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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2816-2825, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040905

RESUMO

Ganoderma mushrooms have been widely used as functional food in China, Japan, and Korea. Ganoderma triterpenoids are deemed to be the main functional constituents. The structures of Ganoderma triterpenoids are complex but quite similar, which makes their analyses markedly limited. In this study, we developed a general 2D NMR method to differentiate Ganoderma triterpenoids, which classifies them into six types (A-F). Then, by the NMR-based isolation of A-F type triterpenoids from the fruiting bodies of G. resinaceum, four new compounds (1-4) and eight known compounds (5-12) were obtained. Moreover, combined with spiking experiments in 1D and 2D NMR spectra, compounds 5, 7, and 8, which belong to triterpenoids of A and B types, were identified. At the end, to achieve a more extensive application for this NMR method, a qNMR method for the absolute quantification of 5, 7, and 8 in the gross triterpenoids from G. resinaceum was set up. The results showed that this NMR method is reliable for the NMR-guided isolation and quantification of triterpenoids in G. resinaceum.


Assuntos
Ganoderma/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triterpenos/química , China , Análise Discriminante , Ganoderma/classificação , Japão , Estrutura Molecular , República da Coreia
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 146: 353-362, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911173

RESUMO

Fungal polysaccharides have become hotspots in the field of health foods due to their antitumor activity in recent years. In this experiment, antitumor effect of the medicinal fungus Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide (GAP) was investigated in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, as well as the molecular mechanism of its effect on autophagy. Results showed that GAP contains three polysaccharides with molecular weights of 6.36 × 105 Da, 4.25 × 105 Da, and 2.53 × 105 Da and which composed of rhamnose, glucose, arabinose, fucose in the molar ratio of 1:22:16.1:3.2. GAP inhibited the proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells in a time-dose-dependent manner, the maximum inhibition rate reached 50.2% at 500 µg/mL in 48 h. Flow cytometry analysis showed that GAP could induce apoptosis, treatment of cells with GAP could result in up-regulation of gene and protein levels of autophagy-associated markers LC3 and Beclin-1; addition of autocrine late inhibitor CQ significantly raised the protein expression level of LC3II. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway was not only related to the apoptotic pathway but also to the autophagy pathway; Western blot analysis showed that MAPK signaling pathway is involved in GAP-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells. Detection of the relevant signaling pathway protein showed that the expression of p-ERK1/2 protein was down-regulated, however the expression of p-p38 and p-JNK protein was up-regulated. These results indicate that GAP could induce early autophagy in MCF-7 cells via the MAPK/ERK pathway. In conclusion, GAP showed strong antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis and autophagy through MAPK signaling pathway in MCF-7 cells, suggesting the molecular mechanism of fungal polysaccharide on its antitumor activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7
3.
Mycologia ; 112(1): 1-8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900077

RESUMO

Medicinal Ganoderma mushrooms have long tradition in Asia, and recently they began to be consumed in Europe as well. Among hundreds of Ganoderma species, only a few of them are intensively investigated, i.e., G. lucidum and G. applanatum, whereas the chemistry and bioactivities of the other species, especially of European origin, still remain unknown. This study comprises detailed chemical analysis of two Ganoderma species growing wild in Turkey, G. pfeifferi and G. carnosum. Metal composition of both species shows high concentrations of biogenic metals. Phenolic composition of the isolated extracts of G. carnosum and G. pfeifferi shows that these species are rich in simple phenolic acids, such as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, but also in flavonoids. These compounds are found to be carriers of the antioxidant activity but also enzyme inhibition activity of the analyzed extracts. Overall results indicate that these two Ganoderma species have strong potential to be used for medicinal purposes.


Assuntos
Ganoderma/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Ganoderma/classificação , Metais/química , Fenóis/química , Turquia
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112218, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494202

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Located throughout the body, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) are therapeutic targets for obesity/metabolic diseases, neurological/mental disorders, and immune modulation. Phytocannabinoids are greatly important for the development of new medicines with high efficacy and/or minor side effects. Plants and fungi are used in traditional medicine for beneficial effects to mental and immune system. The current research studied five fungi from the genus Ganoderma and five plants: Ganoderma hainanense J.D. Zhao, L.W. Hsu & X.Q. Zhang; Ganoderma capense (Lloyd) Teng, Zhong Guo De Zhen Jun; Ganoderma cochlear (Blume & T. Nees) Bres., Hedwigia; Ganoderma resinaceum Boud.; Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat.; Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae); Cynanchum otophyllum C. K. Schneid. (Asclepiadaceae); Coffea arabica L. (Rubiaceae); Prinsepia utilis Royle (Rosaceae); Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae). They show immunoregulation, promotion of longevity and maintenance of vitality, stimulant effects on the central nervous system, hormone balance and other beneficial effects. However, it remains unclear whether cannabinoid receptors are involved in these effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aimed to identify components working on CB1 and CB2 from the above plants and fungi, as novel phytocannabinoids, and to investigate mechanisms of how these compounds affected the cells. By analyzing the structure-activity relationship, we could identify the core structure for future development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two natural compounds were screened on stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, CHO-CB1 and CHO-CB2, with application of a label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) technology that measured cellular responses to compounds. CP55,940 and WIN55,212-2 were agonist probe molecules, and SR141716A and SR144528 were antagonist probes. Pertussis toxin, cholera toxin, LY294002 and U73122 were signaling pathway inhibitors. The DMR data were acquired by Epic Imager software (Corning, NY), processed by Imager Beta 3.7 (Corning), and analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA). RESULTS: Transfected CHO-CB1 and CHO-CB2 cell lines were established and characterized. Seven compounds induced responses/activities in the cells. Among the seven compounds, four were purified from two Ganoderma species with potencies between 20 and 35 µM. Three antagonists: Kfb68 antagonized both receptors with a better desensitizing effect on CB2 to WIN55,212-2 over CP55,940. Kga1 and Kfb28 were antagonists selective to CB1 and CB2, respectively. Kfb77 was a special agonist and it stimulated CB1 in a mechanism different from that of CP55,940. Another three active compounds, derived from the Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), were also identified but their effects were mediated through mechanisms much related to the signaling transduction pathways, especially through the stimulatory Gs protein. CONCLUSIONS: We identified four natural cannabinoids that exhibited structural and functional diversities. Our work confirms the presence of active ingredients in the Ganoderma species to CB1 and CB2, and this finding establishes connections between the fungi and the cannabinoid receptors, which will serve as a starting point to connect their beneficial effects to the endocannabinoid system. This research will also enrich the inventory of cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids from fungi. Yet due to some limitations, further structure-activity relationship studies and mechanism investigation are warranted in future.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/química , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Animais , Células CHO , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112225, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855780

RESUMO

Sixteen previously undescribed lanostane-type triterpenoids (1-16), together with fourteen known compounds, were isolated from cultivated fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Ganoderma casuarinicola, a recently described species. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. Two of these compounds, 9 and 10, showed antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 9.7 and 9.2 µg/ml, respectively.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Lanosterol/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Ganoderma/metabolismo , Lanosterol/análogos & derivados , Lanosterol/química , Lanosterol/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Células Vero , Madeira/química , Madeira/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766737

RESUMO

The triterpenoid fraction of Ganoderma (Ganoderma triterpenoids, GTs) has been increasingly demonstrated to provide effective antioxidant, neuroprotective or cardioprotective activities. However, whether GTs is capable of perturbing the transmembrane ionic currents existing in electrically excitable cells is not thoroughly investigated. In this study, an attempt was made to study whether GTs could modify hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells and in HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes. In whole-cell current recordings, the addition of GTs produced a dose-dependent reduction in the amplitude of Ih in GH3 cells with an IC50 value of 11.7 µg/mL, in combination with a lengthening in activation time constant of the current. GTs (10 µg/mL) also caused a conceivable shift in the steady-state activation curve of Ih along the voltage axis to a more negative potential by approximately 11 mV. Subsequent addition of neither 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine nor 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline, still in the presence of GTs, could attenuate GTs-mediated inhibition of Ih. In current-clamp voltage recordings, GTs diminished the firing frequency of spontaneous action potentials in GH3 cells, and it also decreased the amplitude of sag potential in response to hyperpolarizing current stimuli. In murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes, the GTs addition also suppressed the amplitude of Ih effectively. In DPCPX (1 µM)-treated HL-1 cells, the inhibitory effect of GTs on Ih remained efficacious. Collectively, the inhibition of Ih caused by GTs is independent of its possible binding to adenosine receptors and it might have profound influence in electrical behaviors of different types of electrically excitable cells (e.g., pituitary and heart cells) if similar in vitro or in vivo findings occur.


Assuntos
Ganoderma/química , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Esporos Fúngicos/química
7.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(8): 755-763, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679283

RESUMO

The involvement of high acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress in the brain is well documented in the progression of dementia. Thus, finding a drug with both AChE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities could be beneficial in treating dementia. We previously reported the AChE-inhibitory and antioxidant-mediated antiamnestic effects of a hydromethanol extract from Ganoderma mediosinense (HME), which we evaluated using in vitro and in vivo models. Mycochemical screening of HME showed the presence of phenols. Building on those findings, this study was designed to isolate the compound responsible for the AChE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of G. mediosinense. The HME was fractionated sequentially with solvents-namely, hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. The prepared fractions were evaluated by using Ellman and DPPH-inhibitory assays in vitro. Among the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed appreciable AChE-inhibitory (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 0.81 ± 0.04 mg/mL) and DPPH scavenging (IC50 2.04 ± 0.77 µg/mL) activities; therefore it was subjected to flash chromatography, which separated 9 subfractions. Subfraction 7 showed marked activity in inhibiting AChE (IC50 0.10 ± 0.02 mg/mL) and free radicals (IC50 1.22 ± 0.04 µg/mL). Purification of subfraction 7 yielded a white compound, AK1. This was characterized as gallic acid by using Fourier-transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral studies. This study shows that gallic acid, a well-recognized phenolic acid, is responsible for the AChE-inhibitory and DPPH scavenging activities of G. mediosinense.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Ganoderma/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 703-711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679304

RESUMO

Ganoderma mushrooms are widely used in clinical therapies and functional foods. The antidiabetic effect of Ganoderma has become a research hot spot in recent decades. To search for a superior antidiabetic Ganoderma extract, five common Ganoderma species (G. lucidum, G. sinense, G. tsugae, G. applanatum, and G. leucocontextum) were investigated. A total of 10 fractions, including a total triterpenes fraction and a crude polysaccharides fraction for each, were prepared for further assays. Activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase are inhibited dominantly by triterpenes from all five Ganoderma species rather than the polysaccharides. G. lucidum triterpenes inhibits α-glucosidase and α-amylase most significantly with IC50 values of 10.02 ± 0.95 µg/mL and 31.82 ± 4.30 µg/mL. Even more, triterpenes content was positively correlated with anti-α-glucosidase and anti-α-amylase activities. Therefore, triterpenes were considered to be the active compounds in inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. It is hoped that the results will provide more systematic information for the application of Ganoderma in the functional food and traditional medicine industries in the future.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Ganoderma/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/classificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Triterpenos/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 59-106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677140

RESUMO

So far, more than 20 species of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) fungi have been studied, including G. lucidum, G. sinense, G. japonicum, G. capense, G. australe, G. tsugae, G. applanatum, G. tropicus, G. boniense, G. duropora, G. resinaceum, G. theaecolum, G. cochlear, G. atrum, G. formosanum, G. boninense, G. colossum, G. concinna, G. amboinense, G. pfeifferi, and G. orbiforme. Over 600 compounds were isolated and identified from the genus Ganoderma. The components in Ganoderma contained triterpenes, meroterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and polysaccharides, in which triterpenes were the main compounds, and more than 300 triterpenes obtained from it. With the use of new technology of separation and purification, the other types of compounds, such as meroterpenoids, alkaloids, nucleosides, and polysaccharides were reported in recent years. Herein, the structural classifications and characteristics and separation methods were summarized.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 107-134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677141

RESUMO

Ganoderma, named lingzhi in China, has been used for centuries as drug and nutraceutical to treat diseases. Based on our research and other literatures, the chapter summarizes the progress of preparation, structural features and properties, bioactivities of Ganoderma polysaccharides. The aim is to provide a comprehensive source of information for researchers and consumers of Ganoderma, so they can better understand Ganoderma polysaccharides and their biological activities. In addition, more clinical studies should be carried out to meet the criteria for new drug development, and more convincing scientific data should be provided. In addition, on the basis of a large number of studies on Ganoderma polysaccharides, we suggest that more clinical studies should be carried out so that Ganoderma can be better recognized and applied all over the world.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Polissacarídeos , China , Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 157-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677143

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) are the mature germ cells of Ganoderma lucidum. They have all the genetic substances and similar active components of Ganoderma lucidum. Similar to the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum, ganoderma spores powder has the effect of regulating immunity, antitumor, antioxidation, and protecting cells and so on. In recent decades, with the development of the technology of breaking the wall of Ganoderma lucidum spores and the technology of extracting and preparing, the researches and application of Ganoderma lucidum spores powder have made great progress.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Esporos Fúngicos , Ganoderma/química , Pesquisa/tendências , Esporos Fúngicos/química
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 187-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677144

RESUMO

Ganoderma (Lingzhi) has been used as a medicinal mushroom to promote health in China for more than 2000 years. The modern research and development of Ganoderma industry started from the 1950s, in which the successful cultivation of Ganoderma fruiting body and submerged fermentation of Ganoderma mycelium lay the critical foundation for the industry development. Recent decades have witnessed the rapid development of Ganoderma industry, which is boosted through various efforts made by the government, the academia, and the industry. In this chapter, the development of Ganoderma industry in China is reviewed in terms of gross output, standards, scientific articles, patents, and associations. In addition, development of Ganoderma products and manufacturing technologies are also overviewed and summarized. In the last section, several innovation trends are suggested for the further development of Ganoderma industry.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Produtos Biológicos , China , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/tendências , Ganoderma/química
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(23-24): 9239-9250, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659419

RESUMO

Ganoderma have been regarded as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry. Besides Ganoderma polysaccharides and triterpenes, multiple proteins have been found in Ganoderma. With the in-depth study of these proteins, various pharmacological functions of Ganoderma have become important in the discovery and development of new products. In the review, we summarized and discussed the kinds and characteristics of Ganoderma proteins, especially on fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) which can be potentially developed into cosmeceuticals or nutricosmetics and are a suitable target for production using established biotechnological methods. Furthermore, we discuss their pharmacological activities of the proteins with a focus on their pharmacological functions related to cosmetics, such as antioxidant activity, inhibition of melanin, antibacterial activity, and regulation of inflammatory mediators. Numerous other questions also are addressed before the proteins can be widely accepted and used as cosmetic additives.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Ganoderma/química , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500366

RESUMO

Resistance to the current therapies is the main clinical challenge in the treatment of lethal metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). Developing novel therapeutic approaches with effective regimes and minimal side effects for this fatal disease remain a priority in prostate cancer study. In the present study, we demonstrated that a traditional Chinese medicine, quality-assured Ganoderma tsugae ethanol extract (GTEE), significantly suppressed cell growth and metastatic capability and caused cell cycle arrest through decreasing expression of cyclins in mPCa cells, PC-3 and DU145 cells. GTEE also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in mPCa cells. We further showed the potent therapeutic efficacy of GTEE by inhibiting subcutaneous PC-3 tumor growth in a xenograft model. The in vitro and in vivo efficacies on mPCa cells were due to blockade of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways associated with cancer cell growth, survival and apoptosis. These preclinical data provide the molecular basis for a new potential therapeutic approach toward the treatment of lethal prostate cancer progression.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 141: 693-699, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499104

RESUMO

To explore new anti-tumor constituents in the fungi, a water-soluble polysaccharide, WGLP was obtained from spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. The average molecular weight of this polysaccharide was estimated to be 1.5 × 104 Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that it was composed solely of glucose. From methylation analysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, it could be concluded that WGLP contained ß-d-glucose residue exclusively, with an average repeating unit of hexasaccharide, having a backbone consisting of (1 → 3)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl residues, to which the side chain consisting of terminal and (1 → 6)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl residue is attached at position O-6 of the branching residues. Anti-tumor activity assays in vivo showed that WGLP could significantly inhibit the S180 tumor growth in the mice. Furthermore, no drug-related toxic reactions were observed. It was suggested that WGLP might be a potential anti-tumor agent used in the clinic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Monossacarídeos/análise , Solventes/química
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 141: 1158-1164, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520706

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a fungal, for promoting health and longevity in China and other Asian countries. Polysaccharide (PS) extracted from Ganoderma lucidum exhibits a variety of immunomodulatory activities and has the ability to induce strong immune responses. Liposomes (Lip) have been shown to be useful carriers of vaccine antigens and can be applied as a versatile delivery system for vaccine adjuvants. Here, PS and inactivated porcine circovirus type II (PCV-II) were encapsulated into Lip as a vaccine and inoculated into mice. The magnitude and kinetics of adjuvant activity were investigated. Polysaccharide-loaded liposomes (Lip-PS) could induce more efficient PCV-II-specific immune responses than other single-component formulations. The Lip-PS group displayed robust and higher titers of PCV-II-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies and IgG subtypes as well as higher cytokine levels, furthermore, splenocytes were activated by Lip-PS. Thus, Lip-PS formulation produced vigorous humoral and cellular immune responses, with a mixed T-helper (Th)1/Th2/Th17 immune response and slight Th1 polarized cellular immune response. Overall, these results suggested that Lip-PS could provide a universal platform for vaccine design against PCV-II.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Circovirus/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lipossomos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/imunologia
17.
Phytochemistry ; 168: 112109, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494344

RESUMO

Eight undescribed ergostane-type steroids, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3ß,5α-diol- 6,5-olide, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß,5ß,6ß-triol, (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxy ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß,5α,14ß-triol, (22E,24R)-9α,15α-dihydroxyergosta-4,6,8 (14),22-tetraen-3-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22-trien-3ß,11α-dihydroxyl-7-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,7,22-trien-3ß,9α,14ß-trihydroxyl-6-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22- dien-3ß,9α,14ß-trihydroxyl-6-one, and (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxyergosta-7,22-dien-3ß, 5α,9α,14ß-tetraol, and twenty-one known analogues were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma resinaceum Boud. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystal diffraction, as well as empirical pyridine-induced deshielding effects. Furthermore, selected compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation using an inhibition of nitric oxide production assay. Finally, (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22- trien-3ß,11α-dihydroxyl-7-one, (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,7,22-trien-3ß,9α,14ß-tri hydroxyl-6-one, (22E,24R)-6ß-methoxyergosta-7,22-dien-3ß,5α,9α,14ß-tetraol, (22E,24R)-ergosta-6,9,22-trien-3ß,5α,8α-triol,ergost-6,22-dien-3ß,5α,8α-triol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-8,22-diene-3ß,7α-diol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)- ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3ß,7α-diol, 5α,6α-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3ß, 7ß-diol, and 22E-7α-methoxy-5α,6α-epoxyergosta-8(14),22-dien-3ß-ol showed inhibitory effects on NO production with IC50 values ranging from 3.24 ±â€¯0.02 to 35.19 ±â€¯0.41 µM compared with L-NMMA (IC50 49.86 ±â€¯2.13 µM), indicating that they have potential anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Ganoderma/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Esteroides/química
18.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5863-5872, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464322

RESUMO

This research investigated the protective effects of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) on acrylamide (AA) induced intestinal injury in rats. Our results showed that PSG-1 pretreatment effectively reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), but increased the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and the total glutathione (T-GSH), and significantly reduced oxidative stress in AA treated rats. Furthermore, PSG-1 pretreatment down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines i.e. interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and increased the amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines i.e. interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10), significantly reducing an inflammatory response in the intestines of rats. In AA induced intestinal injury, the tissue uric acid (UA) level and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the serum level of d-lactic acid (d-lactate), nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) decreased significantly after treatment with PSG-1 and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Histological observations of the small intestine confirmed the protective effects of different doses of PSG-1. These findings suggested that PSG-1 pretreatment could alleviate AA-induced oxidative stress, reduce inflammatory response, and inhibit AA absorption by protecting the intestinal barrier. Therefore, Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide has the potential to be a dietary supplement ingredient that provides protection against AA-induced gut injury.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Ganoderma/química , Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Enteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Enteropatias/genética , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/lesões , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221636, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442262

RESUMO

Ganoderma sinense is a Chinese unique medicinal fungus that has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years. Polysaccharides are considered to be biologically active ingredients due to their immune-modulating functions. Previously we found that GSP-2, a new polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma sinense, exerts an immunomodulatory effect in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate how GSP-2 triggers immunologic responses and the implicated signaling pathways. GSP-2 effects were investigated both in a macrophagic cell line, RAW264.7, and in primary macrophages. Moreover, the molecular basis of GSP-2 recognition by immune cells, and the consequent activation of signaling cascades, were explored by employing recombinant human HEK293-TLR-Blue clones, individually overexpressing various Toll-like receptors. GSP-2 dose-dependently induced the overexpression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but did not affect the expression of other TLRs. Moreover, GSP-2 induced TNFα secretion in primary macrophages from wild-type, but not TLR4-knockout mice. In addition, GSP-2 upregulated TLR4 protein expression and activated the MAPK pathway in RAW246.7 macrophages. Finally, GSP-2 induced the production of the cytokines TNFα, IL1ß, and IL6. Our data demonstrated that GSP-2 was specifically recognized by TLR4, promoting cytokine secretion and immune modulation in macrophages.


Assuntos
Ganoderma/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110757, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408719

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of Ganoderma atrum (G. atrum) polysaccharide (PSG-1) on macrophage injury induced by acrolein. The results showed that PSG-1 restored the cell viability damaged by acrolein. In addition, PSG-1 significantly reduced the acrolein-induced occurrence of apoptosis via increase of Bcl-2 expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decrease of ROS, cytochrome c (Cyt-C), caspase-3, caspase-9. Moreover, the overexpressions of autophagy-related proteins (LC3, Beclin-1, Atg7 and Atg5) were suppressed by PSG-1, which demonstrated that PSG-1 inhibited autophagy in acrolein treated macrophage. Beside, PSG-1 significantly elevated the expression level of p-mTOR, suggested that PSG-1 mediated autophagy through mTOR pathway. Furthermore, inhibitor of autophagy could inhibit apoptosis in acrolein-induced macrophage, suggesting that autophagy may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. In summary, the present study demonstrated that PSG-1 protected acrolein-induced macrophage injury via autophagy-dependent apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganoderma/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Acroleína/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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