assigned regimen. At week 48, a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter was observed in 231 of 310 participants (74.5%) in the dolutegravir group and in 209 of 303 participants (69.0%) in the EFV400 group, with a difference of 5.5 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.6 to 12.7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Among those with a baseline viral load of at least 100,000 copies per milliliter, a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter was observed in 137 of 207 participants (66.2%) in the dolutegravir group and in 123 of 200 participants (61.5%) in the EFV400 group, with a difference of 4.7 percentage points (95% CI, -4.6 to 14.0). Virologic failure (a viral load of >1000 copies per milliliter) was observed in 3 participants in the dolutegravir group (with none acquiring drug-resistance mutations) and in 16 participants in the EFV400 group. More weight gain was observed in the dolutegravir group than in the EFV400 group (median weight gain, 5.0 kg vs. 3.0 kg; incidence of obesity, 12.3% vs. 5.4%). CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-1-infected adults in Cameroon, a dolutegravir-based regimen was noninferior to an EFV400-based reference regimen with regard to viral suppression at week 48. Among participants who had a viral load of at least 100,000 copies per milliliter when antiretroviral therapy was initiated, fewer participants than expected had viral suppression. (Funded by Unitaid and the French National Agency for AIDS Research; NAMSAL ANRS 12313 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02777229.).


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-1 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , RNA Viral/sangue , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(9): 777-794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242784

RESUMO

Introduction: The standard of treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder (BPD) often requires life-long psychopharmacological management. Several pharmacological agents are approved by the US FDA for the treatment of pediatric BPD. However, each medication may cause adverse events (AEs). Provider awareness of AE profiles of common pharmacologic agents would serve to better inform patients and families in evaluating and selecting between treatment options. Areas covered: This review focuses on medications that, in our clinical experience, are commonly prescribed for youth with BPD and were evaluated in prospective clinical trials for the treatment of pediatric BPD. This paper highlights acute and long-term AEs described in these studies. Expert opinion: Most medications increase risk of AEs in youth with BPD. Treatment with lithium may lead to thyrotropin elevations, but generally does not cause significant weight gain. Divalproex may lead to weight gain; however, this finding was not consistent in comparison studies with lithium. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, and asenapine are associated with metabolic abnormalities and weight gain. Studies of ziprasidone, aripiprazole and lurasidone do not suggest significant metabolic AEs. More studies are needed to assess efficacy and safety of medications in managing pediatric BPD. Special focus on long-term maintenance trials is required to further identify long-term AEs in this population.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(27): 7726-7737, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203627

RESUMO

Fructose as a daily sweetener is widely recognized as a risk catalyst for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of current study is to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism by which polyphenol-rich loquat fruit extract (LFP) prevents NAFLD in mice fed 30% fructose water (HF) for 8 weeks. Administration of LFP to HF-fed mice mitigated abnormal body weight, disordered lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation through a mechanism regulated by the AKT, ChREBP/SREBP-1c, Nrf2, and TLR4/MyD88/TRIF pathways. LFP caused a significant decrease in the endotoxin content (16.67-12.7 EU/mL) in the liver of HF-fed mice. LFP not only improved HF-induced breakage of the intestinal barrier via interacting with tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin), mucin, and immunoreaction in the colon but also maintained normal colonic Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios and the relative abundance of Veillonella in HF-fed mice. Our results suggest that LFP may serve as a nutritional agent for protecting liver in HF-fed mice.


Assuntos
Eriobotrya , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Frutas/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3390-3398, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162527

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that a corn-expressed phytase increases growth performance, bone measurements, and nutrient digestibility by young growing pigs, if added to diets that are deficient in Ca and P. In Exp. 1, 60 pigs (initial BW: 10.78 ± 0.67 kg) were randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments that included a positive control diet (PC; 0.70% total Ca and 0.60% total P) and a negative control diet (NC; 0.50% total Ca and 0.42% total P). Four additional diets were formulated by supplementing the NC diet with 250, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Diets were fed for 28 d and the individual BW of pigs on days 1 and 28 were recorded. Fecal samples were collected from days 25 to 27 to calculate apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca and P. On the last day of the experiment, all pigs were euthanized, and the left femur was removed and analyzed for ash, Ca, and P. Results indicated that growth performance, ATTD of Ca and P, and bone ash measurements were reduced (P < 0.05) in NC fed pigs compared with PC fed pigs. However, growth performance, ATTD of Ca and P, and bone ash measurements were improved (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) by including increasing concentrations of phytase to the NC diet. In Exp. 2, experimental procedures were similar to those used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight pigs (initial BW: 11.15 ± 0.85 kg) were randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments in a 28-d experiment. Treatments included a PC diet, an NC diet, and 4 diets in which 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg of either the corn-expressed phytase or a commercial microbial phytase were added to the NC diet. Pigs fed the NC diet had reduced (P < 0.01) final BW, ADG, G:F, and bone ash concentrations compared with pigs fed the PC diet. When 500 FTU/kg phytase was fed, no differences were observed in growth performance or bone ash measurements between phytase sources, and there were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed 1,000 FTU/kg of either phytase source or the PC diet. However, regardless of concentration or source of phytase, pigs fed the PC diet had greater (P < 0.001) amount of bone ash, bone Ca, and bone P compared with pigs fed phytase diets. In conclusion, the corn-expressed phytase is effective in improving growth performance, Ca and P digestibility, and bone measurements in pigs fed diets that are deficient in Ca and P.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/farmacologia , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Zea mays/enzimologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/farmacologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/genética
13.
Chemosphere ; 233: 174-182, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173955

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests environmental contaminant exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity. It has been shown that early life polybrominated diphenyl ethers exposures have critical impacts on child weight trajectories, however, little is known about their maternal mechanisms responsible for offspring obesity development. In this study, we investigated the effects of perigestational low-dose 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) exposure on maternal metabolome, and its possible link to adult offspring bodyweight changes. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to daily doses of 0.1, or 1 mg/kg BDE-47 from 10 days prior to conception until offspring were weaned on postnatal day 21, and then a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics analysis was used to uncover the global metabolic response in dams. The pups continued to grow into adulthood for measurements of bodyweight. Perigestational BDE-47 exposure caused increased adult bodyweight in male but not in female offspring and dams. Metabolomics revealed significant changes in maternal serum metabolites that clearly distinguish BDE-47 from control rats. These differentially expressed metabolites were primarily implicated in amino acid, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy metabolisms, which was confirmed by pathway analysis. Importantly, most of these identified metabolites were decreased, a state similar to maternal malnutrition that can predispose adult male offspring to weight increase and adiposity in a postnatal environment with abundant calories. Collectively, our data suggest that perigestational exposure to low-dose BDE-47 produces altered maternal serum metabolome, which may be an additional contributing factor to weight gain in adult male offspring.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/administração & dosagem , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 112, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics, also known as second-generation antipsychotics, are commonly prescribed as treatment for psychotic disorders in adults, as well as in children and adolescents with behavioral problems. However, in many cases, second-generation antipsychotics have unwanted side effects, such as weight gain, potentially further increasing risk for morbidities including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. While various mechanisms for this weight gain have been proposed, including effects on metabolic hormone signaling, recent evidence points to the importance of the gut microbiome in this process. The microbial communities residing within the gut are affected by second-generation antipsychotics and can confer weight gain. MAIN TEXT: This review summarizes recent findings and presents data linking second-generation antipsychotics, gut microbiota alterations and weight gain. The review focuses on children and adolescent populations, which have not previously received much attention, but are of great interest because they may be most vulnerable to gut microbiome changes and may carry long-term metabolic effects into adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: We present correlations between second-generation antipsychotics, gut microbiota alterations and weight gain, and suggest some mechanisms that may link them. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may lead to the design of improved treatments for psychotic disorders with fewer harmful side effects.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/patologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3426-3439, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233597

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum addition to diets in late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance and gut microbiota for sows. A total of 180 healthy Landrace × Yorkshire sows at 90 d of gestation were randomly assigned to one of four groups, with 45 replicates per group, receiving a basal commercial diet (Control, 0% C. butyricum) or diet added with 0.1% C. butyricum (1 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), 0.2% C. butyricum (2 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), 0.4% C. butyricum (4 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), respectively. The experiment was conducted from 90 d of gestation to weaning at 21 d of lactation. The results showed that the interval between piglet born was linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, and the duration of farrowing was significantly (quadratic, P < 0.05) shortened as C. butyricum addition increased. There was a linear (P < 0.05) increase in litter weight at weaning and litter weight gain. The concentrations of IgG and IgM in colostrum, and IgM in milk were linearly increased (P < 0.05) as C. butyricum addition. Serum MDA concentrations of sows at parturition and 14 d in lactation, and piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, respectively. The serum total antioxidant capacity concentrations of sows at parturition and 14 and 21 d in lactation, and piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were linearly (P < 0.05) increased as C. butyricum addition, respectively. There was a linear decrease in the serum endotoxin concentration of sows on 21 d in lactation (P < 0.05). The serum cortisol concentrations of piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were both significantly (quadratic, P < 0.05) decreased. The 0.2% C. butyricum increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.016) at phylum level, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Prevotella_1, Prevotellaceae_UCG-003, Prevotella_9, Alloprevotella (P < 0.05) at genus level, and decreased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria (P < 0.001) at phylum level, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Streptococcus, Escheruchia-Shigella, Sphingomonas, Succinivibrio (P < 0.05) at genus level and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.020). In conclusion, the present research indicated that dietary addition with C. butyricum could shorten the duration of farrowing and enhance the growth performance of suckling piglets. Moreover, 0.2% C. butyricum administration to sows changed the composition of intestinal microbiota, especially increased the relative abundance of Prevotella.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Clostridium butyricum/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Reprodução , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Colostro/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactação , Leite/imunologia , Parto , Gravidez , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151157

RESUMO

Thioacetamide (TAA) is known to induce lipid accumulation in the liver. In the present study, we investigated the effects of magma seawater (MS) rich in minerals on hepatic lipid metabolism by evaluating lipogenic enzymes regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Rats (n = 10 per group) were intraperitoneally injected with TAA (200 mg/kg bw) thrice a week for seven weeks in combination with a respective experimental diet. Rats in the TAA-treated group received either a chow diet (Control group) or a chow diet containing MS (TMS group, 2.05%) or silymarin (TSM group, 0.05%). Rats in the normal group were injected with PBS as a vehicle and received a chow diet. Rats in the TMS group showed significantly lower hepatic lipid concentrations than rats in the control group (p < 0.05). Hepatic protein expression levels of fatty acid synthase, SREBP-1, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, and SREBP-2 were significantly downregulated in the TMS group, whereas carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 levels were upregulated (p < 0.05). Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were lower in the TMS group, whereas protein levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase were elevated (p < 0.05). The effects of MS were comparable to those of silymarin. Our results evidently showed that MS inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressing lipid synthesis, accompanied by lipid oxidation and elevation of antioxidative status.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado , Minerais/farmacologia , Água do Mar/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta , Fígado/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Aust Vet J ; 97(6): 185-190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the impact of a single drench with a label dose of injectable doramectin subsequent to weaning on the growth and performance of heifers and steers in central Queensland beef herds. METHODS: Three studies were undertaken on recently-weaned Bos indicus-cross beef calves with ≥ 75% B. indicus content on two farms in central Queensland, just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Farm 1 was located 50 km north and Farm 2 75 km north-west of Rockhampton. In each study, half of a group of recently-weaned beef calves were treated by random allocation with 0.2 mg/kg of injectable doramectin, and the remainder acting as untreated controls. Study 1 (Farm 1) enrolled 250 heifers, while studies 2 and 3 (Farm 2) both enrolled 200 steers and 200 heifers. The farms involved did not historically use macrocyclic lactone-based drenches on their cattle. There were varying periods of follow-up, with treated and control cattle pastured as one group throughout the study period. Worm burdens were monitored using standard faecal egg counts and larval differentiation procedures. In all studies, the worm genera present were a mix of Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. RESULTS: In study 1, conducted on Farm 1 beginning 9 July 2012, doramectin-treated cattle gained an average of 0.27 kg/day while control cattle gained 0.19 kg/day over a monitoring period of 121 days (P < 0.0001). In study 2, conducted on Farm 2 beginning 28 July 2015, doramectin-treated cattle gained an average of 0.15 kg/day versus 0.145 kg/day in the control group (P = 0.44) over a 231-day study period. In study 3, conducted on Farm 2 beginning 4 August 2016, doramectin-treated steers and heifers gained an average of 0.431 and 0.402 kg/day versus 0.342 and 0.311 kg/day in the control group, respectively, over the first 91 days of the study (P < 0.0001 in both cases). The differences in average daily gain (ADG) in subsequent time periods were not statistically significant for steers or heifers. However, overall differences in ADG from day 0 remained statistically significant out to day 258, when the study ended for the heifers. By day 594, when the study ended for the steers, the difference in ADG was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Treatment with injectable doramectin soon after weaning resulted in improved weight gain in the 3 months after weaning in two of the three studies.


Assuntos
Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Queensland , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(2): 131-142, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055768

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the effects of probiotic, acidifier and synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, mortality rate, intestinal gene expressions, fecal shedding, and organs colonization induced by Escherichia coli in broiler chickens. Six experimental groups were included; negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), probiotic group (PR), acidifier group (AC), synbiotic group (SY) and colistin sulfate group (CS). Chickens in groups NC and PC were fed a basal diet, while chickens in groups PR, AC, SY, and CS were fed a basal diet containing probiotic, acidifier, synbiotic and colistin sulfate, respectively from the 1st day to the 28th day of age. At 7 days of age, all groups (not NC) were orally challenged with 0.5 ml (1.0 × 109 CFU/ml) E. coli O78. The dietary supplementation of acidifier and synbiotic were sufficient to quell the devastating effects of E. coli infection in broilers. Growth performances represented by body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved as well as, mortalities were prevented whilst the ileal pro-inflammatory gene expressions (IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, TLR-4, IFN-γ, LITAF, AvBD-2, and AvBD-9) were significantly downregulated and the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was significantly increased. In addition, E. coli fecal shedding and organs colonization was significantly diminished. It was concluded that the addition of both acidifier and synbiotic to the diet of broilers infected with E. coli could modulate the intestinal inflammatory responses induced by E. coli infection and minimized the inflammation-induced damage which resulted in improvement in growth performance, prevention of mortalities and reduction of E. coli environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Colistina/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Simbióticos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(6): 455-463, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072228

RESUMO

Introduction: Safety and tolerability of medications are key variables to inform treatment choice for patients with bipolar disorder (BD). This review focuses on the overall tolerability and safety profile of aripiprazole when used for its bipolar disorder indications, which include acute treatment of manic and mixed episodes and maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder for the oral formulation, agitation associated with bipolar mania for the injectable immediate-release formulation, and maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder for the long acting once-monthly (AOM) formulation. Areas covered: The authors reviewed aripiprazole safety in bipolar disorder according to product labeling. English language reports located through PubMed and information available on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) websites, with a focus on the safety and tolerability of aripiprazole, were reviewed. Expert opinion: Compared to many other antipsychotics, aripiprazole has a relatively favorable tolerability profile, with a lower risk for weight gain, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hyperprolactinemia. Compared to first-generation antipsychotics, and similar to most second-generation antipsychotics, aripiprazole has a reduced propensity for extrapyramidal side effects and a better cardiovascular safety.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Aripiprazol/administração & dosagem , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Aripiprazol/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 269: 57-64, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079829

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effect of non-GMO Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) with that of a halofuginone treatment against Cryptosporidium parvum infection in pre-weaned calves on a commercial dairy farm. A total of 123 neonatal female calves, housed in individual hutches, were enrolled sequentially based on date of birth in 41 blocks of 3 animals each. Calves within each block were allocated to one of 3 treatments: remaining untreated, fed with SCFP (Diamond V SmartCare® at 1 g/d in milk and NutriTek® at 5 g/d in starter grain) for the first 63 days of life, or treated with halofuginone (0.1 mg/kg/d) for the first 7 days of life. Fecal samples collected on days 4-21 post-partum were examined for both Cryptosporidium oocysts and coproantigen. The presence and intensity of diarrhea were monitored by scoring daily for the first 4 weeks of life. Calves were weighed at 0, 21, 42 and 63 days of age. Almost all calves were Cryptosporidium-positive at least once during the study. Halofuginone significantly reduced the number of Cryptosporidium-positive fecal samples as compared to the two other groups. Based on the coproantigen scores, both halofuginone and SCFP feeding significantly reduced the intensity of Cryptosporidium infection as compared to the untreated group. Diarrhea was recorded in almost all calves at least once. Neither the proportion of diarrheic calves nor the intensity and duration of diarrhea differed among the 3 treatment groups significantly. The mean daily weight gain during the first 3 weeks of life was significantly lower in halofuginone treated calves than in both other groups; however, at the end of the study period the total weight gain did not significantly differ among the 3 treatment groups. In conclusion, the clinical results and weight gains of pre-weaning supplementation with the SCFP were neither better nor worse than the 7-day halofuginone treatment suggesting that the SCFP feeding may be from the clinical point of view a natural alternative measure, instead of halofuginone treatment, in bovine cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos de Coortes , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Estudos Longitudinais , Oocistos , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA