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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208914

RESUMO

Based on several randomized clinical trials, it has been suggested that baseline glucose homeostasis interacts with the influence of diet composition on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. In this secondary analysis of the YoYo study, a study investigating predictors of weight loss maintenance, we tested the hypothesis that (self-selected) dietary carbohydrate and/or fibre intake interact with the glucose homeostasis parameters for weight loss maintenance. Sixty-one overweight or obese individuals lost around 10 kg of body weight on an energy-restricted diet and were then followed for 9 months. During this period, participants were advised to maintain their body weight and eat a healthy diet without further recommendations on calorie intake or diet composition. Contrary to our hypothesis, carbohydrate intake showed no positive association with weight regain after weight loss, and no interaction with baseline fasting glucose concentration was found. There was a non-significant negative association between fibre intake and weight regain (B = -0.274, standard error (SE) 0.158, p = 0.090), but again, no interaction with fasting plasma glucose was found. In conclusion, the data from the YoYo study do not support a role for baseline glucose homeostasis in determining the association between self-reported carbohydrate and/or fibre intake and weight regain after weight loss.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Redutora , Homeostase , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202475

RESUMO

Recently, intermittent fasting, also known as time-restricted eating (TRE), has become a popular diet trend. Compared to animal studies, there have been few studies and inconclusive findings investigating the effects of TRE in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of 8 h TRE on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were mainly active at night. A total of 33 young adults completed the 8 h TRE for 4 weeks. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and every 2 weeks, and blood samples were collected at baseline and week 4. Daily dietary records were logged throughout the intervention period. Participants experienced significant changes in body weight (-1.0 ± 1.4 kg), body mass index (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2), and body fat (-0.4 ± 1.9%) after 4 weeks of TRE. When participants were divided into weight loss/gain groups based on their weight change in week 4, fat mass reduction was significantly higher in the weight loss group than in the weight gain group. Regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance improved in the weight loss group after intervention, but not in the weight gain group. All subjects showed late-shifted sleeping patterns, but no significant differences in sleep duration, sleep quality, or psychological measures between the two groups. When meal frequency and energy proportion were evaluated, the average meal frequency was 2.8 ± 0.5 and energy proportions of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks were 4.5, 39.2, 37.6, and 18.5%, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the saturated fat intake at dinner was lower in the weight loss group (3.1 ± 3.2%, 6.0 ± 2.5% respectively). In conclusion, 8 h TRE can be applied as a lifestyle strategy to manage body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors among young adults with late chronotypes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Registros de Dieta , Impedância Elétrica , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 75, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) at different intensities (moderate and vigorous or moderate-to-vigorous) and prospective weight gain in non-obese people. We also examined whether these associations were independent of other lifestyle factors and changes in muscle mass and whether they were age-dependent and changed over a person's life course. METHODS: The data were extracted from the Lifelines cohort study (N = 52,498; 43.5% men) and excluded obese individuals (BMI > 30 kg/m2). We used the validated SQUASH questionnaire to estimate moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA; MET≥4), moderate (MPA; MET between 4 and 6.5) and vigorous PA (VPA; MET≥6.5). Body weight was objectively measured, and changes were standardized to a 4-year period. Separate analyses, adjusted for age, educational level, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and changes in creatinine excretion (a marker of muscle mass), were performed for men and women. RESULTS: The average weight gain was + 0.45 ± 0.03 kg in women. Relative to each reference groups (No-MVPA, No-MPA and No-VPA), MVPA (Beta (95%CI): - 0.34 kg (- 0.56;-0.13)), MPA (- 0.32 kg (- 0.54;-0.10)) and VPA (- 0.30 kg (- 0.43;-0.18)) were associated with less gain in body weight in women after adjusting for potential confounders, described above. These associations were dose-dependent when physically active individuals were divided in tertiles. Beta-coefficients (95%CI) for the lowest, middle, and highest MVPA tertiles relative to the 'No-MVPA' were, respectively, - 0.24 (- 0.47;-0.02), - 0.31 (- 0.53;-0.08), and - 0.38 (- 0.61;-0.16) kg. The average weight gain in men was + 0.13 ± 0.03 kg, and only VPA, not MPA was associated with less body weight gain. Beta-coefficients (95%CI) for the VPA tertiles relative to the 'No-VPA' group were, respectively, - 0.25 (- 0.42;-0.09), - 0.19 (- 0.38;-0.01) and - 0.20 (- 0.38;-0.02) kg. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association was no longer significant in men. The potential benefits of leisure-time PA were age-stratified and mainly observed in younger adults (men < 35 years) or stronger with younger age (women < 55 years). CONCLUSION: Higher leisure-time MVPA, MPA, and VPA were associated with less weight gain in women < 55 years. In younger men (< 35 years), only VPA was associated with less weight gain.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
4.
Postgrad Med ; 133(6): 707-715, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A decrease in weight velocity and feeding difficulties in infants may be caused by an inadequate caloric intake and underlying medical conditions. CASE DESCRIPTION: By focusing on four clinical cases, this article illustrates the temporary use of a special infant formula in orally-fed and enterally-fed infants with unsatisfactory weight gain and special medical conditions such as gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. The formula was a nutritionally complete hypercaloric infant formula containing partially hydrolyzed whey protein. It was used after full consideration of all feeding options including breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Implementing appropriate feeding behaviors, adapted to age and potential comorbidities, is an essential prerequisite for therapeutic management. The use of a nutritionally complete hypercaloric infant formula can be helpful to manage unsatisfactory weight gain and feeding difficulties in infants.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Insuficiência de Crescimento , Gastroenteropatias , Fórmulas Infantis , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Insuficiência de Crescimento/dietoterapia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/etiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/etiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066988

RESUMO

Obesity and prediabetes are the two strongest risk factors of type 2 diabetes. It has been reported that TOTUM-63, a polyphenol-rich plant extract, has beneficial effects on body weight (BW) and insulin resistance in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). The study aim was to determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and/or TOTUM-63 supplementation improved body composition and glycemic control and gut microbiota composition in a Western diet-induced obesity rat model. Wistar rats received a standard diet (CTRL; control; n = 12) or HFD (HFD; n = 48) for 16 weeks. Then, HFD rats were divided in four groups: HFD, HFD + TOTUM-63 (T63), HFD + HIIT (HIIT), and HFD + HIIT +T63 (HIIT + T63). Training was performed 4 days/week for 12 weeks. TOTUM-63 was included in diet composition (2%). The HIIT + T63 combination significantly limited BW gain, without any energy intake modulation, and improved glycemic control. BW variation was correlated with increased α-diversity of the colon mucosa microbiota in the HIIT + T63 group. Moreover, the relative abundance of Anaeroplasma, Christensenellaceae and Oscillospira was higher in the HIIT + T63 group. Altogether, these results suggest that the HIIT and TOTUM-63 combination could be proposed for the management of obesity and prediabetes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Controle Glicêmico , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
6.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 52, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare a flexible vs. rigid diet on weight loss and subsequent weight regain in resistance-trained (RT) participants in a randomized, parallel group design. METHODS: Twenty-three males and females (25.6 ± 6.1 yrs; 170 ± 8.1 cm; 75.4 ± 10.3 kg) completed the 20-week intervention (consisting of a 10-week diet phase and a 10-week post-diet phase). Participants were randomized to a flexible diet (FLEX) comprised of non-specific foods or a rigid diet (RIGID) comprised of specific foods. Participants adhered to an ~20%kcal reduction during the first 10-weeks of the intervention and were instructed to eat ad libitum for the final 10-weeks. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed 5 times: (baseline, 5, 10 [end of diet phase], 16, and 20 weeks). RESULTS: During the 10-week diet phase, both groups significantly reduced bodyweight (FLEX: baseline = 76.1 ± 8.4kg, post-diet = 73.5 ± 8.8 kg, ▲2.6 kg; RIGID: baseline = 74.9 ± 12.2 kg, post-diet = 71.9 ± 11.7 kg, ▲3.0 kg, p < 0.001); fat mass (FLEX: baseline = 14.8 ± 5.7 kg, post-diet = 12.5 ± 5.0 kg, ▲2.3 kg; RIGID: baseline = 18.1 ± 6.2 kg, post-diet = 14.9 ± 6.5 kg, ▲3.2 kg p < 0.001) and body fat% (FLEX: baseline = 19.4 ± 8.5%, post-diet = 17.0 ± 7.1%, ▲2.4%; RIGID: baseline = 24.0 ± 6.2%, post-diet = 20.7 ± 7.1%, ▲3.3%; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups for any variable during the diet phase. During the post-diet phase, a significant diet x time interaction (p < 0.001) was observed for FFM with the FLEX group gaining a greater amount of FFM (+1.7 kg) in comparison with the RIGID group (-0.7 kg). CONCLUSIONS: A flexible or rigid diet strategy is equally effective for weight loss during a caloric restriction diet in free-living, RT individuals. While post-diet FFM gains were greater in the FLEX group, there were no significant differences in the amount of time spent in resistance and aerobic exercise modes nor were there any significant differences in protein and total caloric intakes between the two diet groups. In the absence of a clear physiological rationale for increases in FFM, in addition to the lack of a standardized diet during the post-diet phase, we refrain from attributing the increases in FFM in the FLEX group to their diet assignment during the diet phase of the investigation. We recommend future research investigate additional physiological and psychological effects of flexible diets and weight regain in lean individuals.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Treinamento de Força , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065474

RESUMO

Obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction and disorders of glycolipid metabolism have become a worldwide research priority. Zfp217 plays a crucial role in adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but about its functions in animal models are not yet clear. To explore the role of Zfp217 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, global Zfp217 heterozygous knockout (Zfp217+/-) mice were constructed. Zfp217+/- mice and Zfp217+/+ mice fed a normal chow diet (NC) did not differ significantly in weight gain, percent body fat mass, glucose tolerance, or insulin sensitivity. When challenged with HFD, Zfp217+/- mice had less weight gain than Zfp217+/+ mice. Histological observations revealed that Zfp217+/- mice fed a high-fat diet had much smaller white adipocytes in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Zfp217+/- mice had improved metabolic profiles, including improved glucose tolerance, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased energy expenditure compared to the Zfp217+/+ mice under HFD. We found that adipogenesis-related genes were increased and metabolic thermogenesis-related genes were decreased in the iWAT of HFD-fed Zfp217+/+ mice compared to Zfp217+/- mice. In addition, adipogenesis was markedly reduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Zfp217-deleted mice. Together, these data indicate that Zfp217 is a regulator of energy metabolism and it is likely to provide novel insight into treatment for obesity.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Transativadores/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/fisiologia , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Termogênese/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
8.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 42(6): 1425-1432, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948709

RESUMO

Obesity has become increasingly recognized in adults with Fontan palliation, yet the relationship between weight changes in adulthood and Fontan failure is not clearly defined. We hypothesize that increasing weight in adulthood among Fontan patients is associated with the development of Fontan failure. Single-center data from adults with Fontan palliation who were not in Fontan failure at their first clinic visit in adulthood and who received ongoing care were retrospectively collected. Fontan failure was defined as death, transplant, diagnosis of protein losing enteropathy, predicted peak VO2 less than 50%, or new loop diuretic requirement. Anthropometric data including weight and BMI were collected. Change in weight was compared between those that developed Fontan failure, and those that remained failure-free. To estimate the association between weight change during adulthood and the risk of developing Fontan failure, a survival analysis using multiple Cox's proportional hazards regression model was performed. Overall, 104 patients were included in the analysis. Those that developed Fontan failure had a larger associated median weight gain than those who remained failure-free (7.8 kg vs. 4.9 kg, respectively; p = 0.011). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, increased weight during adulthood was associated with increased likelihood of developing Fontan failure (HR 1.36; CI 1.07-1.73; p = 0.011). Weight gain in adulthood is associated with the development of Fontan failure.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Res Nurs Health ; 44(4): 608-619, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993510

RESUMO

Multiple physiological changes occur in pregnancy as a woman's body adapts to support the growing fetus. These pregnancy-induced changes are essential for fetal growth, but the extent to which they reverse after pregnancy remains in question. For some women, physiological changes persist after pregnancy and may increase long-term cardiometabolic disease risk. The National Institutes of Health-funded study described in this protocol addresses a scientific gap by characterizing weight and biological changes during pregnancy and an extended postpartum period in relation to cardiometabolic risk. We use a longitudinal repeated measures design to prospectively examine maternal health from early pregnancy until 3 years postpartum. The aims are: (1) identify maternal weight profiles in the pregnancy-postpartum period that predict adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles three years postpartum; (2) describe immune, endocrine, and metabolic biomarker profiles in the pregnancy-postpartum period, and determine their associations with cardiometabolic risk; and (3) determine how modifiable postpartum health behaviors (diet, physical activity, breastfeeding, sleep, stress) (a) predict weight and cardiometabolic risk in the postpartum period; and (b) moderate associations between postpartum weight retention and downstream cardiometabolic risk. The proposed sample is 250 women. This study of mothers is conducted in conjunction with the Understanding Pregnancy Signals and Infant Development study, which examines child health outcomes. Biological and behavioral data are collected in each trimester and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postpartum. Findings will inform targeted health strategies that promote health and reduce cardiometabolic risk in childbearing women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Exercício Físico , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Dieta , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 904: 174174, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004206

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) have led to lasting deficits for an estimated 5.3 million American patients. Effective therapies for these patients remain scarce and each of the clinical trials stemming from success in experimental models has failed. We believe that the failures may be, in part, due to the lack of preclinical assessment of cognitive domains that widely affect clinical TBI. Specifically, the behavioral tasks in the TBI literature often do not focus on common executive impairments related to the frontal lobe such as cognitive flexibility. In previous work, we have demonstrated that the attentional set-shifting test (AST), a task analogous to the clinically-employed Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), could be used to identify cognitive flexibility impairments following controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. In this study, we hypothesized that both the administration of the antidepressant drug citalopram (CIT) and exposure to a preclinical model of neurorehabilitation, environmental enrichment (EE), would attenuate cognitive performance deficits on AST when provided alone and lead to greater benefits when administered in combination. Adult male rats were subjected to a moderate-severe CCI or sham injury. Rats were randomly divided into experimental groups that included surgical injury, drug therapy, and housing condition. We observed that both CIT and EE provided significant cognitive recovery when administered alone and reversal learning performance recovery increased the most when the therapies were combined (p < 0.05). Ongoing studies continue to evaluate novel ways of assessing more clinically relevant measurements of high order cognitive TBI-related impairments in the rat model.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Meio Ambiente , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(4): 733-740, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982943

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate the effect of recent short-term weight gain on the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in nonobese (body mass index < 25 kg/m) participants. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included nonobese individuals who participated in an annual health checkup between 2008 and 2018 in Tokyo, Japan. We estimated the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for the development of NAFLD diagnosed via ultrasound after a 3-kg unit gain in weight measured at a 2-year landmark time point postbaseline. Multivariable adjustments included weight change from the age of 20 and other relevant confounding factors. Sensitivity analyses using additional landmark time points at 1, 3, 4, and 5 years postbaseline and time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Among the 27,064 nonobese participants (142,699 person years of follow-up), 2,895 were diagnosed with NAFLD. Approximately 90% of the patients with NAFLD maintained their nonobese status before disease diagnosis. The adjusted hazard ratio for the development of NAFLD (for a 3-kg unit of weight gain) at the 2-year landmark time point postbaseline was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-1.76) in nonobese men and 1.66 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.83) in nonobese women. This association was maintained in the sensitivity analyses. DISCUSSION: Recent short-term weight gain is an independent risk factor for NAFLD development in nonobese men and women. Clinicians should be mindful of the association between weight gain and NAFLD onset, even in the nonobese population.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0240706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970917

RESUMO

Hibernating mammals exhibit unique metabolic and physiological phenotypes that have potential applications in medicine or spaceflight, yet our understanding of the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms of hibernation is limited. The meadow jumping mouse, a small North American hibernator, exhibits traits-including a short generation time-that would facilitate genetic approaches to hibernation research. Here we report the collection, captive breeding, and laboratory hibernation of meadow jumping mice. Captive breeders in our colony produced a statistically significant excess of male offspring and a large number of all-male and all-female litters. We confirmed that short photoperiod induced pre-hibernation fattening, and cold ambient temperature facilitated entry into hibernation. During pre-hibernation fattening, food consumption exhibited non-linear dependence on both body mass and temperature, such that food consumption was greatest in the heaviest animals at the coldest temperatures. Meadow jumping mice exhibited a strong circadian rhythm of nightly activity that was disrupted during the hibernation interval. We conclude that it is possible to study hibernation phenotypes using captive-bred meadow jumping mice in a laboratory setting.


Assuntos
Hibernação/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Fotoperíodo , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(5): 829-836, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare outcomes of treatment strategies for weight regain after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 207 individuals treated for post-bariatric weight regain at an academic center from January 1, 2014, through November 25, 2019. Percentage body weight loss was compared after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment among an intensive lifestyle modification (ILM) group, a non-glucagon-like-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1-RA)-based weight-loss pharmacotherapy (WLP) group, and a GLP-1-RA-based WLP group (the latter two groups in conjunction with ILM). RESULTS: The percentage body weight loss was significantly different between groups after 3 months (1.4% vs. 2.2% vs. 4.5% [P < 0.001] for ILM, non-GLP-1-RA-based WLP, and GLP-1-RA-based WLP groups, respectively), 6 months (0.8% vs. 2.9% vs. 6.7% [P < 0.001]), and 9 months (-1.6% vs. 5.6% vs. 6.9% [P = 0.007]). There was a significant difference in the percentage of individuals achieving ≥5% weight loss after 3, 6, and 9 months, with most occurring in the GLP-1-RA-based WLP group. In a multiple regression analysis including bariatric surgery type, treatment group was the only significant predictor of percentage weight change. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1-RA-based WLP therapies were found to be more effective for treating post-bariatric weight regain than non-GLP-1-RA-based WLP or ILM, regardless of surgery type.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 764-779, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional MRI (fMRI) tasks are increasingly being used to advance knowledge of the etiology and maintenance of obesity and eating disorders. Thus, understanding the test-retest reliability of BOLD signal contrasts from these tasks is important. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate test-retest reliability of responses in reward-related brain regions to food receipt paradigms (palatable tastes, anticipated palatable tastes), food picture paradigms (high-calorie food pictures), a monetary reward paradigm (winning money and anticipating winning money), and a thin female model picture paradigm (thin female model pictures). METHOD: We conducted secondary univariate contrast-based analyses in data drawn from 4 repeated-measures fMRI studies. Participants (Study 1: N = 60, mean [M] age = 15.2 ± 1.1 y; Study 2: N = 109, M age = 15.1 ± 0.9 y; Study 3: N = 39, M age = 21.2 ± 3.7 y; Study 4: N = 62, M age = 29.7 ± 6.2 y) completed the same tasks over 3-wk to 3-y test-retest intervals. Studies 3 and 4 included participants with eating disorders and obesity, respectively. RESULTS: Test-retest reliability of the food receipt and food picture paradigms was poor, with average ICC values ranging from 0.07 to 0.20. The monetary reward paradigm and the thin female model picture paradigm also showed poor test-retest reliability: average ICC values 0.21 and 0.12, respectively. Although several regions demonstrated moderate to good test-retest reliability, these results did not replicate across studies using similar paradigms. In Studies 3 and 4, but not Study 1, test-retest reliability in visual processing regions was moderate to good when contrasting single conditions with a low-level baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Results underscore the importance of examining the temporal reliability of fMRI tasks and call for the development and use of well-validated standardized fMRI tasks in eating- and obesity-related studies that can provide more reliable measures of neural activation. The trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02084836, NCT01949636, NCT03261050, and NCT03375853.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Alimentos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Recompensa , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Receptors located on enteroendocrine cells (EECs) of the colon can detect nutrients in the lumen. These receptors regulate appetite through a variety of mechanisms, including hormonal and neuronal signals. We assessed the effect of obesity on the expression of these G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and hormones at both mRNA and protein level. METHODS: qPCR and immunohistochemistry were used to examine colonic tissue from cohorts of patients from the Netherlands (proximal and sigmoid tissue) and the United Kingdom (tissue from across the colon) and patients were grouped by body mass index (BMI) value (BMI < 25 and BMI ≥ 25). RESULTS: The mRNA expression of the hormones/signaling molecules serotonin, glucagon, peptide YY (PYY), CCK and somatostatin were not significantly different between BMI groups. GPR40 mRNA expression was significantly increased in sigmoid colon samples in the BMI ≥ 25 group, but not proximal colon. GPR41, GPR109a, GPR43, GPR120, GPRC6A, and CaSR mRNA expression were unaltered between low and high BMI. At the protein level, serotonin and PYY containing cell numbers were similar in high and low BMI groups. Enterochromaffin cells (EC) showed high degree of co-expression with amino acid sensing receptor, CaSR while co-expression with PYY containing L-cells was limited, regardless of BMI. CONCLUSIONS: While expression of medium/long chain fatty acid receptor GPR40 was increased in the sigmoid colon of the high BMI group, expression of other nutrient sensing GPCRs, and expression profiles of EECs involved in peripheral mechanisms of appetite regulation were unchanged. Collectively, these data suggest that in human colonic tissue, EEC and nutrient-sensing receptor expression profiles are not affected despite changes to BMI.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Saciação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Biópsia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/citologia , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Reino Unido , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100964, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652533

RESUMO

The effects of early heat conditioning on the acute heat stress response in broilers were investigated via the growth performance, dopamine, serotonin, and corticosterone and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) and heat shock factors. One-day-old chicks (n = 144) were divided into 3 groups in a 35-d experiment (48 chicks per each group). Group 1 (C) was treated with an optimum temperature, group 2 (CH) was treated with 40°C ± 1°C on day 35 (5 h), and group 3 (HH) was treated with 40°C ± 1°C on day 5 (24 h) and day 35 (5 h). On day 7, the body weight gain was lower (P < 0.05) in HH than in C and CH. On day 35, the heat-treated groups (CH and HH) had lower weight gains than the C group (P < 0.05), whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower in HH (P < 0.05). Serum corticosterone was higher in CH than in C, but HH and C did not differ (P < 0.05). Liver HSP70 protein expression was higher in CH than HH and C (P < 0.05), which did not differ, and HSP40 protein expression was higher in CH than C (P < 0.05). These results suggest that early heat conditioning may reduce acute heat stress on broiler.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Crescimento , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(4): 698-705, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Self-monitoring is critical for weight management, but little is known about lapses in the use of digital self-monitoring. The objectives of this study were to examine whether lapses in self-weighing and wearing activity trackers are associated with weight and activity outcomes and to identify objective predictors of lapses. METHODS: Participants (N = 160, BMI = 25.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 , 33.1 ± 4.6 years old) were drawn from a sample of young adults in the Study of Novel Approaches to Prevention-Extension (SNAP-E) weight gain prevention trial. Analyses evaluated associations between weighing and tracker lapses and changes in weight and steps/day during the first 90 days after receiving a smart scale and activity tracker. RESULTS: On average, participants self-weighed 49.6% of days and wore activity trackers 75.2% of days. Every 1-day increase in a weighing lapse was associated with a 0.06-lb gain. Lapses in tracker wear were not associated with changes in steps/day or weight between wear days. Weight gain predicted a higher likelihood of starting a lapse in weighing and tracker wear, whereas lower steps predicted a higher likelihood of a tracker lapse. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain may discourage adherence to self-monitoring. Future research could examine just-in-time supports to anticipate and reduce the frequency or length of self-monitoring lapses.


Assuntos
Monitores de Aptidão Física/normas , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668212

RESUMO

Since alterations of the gut microbiota have been shown to play a major role in obesity, probiotics have attracted attention. Our aim was to identify probiotic candidates for the management of obesity using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches. We evaluated in vitro the ability of 23 strains to limit lipid accumulation in adipocytes and to enhance the secretion of satiety-promoting gut peptide in enteroendocrine cells. Following the in vitro screening, selected strains were further investigated in vivo, single, or as mixtures, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity. Strain Bifidobacterium longum PI10 administrated alone and the mixture of B. animalis subsp. lactis LA804 and Lactobacillus gasseri LA806 limited body weight gain and reduced obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. These protective effects were associated with changes in the hypothalamic gene expression of leptin and leptin receptor as well as with changes in the composition of gut microbiota and the profile of bile acids. This study provides crucial clues to identify new potential probiotics as effective therapeutic approaches in the management of obesity, while also providing some insights into their mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/microbiologia , Células Enteroendócrinas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Obesidade/etiologia , Manejo da Obesidade/métodos , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
19.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21484, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710692

RESUMO

Prolonged periods of energy deficit leading to weight loss induce metabolic adaptations resulting in reduced energy expenditure, but the mechanisms for energy conservation are incompletely understood. We examined 42 healthy athletic females (age 27.5 ± 4.0 years, body mass index 23.4 ± 1.7 kg/m2 ) who volunteered into either a group dieting for physique competition (n = 25) or a control group (n = 17). The diet group substantially reduced their energy intake and moderately increased exercise levels to induce loss of fat mass that was regained during a voluntary weight regain period. The control group maintained their typical lifestyle habits and body mass as instructed. From the diet group, fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline (PRE), after 4- to 5-month weight loss (PRE-MID), and after 4- to 5-month weight regain (MID-POST) as well as from the control group at similar intervals. Blood was analyzed to determine leukocyte transcriptome by RNA-Sequencing and serum metabolome by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) platform. The intensive weight loss period induced several metabolic adaptations, including a prominent suppression of transcriptomic signature for mitochondrial OXPHOS and ribosome biogenesis. The upstream regulator analysis suggested that this reprogramming of cellular energy metabolism may be mediated via AMPK/PGC1-α signaling and mTOR/eIF2 signaling-dependent pathways. Our findings show for the first time that prolonged energy deprivation induced modulation of mitochondrial metabolism can be observed through minimally invasive measures of leukocyte transcriptome and serum metabolome at systemic level, suggesting that adaptation to energy deficit is broader in humans than previously thought.


Assuntos
Leucócitos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29 Suppl 1: S39-S50, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759393

RESUMO

Most individuals with obesity or overweight have difficulty maintaining weight loss. The weight-reduced state induces changes in many physiological processes that appear to drive weight regain. Here, we review the use of cell biology, genetics, and imaging techniques that are being used to begin understanding why weight regain is the normal response to dieting. As with obesity itself, weight regain has both genetic and environmental drivers. Genetic drivers for "thinness" and "obesity" largely overlap, but there is evidence for specific genetic loci that are different for each of these weight states. There is only limited information regarding the genetics of weight regain. Currently, most genetic loci related to weight point to the central nervous system as the organ responsible for determining the weight set point. Neuroimaging tools have proved useful in studying the contribution of the central nervous system to the weight-reduced state in humans. Neuroimaging technologies fall into three broad categories: functional, connectivity, and structural neuroimaging. Connectivity and structural imaging techniques offer unique opportunities for testing mechanistic hypotheses about changes in brain function or tissue structure in the weight-reduced state.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Genéticos , Perda de Peso , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/terapia , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/genética , Magreza/metabolismo , Magreza/terapia , Ganho de Peso/genética , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/genética , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
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