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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266331, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390035

RESUMO

Lingzhi has long been regarded as having life-prolonging effects. Research in recent years has also reported that Lingzhi possesses anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and anti-lipogenic effects. The D-galactose (D-gal, 100 mg/kg/day)-induced aging Long-Evans rats were simultaneously orally administered a DMSO extract of Ganoderma tsugae (GTDE, 200 µg/kg/day) for 25 weeks to investigate the effects of GTDE on oxidative stress and memory deficits in the D-galactose-induced aging rats. We found that GTDE significantly improved the locomotion and spatial memory and learning in the aging rats. GTDE alleviated the aging-induced reduction of dendritic branching in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Immunoblotting revealed a significant increase in the protein expression levels of the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and catalase, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rats that received GTDE. D-gal-induced increase in the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was significantly attenuated after the administration of GTDE, and pyrin domain-containing 3 protein (NLRP3) revealed a significant decrease in NLRP3 expression after GTDE administration. Lastly, GTDE significantly reduced the advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs). In conclusion, GTDE increases antioxidant capacity and BDNF expression of the brain, protects the dendritic structure of neurons, and reduces aging-induced neuronal damage, thereby attenuating cognitive impairment caused by aging.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Ganoderma , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Galactose/metabolismo , Galactose/toxicidade , Ganoderma/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
2.
Phytochemistry ; 198: 113131, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248578

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum), a well-known Polyporaceae family fungus, is valued for its edibility and medicinal properties. It is a rich source of active polysaccharides and triterpenoids. However, obtaining material for medicinal purposes relies on artificial cultivation in a greenhouse, which requires large amounts of tree trunk due to the low biomass transformation rate. Therefore, an effective and environment-friendly culture method should be developed and the chemical compounds in the cultured material should be studied. Here we report the isolation and structural elucidation of 10 undescribed lanostane triterpenoids and 21 known compounds from statically cultured mycelial mat of G. lucidum. The hepatoprotective activity of these compounds in H2O2-induced HepG2 cells was evaluated. The structure-activity relationship is discussed. Our results demonstrated that twelve ganoderic acid derivatives possess significant hepatoprotective activities, as judged by suppressed activities of ALT, AST and LDH and increased GSH levels in H2O2-injured HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Reishi , Triterpenos , Ganoderma/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química
3.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(7): 2367-2380, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348851

RESUMO

Fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP) is a novel functional protein family with specific immunomodulatory activity identified from several macro-fungi. A variety of biological activities of FIPs have been reported, such as anti-allergy, anti-tumor, mitogenic activity, and immunomodulation. Among all known FIPs, the firstly discovered FIP was isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, and most FIP members were from Ganoderma genus. Compared with other FIPs, Ganoderma FIPs possess some advantageous bioactivities, like stronger anti-tumor activity. Therein, gene sequences, protein structural features, biofunctions, and recombinant expression of Ganoderma FIPs were summarized and addressed, focusing on elucidating their anti-tumor activity and molecular mechanisms. Combined with current advances, development potential and application of Ganoderma FIPs were also prospected. KEY POINTS: • More than a dozen of reported FIPs are identified from Ganoderma species. • Ganoderma immunomodulatory proteins have superior anti-tumor activity with promising prospects and application. • Current review comprehensively addresses characterization, biofunctions, and anti-tumor mechanisms of Ganoderma FIPs.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ganoderma , Agaricales/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Ganoderma/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
4.
Food Funct ; 13(7): 4216-4228, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332895

RESUMO

Macrophages could be polarized into two major sub-populations including classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) on the regulation of macrophage polarization and further explored the associated molecular mechanisms. In this work, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus IFN-γ and IL-4 were used to establish an in vitro model of two extreme states, namely pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2. The results showed that PSG-1 had effects on the behavior modification of macrophage polarization by reducing CD80 expression in LPS plus IFN-γ-induced M1 macrophages, and attenuating CD23 expression in IL-4-induced M2 macrophages. Further study revealed that PSG-1-modulated M1 and M2 macrophage polarization was associated with controlling phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species generation, NO and cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10). Subsequently, the treatment of M1 macrophages with a combination of PSG-1 and a Notch-response inhibitor (DAPT) did not alter CD80 expression compared with DAPT alone, while several pro-inflammatory parameters were considerably decreased, suggesting that the Notch signaling pathway partly mediated the effects of PSG-1 on modulating macrophage polarization. Together, our findings suggested that PSG-1 could repair the chaos in the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages and the molecular mechanism linked to the Notch signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos , Ganoderma , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Bioorg Chem ; 121: 105689, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217377

RESUMO

Ganoderma resinaceum, as a traditional edible mushroom, has been widely reported to improve neurodegenerative diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, five new terpenoids, including four lanostane triterpenoids, named ganoresinoid A-D (1-4) and one meroterpenoid, named ganoresinoid E (5), along with 27 known compounds (6-32), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of edible mushroom G. resinaceum. These structures were identified by NMR, HRESIMS data analysis. All metabolites were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and anti-apoptosis activities. Among them, ganoresinoid A showed notably restrained nitric oxide (NO), IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in LPS-activated BV-2 microglial cells via suppressing TLR-4/ NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway. Simultaneously, ganoresinoid A remarkably alleviated LPS-induced apoptosis by means of the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, ganoresinoid A demonstrated antioxidant effects in H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cells by activating the Akt/GSK-3ß/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Taken together, these results may provide a stronger theoretical basis for ganoresinoid A from G. resinaceum as nutrition intervention to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Triterpenos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ganoderma , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
6.
Fitoterapia ; 158: 105161, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217118

RESUMO

Seventeen triterpenoids including four new lanostane triterpenoids (1-3 and 5) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum by various chromatographic techniques. Their chemical structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic data, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and HRESIMS. In addition, the spectral data of compound 4 was reported for the first time. In an in vitro bioassay, most isolated triterpenoids could inhibit the hydrolysis activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Furthermore, there is no cytotoxicity observed for these isolated triterpenoids. Therefore, G. lucidum showed the potential application for anti-neuroinflammation and more FAAH inhibitors may be explored from G. lucidum.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Reishi , Triterpenos , Amidoidrolases , Carpóforos/química , Ganoderma/química , Estrutura Molecular , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2416, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165332

RESUMO

The aim of this work to study an efficient laccase producing fungus Ganoderma leucocontextum, which was identified by ITS regions of DNA and phylogenetic tree was constructed. This study showed the laccase first-time from G. leucocontextum by using medium containing guaiacol. The growth cultural (pH, temperature, incubation days, rpm) and nutritional (carbon and nitrogen sources) conditions were optimized, which enhanced the enzyme production up to 4.5-folds. Laccase production increased 855 U/L at 40 °C. The pH 5.0 was suitable for laccase secretion (2517 U/L) on the 7th day of incubation at 100 rpm (698.3 U/L). Glucose and sucrose were good carbon source to enhance the laccase synthesis. The 10 g/L beef (4671 U/L) and yeast extract (5776 U/L) were the best nitrogen source for laccase secretion from G. leucocontextum. The laccase was purified from the 80% ammonium sulphate precipitations of protein identified by nucleotides sequence. The molecular weight (65.0 kDa) of purified laccase was identified through SDS and native PAGE entitled as Glacc110. The Glacc110 was characterized under different parameters. It retained > 90% of its activity for 16 min incubation at 60 °C in acidic medium (pH 4.0). This enzyme exerted its optimal activity at pH 3.0 and temperature 70 °C with guaiacol substrate. The catalytic parameters Km and Vmax was 1.658 (mM) and 2.452 (mM/min), respectively. The thermo stability of the laccase produced by submerged fermentation of G. leucocontextum has potential for industrial and biotechnology applications. The results remarked the G. leucocontextum is a good source for laccase production.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Ganoderma/enzimologia , Lacase/química , Lacase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Sequência de Bases , Precipitação Química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Ganoderma/química , Ganoderma/classificação , Ganoderma/genética , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Lacase/genética , Lacase/isolamento & purificação
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(1): 203-223, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178927

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the molecular mechanism of Ganoderma against gastric cancer based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cell experiment. The active components and targets of Ganoderma were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), and gastric cancer-related targets from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM). The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the common targets was constructed with STRING, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the common genes based on Bioconductor and R language. The medicinal-disease-component-target network and medicinal-disease-component-target-pathway network were established by Cytoscape. Molecular docking was performed between ß-sitosterol(the key component in Ganoderma) and the top 15 targets in the PPI network. Cell experiment was performed to verify the findings. A total of 14 active components and 28 targets of Ganoderma were retrieved, and the medicinal and the disease shared 25 targets, including caspase-3(CASP3), caspase-8(CASP8), caspase-9(CASP9), and B-cell lymphoma-2(BCL2). The common targets involved 72 signaling pathways and apoptosis and p53 signaling pathway may play a crucial role in the effect of Ganoderma against gastric cancer. ß-sitosterol had strong binding activity to the top 15 targets in the PPI network. The in vitro cell experiment demonstrated that ß-sitosterol inhibited gastric cancer AGS cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the S phase, which might be related to the regulation of the p53 pathway. This study shows the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics of Ganoderma against gastric cancer, which lays a scientific basis for further research on the molecular mechanism.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
9.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164103

RESUMO

Some species of Ganoderma, such as G. lucidum, are well-known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and their pharmacological value was scientifically proven in modern days. However, G. boninense is recognized as an oil palm pathogen, and its biological activity is scarcely reported. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the antibacterial properties of G. boninense fruiting bodies, which formed by condensed mycelial, produced numerous and complex profiles of natural compounds. Extract was cleaned up with normal-phase SPE and its metabolites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). From the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays, strong susceptibility was observed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in elute fraction with zone inhibition of 41.08 ± 0.04 mm and MIC value of 0.078 mg mL-1. A total of 23 peaks were detected using MS, which were putatively identified based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and eight compounds, which include aristolochic acid, aminoimidazole ribotide, lysine sulfonamide 11v, carbocyclic puromycin, fenbendazole, acetylcaranine, tigecycline, and tamoxifen, were reported in earlier literature for their antimicrobial activity. Morphological observation via scanning electron microscope (SEM), cell membrane permeability, and integrity assessment suggest G. boninense extract induces irreversible damage to the cell membrane of MRSA, thus causing cellular lysis and death.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ganoderma/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
10.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 299: 103843, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026480

RESUMO

Ganoderma, a fungal genus, is a traditional medicine with immuno-modulating effects. Asthma is an inflammatory disease of airways, and the main trigger of asthma is allergic inflammation. In this study, the effects of Ganoderma (an anti-inflammatory agent) given via oral administration (G/O) or intraperitoneal injection (G/IP) on asthma was evaluated. Forty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups, including the control, OVA-challenge, OVA-challenge + G/O, and OVA-challenge + G/IP. To determine AHR, the MCh challenge test was done. The levels of IL-1ß, -4, -5, -6, -8, -10, -12, -13, -17, -25, -33, -38, Cys-LT, LTB4, and hydroxyproline were measured. Finally, lung histopathology was evaluated to determine eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and mucus hyper-secretion. Treatment with G/O and G/IP could significantly reduce the levels of IL-1ß, -5, -6, -8, -17, -25, -33, and -38; the levels of IL-4 and IL-13 had no significant changes, but the levels of IL-10 and IL-12 were enhanced. The mice treated with G/O and G/IP showed decreased levels of Cys-LT, LTB4, peribronchial and perivascular inflammation, but no significant changes were observed in AHR, hydroxyproline level, goblet cell hyperplasia, and mucus hyper-secretion. Ganoderma can be applied as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent for managing asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Ganoderma , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Citocinas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidroxiprolina/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Leucotrieno B4/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina
11.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011507

RESUMO

Fungal mycelium cultures are an alternative to natural sources in order to obtain valuable research materials. They also enable constant control and adaptation of the process, thereby leading to increased biomass growth and accumulation of bioactive metabolites. The present study aims to assess the biosynthetic potential of mycelial cultures of six Ganoderma species: G. adspersum, G. applanatum, G. carnosum, G. lucidum, G. pfeifferi, and G. resinaceum. The presence of phenolic acids, amino acids, indole compounds, sterols, and kojic acid in biomass extracts was determined by HPLC. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the extracts and their effects on the inhibition of selected enzymes (tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase) were also evaluated. The total content of phenolic acids in the extracts ranged from 5.8 (G. carnosum) to 114.07 mg/100 g dry weight (d.w.) (G. pfeifferi). The total content of indole compounds in the extracts ranged from 3.03 (G. carnosum) to 11.56 mg/100 g d.w. (G. lucidum) and that of ergosterol ranged from 28.15 (G. applanatum) to 74.78 mg/100 g d.w. (G. adspersum). Kojic acid was found in the extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum. The tested extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. The results suggest that the analyzed mycelial cultures are promising candidates for the development of new dietary supplements or pharmaceutical preparations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Misturas Complexas/química , Citotoxinas/química , Ganoderma/química , Micélio/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Ganoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 12(3)2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35079793

RESUMO

Over the past decades, Ganoderma lingzhi spores have received considerable attention as a great potential pharmaceutical resource. However, the genetic regulation of sporulation is not well understood. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the low-sporing HZ203 and high-sporing YW-1 was performed to characterize the mechanism underlying sporulation. A total of 917 differentially expressed genes were identified in HZ203 and 1,450 differentially expressed genes in YW-1. Differentially expressed genes involved in sporulation were identified, which included HOP1, Mek1, MSH4, MSH5, and Spo5 in meiosis. Positive regulatory pathways of sporulation were proposed as 2 transcriptional factors had high connectivity with MSH4 and Spo5. Furthermore, we found that the pathways associated with energy production were enriched in the high-sporing genotype, such as the glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism. Finally, we performed a weighted gene coexpression network analysis and found that the hub genes of the module which exhibit strong positive relationship with the high-sporing phase purportedly participate in signal transduction, carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The dissection of differentially expressed genes during sporulation extends our knowledge about the genetic and molecular networks mediating spore morphogenesis and sheds light on the importance of energy source during sporulation.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Ganoderma , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/genética
13.
Phytochemistry ; 196: 113075, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974245

RESUMO

In the quest for medicinally active compounds in mushrooms of the genus Ganoderma, eleven undescribed lanostane triterpenoids, including a novel chlorinated derivative, i.e., (20S,24E)-21-chloro-15ß,20,29-trihydroxy-3,7,11-trioxolanosta-8,24-dien-26-oic acid, were isolated from artificially cultivated fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Ganoderma mbrekobenum. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The configuration of the C-20 atom in the most abundant 20-hydroxy-lanostane, (20S,24E)-15ß,20,29-trihydroxy-3,7,11-trioxolanosta-8,24-dien-26-oic acid, was established by chemical derivatization, and the absolute configuration of the lanostane skeleton was determined by ECD calculation. Two of the undescribed compounds exhibited moderate antimalarial activity.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Triterpenos , Carpóforos/química , Ganoderma/química , Estrutura Molecular , Triterpenos/química
14.
Phytochemistry ; 194: 113004, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837763

RESUMO

Ganorbifates C-I, seven undescribed biosynthetically related polyoxygenated 3,4-seco-27-norlanostanoid congeners, were isolated from the edible mushroom, Ganoderma orbiforme. Ganorbifate C features a unique cyclobutene ring constructed at C19/C11, and both D and E incorporate an unusual cyclopropane ring formed by C-19/C-9 linkage. Their structures, including the absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic methods and ECD calculations. The proposed Norrish-Yang cyclization-based key biosynthetic pathway for ganorbifates C-E is revealed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The computational studies uncover the formation of both cyclobutene and cyclopropane rings in the isolates and the stereoselectivity centers of these steps are consistent with those in the natural products. All compounds exhibited NO generation inhibition in LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells, among them ganorbifate C was the most promising one with the IC50 values of 4.37 µM.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ganoderma , Ciclização , Lanosterol/análogos & derivados
15.
Mycologia ; 114(1): 157-174, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797203

RESUMO

Stem rot by Ganoderma is a disease of major concern for coconut farmers. Many species (G. applanatum, G. boninense, G. lucidum, G. zonatum) have been implicated as the causal agents of the disease. Despite its importance, systematics of the rot-associated Ganoderma remains uncertain and unresolved. Morphologically heterogeneous basidiomata of the putative pathogen(s) from infected palms in multiple disease sites were collected during an outbreak in the coastal state of India, Kerala. Morphological and molecular investigations revealed that these specimens were distinct from all the Ganoderma species so far identified and reported from coconut. Although with a close morphological resemblance to many Ganoderma species collected from palms, they exhibited unique genetics and geographic distribution patterns. We present a taxonomic reassessment of the species collected from infected coconut palms in India and also propose two new species, Ganoderma keralense and G. pseudoapplanatum. A taxonomic key to Ganoderma species on palms is given.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Ganoderma , Cocos , Ganoderma/genética , Índia
16.
Nutr Cancer ; 74(3): 978-995, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085886

RESUMO

Clinical efficacy of chemotherapy is often compromised by diabetogenic glucose on colorectal cancer (CRC). High glucose has been shown to diminish the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. The issue can potentially be addressed with natural products. Recently, we revealed that Ganoderma neo-japonicum exhibits inhibitory activities against human colonic carcinoma cells. In this study, the impacts of hexane fraction (Hex, sterol-enriched) and chloroform fraction (Chl, terpenoid-enriched) were further elucidated. The cellular responses, including oxidative stress, cell cycle, and apoptosis were compared between the presence of normal glucose (NG, 5.5 mM) and high glucose (HG, 25 mM). HG promoted cell viability with concomitant elevation of GSH level. Both Hex and Chl fractions stimulated NO production, in addition, induced cell cycle arrest. The apoptotic effect of Hex fraction was glucose-dependent, but Chl fraction triggered apoptosis with an equivalent extent in NG and HG conditions. Overall, the active fractions from G. neo-japonicum show therapeutic potential in managing hyperglycemia-associated CRC.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ganoderma , Neoplasias , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 45(3): 1243-1253, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854544

RESUMO

The toxic side effects of doxorubicin in cancer treatment are well established. Here we show that methanolic extract of the fungus Ganoderma applanatum offers protection against cardio- and hepatotoxicity induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) bearing mice. Treatment of DLA mice with 20 mg/kg of doxorubicin significantly increased the activities of serum toxicity markers including aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, co-administration of doxorubicin (20 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection and G. applanatum (150 mg/kg) by oral gavage in DLA mice lowered the AST, ALT, and LDH activities when compared to DOX alone treatment. Treatment of DLA mice with DOX alone resulted in reduced GSH contents, and decreased the activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment of DOX-administered DLA mice with G. applanatum however increased the GSH content and elevated the activities of GST, CAT, and SOD. Among the various solvent extracts of G. applanatum, methanolic extract showed the highest phenolic (376.5 ± 15.24 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (4717.79 ± 170.22 mg quercetin/g) contents compared to the aqueous (216.3 ± 7.33 mg GAE/g) and chloroform extracts (137.27 ± 1.03 mg GAE/g). Consistently, the methanolic extract was found to possess the highest free radical scavenging activities when compared to the aqueous and chloroform extracts as measured by ABTS and DPPH assays. Our results thus suggest that the protective roles of G. applanatum in DOX-induced toxicity could be an attribute of the antioxidant properties conferred by the high phenolic and flavonoid contents.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Linfoma , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Ascite/patologia , Ascite/prevenção & controle , Clorofórmio/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Metanol , Camundongos , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(3): 748-753, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744110

RESUMO

Two new lanostane triterpnenoids named endertiins A and B (1 and 2) together with two known compounds as ganodecalone A (3) and ergosterol (4) have been successfully isolated from the cultivated fruit bodies of the mushroom Humphreya endertii Stey (Ganodermataceae). Their structures were elucidated by a combination of HR-MS and 2 D NMR spectroscopic analyses. In addition, endertiins A and B (1 and 2) were evaluated their cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MCF7 (human breast carcinoma) and LU (human lung carcinoma). The result showed that endertiin A (1) could inhibit the growth of MCF-7 cells with its IC50 value of 71.16 ± 6.25 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Triterpenos , Frutas , Carpóforos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Polyporaceae , Triterpenos/farmacologia
19.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(6): 1529-1535, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771063

RESUMO

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, ganoderenicfys A (1) and B (2), together with six related known terpenoids (3-8), were isolated and identified from the fruiting body of Ganoderma applanatum. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of detailed interpretation of their NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by quantum chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their proangiogenic activities in a transgenic fluorescent zebrafish model. Compounds 1-6 displayed dose-dependently proangiogenic activity in a PTK787-induced vascular injury zebrafish model, while compounds 1, 2 and 4 significantly promoted the angiogenesis. This is the first report for proangiogenic activities of lanostane-type triterpenoids.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Triterpenos , Animais , Carpóforos/química , Ganoderma/química , Estrutura Molecular , Triterpenos/química , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Phytopathology ; 112(2): 238-248, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156264

RESUMO

Basal stem rot (BSR) is the most common disease of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in Southeast Asia. BSR is caused by a white-rot fungus Ganoderma boninense. The disease is difficult to manage. Therefore, development of novel and environmentally safe approaches to control the disease is important. Species of Burkholderia are known to have diverse lifestyles, some of which can benefit plants by suppressing diseases or increasing plant growth. In the present study, antifungal peptides produced by a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of an oil palm tree, Burkholderia sp. strain CP01, exhibited strong growth inhibition on G. boninense. A loss-of-function mutant of CP01 was generated, and it has enabled the identification of a 1.2-kDa peptide and its variants as the active antifungal compounds. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed six analogous compounds with monoisotopic masses similar to the previously reported cyclic lipopeptides occidiofungin and burkholdine. The antifungal compounds of CP01 were secreted into media, and we sought to use CP01 culture extract without living cells to control BSR disease. Glasshouse experiments showed that CP01 culture extract suppressed BSR disease in oil palm seedlings. The ability of CP01 to produce an antifungal substance and suppress plant disease suggests its potential applications as a biofungicide in agriculture.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Burkholderia , Ganoderma , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arecaceae/microbiologia , Ganoderma/fisiologia , Lipopeptídeos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
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