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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 59-106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677140

RESUMO

So far, more than 20 species of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) fungi have been studied, including G. lucidum, G. sinense, G. japonicum, G. capense, G. australe, G. tsugae, G. applanatum, G. tropicus, G. boniense, G. duropora, G. resinaceum, G. theaecolum, G. cochlear, G. atrum, G. formosanum, G. boninense, G. colossum, G. concinna, G. amboinense, G. pfeifferi, and G. orbiforme. Over 600 compounds were isolated and identified from the genus Ganoderma. The components in Ganoderma contained triterpenes, meroterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and polysaccharides, in which triterpenes were the main compounds, and more than 300 triterpenes obtained from it. With the use of new technology of separation and purification, the other types of compounds, such as meroterpenoids, alkaloids, nucleosides, and polysaccharides were reported in recent years. Herein, the structural classifications and characteristics and separation methods were summarized.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 107-134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677141

RESUMO

Ganoderma, named lingzhi in China, has been used for centuries as drug and nutraceutical to treat diseases. Based on our research and other literatures, the chapter summarizes the progress of preparation, structural features and properties, bioactivities of Ganoderma polysaccharides. The aim is to provide a comprehensive source of information for researchers and consumers of Ganoderma, so they can better understand Ganoderma polysaccharides and their biological activities. In addition, more clinical studies should be carried out to meet the criteria for new drug development, and more convincing scientific data should be provided. In addition, on the basis of a large number of studies on Ganoderma polysaccharides, we suggest that more clinical studies should be carried out so that Ganoderma can be better recognized and applied all over the world.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Polissacarídeos , China , Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 157-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677143

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) are the mature germ cells of Ganoderma lucidum. They have all the genetic substances and similar active components of Ganoderma lucidum. Similar to the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum, ganoderma spores powder has the effect of regulating immunity, antitumor, antioxidation, and protecting cells and so on. In recent decades, with the development of the technology of breaking the wall of Ganoderma lucidum spores and the technology of extracting and preparing, the researches and application of Ganoderma lucidum spores powder have made great progress.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Esporos Fúngicos , Ganoderma/química , Pesquisa/tendências , Esporos Fúngicos/química
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 187-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677144

RESUMO

Ganoderma (Lingzhi) has been used as a medicinal mushroom to promote health in China for more than 2000 years. The modern research and development of Ganoderma industry started from the 1950s, in which the successful cultivation of Ganoderma fruiting body and submerged fermentation of Ganoderma mycelium lay the critical foundation for the industry development. Recent decades have witnessed the rapid development of Ganoderma industry, which is boosted through various efforts made by the government, the academia, and the industry. In this chapter, the development of Ganoderma industry in China is reviewed in terms of gross output, standards, scientific articles, patents, and associations. In addition, development of Ganoderma products and manufacturing technologies are also overviewed and summarized. In the last section, several innovation trends are suggested for the further development of Ganoderma industry.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Produtos Biológicos , China , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/tendências , Ganoderma/química
5.
Phytochemistry ; 168: 112109, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494344

RESUMO

Eight undescribed ergostane-type steroids, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3ß,5α-diol- 6,5-olide, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß,5ß,6ß-triol, (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxy ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß,5α,14ß-triol, (22E,24R)-9α,15α-dihydroxyergosta-4,6,8 (14),22-tetraen-3-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22-trien-3ß,11α-dihydroxyl-7-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,7,22-trien-3ß,9α,14ß-trihydroxyl-6-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22- dien-3ß,9α,14ß-trihydroxyl-6-one, and (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxyergosta-7,22-dien-3ß, 5α,9α,14ß-tetraol, and twenty-one known analogues were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma resinaceum Boud. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystal diffraction, as well as empirical pyridine-induced deshielding effects. Furthermore, selected compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation using an inhibition of nitric oxide production assay. Finally, (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22- trien-3ß,11α-dihydroxyl-7-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,7,22-trien-3ß,9α,14ß-tri hydroxyl-6-one, (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxyergosta-7,22-dien-3ß,5α,9α,14ß-tetraol, (22E,24R)-ergosta-6,9,22-trien-3ß,5α,8α-triol,ergost-6,22-dien-3ß,5α,8α-triol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-8,22-diene-3ß,7α-diol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)- ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3ß,7α-diol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3ß, 7ß-diol, and 22E-7α-methoxy-5α,6α-epoxyergosta-8(14),22-dien-3ß-ol showed inhibitory effects on NO production with IC50 values ranging from 3.24 ±â€¯0.02 to 35.19 ±â€¯0.41 µM compared with L-NMMA (IC50 49.86 ±â€¯2.13 µM), indicating that they have potential anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Ganoderma/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Esteroides/química
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110757, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408719

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of Ganoderma atrum (G. atrum) polysaccharide (PSG-1) on macrophage injury induced by acrolein. The results showed that PSG-1 restored the cell viability damaged by acrolein. In addition, PSG-1 significantly reduced the acrolein-induced occurrence of apoptosis via increase of Bcl-2 expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decrease of ROS, cytochrome c (Cyt-C), caspase-3, caspase-9. Moreover, the overexpressions of autophagy-related proteins (LC3, Beclin-1, Atg7 and Atg5) were suppressed by PSG-1, which demonstrated that PSG-1 inhibited autophagy in acrolein treated macrophage. Beside, PSG-1 significantly elevated the expression level of p-mTOR, suggested that PSG-1 mediated autophagy through mTOR pathway. Furthermore, inhibitor of autophagy could inhibit apoptosis in acrolein-induced macrophage, suggesting that autophagy may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. In summary, the present study demonstrated that PSG-1 protected acrolein-induced macrophage injury via autophagy-dependent apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganoderma/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Acroleína/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 706-716, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129213

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to characterize the primary structure and physicochemical properties of natural polysaccharides (GLP) and degraded polysaccharides (GLPUD) from Ganoderma lucidum, and evaluate their hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. The results of particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides were effectively degraded by ultrasonic method. GLPUD was composed of the same monosaccharide units as GLP but with different molar ratios. Infrared spectra and NMR showed that the primary structure of polysaccharides had not been changed by ultrasonic degradation. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of polysaccharides increased after ultrasonic treatment. After administration by GLP and GLPUD four weeks, body weight, visceral index, atherosclerosis index (AI) and biochemical indicators in serum and in liver were determined. The results showed that GLPUD had stronger hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities than GLP. GLPUD was more effective than the GLP for reducing AI, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), raising high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (p < 0.01), reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as well as increasing the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mice serum, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reducing MDA content in liver (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). In addition, the histopathological observations of mice livers showed that GLPUD could significantly improve lipid metabolism disorder in hepatocytes. Thus, GLPUD might be tested as a more effective hypolipidemic drug.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ondas Ultrassônicas
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(3): 489-494, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989913

RESUMO

Chemical constituents were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma australe by various column chromatographic techniques and HPLC method, and their chemical structures were identified through the combined analysis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Meanwhile, their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and anti-oxidative ability were evaluated. Seven compounds were isolated from G. australe and were identified as 6-methoxyl-cyclo-(Phe-Ile)(1), applanoxidic acid A methyl ester(2), ergosta-7,22 E-dien-3ß-ol(3), cinnamic acid(4), 5α,8α-epidioxy-(20S,22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-diene-3ß-ol(5), 1-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone(6), salicylic acid(7) and benzoic acid(8). Among the compounds, compound 1 was a new cyclic dipeptide. Compound 2 was a new lanosta natural product, and compounds 4, 6, 7 and 8 were obtained from G. australe for the first time. Moreover, compounds 4 and 8 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with inhibition rates of 36.8% and 34.7%, and compounds 4, 7 and 8 had a certain activity in DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC_(50) values of 0.168, 0.458 and 0.170 g·L~(-1), respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging rate of compound 1 was 41.1%.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Ganoderma/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(4): 474-480, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932273

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Investigation on ganoderic acids (GAs) from different cultivars and origins of Ganoderma species, regarding to their composition, contents and bioactivities, will be of great importance for the development and quality control of Ganoderma-based healthcare products or drugs. OBJECTIVE: Comparative and chemometric analysis of different Ganoderma species were conducted to reveal the correlations between their chemical fingerprints and anti-proliferative activities. METHODOLOGY: Six Ganoderma samples with different origins and parts of fruiting body (pileus and stipe) were extracted with chloroform and enriched by a SPE-C18 cartridge. The eluents were used for high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV/ESI-MS/MS) analysis and cytotoxicity assay with three cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, HT-29 and Hep G2). Chemometric analysis was applied to correlate their chemical compositions and corresponding bioactivities. RESULTS: Sixteen peaks (accounting for 70% of the total peak areas) were identified as GAs, and their contents ranged from 0.368 to 10.8 µg/g in various Ganoderma species. The extracts from three Ganoderma species had significant anti-proliferative activities (inhibitory rates ranged from 70.8% to 80.7%), and extracts from Lurongzhi showed remarkable inhibition to all three cancer cells (inhibitory rates range from 81.6% to 92.1%). Finally, chemometric analysis revealed that 3,7,12-trihydroxy-4,4,14-trimethyl-11,15-dioxochol-8-en-24-oic acid and 12-acetoxy-15-hydroxy-4,4,14-trimethyl-3,7,11-trioxochol-8-en-24-oic acid were the two compounds with most potential anti-proliferative activity for SGC-7901. CONCLUSION: The correlations between chemical fingerprints and anti-proliferative activities of various Ganoderma species give remarkable insight into the true bioactive components of chemical markers for the quality assessment of the Ganoderma resources, and provide a good guidance for the study on the chemical spectrum-bioactivity relationship.


Assuntos
Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triterpenos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
10.
Phytochemistry ; 162: 199-206, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947089

RESUMO

Twelve previously undescribed phenolic meroterpenoids, cochlearols N-Y, along with two known analogs, ganocochlearins B and C, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma cochlear. Most of these substances were isolated as racemic mixtures. The structures of cochlearols N-Y were assigned based upon spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations. The renoprotective activities of these compounds were evaluated using normal and diseased rat renal interstitial fibroblast cells (NRK-49F). The results show that ganocochlearins S, U, X and Y display potent inhibitory activities against fibronectin overproduction in TGF-ß1-induced NRK-49F cells.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganoderma/química , Rim/citologia , Fenóis/química , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Carpóforos/química , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Ratos
11.
Phytochemistry ; 162: 21-28, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851507

RESUMO

Ten previously undescribed triterpenoid congeners, namely irpeksolactins A-J, together with eighteen known ones, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the rainforest-dwelling medicinal fungus Irpex lacteus. The structures of all the isolates were characterized by extensive spectroscopic approaches, including 1D & 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. Irpeksolactin J displayed selective and weak cytotoxicity against the human lung cancer cell line A549 and the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Ganoderma/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
12.
Fitoterapia ; 134: 411-416, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902752

RESUMO

Zizhines G-O (1-9), nine new meroterpenoids, and seven known analogs (10-16) were isolated from the dried fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sinensis. Their structures were identified by using spectroscopic data and CD curve comparison. The inhibitory activities of the selected new meroterpenoids toward AchE were assessed in vitro. Compounds 1-6 and 10-14 were found to exhibit AchE inhibitory activities at the concentration of 50 µM.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , China , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Carpóforos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
13.
Fitoterapia ; 134: 250-255, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825574

RESUMO

Six new meroterpenoids, australeols A-F (1-6), together with nineteen known compounds (7-25), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma australe. Their structures including absolute configurations were assigned by using spectroscopic methods, CD comparison, and X-ray crystallography analysis. Biological evaluation reveals that compounds 13, (-)-19, and 23 exhibit potent neuroprotective activities in glutamate-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells.


Assuntos
Ganoderma/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , China , Carpóforos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
14.
Fitoterapia ; 134: 58-64, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763720

RESUMO

Five new aromatic compounds, designed as lucidumins A-D (1-4) and lucidimine E (9), along with seven known aromatic compounds (5-8, 10-12) were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic method. Bioactive evaluation showed that compounds 2-4 and 6-10 displayed remarkable neuroprotective activities against corticosterone-induced PC12 cell damage, with the cell viability ranging from 69.99% to 126.00%; and compounds 1-4, 9 and 10 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values ranging from 4.68 to 15.49 µM. In particular, compound 10 showed remarkable neuroprotection with EC50 value of 2.49 ±â€¯0.12 µM, and potent anti-inflammation with IC50 value of 4.68 ±â€¯0.09 µM.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , China , Carpóforos/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos
15.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 12, 2019 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636645

RESUMO

Bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum has recently gained intense research attention due to their acclaimed nutritional and medicinal properties. Thus, the terpenoid extract from the fruit bodies of G. lucidum (GT) was evaluated for activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice in two separate experiments. In addition, the effects of the extract on erythrocyte and hepatic lipids as well as liver HMG-CoA reductase activity before and after the treatments were also assessed. Mice with established infection were administered 100 and 250 mg/kg/day GT alone and in combination with chloroquine (CQ), in either case two separate controls designated: CQ (30 mg/kg chloroquine) and INF-CTR (1 mL DMSO) were also included. Treatment was administered orally for 12 days and parasitemia determined every three days. Percentage survival was significantly increased to 87% from 66% due to combination of GT100 with CQ compared to GT100 alone and to 75% from 62% when GT250 was administered with CQ compared to GT250 alone. Erythrocyte triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), LDL and phospholipids contents were significantly lower in GT + CQ-treated mice compared to CQ alone and INF-CTR. Similarly, hepatic TC and phospholipid levels were significantly lower in the GT + CQ-treated mice compared to CQ alone and INF-CTR and HMG-CoA reductase activity in the liver was significantly inhibited due to administration of GT + CQ. Data from this study suggest that the anti-plasmodial action of GT could involve mechanisms associated with its hypolipidemic activity. It was also demonstrated that chloroquine, when administered in combination with GT, potentiates its curative effect in P. berghei-infected mice.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ganoderma/química , Lipídeos/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/sangue , Malária/enzimologia , Malária/parasitologia , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
J Med Food ; 22(2): 225-227, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596532

RESUMO

In the present study, ethanol extracts of 90 wild mushroom samples from Nepal, and the pure compound hispidin, were screened for their ability to inhibit ß-hexosaminidase release (BHR) from rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Simultaneously, the toxicity of the extracts toward the cells was also determined, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Samples belonging to the groups Hymenochaetales and Polyporales showed promising anti-allergic activity, with Phellinus adamantinus and Ganoderma lingzhi 3 allowing a mere 19.4% and 16.7% BHR, respectively, without any cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for Inonotus clemensiae and P. adamantinus were determined to be 51.24 and 50.65 µg/mL, respectively; whereas hispidin, the major bioactive compound in I. clemensiae showed an IC50 value of 82.47 µg/mL. These findings are crucial in underscoring the medicinal value of the wild mushrooms of Nepal, as a source of strong antiallergic agents.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Agaricales/química , Animais , Basófilos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ganoderma/química , Leucemia Basofílica Aguda , Nepal , Ratos , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 187(1): 281-290, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717433

RESUMO

Studies have shown that cadmium can cause chicken testicular damage, but a protective effect of Ganoderma triterpenoids on cadmium-induced testicular damage in chickens has not yet been reported. The present study was designed to research the protective effect of Ganoderma triterpenoids on cadmium-induced testicular damage in chicken. Eighty healthy 7-day-old Hyline egg laying chickens were randomly divided into four groups with 20 in each group. The control group was fed with normal full-fodder, the model group was fed with normal full-fodder with 140 mg/kg of CdCl2, the Ganoderma triterpenoid treatment group was fed with a full-fodder diet containing 140 mg/kg of CdCl2 and 0.5 mL of Ganoderma triterpenoid solution (20 mg/mL), and the Ganoderma triterpenoid group was fed normal full-fodder and 0.5 mL of Ganoderma triterpenoid solution (20 mg/mL) gavage. The chickens were euthanized at 20, 40, and 60 days, respectively, and the testes were harvested. The changes of cadmium contents, the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), peroxide (malondialdehyde (MDA)), inflammatory factors (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), and apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3) were detected. The pathological sections of the testes were made at the same time. The results suggested that Ganoderma triterpenoids could reduce the accumulation of cadmium in testis tissue; reduce the content of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in cadmium poisoning testis; significantly increase the activity of SOD and GSH-Px; decrease the content of MDA; regulate the expression of Bax, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2; and reduce the damage of testicular tissue. The results showed that Ganoderma triterpenoids have a protective effect on cadmium-induced testicular injury in chicken.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Cádmio/prevenção & controle , Ganoderma/química , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Masculino
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 231: 464-473, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513345

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. (also known as Linghzhi and Reishi) is the most appreciated and revered medicinal mushroom across many Asian countries, but its properties have also attracted interest in Western countries. Indeed, in the West, it is now commercially available as a dietary supplement in preparations mainly made from spores, fruiting bodies and mycelia. It is employed in both nutraceutical and pharmacological formulations either for its immuno-modulating anti-inflammatory properties or as an effective adjuvant therapy in the treatment of several chronic diseases as well as in cancer treatment. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this investigation was to show the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of an ethanolic extract from an Italian mycelial isolate of Ganoderma lucidum and to assess its effects on nuclear DNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LC/ESI-MS and tandem mass spectrometry MSMS were used to obtain structural identification of ethanolic G. lucidum extract constituents. Antioxidant activities were determined by the DPPH method, chelating effect on Fe2+ and lipoxygenase inhibition while cytotoxic activities using the MTT assay. Effects on nuclear DNA were evaluated using the DNA nicking assay in a cell-free system and the fast halo assay performed on oxidatively injured human U937 cells; apoptosis induction was investigated using the non-denaturing fast halo assay and DNA laddering detection. RESULTS: This extract was rich in several bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic and triterpenic acids. It showed antioxidant activity and protective effects in oxidatively injured DNA in cell-free analyses and antiproliferative, genotoxic, and proapoptotic effects in the cell model. CONCLUSIONS: Italian G. lucidum mycelium isolate appears to be a source of various natural compounds that may have applications as chemopreventive agents or functional foods.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Fatores Biológicos , Ganoderma , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/análise , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Humanos , Itália , Micélio/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/farmacologia
19.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(2): 143-147, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527867

RESUMO

Four new aromatic meroterpenoids, ganocapenoids A-D (1-4), together with twelve known analogues (5-16) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma capense. The structures of new compounds were determined through spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses. Their absolute configurations were assigned by ECD calculations and specific rotation comparison. The biological activities of these substances toward regulation of lipid metabolism, neurite outgrowth-promoting activity, and AchE inhibition were assessed. Compound 15 was found to be able to block lipid accumulation at a concentration of 20 µM, and compounds 4a, 4b, and 11 show moderate neurite outgrowth-promoting activity at 10 µM, while compounds 3, 6, 11, and 13 exhibit potent AchE inhibition with the IC50 values of 28.6 ±â€¯1.9, 18.7 ±â€¯1.6, 8.2 ±â€¯0.2, 26.0 ±â€¯2.9 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(19): 2784-2788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445847

RESUMO

One new lignan derivative 2,3-dimethyl-4-(4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-naphthalene (1), together with four known analogues (2-5), were isolated from acetone extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lipsiense collected in the Hainan Province, China. Their structures were elucidated by the detailed analysis of comprehensive spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed insecticidal activity against newly hatched karvae of Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Compounds 1-5 showed moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with the same MIC value of 1.25 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , China , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Carpóforos/química , Inseticidas/química , Lignanas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
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