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1.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 584-588, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193867

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: to avoid rapid body mass fluctuations and the associated effects on health and performance, some combat sports federations have made changes to regulations. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the Rapid Weight Gain on sporting success in elite Olympic wrestling athletes under the new weigh-in procedure. METHODS: the body mass of 75 athletes was recorded during the Pan-American Olympic wrestling Championship (Lima, 2018), corresponding to 29 % of the total universe of competitors (n = 255). Of these, 29 were Greco-Roman style, eight freestyle, and 38 women's wrestling. The official weigh-in was carried out between 8:00 and 8:30 hours. As for the second weigh-in, this was done with the same official weigh-in scale, immediately before the first match (between 10:00 and 11:00 hours). Rapid Weight Gain after weigh-in was compared between medalist and non-medalist athletes. RESULTS: when analyzing the difference between medalists and non-medalists, no significant differences were found in Greco-Roman athletes (t = 0.114; p = 0.910; r = 0.022), in freestyle (Mann-Whitney U = 5,500; p = 0.486; r = 0.000), in women's wrestling (Mann-Whitney U = 163.0; p = 0.774; r = 0.124), and in all competitors (Mann-Whitney U = 641.5; p = 0.855; r = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: no significant differences were found between medalist and non-medalist athletes in any of the Olympic wrestling styles


INTRODUCCIÓN: para evitar fluctuaciones rápidas del peso corporal y los efectos asociados sobre la salud y rendimiento, algunas federaciones de deportes de combate han realizado cambios de reglamento. OBJETIVO: el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el impacto de la ganancia rápida de peso en el éxito deportivo en atletas de élite de la lucha olímpica bajo la nueva modalidad de pesaje. MÉTODOS: se registró el peso corporal de 75 atletas durante el Campeonato Panamericano de Lucha Olímpica (Lima, 2018), correspondiente al 29 % del universo total de competidores (n = 255). De estos, 29 fueron de estilo grecorromano; 8, de estilo libre y 38, de lucha libre femenina. El pesaje oficial se realizó entre las 8:00 y las 8:30 horas. En cuanto al segundo pesaje, se hizo con la misma balanza oficial inmediatamente antes de la primera lucha (entre las 10:00 y las 11:00 horas). La ganancia de peso rápida después del pesaje se comparó entre atletas medallistas y no medallistas. RESULTADOS: al analizar la diferencia entre medallistas y no medallistas, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en los atletas de grecorromana (t = 0,114; p = 0,910; r = 0,022), en los de estilo libre (Mann-Whitney U = 5,500; p = 0,486; r = 0,000), en los de lucha libre femenina (Mann-Whitney U = 163,0; p = 0,774; r = 0,124) ni en todos los competidores (Mann -Whitney U = 641,5; p = 0,855; r = 0,037). CONCLUSIONES: no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre atletas medallistas y no medallistas en ninguno de los estilos de lucha olímpica


Assuntos
Humanos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Atletas , Luta Romana/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Peru , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Índice de Massa Corporal
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233416, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with large for gestational age (LGA) while considering key sociodemographic and clinical confounding factors. SETTING AND PATIENT: All singleton infants whose parents were living in the city of Marseilles, France, between 2013 and 2016. METHOD: Population-based study based on new-born hospital birth admission charts from the French National Uniform Hospital Discharge Data Set Database. LGA infants were compared to appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Multiple generalized logistic model analysis was used to examine factors associated with LGA. RESULTS: A total of 43,309 singleton infants were included, and 4,747 (11%) were born LGA. LGA infants were more likely to have metabolic and respiratory diseases and to be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Multiparity, advanced maternal age, obesity and diabetes were associated with an increased risk of LGA. Lower neighbourhood SES was associated with LGA (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.14; 1.36; p<0.0001) independent of age, diabetes, obesity, maternal smoking and multiparity. The strength of this association increased with maternal age, reaching an aOR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.26; 1.78; p<0.0001) for women > 35 years old. CONCLUSION: Neighbourhood SES could be considered an important factor for clinicians to better identify mothers at risk of having LGA births in addition to well-known risk factors such as maternal diabetes, obesity and age. The intensification of the association between SES and LGA with increasing maternal age suggests that neighbourhood disadvantage may act on LGA cumulatively over time.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/economia , França , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade/complicações , Paridade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233926, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492042

RESUMO

This study evaluated 53 primiparous cows (36.8±1.23 months old and 484±40.9 kg of body weight) performance tested (GrowSafe® System) from 22±5 to 190±13 days of lactation in order to obtain daily dry matter intake (DMI). The animals received a high-forage diet (forage-to-concentrate ratio of 90:10). Milk production of the cows was evaluated three times by mechanical milking and the energy-corrected milk yield (ECMY) was calculated. Energy status (through the indicators glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and ß-hydroxybutyrate), protein status (indicators albumin, urea, and creatinine), mineral status (indicators calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium), and hormonal status (indicators insulin and cortisol) were estimated four times throughout lactation. The residual feed intake (RFI) of cows was calculated considering DMI, average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic weight (BW0.75) obtained in early lactation (from 22±5 to 102±7 days), and the animals were classified as negative (most efficient) or positive RFI (least efficient). The RFI model explained 53% of the variation in DMI. The mean DMI, ADG, ECMY, and calf weight as a percentage of cow weight were 12.47±2.70 kg DM/day, 0.632±0.323 kg/day, 10.47±3.23 kg/day, and 36.6±5.39%, respectively. Negative RFI cows consumed 11.5% less DM than positive RFI cows, with performance and metabolic profile being similar to those of positive RFI cows, except for a lower milk protein content and higher blood cholesterol concentration. In conclusion, negative (most efficient) and positive RFI (least efficient) Nellore cows, fed an ad libitum high-forage diet, produced similar amounts of milk, fat and lactose and had similar subcutaneous fat thickness, weight, calf weight as a percentage of cow weight, and blood metabolite concentrations (except for cholesterol). Therefore, there are economic benefits to utilizing RFI in a cow herd since cattle had decreased DMI with similar overall performance, making them more profitable due to lower input costs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20181058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491133

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two sub-periods of the calving season and two cow maturity stages on the efficiency of beef cows and their calves. A total of 159 cow-calf pairs were divided by calving time (early or late) within the calving season and maturity stage (young or adult). Calves were weaned at 42 or 63 days after birth and evaluated until 210 days of age. Cows and calves had their development examined based on their weight and body condition score at calving, at weaning, and at 210 days. Reproductive performance was evaluated on the basis of time to become pregnant again. Milk yield was assessed by the direct method on three occasions spaced 21 days apart. Adult cows were heavier than young cows, at calving (398.5 vs 327.5 kg, respectively), weaning (397.3 vs 324.1 kg, respectively) at the end breeding season (424.1 vs 342.1 kg, respectively). Reproductive performance was influenced by calving time. Adult cows had higher pregnancy rates (83.75 and 69.17%, for early and for late calving, respectively) than young cows (57.03 and 35.01% for early and for late-calving, respectively). Calves from early-calving young cows weighed 158.8 kg at 210 days of age vs. 123.7 kg for those born from late-calving adult cows. However, late-calving cows produced 10.7% more milk than those that calved early in the season (227.0 vs 205.0 liters, respectively). Early calving associated with non-requirement of growth determine higher productivity efficiency in beef cows.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Carne Vermelha , Estações do Ano
5.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 33(1): e1488, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is defined by the abnormal presence of gastric content in the esophagus, with 10% incidence in the Western population, being fundoplication one treatment option. AIM: To evaluate the early (six months) and late (15 years) effectiveness of laparoscopic fundoplication, the long term postoperative weight changes, as well as the impact of weight gain in symptoms control. METHODS: Prospective study of 40 subjects who underwent laparoscopic Nissen's fundoplication. Preoperatively and early postoperatively, clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, manometric and pHmetric evaluations were carried out. After 15 years, clinical and endoscopic assessments were carried out and the results compared with the early ones. The presence or absence of obesity was stratified in both early and late phases, and its influence in the long-term results of fundoplication was studied, measuring quality of life according to the Visick criteria. RESULTS: The mean preoperative ages, weight, and body mass index were respectively, 51 years, 69.67 kg and 25.68 kg/m2. The intraoperative and postoperative complications rates were 12.5% and 15%, without mortality. In the early postoperative period the symptoms were well controlled, hernias and esophagitis disappeared, the lower esophageal sphincter had functional improvement, and pHmetry parameters normalized. In the late follow-up 29 subjects were assessed. During this period there was adequate clinical control of reflux regardless of weight gain. In both time periods Visick criteria improved. CONCLUSION: Fundoplication was safe and effective in early and late periods. There was late weight gain, which did not influence effective symptoms control.


Assuntos
Fundoplicatura/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundoplicatura/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technological advances in remote monitoring offer new opportunities to quantify body weight patterns in free-living populations. This paper describes body weight fluctuation patterns in response to weekly, holiday (Christmas) and seasonal time periods in a large group of individuals engaged in a weight loss maintenance intervention. METHODS: Data was collected as part The NoHoW Project which was a pan-European weight loss maintenance trial. Three eligible groups were defined for weekly, holiday and seasonal analyses, resulting in inclusion of 1,421, 1,062 and 1,242 participants, respectively. Relative weight patterns were modelled on a time series following removal of trends and grouped by gender, country, BMI and age. RESULTS: Within-week fluctuations of 0.35% were observed, characterised by weekend weight gain and weekday reduction which differed between all groups. Over the Christmas period, weight increased by a mean 1.35% and was not fully compensated for in following months, with some differences between countries observed. Seasonal patterns were primarily characterised by the effect of Christmas weight gain and generally not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence may improve current understanding of regular body weight fluctuation patterns and help target future weight management interventions towards periods, and in groups, where weight gain is anticipated.


Assuntos
Férias e Feriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estações do Ano
7.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101168, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Weight gain is the main criterion for hospital discharge. This study measured the effectiveness of treating preterm neonates with massage therapy. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Web of Science, Ovid-Medline, CINAHL, ProQuest, and PubMed (up to July 24, 2018). STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials involving preterm infants with very-low-birth weight or low-birth-weight that examined the effect of massage therapy, and at least one outcome assessing infants' weight change or weight gain. RESULTS: Pooled effect estimate from 15 trials with 697 participants showed that massage therapy improved daily weight gain by 5.07 g/day (95% CI 2.19-7.94, p = 0.0005). More benefits were observed when preterm neonates received moderate pressure massage (5.60 g/day, 95% CI 2.64-8.56, p = 0.0002) than when receiving light-pressure therapy (1.08 g/day, 95% CI 0.29-1.86, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy is beneficial for preterm infant weight gain.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Massagem/métodos , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 17, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human obesity is linked with systemic inflammation. However, it is still controversial if equines produce more inflammatory cytokines with increasing body weight and if the production of those show breed type specific patterns. The main objective of this study was to determine if diet induced obesity is associated with increased inflammatory signatures in adipose tissue of equines and if a breed predisposition exists between ponies and horses. Additionally, we aimed to identify adipose tissue depot differences in inflammatory cytokine expression. Nineteen healthy, non-overweight and metabolically healthy equines received a hypercaloric diet for 2 years. Body weight, body condition score and cresty neck score were assessed weekly throughout the study. At three time points, insulin sensitivity was determined by a combined glucose-insulin test. Adipose tissue samples were collected from two intra-abdominal and two subcutaneous depots under general anesthesia at each time point after an endotoxin trigger. In the adipose tissue samples levels of CD68 mRNA (a marker of macrophage infiltration) and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα) were analyzed with RT-qPCR. As markers of lipid metabolism mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were determined with RT-qPCR. RESULTS: CD68 mRNA levels increased with body weight gain in several adipose tissue (AT) depots (Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni correction; retroperitoneal AT horses: P = 0.023, mesocolonial AT horses: P = 0.023, subcutaneous tail head AT ponies: P = 0.015). In both abdominal depots CD68 mRNA levels were higher than in subcutaneous adipose tissue depots (Kruskal-Wallis-ANOVA with Bonferroni correction: P < 0.05). No breed related differences were found. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα levels were higher in subcutaneous depots compared to abdominal depots after body weight gain. IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα mRNA levels of mesocolon adipose tissue were higher in obese horses compared to obese ponies (Mann-Whitney-U test; IL-1ß: P = 0.006; IL-6: P = 0.003; TNFα: P = 0.049). In general, horses had higher FABP4 and LPL mRNA levels compared to ponies in neck AT and tail AT at all time points. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest an increased invasion of macrophages in intra-abdominal adipose tissue with increasing body weight gain in equines in combination with a low dose endotoxin stimulus. This might predispose equines to obesity related comorbidities. In obese horses mesocolon adipose tissue showed higher inflammatory cytokine expression compared to obese ponies. Additionally, subcutaneous adipose tissue expressed more pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Horses had higher FABP4 and LPL mRNA levels in selected AT depots which may indicate a higher fat storage capacity than in ponies. The differences in lipid storage might be associated with a higher susceptibility to obesity-related comorbidities in ponies in comparison to horses.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavalos/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Obesidade/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(5): 902-906, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether baseline (pre-weight loss) metabolic variables can predict weight regain. METHODS: About 117 women with overweight completed a weight loss program to achieve BMI < 25 kg/m2 and were followed for 2 years. Resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, insulin sensitivity, and serum leptin concentration were measured pre-weight loss, while on energy balance, and as predictors of weight regain at 1 and 2 years. Rate and amount of weight loss also were examined as predictors, as these outcomes may reflect metabolic phenotype. RESULTS: Average weight loss was 12 (SD 2.5) kg, and regain was 48% (SD 35%) and 80% (SD 52%) at 1 and 2 years, respectively. In regression modeling, metabolic variables (both pre-weight loss and changes with weight loss) did not predict weight regain. However, initial weight loss and time to achieve BMI < 25 were significant predictors of weight regain at 1 and 2 years, even after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline (pre-weight loss) resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, insulin sensitivity, and leptin did not predict weight regain. However, a larger and faster weight loss was associated with a lower weight regain. Understanding the mechanisms behind interindividual variation in magnitude and rate of weight loss is needed to ensure better weight loss maintenance.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto Jovem
10.
Stroke ; 51(5): 1435-1441, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268850

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The importance of weight change for the risk of stroke is not well known. We examined the associations between early- and mid-life weight change and risks of stroke and death during long-term follow-up of healthy men. Methods- We recruited healthy men aged between 40 and 59 years and performed a cardiovascular examination at baseline and again at 7 years. We collected data on weight change since the age of 25 (early-life weight change) and measured weight change from baseline to the visit at 7 years (mid-life weight change). For both weight change periods, participants were divided into the following categories: weight loss, weight gain 0 to 4.9 kg, weight gain 5 to 9.9 kg, and weight gain ≥10 kg. Data on stroke and death were collected up to 35 years, from study visits, hospital records, and the National Cause of Death Registry. We used Cox regression to analyze the associations between weight change during early-life and mid-life and risks of stroke and death. Results- Of the 2014 participants, 2014 (100%) had data on early-life weight change and were followed for a median of 30.1 years, while 1403 had data on mid-life weight change and were followed for a median of 24.6 years. During early-life, compared with those who had weight gain 0 to 4.9 kg, hazard ratio for stroke was 1.46 (95% CI, 1.09-1.95) among those with weight gain 5 to 9.9 kg, 1.39 (95% CI, 1.03-1.87) for those with weight gain ≥10 kg, and 1.46 (95% CI, 0.99-2.11) among those with weight loss. For all-cause death, the hazard ratios were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.92-1.23), 1.14 (95% CI, 0.98-1.33), and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.06-1.56), respectively. During mid-life, there were no significant differences in risk of stroke or death between the groups. Conclusions- Weight increase during early-life, but not mid-life, seems to be associated with increased long-term risk of stroke in healthy men. If these findings can be confirmed, efforts to prevent weight increase should target the younger population.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315336

RESUMO

Early detection of obesity-related glomerulopathy in humans is challenging as it might not be detected by routine biomarkers of kidney function. This study's aim was to use novel kidney biomarkers and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to evaluate the effect of obesity development and weight-loss on kidney function, perfusion, and injury in dogs. Sixteen healthy lean adult beagles were assigned randomly but age-matched to a control group (CG) (n = 8) fed to maintain a lean body weight (BW) for 83 weeks; or to a weight-change group (WCG) (n = 8) fed the same diet to induce obesity (week 0-47), to maintain stable obese weight (week 47-56) and to lose BW (week 56-83). At 8 time points, values of systolic blood pressure (sBP); serum creatinine (sCr); blood urea nitrogen (BUN); serum cystatin C (sCysC); urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC); and urinary biomarkers of glomerular and tubular injury were measured. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal perfusion using CEUS were assayed (except for week 68). For CEUS, intensity- and time-related parameters representing blood volume and velocity were derived from imaging data, respectively. At 12-22% weight-gain, cortical time-to-peak, representing blood velocity, was shorter in the WCG vs. the CG. After 37% weight-gain, sCysC, UPC, glomerular and tubular biomarkers of injury, urinary immunoglobulin G and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, respectively, were higher in the WCG. sBP, sCr, BUN and GFR were not significantly different. After 23% weight-loss, all alterations were attenuated. Early weight-gain in dogs induced renal perfusion changes measured with CEUS, without hyperfiltration, preceding increased urinary protein excretion with potential glomerular and tubular injury. The combined use of routine biomarkers of kidney function, CEUS and site-specific urinary biomarkers might be valuable in assessing kidney health of individuals at risk for obesity-related glomerulopathy in a non-invasive manner.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/urina , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Creatinina/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glomerulonefrite/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/urina , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glomérulos Renais/lesões , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Túbulos Renais/lesões , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Sistema Urinário/metabolismo , Sistema Urinário/patologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/genética , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(6): 1086-1097, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Weight regain after weight loss is common, and there is evidence to suggest negative effects on health because of weight cycling. This study sought to investigate the impact of weight regain in formerly obese mice on adipose tissue architecture and stromal cell function. METHODS: A diet-switch model was employed for obesity induction, weight loss, and weight regain in mice. Flow cytometry quantified adipose tissue leukocytes in adipose tissue. Liver and adipose tissue depots were compared to determine tissue-specific effects of weight cycling. RESULTS: Epididymal white adipose tissue of formerly obese mice failed to expand in response to repeat exposure to high-fat diet and retained elevated numbers of macrophages and T cells. Weight regain was associated with disproportionally elevated liver mass, hepatic triglyceride content, serum insulin concentration, and serum transaminase concentration. These effects occurred despite an extended 6-month weight loss cycle and they demonstrate that formerly obese mice maintain durable alterations in their physiological response to weight regain. Conditioned media from epididymal adipose tissue of formerly obese mice inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, suggesting a potential mechanism to explain failed epididymal adipose tissue expansion during weight regain. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic abnormalities related to defects in adipose tissue expansion and ongoing dysfunction manifest in formerly obese mice during weight regain.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos
15.
Neuron ; 106(6): 1009-1025.e10, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302532

RESUMO

Calorie-rich diets induce hyperphagia and promote obesity, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We find that short-term high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding of mice activates prepronociceptin (PNOC)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). PNOCARC neurons represent a previously unrecognized GABAergic population of ARC neurons distinct from well-defined feeding regulatory AgRP or POMC neurons. PNOCARC neurons arborize densely in the ARC and provide inhibitory synaptic input to nearby anorexigenic POMC neurons. Optogenetic activation of PNOCARC neurons in the ARC and their projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis promotes feeding. Selective ablation of these cells promotes the activation of POMC neurons upon HFD exposure, reduces feeding, and protects from obesity, but it does not affect food intake or body weight under normal chow consumption. We characterize PNOCARC neurons as a novel ARC neuron population activated upon palatable food consumption to promote hyperphagia.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Hiperfagia , Obesidade , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/citologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Optogenética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia
16.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(5): 851-856, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While changes in diet often result in short-term weight loss, weight loss is not typically maintained. It remains unclear why long-term weight loss is so difficult. It was hypothesized that obesity produces persistent changes in behavior that bias animals toward weight regain after weight loss. METHODS: Mice were induced to gain weight with a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then induced to lose this weight with a low-fat diet for 7 subsequent weeks. A control group was maintained on the low-fat diet for all 13 weeks. Activity was measured continuously with home cage activity monitors for the entire experiment. Motivation for sweetened food pellets was tested following weight loss. A separate group of mice was reexposed to a high-fat diet following 2, 4, or 8 weeks of withdrawal to assess the rate of weight regain. RESULTS: Activity levels decreased as animals gained weight and partially recovered following weight loss. Motivation for sucrose pellets was persistently heightened after weight loss. Consistent with these behavioral changes, mice also regained weight at a faster rate when reexposed to a high-fat diet after a period of weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss after obesity was associated with increased motivation for palatable food and an increased rate of weight regain.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Motivação
17.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(5): 474-481, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196904

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the association between weight change and mortality in Korean older adults. METHODS: We collected data pertaining to National Screening Program participants aged ≥65 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation records during 2005-2011. To this data, we included mortality data, such as the date of death, of these patients (up to and including 2017) from Statistics Korea. We defined weight change as a difference in bodyweight measured in the National Screening Program over a period of 4 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between weight change and mortality. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1 100 256 participants, and a total of 46 415 deaths were observed during a mean follow-up period of 3.2 ± 0.8 years (maximum 5.0 years). For 3 531 585 person-year follow up, the mortality rate for stable weight was 10.79 per 1000 person-years (PY). Weight loss increased the mortality rate by 68%, whereas weight gain increased the rate by 10% compared with stable weight (weight loss: mortality rate 20.28 per 1000 PY, adjusted hazard ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.65-1.72; weight gain: mortality rate 12.86 per 1000 PY, adjusted hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.13). However, in subgroup analysis, for participants who were underweight at baseline, current cigarette smokers or heavy alcohol drinkers, weight gain did not increase the mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: In Korean older adults, regardless of the risk factors, both weight loss and weight gain increased the mortality rate compared with stable weight. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 474-481.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(3): 521-528, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize young adults who experienced significant weight gains (> 10%) over 3 years in a weight gain prevention program. METHODS: Secondary data analysis from the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP), a randomized trial comparing two self-regulation interventions and a control arm in young adults (18-35 years; BMI 21-30.9 kg/m2 ), was used. Large Gainers (≥ 10% of their body weight; n = 48), Small Gainers (2.6%-9.9%; n = 149), and Weight Stable participants (± 2.5%; n = 143) were compared on dimensions affecting weight gain. RESULTS: Differences in weight gain among the three groups were significant by year 1 and subsequently increased. Those who became Large Gainers were heavier at baseline and further below their highest weight, and they reported more weight cycling than Weight Stable, with Small Gainers intermediate. Neither study arm nor pregnancy explained weight change differences among the three groups. Large Gainers reported more depressive symptoms than Weight Stable at years 1 and 2. Large Gainers were less likely to weigh themselves at least weekly at 4 months, before differences in weight gain emerged, and at years 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: Large Gainers (representing almost 10% of participants) could be identified early by greater weight issues at baseline and lower use of weight gain prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(5): 1459-1470, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002559

RESUMO

RATIONALE: What is the difference between aripiprazole and brexpiprazole? OBJECTIVES: This systematic review, network meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluated the efficacy and safety/tolerability of aripiprazole and brexpiprazole for treating acute schizophrenia. METHODS: We searched Scopus, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library from inception until May 22, 2019. The response rate was set as the primary outcome. Other outcomes were discontinuation rate and incidence of individual adverse events. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% credible interval (95%CrI) were calculated. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were identified (n = 3925). Response rates of both aripiprazole and brexpiprazole were superior to that of the placebo (RR [95%CrI]: aripiprazole = 0.84 [0.78, 0.92], brexpiprazole = 0.84 [0.77, 0.92]). Aripiprazole and brexpiprazole were associated with a lower incidence of all-cause discontinuation (0.80 [0.71, 0.89], 0.83 [0.72, 0.95]), adverse events (0.67 [0.47, 0.97], 0.64 [0.46, 0.94]), and inefficacy (0.56 [0.40, 0.77], 0.68 [0.48, 0.99]) compared with the placebo. Although brexpiprazole was associated with a lower incidence of schizophrenia as an adverse event compared with the placebo (0.57 [0.37, 0.85]), aripiprazole and brexpiprazole were associated with a higher incidence of weight gain compared with the placebo (2.12 [1.28, 3.68], 2.14 [1.35, 3.42]). No significant differences were found in other individual adverse events, such as somnolence, akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms, and dizziness between aripiprazole or brexpiprazole and placebo. Any outcome between aripiprazole and brexpiprazole were not different. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in short-term efficacy and safety for acute schizophrenia were not apparent between aripiprazole and brexpiprazole. Future studies are warranted to evaluate whether there are differences in the long-term outcome between treatments.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Aripiprazol/uso terapêutico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Acatisia Induzida por Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Aripiprazol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
20.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 15-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009122

RESUMO

Body weight gain in middle age is thought to be mainly attributable to body fat gain. However, the association between the change in body weight and change in fat weight is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between the changes in body weight and fat weight in a middle-aged general population using a community-based cohort. We studied 3,193 subjects who underwent health check-ups. Fat weight was measured using a TANITA DC-270A body composition analyzer (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo). Good correlation was observed between the changes in body weight and fat weight (Pearson r = 0.88, P < 0.001). Among the study subjects, 408 (13%) were categorized in the weight loss group (weight loss ≥ 5%), 2,442 (76%) in the weight stable group, and 343 (11%) in the weight gain group (weight gain ≥ 5%). The percentage of change in fat weight in relation to the change in body weight was 65% on average in subjects with body weight loss, and 70% on average in those with body weight gain. Good correlation between changes in body weight and fat weight was observed regardless of age, gender, and baseline body mass index. A change in body weight was closely correlated with a change in fat weight among the middle-aged general population. Body weight change in the middle-age population appears to be mainly attributable to the change in fat weight.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia
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