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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348410

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate variance components for performance and carcass traits in a paternal broiler line. The (co)variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method applied to the animal model, including the fixed effect of group (sex and hatch) and additive genetic and residual as random effects. Estimated heritability for performance traits ranged from 0.09 to 0.42. The genetic correlations between traits ranged from -0.50 to 0.97. The heritability estimates of feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion from 35 to 41 days of age were of low magnitude. The genetic correlations among them were favorable to genetic selection. These results suggest that moderate genetic gain can be obtained to the feed intake and weight gain when the selection criterion is the body weight and prime cuts traits. The feed conversion that had low heritability estimation and low genetic correlation with the body weight and prime cut traits needs to pay greater attention due to the economic importance in the high-meat production lineage breeding programs.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Ganho de Peso/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315336

RESUMO

Early detection of obesity-related glomerulopathy in humans is challenging as it might not be detected by routine biomarkers of kidney function. This study's aim was to use novel kidney biomarkers and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to evaluate the effect of obesity development and weight-loss on kidney function, perfusion, and injury in dogs. Sixteen healthy lean adult beagles were assigned randomly but age-matched to a control group (CG) (n = 8) fed to maintain a lean body weight (BW) for 83 weeks; or to a weight-change group (WCG) (n = 8) fed the same diet to induce obesity (week 0-47), to maintain stable obese weight (week 47-56) and to lose BW (week 56-83). At 8 time points, values of systolic blood pressure (sBP); serum creatinine (sCr); blood urea nitrogen (BUN); serum cystatin C (sCysC); urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC); and urinary biomarkers of glomerular and tubular injury were measured. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal perfusion using CEUS were assayed (except for week 68). For CEUS, intensity- and time-related parameters representing blood volume and velocity were derived from imaging data, respectively. At 12-22% weight-gain, cortical time-to-peak, representing blood velocity, was shorter in the WCG vs. the CG. After 37% weight-gain, sCysC, UPC, glomerular and tubular biomarkers of injury, urinary immunoglobulin G and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, respectively, were higher in the WCG. sBP, sCr, BUN and GFR were not significantly different. After 23% weight-loss, all alterations were attenuated. Early weight-gain in dogs induced renal perfusion changes measured with CEUS, without hyperfiltration, preceding increased urinary protein excretion with potential glomerular and tubular injury. The combined use of routine biomarkers of kidney function, CEUS and site-specific urinary biomarkers might be valuable in assessing kidney health of individuals at risk for obesity-related glomerulopathy in a non-invasive manner.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/urina , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Creatinina/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glomerulonefrite/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/urina , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glomérulos Renais/lesões , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Túbulos Renais/lesões , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Sistema Urinário/metabolismo , Sistema Urinário/patologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/genética , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
3.
Metabolism ; 106: 154194, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation and metabolic dysregulation are common comorbidities of obesity, both of which are associated with alterations in iRhom2-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand signaling. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the role of iRhom2 in the regulation of low-grade inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Wild type (WT) and iRhom2-deficient mice were fed normal chow (NC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) starting at 5 weeks of age for up to 33 weeks. Body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, feeding behavior, and indirect calorimetry were measured at defined time points. Adipose tissue cytokine expression and inflammatory lesions known as crown-like structures (CLS) were analyzed at the end-point of the study. RESULTS: iRhom2-deficient mice show accelerated fat gain on a HFD, accompanied by insulin resistance. Indirect calorimetry did not demonstrate changes in energy expenditure or food intake, but locomotor activity was significantly reduced in HFD iRhom2-deficient mice. Interestingly, CLS, macrophage infiltration, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production were decreased in adipose tissue from HFD iRhom2-deficient mice, but circulating cytokines were unchanged. In inguinal and perigonadal fat, the EGFR ligand amphiregulin was markedly induced in HFD controls but completely prevented in iRhom2-deficient mice, suggesting a potentially dominant role of EGFR-dependent mechanisms over TNF in the modulation of insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidates a novel role for iRhom2 as an immuno-metabolic regulator that affects adipose tissue inflammation independent of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Obesidade/etiologia , Ganho de Peso/genética , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Paniculite/genética , Paniculite/metabolismo , Paniculite/patologia
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1023-1032, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170649

RESUMO

Separation of autosomal and sex-linked direct additive genetic effects has significant role in sheep breeding programs. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the genetic parameters of autosomal and sex-linked effects for growth traits of Zandi sheep. The data set used in this study contained 7571 Zandi lambs, descendent of 220 sires and 1481 dams, which were collected from Zandi sheep breeding Station at Khojir, Tehran, Iran from 1992 to 2011. The fixed effects included of year (20 classes), season (winter and spring), sex (male or female), birth type (single or twin), and the age of dam (seven classes, 2-8 years old). The data were analyzed using REML methodology by WOMBAT software. In the most appropriate fitted model, based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the values of direct autosomal heritabilities of birth weight (BW), kleiber ratio at weaning (KR), 6-month weight (6MW), and 9-month weight (9MW) were 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.29 ± 0.05, 0.14 ± 0.04, and 0.15 ± 0.04, respectively. Furthermore, weaning weight (WW), average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADG), and 12-month weight (12 MW) showed the values of 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.22 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.03, and 0.15 ± 0.05 and 0.18 ± 0.05, respectively. Based on the best models through all traits, estimates of the direct sex-linked heritability ranged from 0.0 (WW, ADG, KR, and 6MW) to 0.02 ± 0.03 (12MW). The average of autosomal and sex-linked breeding values (BVs) of body growth traits except KR (for autosomal) and 9MW and 12MW (for sex-linked) were greater than zero. The Pearson's/Spearman's correlation coefficients varied between 0.344 and 0.599/0.30 and 0.61 for autosomal and sex-linked BVs. Direct autosomal and sex-linked additive correlations for growth traits were ranged from - 0.02 (BW-KR) to 0.98 (WW-ADG) and 0.04 (KR-9 MW) to 0.99 (WW-ADG), respectively. Our results revealed that the genetic parameters related to growth traits in Zandi sheep could be more useful in selection strategies.


Assuntos
Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Ganho de Peso/genética
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903482

RESUMO

The cow herd consumes approximately 70% of the annual feed resources. To date, most genetic evaluations of feed intake in beef cattle have been made in growing animals and little information is available for mature cows. Genetic evaluations in mature cows have predominately been confined to lactating dairy cows and the relationship between feed intake as growing heifers and mature cows has not been addressed. It was the purpose of this study to estimate the heritability of feed intake when measured as growing heifers and mature cows and determine the genetic correlation between these measurements. Individual feed intake and BW gain were measured on 687 heifers and 622 5-yr-old cows. The heritability of average daily DMI (ADDMI) estimated in heifers was 0.84 ±â€…0.12 and 0.53 ±â€…0.12 in cows. The heritability of ADG estimated in heifers was 0.53 ±â€…0.12 and 0.34 ±â€…0.11 in cows. The genetic correlation between heifer and cow ADDMI was 0.84 ±â€…0.09. The genetic correlation between heifer and cow ADG was 0.73 ±â€…019. Heritability of residual feed intake in heifers was 0.25 ±â€…0.11 and 0.16 ±â€…0.10 in cows. Heritability for residual gain in heifers was 0.21 ±â€…0.11 and 0.14 ±â€…0.10 in cows. Feed intake and ADG are heritable and genetically correlated between heifers and cows. Selection for decreased feed intake and ADG in growing animals will probably have the same directional effects on mature cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Ganho de Peso/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Fenótipo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910243

RESUMO

Mesenteric fat is a visceral fat depot that increases with cattle maturity and can be influenced by diet. There may be a relationship between the accumulation of mesenteric fat and feed efficiency in beef cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that may be differentially expressed in steers with high and low BW gain and feed intake. RNA-Seq was used to evaluate the transcript abundance of genes in the mesenteric fat from a total of 78 steers collected over 5 different cohorts. A meta-analysis was used to identify genes involved with gain, feed intake or the interaction of both phenotypes. The interaction analysis identified 11 genes as differentially expressed. For the main effect of gain, a total of 87 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified (PADJ<0.05), and 24 were identified in the analysis for feed intake. Genes identified for gain were involved in functions and pathways including lipid metabolism, stress response/protein folding, cell proliferation/growth, axon guidance and inflammation. The genes for feed intake did not cluster into pathways, but some of the DEG for intake had functions related to inflammation, immunity, and/or signal transduction (JCHAIN, RIPK1, LY86, SPP1, LYZ, CD5, CD53, SRPX, and NF2). At PADJ<0.1, only 4 genes (OLFML3, LOC100300716, MRPL15, and PUS10) were identified as differentially expressed in two or more cohorts, highlighting the importance of evaluating the transcriptome of more than one group of animals and incorporating a meta-analysis. This meta-analysis has produced many mesenteric fat DEG that may be contributing to gain and feed intake in cattle.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Regulação do Apetite/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Masculino , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
7.
J Endocrinol ; 244(1): 223-236, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648186

RESUMO

Obesity is a worldwide health problem. Semaphorins are involved in axonal guidance; however, the role of secretory semaphorin 3G (SEMA3G) in regulating adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. Microarray analysis showed that the SEMA3G gene was upregulated in an in vitro model of adipogenesis. In this study, SEMA3G was highly expressed in the white adipose tissue and liver. Analysis of 3T3-L1 cell and primary mouse preadipocyte differentiation showed that SEMA3G mRNA and protein levels were increased during the middle stage of cell development. In vitro experiments also showed that adipocyte differentiation was promoted by SEMA3G; however, SEMA3G inhibition using a recombinant lentiviral vector expressing a specific shRNA showed the opposite results. Mice were fed a chow or high-fat diet (HFD); knockdown of SEMA3G was found to inhibit weight gain, reduce fat mass in the tissues, prevent lipogenesis in the liver tissue, reduce insulin resistance and ameliorate glucose tolerance in HFD mice. Additionally, the effect of SEMA3G on HFD-induced obesity was activated through PI3K/Akt/GSK3ß signaling in the adipose tissue and the AMPK/SREBP-1c pathway in the liver. Moreover, the plasma concentrations of SEMA3G and leptin were measured in 20 obese and 20 non-obese human subjects. Both proteins were increased in obese subjects, who also exhibited a lower level of adiponectin and presented with insulin resistance. In summary, we demonstrated that SEMA3G is an adipokine essential for adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and insulin resistance and is associated with obesity. SEMA3G inhibition may, therefore, be useful for treating diet-induced obesity and its complications.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Obesidade/genética , Semaforinas/sangue , Semaforinas/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Adipogenia/genética , Adulto , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Leptina/sangue , Lipogênese/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Ganho de Peso/genética
8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 198, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic side effects induced by psychotropic drugs represent a major health issue in psychiatry. CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) gene plays a major role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and epigenetic mechanisms may explain its association with obesity features previously described in psychiatric patients. This prospective study included 78 patients receiving psychotropic drugs that induce metabolic disturbances, with weight and other metabolic parameters monitored regularly. Methylation levels in 76 CRTC1 probes were assessed before and after 1 month of psychotropic treatment in blood samples. RESULTS: Significant methylation changes were observed in three CRTC1 CpG sites (i.e., cg07015183, cg12034943, and cg 17006757) in patients with early and important weight gain (i.e., equal or higher than 5% after 1 month; FDR p value = 0.02). Multivariable models showed that methylation decrease in cg12034943 was more important in patients with early weight gain (≥ 5%) than in those who did not gain weight (p = 0.01). Further analyses combining genetic and methylation data showed that cg12034943 was significantly associated with early weight gain in patients carrying the G allele of rs4808844A>G (p = 0.03), a SNP associated with this methylation site (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: These findings give new insights on psychotropic-induced weight gain and underline the need of future larger prospective epigenetic studies to better understand the complex pathways involved in psychotropic-induced metabolic side effects.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia
9.
Growth Factors ; 37(3-4): 153-163, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500477

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to test the association of the variation in a 360 bp region in exon 2 of the ovine bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) gene with growth performance (birth weight, pre-weaning average daily gain, weaning weight, post-weaning average daily gain and marketing weight) and body conformational traits (height at withers, height at hips, body length, heart girth, thigh circumference, body mass index, skeletal muscle index, body index and relative body index) in 242 Barki lambs using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Two variants (A and B) and three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected. The BMP4 genotype significantly affected (p < .05 or p < .01) post-weaning daily gain, marketing weight, height at hips, thigh circumference, body mass index and skeletal muscle index. The results provided valuable information indicating selection for the BMP4 genotype might increase growth and muscularity in Barki lambs.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ganho de Peso/genética
10.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1385-1389, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501613

RESUMO

The worldwide obesity epidemic1 makes it important to understand how lipid turnover (the capacity to store and remove lipids) regulates adipose tissue mass. Cross-sectional studies have shown that excess body fat is associated with decreased adipose lipid removal rates2,3. Whether lipid turnover is constant over the life span or changes during long-term weight increase or loss is unknown. We determined the turnover of fat cell lipids in adults followed for up to 16 years, by measuring the incorporation of nuclear bomb test-derived 14C in adipose tissue triglycerides. Lipid removal rate decreases during aging, with a failure to reciprocally adjust the rate of lipid uptake resulting in weight gain. Substantial weight loss is not driven by changes in lipid removal but by the rate of lipid uptake in adipose tissue. Furthermore, individuals with a low baseline lipid removal rate are more likely to remain weight-stable after weight loss. Therefore, lipid turnover adaptation might be important for maintaining pronounced weight loss. Together these findings identify adipose lipid turnover as an important factor for the long-term development of overweight/obesity and weight loss maintenance in humans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/patologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222445, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess weight gain throughout adulthood can lead to adverse clinical outcomes and are influenced by complex factors that are difficult to measure in free-living individuals. Metabolite profiling offers an opportunity to systematically discover new predictors for weight gain that are relatively easy to measure compared to traditional approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using baseline metabolite profiling data of middle-aged individuals from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS; n = 1,508), we identified 42 metabolites associated (p < 0.05) with longitudinal change in body mass index (BMI). We performed stepwise linear regression to select 8 of these metabolites to build a metabolite risk score (MRS) for predicting future weight gain. We replicated the MRS using data from the Mexico City Diabetes Study (MCDS; n = 768), in which one standard deviation increase in the MRS corresponded to ~0.03 increase in BMI (kg/m2) per year (i.e. ~0.09 kg/year for a 1.7 m adult). We observed that none of the available anthropometric, lifestyle, and glycemic variables fully account for the MRS prediction of weight gain. Surprisingly, we found the MRS to be strongly correlated with baseline insulin sensitivity in both cohorts and to be negatively predictive of T2D in MCDS. Genome-wide association study of the MRS identified 2 genome-wide (p < 5 × 10-8) and 5 suggestively (p < 1 × 10-6) significant loci, several of which have been previously linked to obesity-related phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: We have constructed and validated a generalizable MRS for future weight gain that is an independent predictor distinct from several other known risk factors. The MRS captures a composite biological picture of weight gain, perhaps hinting at the anabolic effects of preserved insulin sensitivity. Future investigation is required to assess the relationships between MRS-predicted weight gain and other obesity-related diseases.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Obesidade/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/genética
12.
Ceylon Med J ; 64(2): 40-45, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455065

RESUMO

Background: About 30% of patients treated with second generation antipsychotics (SGA) experience weight gain. Although there is evidence that the FTO gene is associated with obesity its role in antipsychotic induced weight gain is not so clear. Methods: A genetic association study was carried out to identify the association between FTO rs9939609 and antipsychotic induced weight gain. Sample consisted of 180 cases and 120 controls. Cases were patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, treated with second-generation antipsychotics for a minimum of 3 months, and had gained at least 10% of body weight. Controls were patients with schizophrenia treated with second-generation antipsychotics for a minimum of 3 months but had not gained ≥10% of body weight. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood. Polymerase chain reaction of the samples was done. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was carried out using BIO-RAD CFX96 Touch TM PCR detection system. Results: Females were significantly more among cases (58.3%) than controls (35%). Cases (52.4%) were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese than controls (13.8%). Genotype distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p=0.43). Cochran-Armitage trend test was not significant. Risk of antipsychotic induced weight gain in the AA genotype [OR 1.69 (95% CI 0.74-3.86)] and AT genotype [OR 1.1 (95% CI 0.67-1.79)] were not significantly higher than the TT genotype. Recessive model showed that AA/AT genotypes were at significantly higher risk of being obese/overweight [OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.05-3.2)]. Conclusions: There was no significant association between FTO rs9939609 and antipsychotic induced weight gain. AA/AT genotypes had significantly higher risk of overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/efeitos dos fármacos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Sobrepeso/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/genética , Sobrepeso/induzido quimicamente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Sri Lanka
13.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0218379, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404067

RESUMO

A multi-trait selective breeding program of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was initiated in China in 2015. In this program, the M. rosenbergii resources were widely collected from four countries, the origin of the founders was verified with 16 microsatellites and the pedigree was reconstructed, and the optimum contribution selection was used to make the mating design. In this study, we evaluated the genetic parameters and selection response for the harvest body weight (HBW) of M. rosenbergii after being communally reared for 95-109 days. The data were collected from two generations that comprised 25,212 progenies from 150 sires and 198 dams. The residual maximum-likelihood methodology was employed to evaluate the variance components, by fitting an animal model. The accuracy of estimated breeding values increased by 0.38% after pedigree reconstruction using microsatellite markers. The estimated heritability (h2) for HBW was moderate (0.212 ± 0.049) and the common environmental coefficient (c2) was low (0.063 ± 0.017) when all the data were used for the analysis. Within generations, h2 was moderate to high (0.198 ± 0.080 to 0.338 ± 0.049). c2 could only be estimated in G1, which was 0.055 ± 0.030. The average HBW of males was significantly larger than that of females (P < 0.01). h2 estimated for female HBWs were higher than that for males within generations, while h2 estimated for female HBWs were lower than that for males across generations. But they were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The genetic correlations between sexes were moderate to high within each generation (0.529 to 0.763). Two methods were used to estimate the realized response. One method was calculated from the differences between the least squares means of the selected population HBW and that of control population HBW, which was 14.01%. The other method was calculated from the differences between the EBVs of the selected population HBW and that of control population HBW, which was 11.52%. The predicted responses derived from two sets of genetic parameters acquired from within- and across- generation datasets were 11.68% and 10.67%, respectively. The present study provides valuable information for breeding programs of M. rosenbergii.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Palaemonidae/genética , Seleção Genética , Seleção Artificial , Ganho de Peso/genética , Animais , China , Feminino , Água Doce , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Palaemonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Reprodução
14.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 317(4): E597-E604, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386565

RESUMO

It has been suggested that interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by adipocytes in obesity leads to liver insulin resistance, although this hypothesis has never been definitively tested. Accordingly, we did so by generating adipocyte-specific IL-6-deficient (AdipoIL-6-/-) mice and studying them in the context of diet-induced and genetic obesity. Mice carrying two floxed alleles of IL-6 (C57Bl/6J) were crossed with Cre recombinase-overexpressing mice driven by the adiponectin promoter to generate AdipoIL-6-/- mice. AdipoIL-6-/- and floxed littermate controls were fed a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk and comprehensively metabolically phenotyped. In addition to a diet-induced obesity model, we also examined the role of adipocyte-derived IL-6 in a genetic model of obesity and insulin resistance by crossing the AdipoIL-6-/- mice with leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. As expected, mice on HFD and ob/ob mice displayed marked weight gain and increased fat mass compared with chow-fed and ob/+ (littermate control) animals, respectively. However, deletion of IL-6 from adipocytes in either model had no effect on glucose tolerance or fasting hyperinsulinemia. We concluded that adipocyte-specific IL-6 does not contribute to whole body glucose intolerance in obese mice.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Obesidade/genética , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adiponectina/biossíntese , Adiponectina/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo
15.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6564-6571, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376357

RESUMO

The utilization of male chickens for fattening constitutes a potential advantage of the dual-purpose concept. In addition to the use of commercial hybrids, producers could introduce alternative chicken genotypes or further develop local breeds. To gain more information about the genetic effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics, physicochemical meat traits, and sensory attributes, 60 cockerels belonging to Les Bleues (developed from the French breed Bresse Gauloise), Canarian (Spanish local breed), and Dominant Red Barred D459 (DRB D459; commercial dual-purpose hybrid) genotypes were reared under free-range conditions in a warm tropical climate and slaughtered at 15 wk of age. The major findings were as follows: (i) Les Bleues chickens exhibited the best growth rate and the body weight of 2.44 kg reached by this strain at 15 wk would be gained only after 18 to 19 wk with DRB D459 and it would take even 2 wk longer for Canarian breed, according to the growth modeling using the Morgan equation, although the body weights between the latter were statistical similar at 15 wk; (ii) Les Bleues strain had a good capability in terms of meat production performance, presenting carcasses with significantly heavier commercial cuts, and higher fleshiness than the other 2 genotypes; (iii) although significant differences among genotypes appeared in the physical characteristics of the breast meat, especially those concerning the skin and meat color and water-holding capacity, which was significantly reduced for Canarian chickens, no significant differences were detected in the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the breast meat; (iv) trained panelists (n = 8) pointed out that leg meat of none of the genotypes is better in terms of global appreciation, but untrained consumers (n = 99) perceived that the Les Bleues leg meat was significantly more palatable than the DRB D459 leg meat.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Ganho de Peso/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Genótipo , Masculino
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 759-768, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether changes in fruit and vegetable intake can modify the effect of genetic susceptibility to obesity on long-term changes in BMI and body weight are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the interactions of changes in total and specific fruit and vegetable intake with genetic susceptibility to obesity in relation to changes in BMI and body weight. METHODS: We calculated a genetic risk score on the basis of 77 BMI-associated loci to determine the genetic susceptibility to obesity, and examined the interactions of changes in total and specific fruit and vegetable intake with the genetic risk score on changes in BMI and body weight within five 4-y intervals over 20 y of follow-up in 8943 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 5308 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). RESULTS: In the combined cohorts, repeated 4-y BMI change per 10-risk allele increment was 0.09 kg/m2 among participants with the greatest decrease in total fruit and vegetable intake and -0.02 among those with the greatest increase in intake (P-interaction <0.001; corresponding weight change: 0.20 kg compared with -0.06 kg). The magnitude of decrease in BMI associated with increasing fruit and vegetable intake was more prominent among participants with high genetic risk than those with low risk. Reproducible interactions were observed for fruits and vegetables separately (both P-interaction <0.001). Based on similar nutritional content, the interaction effect was greatest for berries, citrus fruits, and green leafy vegetables, and the interaction pattern persisted regardless of the different fiber content or glycemic load of fruits and vegetables. CONCLUSIONS: Genetically associated increased BMI and body weight could be mitigated by increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and the beneficial effect of improving fruit and vegetable intake on weight management was more pronounced in individuals with greater genetic susceptibility to obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Verduras , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda de Peso
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3832-3844, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278866

RESUMO

In recent years, metabolomics has been used to clarify the biology underlying biological samples. In the field of animal breeding, investigating the magnitude of genetic control on the metabolomic profiles of animals and their relationships with quantitative traits adds valuable information to animal improvement schemes. In this study, we analyzed metabolomic features (MFs) extracted from the metabolomic profiles of 843 male Holstein calves. The metabolomic profiles were obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We investigated 2 alternative methods to control for peak shifts in the NMR spectra, binning and aligning, to determine which approach was the most efficient for assessing genetic variance. Series of univariate analyses were implemented to elucidate the heritability of each MF. Furthermore, records on BW and ADG from 154 to 294 d of age (ADG154-294), 294 to 336 d of age (ADG294-336), and 154 to 336 d of age (ADG154-336) were used in a series of bivariate analyses to establish the genetic and phenotypic correlations with MFs. Bivariate analyses were only performed for MFs that had a heritability significantly different from zero. The heritabilities obtained in the univariate analyses for the MFs in the binned data set were low (<0.2). In contrast, in the aligned data set, we obtained moderate heritability (0.2 to 0.5) for 3.5% of MFs and high heritability (more than 0.5) for 1% of MFs. The bivariate analyses showed that ~12%, ~3%, ~9%, and ~9% of MFs had significant additive genetic correlations with BW, ADG154-294, ADG294-336, and ADG154-336, respectively. In all of the bivariate analyses, the percentage of significant additive genetic correlations was higher than the percentage of significant phenotypic correlations of the corresponding trait. Our results provided insights into the influence of the underlying genetic mechanisms on MFs. Further investigations in this field are needed for better understanding of the genetic relationship among the MFs and quantitative traits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Metabolômica , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ganho de Peso/genética
18.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234503

RESUMO

Nutrition in the postnatal period is associated with metabolic programming. One of the presumed underlying mechanisms involves epigenetic modifications (e.g., DNA methylation). Breastfeeding has an unknown impact on DNA methylation at a young age. Within the Maternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study, we assessed the effect of breastfeeding duration on infant growth and buccal methylation in obesity-related genes (n = 101). A significant difference was found between infant growth and buccal RXRA and LEP methylation at 12 months of breastfeeding. For RXRA CpG2 methylation, a positive association was found with duration of breastfeeding (slope = 0.217; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 0.330; p < 0.001). For RXRA CpG3 and CpG, mean methylation levels were significantly lower when children were breastfed for 4-6 months compared to non-breastfed children (only CpG3), and those breastfed for 7-9 months, 10-12 months, or 1-3 months. On the other hand, higher LEP CpG3 methylation was observed when mothers breastfed 7-9 months (6.1%) as compared to breastfeeding for 1-3 months (4.3%; p = 0.007) and 10-12 months (4.6%; p = 0.04). In addition, we observed that infant weight was significantly lower when children were breastfed for 10-12 months. Breastfeeding duration was associated with epigenetic variations in RXRA and LEP at 12 months and with infant biometry/growth. Our results support the hypothesis that breastfeeding could induce epigenetic changes in infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma/genética , Leptina/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Ilhas de CpG , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 29, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selection of cattle that are less sensitive to environmental variation in unfavorable environments and more adapted to harsh conditions is of primary importance for tropical beef cattle production systems. Understanding the genetic background of sensitivity to environmental variation is necessary for developing strategies and tools to increase efficiency and sustainability of beef production. We evaluated the degree of sensitivity of beef cattle performance to environmental variation, at the animal and molecular marker levels (412 K single nucleotide polymorphisms), by fitting and comparing the results of different reaction norm models (RNM), using a comprehensive dataset of Nellore cattle raised under diverse environmental conditions. RESULTS: Heteroscedastic RNM (with different residual variances for environmental level) provided better fit than homoscedastic RNM. In addition, spline and quadratic RNM outperformed linear RNM, which suggests the existence of a nonlinear genetic component affecting the performance of Nellore cattle. This nonlinearity indicates that within-animal sensitivity depends on the environmental gradient (EG) level and that animals may present different patterns of sensitivity according to the range of environmental variations. The spline RNM showed that sensitivity to environmental variation from harsh to average EG is lowly correlated with sensitivity from average to good EG, at both the animal and molecular marker levels. Although the genomic regions that affect sensitivity in harsher environments were not the same as those associated with less challenging environments, the candidate genes within those regions participate in common biological processes such as those related to inflammatory and immune response. Some plausible candidate genes were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity of tropical beef cattle to environmental variation is not continuous along the environmental gradient, which implies that animals that are less sensitive to harsher conditions are not necessarily less responsive to variations in better environmental conditions, and vice versa. The same pattern was observed at the molecular marker level, i.e. genomic regions and, consequently, candidate genes associated with sensitivity to harsh conditions were not the same as those associated with sensitivity to less challenging conditions.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Clima Tropical , Ganho de Peso/genética
20.
Metabolism ; 98: 84-94, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kisspeptins, encoded by Kiss1, have emerged as essential regulators of puberty and reproduction by primarily acting on GnRH neurons, via their canonical receptor, Gpr54. Mounting, as yet fragmentary, evidence strongly suggests that kisspeptin signaling may also participate in the control of key aspects of body energy and metabolic homeostasis. However, characterization of such metabolic dimension of kisspeptins remains uncomplete, without an unambiguous discrimination between the primary metabolic actions of kisspeptins vs. those derived from their ability to stimulate the secretion of gonadal hormones, which have distinct metabolic actions on their own. In this work, we aimed to tease apart primary vs. secondary effects of kisspeptins in the control of key aspects of metabolic homeostasis using genetic models of impaired kisspeptin signaling and/or gonadal hormone status. METHODS: Body weight (BW) gain and composition, food intake and key metabolic parameters, including glucose tolerance, were comparatively analyzed, in lean and obesogenic conditions, in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling due to global inactivation of Gpr54 (displaying profound hypogonadism; Gpr54-/-) vs. Gpr54 null mice with selective re-introduction of Gpr54 expression only in GnRH cells (Gpr54-/-Tg), where kisspeptin signaling elsewhere than in GnRH neurons is ablated but gonadal function is preserved. RESULTS: In male mice, global elimination of kisspeptin signaling resulted in decreased BW, feeding suppression and increased adiposity, without overt changes in glucose tolerance, whereas Gpr54-/- female mice displayed enhanced BW gain at adulthood, increased adiposity and perturbed glucose tolerance, despite reduced food intake. Gpr54-/-Tg rescued mice showed altered postnatal BW gain in males and mildly perturbed glucose tolerance in females, with intermediate phenotypes between control and global KO animals. Yet, body composition and leptin levels were similar to controls in gonadal-rescued mice. Exposure to obesogenic insults, such as high fat diet (HFD), resulted in exaggerated BW gain and adiposity in global Gpr54-/- mice of both sexes, and worsening of glucose tolerance, especially in females. Yet, while rescued Gpr54-/-Tg males displayed intermediate BW gain and feeding profiles and impaired glucose tolerance, rescued Gpr54-/-Tg females behaved as controls, except for a modest deterioration of glucose tolerance after ovariectomy. CONCLUSION: Our data support a global role of kisspeptin signaling in the control of body weight and metabolic homeostasis, with a dominant contribution of gonadal hormone-dependent actions. However, our results document also discernible primary effects of kisspeptin signaling in the regulation of body weight gain, feeding and responses to obesogenic insults, which occur in a sexually-dimorphic manner. SUMMARY OF TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: Kisspeptins, master regulators of reproduction, may also participate in the control of key aspects of body energy and metabolic homeostasis; yet, the nature of such metabolic actions remains debatable, due in part to the fact that kisspeptins modulate gonadal hormones, which have metabolic actions on their own. By comparing the metabolic profiles of two mouse models with genetic inactivation of kisspeptin signaling but different gonadal status (hypogonadal vs. preserved gonadal function), we provide herein a systematic dissection of gonadal-dependent vs. -independent metabolic actions of kisspeptins. Our data support a global role of kisspeptin signaling in the control of body weight and metabolic homeostasis, with a dominant contribution of gonadal hormone-dependent actions. However, our results document also discernible primary effects of kisspeptin signaling in the regulation of body weight gain, feeding and responses to obesogenic insults, which occur in a sexually-dimorphic manner. These data pave the way for future analyses addressing the eventual contribution of altered kisspeptin signaling in the development of metabolic alterations, especially in conditions linked to reproductive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Hormônios Gonadais/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Kisspeptinas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/genética , Ovariectomia , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/genética , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/genética
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