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1.
Gene ; 731: 144338, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923576

RESUMO

The primary feather follicles are universal skin appendages widely distributed in the skin of feathered birds. The morphogenesis and development of the primary feather follicles in goose skin remain largely unknown. Here, the induction of primary feather follicles in goose embryonic skin (pre-induction vs induction) was investigated by de novo transcriptome analyses to reveal 409 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The DEGs were characterized to potentially regulate the de novo formation of feather follicle primordia consisting of placode (4 genes) and dermal condensate (12 genes), and the thickening of epidermis (5 genes) and dermal fibroblasts (17 genes), respectively. Further analyses enriched DEGs into GO terms represented as cell adhesion and KEGG pathways including Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways that are highly correlated with cell communication and molecular regulation. Six selected Wnt pathway genes were detected by qPCR with up-regulation in goose skin during the induction of primary feather follicles. The localization of WNT16, SFRP1 and FRZB by in situ hybridization showed weak expression in the primary feather primordia, whereas FZD1, LEF1 and DKK1 were expressed initially in the inter-follicular skin and feather follicle primordia, then mainly restricted in the feather primordia. The spatial-temporal expression patterns indicate that Wnt pathway genes DKK1, FZD1 and LEF1 are the important regulators functioned in the induction of primary feather follicle in goose skin. The dynamic molecular changes and specific gene expression patterns revealed in this report provide the general knowledge of primary feather follicle and skin development in waterfowl, and contribute to further understand the diversity of hair and feather development beyond the mouse and chicken models.


Assuntos
Plumas/embriologia , Gansos , Genes Controladores do Desenvolvimento , Folículo Piloso/embriologia , Morfogênese/genética , Pele/embriologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Plumas/metabolismo , Gansos/embriologia , Gansos/genética , Gansos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Controladores do Desenvolvimento/genética , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110931, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678486

RESUMO

This study evaluated the heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) contents and quality characteristics of seven kinds of traditional smoked and roasted poultry products on the northern Chinese market. Harbin smoked chicken had the most abundant total HAAs, followed by Haroulian roasted chicken and Yishou smoked chicken. The contents of Norharman and Harman were much higher than those of other kinds of HAAs (P < 0.05). The water content of samples varied from 59.01% to 69.98% and the water activity varied from 0.953 to 0.976. The carbonyl content and TBARS values of the Beijing roasted duck and the Duiqing roasted goose were much higher than those of the other samples (P < 0.05). The sensory evaluation result of the Beijing roasted chicken was higher than that of the other samples (P < 0.05). Overall, the levels of HAAs in the industrial smoked and roasted products were lower than those in non-industrial products, which may provide a theoretical basis for the industrial production of smoked and roasted poultry products.


Assuntos
Aminas/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/análise , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/análise , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Animais , Galinhas , China , Culinária , Patos , Gansos , Análise de Componente Principal , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 421-430, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the 18 043 bird species, the eggs of only hen and quail are generally available to consumers. Thus people are deprived of the opportunity to benefit from the huge diversity of eggs offered by nature. Poultry eggs can vary in their color of albumen and yolk, smell, taste and texture. In this study, sighted and blind people were employed for sensory evaluation with the aim of determining the preferences of consumers toward hard-boiled and scrambled eggs of different species of birds, and whether the appearance of these eggs has an effect on the perception of other sensory impressions. RESULTS: Sighted people differently evaluated the texture of both boiled and scrambled eggs as compared with blind people. This was mainly because blind people largely used their sense of touch for evaluation. All other attributes of boiled eggs were evaluated similarly by both groups of panelists, whereas those of scrambled eggs were evaluated differently. CONCLUSION: The obtained results unequivocally demonstrated that differences in taste of scrambled eggs when served hot are easier to evaluate than those of boiled eggs. On the basis of ranking by the sensory panel, it was established that eggs of birds belonging to the order Galliformes are more preferred by consumers than those of duck and goose. By contrast, eggs of ostrich and emu are characterized by unfavorable sensory profiles; moreover, the albumen of boiled ostrich eggs has an unsightly appearance. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Adulto , Animais , Cegueira , Galinhas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária , Patos , Ovos/classificação , Feminino , Gansos , Humanos , Masculino , Olfato , Struthioniformes , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640268

RESUMO

Antibiotic and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been considered as emerging environmental contaminants and possess potential crisis to global public health. However, little is known about the differences between various configurations of two-stage combinations of constructed wetlands (CWs) on antibiotics and ARG removal from wastewater. In the study, three configurations of two-stage hybrid CWs (horizontal subsurface flow-down-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, HF-DVF; horizontal subsurface flow-up-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, HF-UVF; down-flow vertical subsurface flow-up-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, DVF-UVF) were operated to evaluate their ability to remove high-concentration antibiotics (tilmicosin-TMS and doxycycline-DOC), ARGs (seven tet genes and three erm genes), intI1, 16S rRNA, and nutrients from goose wastewater. The results showed that all three hybrid CWs could remove more than 98% of TMS and DOC from wastewater, without significant difference among treatments (p > 0.05). For ARGs, DVF-UVF showed significantly higher removal efficiencies of intI1, ermB, ermC, ermF, tetW, and tetG compared to HF-UVF (p < 0.05), mainly because they might remove and arrest growth of bacteria. The relatively high removal efficiencies of NH4+-N, NO3-N, and NO2--N were also observed from DVF-UVF, ranging from 87% to 95% (p > 0.05), indicating that anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) might be established in the CWs. Our results demonstrate that the removal performances of antibiotics using two-stage hybrid CWs are not affected by the combined configuration, whereas the combination of DVF and UVF CWs perform better on the removal of ARGs and nutrients compared with HF-DVF and HF-UVF CWs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Gansos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
6.
Oecologia ; 191(4): 1003-1014, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624958

RESUMO

Rapid climate warming is driving organisms to advance timing of reproduction with earlier springs, but the rate of advancement shows large variation, even among populations of the same species. In this study, we investigated how the rate of advancement in timing of reproduction with a warming climate varies for barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) populations breeding at different latitudes in the Arctic. We hypothesized that populations breeding further North are generally more time constrained and, therefore, produce clutches earlier relative to the onset of spring than southern populations. Therefore, with increasing temperatures and a progressive relief of time constraint, we expected latitudinal differences to decrease. For the years 2000-2016, we determined the onset of spring from snow cover data derived from satellite images, and compiled data on egg laying date and reproductive performance in one low-Arctic and two high-Arctic sites. As expected, high-Arctic geese laid their eggs earlier relative to snowmelt than low-Arctic geese. Contrary to expectations, advancement in laying dates was similar in high- and low-Arctic colonies, at a rate of 27% of the advance in date of snowmelt. Although advancement of egg laying did not fully compensate for the advancement of snowmelt, geese laying eggs at intermediate dates in the low Arctic were the most successful breeders. In the high Arctic, however, early nesting geese were the most successful breeders, suggesting that high-Arctic geese have not advanced their laying dates sufficiently to earlier springs. This indicates that high-Arctic geese especially are vulnerable to negative effects of climate warming.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Gansos , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Clima , Reprodução , Estações do Ano
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 816-820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618304

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are Apicomplexan intracellular protozoan parasites that affect numerous animal species, thus leading to severe diseases and economic losses, depending on the vertebrate species involved. The role of the avian species in maintaining and transmission of these coccidia has been studied for several years as they tend to serve as a potential source of infection for mammals and humans. The present study aimed to assess the serological exposure of Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) to T. gondii and N. caninum. Between 2010 and 2013, 41 free-ranging Orinoco geese were captured in the Araguaia River, Brazil. The presence and titration of IgY antibodies to both coccidia were assayed via indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). While IgY antibodies for N. caninum were present in 5 animals, with titers of 20, the antibodies for T. gondii were found in 35 animals, with titers ranging from 20 to 640. Considering that the Orinoco goose's meat is consumed by the local population in the studied area, it may represent an important source of T. gondii infection for humans. Due to its migratory behavior, this goose may play a pivotal role in the natural dispersion of both parasites. Furthermore, molecular studies are required for genotyping the isolates of T. gondii that occurs in this avian species.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
8.
Elife ; 82019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478481

RESUMO

The bar-headed goose is famed for migratory flight at extreme altitude. To better understand the physiology underlying this remarkable behavior, we imprinted and trained geese, collecting the first cardiorespiratory measurements of bar-headed geese flying at simulated altitude in a wind tunnel. Metabolic rate during flight increased 16-fold from rest, supported by an increase in the estimated amount of O2 transported per heartbeat and a modest increase in heart rate. The geese appear to have ample cardiac reserves, as heart rate during hypoxic flights was not higher than in normoxic flights. We conclude that flight in hypoxia is largely achieved via the reduction in metabolic rate compared to normoxia. Arterial [Formula: see text] was maintained throughout flights. Mixed venous PO2 decreased during the initial portion of flights in hypoxia, indicative of increased tissue O2 extraction. We also discovered that mixed venous temperature decreased during flight, which may significantly increase oxygen loading to hemoglobin.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Gansos/fisiologia , Hipóxia , Metabolismo , Animais , Frequência Cardíaca , Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2837-2841, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494776

RESUMO

Since January 2019, abnormal molting has been observed frequently in approximately 40-day-old Pekin ducks in China. To investigate the possible involvement of a virus, we tested the prevalence of duck circovirus (DuCV), goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPyV), and goose parvovirus (GPV) in 11 molt cases in two provinces. GPV was detected in all cases, particularly in all samples collected from the feather area. The complete genome sequences of three GPV strains were determined and found to have 52 nucleotide changes relative to GPVs associated with short beak and dwarfism syndrome of Pekin ducks. These data will enhance our understanding of GPV diversity and outcomes of GPV infection in Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Muda/fisiologia , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Parvovirinae/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
10.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(11): 3680-3693, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475774

RESUMO

All long-distance migrants must cope with changing environments, but species differ greatly in how they do so. In some species, individuals might be able to adjust by learning from individual experiences and by copying others. This could greatly speed up the process of adjustment, but evidence from the wild is scarce. Here, we investigated the processes by which a rapidly growing population of barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) responded to strong environmental changes on spring-staging areas in Norway. One area, Helgeland, has been the traditional site. Since the mid-1990s, an increasing number of geese stage in another area 250 km further north, Vesterålen. We collected data on goose numbers and weather conditions from 1975 to 2017 to explore the extent to which the increase in population size and a warmer climate contributed to this change in staging area use. During the study period, the estimated onset of grass growth advanced on average by 0.54 days/year in each of the two areas. The total production of digestible biomass for barnacle geese during the staging period increased in Vesterålen but remained stable in Helgeland. The goose population has doubled in size during the past 25 years, with most of the growth being accommodated in Vesterålen. The observations suggest that this dramatic increase would not have happened without higher temperatures in Vesterålen. Records of individually marked geese indicate that from the initial years of colonization onwards, especially young geese tended to switch to Vesterålen, thereby predominating in the flocks at Vesterålen. Older birds had a lower probability of switching to Vesterålen, but over the years, the probability increased for all ages. Our findings suggest that barnacle geese integrate socially learned behaviour with adjustments to individual experiences, allowing the population to respond rapidly and accurately to global change.


Assuntos
Gansos , Thoracica , Migração Animal , Animais , Mudança Climática , Noruega , Crescimento Demográfico , Estações do Ano
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416134

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the embryonic ontogeny of 5-hydroxyindoles and 5-methoxyindoles synthesis pathways in the goose pineal organ. The study was performed on embryos aged 14-28 days, which have been incubated under a 12L:12D cycle. The pineal organs were collected for measurements of indole content by HPLC every 6 h on embryonic day (ED) 14, ED 16, ED 18 and ED 22 or every 2 h on ED 24, ED 26 and ED 28. The level of tryptophan showed no significant changes during development and no day-night variations. The content of 5-hydroxytryptophan increased between ED 14 and ED 26. It was significantly higher during scotophase than during photophase starting from ED 14. The serotonin content was low during the early stages of development (ED 14-ED 18) and prominently increased from ED 20. The serotonin levels also showed day-night differences; however, they were less conspicuous than those of 5-hydroxytryptophan. The changes in the level of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid were similar to those of serotonin. 5-Hydroxytryptophol was measurable from ED 18. Levels of N-acetylserotonin, which were detectable for the first time on ED 16, prominently increased between ED 22 and ED 28 and showed significant day-night differences from ED 20. Melatonin was detectable from ED 18. Like N-acetylserotonin, its content increased rapidly between ED 22 and ED 28, and from ED 20 showed diurnal variations. 5-Methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol occurred at measurable levels from ED 18 and ED 26, respectively. The obtained results showed that embryonic development of indole metabolism in the goose pineal organ starts with the beginning of serotonin synthesis. The processes of serotonin acetylation and 5-hydroxyindoles methylation were turned on later. Diurnal rhythmicity develops very early in the embryonic pineal organ of the goose when the eggs are incubated under a 12 h light: 12 h dark schedule. Two processes are responsible for generation of the diurnal rhythms of 5-hydroxyindoles and 5-methoxyindoles: (i) hydroxylation of tryptophan and (ii) acetylation of serotonin.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Gansos/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Gansos/embriologia , Melatonina/metabolismo , Glândula Pineal/embriologia
12.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4346-4358, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287882

RESUMO

Cytochrome P-450 2C45 (CYP2C45) is the most highly expressed cytochrome P-450 isoform in chicken liver, and may play an important role in avian liver biology. However, information regarding the function of CYP2C45 in fatty liver is generally limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CYP2C45 during the development of goose fatty liver. Our result indicated that the transcription of CYP2C45, together with PK and ALOX5, was increased in goose liver upon overfeeding for 19 D (P < 0.05). In goose primary hepatocytes, CYP2C45 RNA expression was also upgraded by the treatment with various chemicals like insulin, the fatty acids, and PPAR agonists (P < 0.05). We also found that both CYP2C45 overexpression and troglitazone treatment could increase the expression of pyruvate kinase (PK) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), and furthermore, showed that the up-regulation of PK and ALOX5 induced by troglitazone could be suppressed by small interfering RNAs targeting CYP2C45 (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that fatty acids treatment and the overfeeding can induce the up-regulation of CYP2C45 expression possibly via PPARγ and that the induction of PK and ALOX5 in goose fatty liver is at least partially attributed to fatty acid-induced expression of CYP2C45. Thus, our data provides an insight into the mechanism by which glycolysis and arachidonic acid metabolism are modulated in goose fatty liver.


Assuntos
Araquidonato Lipoxigenases/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Gansos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Animais , Araquidonato Lipoxigenases/metabolismo , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Masculino , PPAR gama/genética , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4516-4521, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287885

RESUMO

Poultry eggs from different species varied significantly, due to their divergent process of evolution. However, the information on egg characteristics has been limited mostly to chicken. The current study compared the egg quality, albumen physical and nutritional property for domesticated chicken, duck, goose, turkey, quail, and pigeon. Egg quality traits among different species differed significantly, such as egg weight (from 11 to 139 g), egg shape (from 1.28 to 1.44), proportion of yolk (from 19.3 to 37.9%), and breaking strength (from 0.91 to 8.04 kg/cm2). For the physical property of albumen gel, pigeon egg was the most special one. The albumen gel of pigeon egg had a transparent appearance (A = 1.23), and it had the highest hardness (121.7 g) and water-holding capacity (96%) but a medium level of total cutting work (440 g⋅s). Hence, it was easy for deformation but was hard to cut off when external force was applied. For nutritional compositions of egg albumen, goose egg had the highest moisture (89.21%) and lowest crude protein (8.5%) contents. Specific to amino acid, glutamic acid was found the most abundant in albumen of all six species. Egg albumen of turkey had the highest quantity of essential amino acids (EAA) and total amino acids (TAA), while duck and goose had relatively higher EAA/TAA ratios. Both PCA and cluster analysis revealed the high similarity of amino acid composition between duck and goose, and among quail, turkey, and chicken. The comparative data will improve the understanding of egg qualities of major poultry species and can be helpful in technological application of egg albumen.


Assuntos
Albuminas/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Albuminas/química , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Columbidae/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Gansos/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Codorniz/fisiologia , Perus/fisiologia
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 221-228, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271639

RESUMO

Geese, ducks, mallards, and swans are birds of the order Anseriformes, which are found in the wild, in zoos and parks, and raised for meat consumption. Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp., and Neospora caninum are protozoans of several species of animals. Wild and domestic birds can serve as intermediate hosts, disseminators and potential sources of infection of these protozoa to humans through contaminated meat. The aims of this study were: (i) to perform a serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese (Anser sp.) from public parks and from captivity and (ii) to compare seroprevalence between these two locations. Antibodies were detected by Immunofluorescence antibody test using the serum of 149 geese. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp., T. gondii, and N. caninum were detected in 28.18%, 18% and 0.67% of geese, respectively; 57% of geese from urban parks and 26.53% of geese from captivity were seropositive for at least one protozoa. The results indicate environmental contamination, particularly for the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii - a zoonosis that causes toxoplasmosis and is transmitted through oocyte ingestion. This is the first serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese from urban parks in Curitiba, Brazil.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Imunofluorescência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana
15.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 283: 113233, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356812

RESUMO

The melanocortin-5 receptor (MC5R) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily that plays a critical role in lipid production, skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and adipocyte lipolysis. Although multiple functions and important value of MC5R in human beings have been fully demonstrated, however, the potential molecular cloning, pharmacological characteristics and key amino acids in poultry and pig were still not fully understood. Herein, we successfully cloned MC5R genes from chicken (Gallus gallus, cMC5R), duck (Anas platyrhynchos, dMC5R), goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus, gMC5R) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica, pMC5R), and compared their genetic and protein difference with hMC5R through phylogenetic analysis and homology models. Besides, we constructed three alanine-substitution mutants for each of MC5Rs through homologous reorganization, including c/d/gMC5R-D119A/F254A/H257A and pMC5R-D204A/F339A/H342A. Subsequently, we focused our investigation on the pharmacological characterization of four wide-type MC5Rs and their mutants in HEK293T cells, including the intracellular cAMP generation and phosphorylation level of ERK1/2. The results showed that these mutants had decreased cAMP levels under the stimulation of ligands, in spite of enhanced basal activity for c/d/gF254A and pH342A, indicating their important roles in the location and activation of receptors. Notably, these MC5Rs and mutants displayed significant species-specific phenotypes in the activation of pERK1/2 with ligands, which was not completely consistent with hMC5R. These findings demonstrated that presence of interspecies differences for MC5Rs, particularly for the pERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our study expands current knowledge about the molecular and pharmacological characterization of c/d/g/pMC5Rs, providing preliminary data for MC5R-targeted drug screening or genetic breeding of economic animals in the future.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Receptores de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Gansos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Fosforilação , Filogenia , Receptores de Melanocortina/química , Receptores de Melanocortina/genética
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 212-217, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271953

RESUMO

Goose parvovirus (GPV) is the etiological agent of Derzsy's disease, with a natural reservoir consisting only of geese and Muscovy ducks. However, the pathological changes in the immune organs of ducklings experimentally infected with GPV remain unknown. In this study, 2-day-old Cherry Valley ducklings were intramuscularly injected with GPV. Immune organs (e.g., thymus, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, Harderian gland, cecal tonsil, bone marrow, and peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBLs]) were collected 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Pathological lesions were assessed by histology and the viral load was concurrently assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. GPV antigen was detected via immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemistry. No clinical symptoms or death were observed in the infected ducklings from 1 to 14 dpi; however, lesions with different degrees of hemorrhage and hyperemia were observed in the thymus, spleen and Harderian gland. Lymphocyte necrosis was identified in the thymus and spleen. In the immune organs, the highest viral loads were found in the spleen at 7 dpi, followed by the bone marrow, PBLs, and cecal tonsil at 3 dpi, and the bursa, Harderian gland, and thymus at 1 dpi. GPV antigen was primarily expressed in the cecal tonsil, spleen, and Harderian gland at 5 dpi, as well as in the PBLs and bone marrow at 3 dpi. Our findings indicate widespread GPV replication and dissemination in the immune organs of Cherry Valley ducklings.


Assuntos
Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Patos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Baço/patologia , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/virologia , Gansos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Parvovirus/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Baço/virologia , Carga Viral
17.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(2): 246-255, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238724

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to find a practical and inexpensive method for freezing goose semen for use in routine inseminations under farm conditions. Two basic freezing protocols [(1) dynamic, programmable freezing and (2) static, nitrogen vapour method] were evaluated with varying concentrations of dimethylformamide (DMF) plus additional osmoprotectants such as betaine, trehalose, and sucrose, using cryovials as containers. Altogether eight different treatments were compared. sperm viability before freezing and after thawing was examined by in vitro tests and, in the case of the simplest effective method, also by in vivo fertility test. There were no significant differences in sperm survival either in the dynamic (48-50%) or in the static protocol (43-46%), except for the treatment where the lowest DMF concentration was used without any osmoprotectant in the dynamic protocol (42.6%). The addition of osmoprotectants did not improve thawed sperm viability in any case. Fertility with frozen/thawed sperm using the simplest method was 58.5%, while that obtained with fresh, diluted semen was 66.9%. The study proved that the simple freezing of gander semen in nitrogen vapour with 9% DMF in cryovials could produce acceptable fertility. The newly elaborated method can be successfully used for routine inseminations by small- and large-scale goose breeders.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Sêmen/fisiologia , Animais , Congelamento , Gansos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/análise , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 1834-1839, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237413

RESUMO

Recently, short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) had a sudden outbreak in Cherry Valley duck flocks, followed by Pekin ducks and mule ducks in various regions of mainland China. This widely spreading infectious disease was characterized by growth retardation, smaller beak and tarsus with high morbidity and low mortality rate. In this study, we identified and characterized virus from domestic Linwu sheldrakes (namely as HuN18) with SBDS. HuN18 isolates shared high nucleotide identity with novel goose parvovirus (N-GPV). A 5110-nucleotide full-length genome sequence of HuN18 was found with no deletion in ITR region. Alignment studies of HuN18 showed 96.8%-99.0% identity with other N-GPVs and 92.9%-96.3% identity with classic GPV. According to the recombination analysis, HuN18 showed the potential major parent was the N-GPV sdlc01 strain, the potential minor parent was the classical GPV Y strain, and the secondary potential minor parent was the SYG61v strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of N-GPV in domestic Linwu sheldrakes with SBDS; these data provide evidence that attenuated live viruses are involved in genetic recombination with prevailing wild parvoviruses, which contributes to the novel emerging variants of waterfowl parvoviruses.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Nanismo/veterinária , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Bico/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Patos , Gansos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirinae/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5226-5233, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250013

RESUMO

A low laying performance in goose is one of the key factors preventing the industrial development, and the laying performance is related to broody behavior. However, the characteristics of broody behavior in geese remain unclear. In this study, the total 144 geese (300 day old), including Zhedong geese (Anser cygnoides), Sichuan geese (Anser cygnoides), and Carlos geese (Anser anser) were selected and assigned to 1 of 3 groups/breed (including 4♂+12♀). Laying and broody behaviors were recorded using the infrared video cameras from 2016 November 11 to 2017 June 15. The broody behavior was detected in 19.4% of Carlos geese, 33.3% of Sichuan geese, and 100% of Zhedong geese. Different goose breeds showed similar behavior characteristics. The low frequency of feeding, drinking, and low body weight were observed in the middle of broodiness. As the brooding progressed, the body temperature showed a downward trend and then recovered, whereas no difference was observed in Carlos goose. In addition, the plasma hormone concentration from different breeds and stages of broodiness were compared. The contents of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) in geese were greater in the laying stage than that in the broody stage. Fewer FSH and LH were detected in Zhedong geese and Carlos geese, more in Sichuan geese. In broody goose, the PRL (prolactin) concentrations of the 3 goose breeds peaked in the middle of broodiness, and greater PRL was detected in Sichuan geese than those in Carlos geese and Zhedong geese. Finally, we compared egg production between the broody and non-broody geese in the observation period. The egg production of broody Carlos geese was 27, which was significantly higher than non-broody geese (14 eggs), while in Sichuan geese there was no significant difference between broody (24 eggs) and non-broody geese (26 eggs). Finally, the higher egg production was found with the more broody times in Zhedong geese. Taken together, although the different goose breeds showed similar broody behavior characteristics, the broody rate and hormone secretion were dissimilar, and the Zhedong geese exhibited strong broody feature.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Gansos/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Prolactina/sangue , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5361-5373, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250018

RESUMO

We investigated the gut-kidney interaction in goslings with gout and tried to decipher the probable mechanisms through which gut dysbiosis leads to the progression of renal injury and inflammation. A total of 15 goslings (Anser cygnoides), with typical visceral gout symptoms, were screened and compared with 15 healthy goslings. We determined the signatures of the microbiome in the cecum chyme of goslings in the 2 groups by 16S sequencing, and analyzed the changes in intestinal permeability, levels of serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the induced inflammatory response of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We found the existence of gut dysbiosis in goslings with gout as a result of interactions among the multitude of bacteria present in the gut, and the proliferation of a specific pathogenic genus, Proteobacteria, played a decisive role in this process. Moreover, the permeability increased not only in the intestinal epithelium but also in the renal endothelium, providing possibilities for gut-derived LPS to enter the blood circulation and damage the kidneys. The systemic LPS concentration was increased in the gout group and exhibited a positive correlation with the degree of renal injury. In addition, we also found that inflammatory disorders concurrently existed in the gut and kidney of goslings with gout, and the LPS/TLR4/MyD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) inflammatory signaling was activated. These results indicate that the loss of intestinal barrier as a result of gut dysbiosis causes the translocation of gut-derived LPS, which can play an important role in the development of gout in goslings through interference with kidney functions.


Assuntos
Disbiose/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gansos , Gota/veterinária , Intestinos/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , China , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Rim/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco
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