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1.
Gene ; 806: 145928, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455027

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 Family 19 (CYP19) is a crucial enzyme to catalyze the conversion of androgens to estrogens. However, the regulatory mechanism of goose CYP19 gene remains poorly understood. The present study attempted to obtain the full-length coding sequence (CDS) and 5'-flanking sequence of CYP19 gene, to investigate its expression and distribution profiles in different sized follicles, and to analyze the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CYP19 gene in goose. Results showed that its CDS consisted of 1512 nucleotides and the encoded amino acid sequence contained a classical P450 structural domain. Homology analysis showed that there were high homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequences between goose and other avian species. Its promoter sequence spanned from -1925 bp to the transcription start site (ATG) and several transcriptional factors were predicted in this region. Further analysis from luciferase assay showed that the luciferase activity was the highest spanning from -118 to -1 bp by constructing deletion promoter reporter vector. In addition, result from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the mRNA level of CYP19 gene were highly expressed in theca layer of the fifth largest follicle, and the cellular location was in the theca externa cells by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, it could be concluded that the transcription activity of CYP19 gene was activated by transcriptional factors in its proximal region of promoter to promote the synthesis of estrogens, regulating the selection of pre-hierarchical into hierarchical follicle in goose.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/genética , Gansos/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Feminino , Gansos/classificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500555

RESUMO

The deterioration of food quality due to lipid oxidation is a serious problem in the food sector. Oxidation reactions adversely affect the physicochemical properties of food, worsening its quality. Lipid oxidation products are formed during the production, processing, and storage of food products. In the human diet, the sources of lipid oxidation products are all fat-containing products, including goose meat with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aims at comparing the fatty acid profile of goose breast muscle lipids depending on the storage conditions: type of atmosphere, temperature, and storage time. Three-way variance analysis was used to evaluate changes in the fatty acids profile occurring in goose meat. The health aspect of fatty acid oxidation of goose meat is also discussed. In general, the fatty acid composition changed significantly during storage in the meat packed in the high-oxygen modified atmosphere at different temperatures (1 °C and 4 °C). Higher temperature led to a higher degree of lipid oxidation and nutrient loss. During the storage of samples in vacuum, no changes in the fatty acid content and dietary indices were found, regardless of the storage temperature, which indicates that the anaerobic atmosphere ensured the oxidative stability of goose meat during 11 days of refrigerated storage.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gansos/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Animais , Atmosfera , Dieta/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Temperatura , Vácuo
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101403, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425555

RESUMO

Xupu goose, a breed from Hunan province, produces high quality and quantity of meat and liver. However, its egg production rate is low, with poor reproductive traits but strong broody performance. These characteristics decrease the economic value of Xupu goose significantly. Here, RNA-seq was used to analyze the transcriptome changes of ovaries of Xupu goose at different stages to explore the molecular mechanism of reproduction from the pre-laying period to the broody period. A total of 258 genes were differentially expressed in the 3 stages. These genes are associated with inflammation, reproduction, mutual recognition and adhesion between cells, and cytoskeleton formation, and so on. In particular, we report, for the first time, the expression patterns of MRP126, serglycin, TXNIP, and FZD2 during the pre-laying, egg-laying, and broody periods of goose ovaries. Functional analysis by GO annotation revealed that GO terms were mainly involved in actin, cell signal transduction and regulation, and cellular components. Three pathways, including focal adhesion (gga04510), ECM-receptor interaction (gga04512), and N-Glycan biosynthesis (gga00510), were significantly enriched in the three groups. These findings provide a basis for further exploration of profiles of goose ovaries to improve egg production of Xupu goose.


Assuntos
Gansos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Gansos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Carne , Ovário
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101407, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438326

RESUMO

A highly acute disease characterized as visceral gout broke out in Muscovy ducklings in Henan province (China) in June 2020, with a mortality rate of up to 61%. In this study, common pathogenic agents were screened using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or polymerase chain reaction. The results found the novel goose astrovirus (GoAstV) to be the pathogenic agent. We isolated the GoAstV, which has been designated as HNNY0620, using the Leghorn male chicken hepatocellular carcinoma (LMH) cell line and sequenced the complete genome. The phylogenetic tree showed that the amino acid (aa) sequences of ORF1a and ORF2 and the completed nucleotide sequences of the HNNY0620 strain were clustered in the GoAstV-I clade. ORF1a aa and whole-genome sequences were genetically close to TAstV-2 and DHV-3, whereas the ORF2 aa sequences were clustered with TAstV-2 and DHV2. Both the duck-origin GoAstVs and HNNY0620 harbored some special mutations, but ORF1a in 700 (I/T), ORF1b in 288 (F/L), and ORF2 in 306 (A/T) were only found in HNNY0620. These results suggest that the host range of GoAstV is diffusing, which can potentially affect other waterfowl.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Patos , Gansos , Masculino , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
5.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 165-170, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339136

RESUMO

The present report describes outbreaks of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus in young geese flocks in Austria. The flocks, comprising 160-1450 goslings of 2-3 wk of age, experienced increased mortalities The clinical signs were characterized by severe central nervous symptoms, namely leg paddling and torticollis. The postmortem investigation revealed hepatitis, splenitis, and a low amount of liquid fluid in the coelomic cavity. Livers were of fragile texture, with white necrotic areas. The latter were also found in spleens. No macroscopic lesions were seen in brains. Bacteriologic investigation followed by bacterial identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry and phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA region revealed the presence in heart, liver, spleen, and brain of S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Histologic investigation revealed multifocal necrosis in liver and spleen samples together with infiltration of mononuclear cells and heterophilic granulocytes. Furthermore, in the lesions, coccoid bacteria could be identified. No histopathologic changes were observed in brain samples from goslings, except in one bird in which accumulation of coccoid bacteria in blood vessels of the brain samples was present. Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed identical profiles for all strains, which were susceptible to penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, imipenem, and tylosin. However, resistance was found against quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, which are commonly used to treat infections with gram-positive bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Gansos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101380, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358958

RESUMO

It is well established that the endocrine system plays a pivotal role in preparing the avian embryos for the abrupt switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration during the critical embryo-to-hatchling transition. However, as the master gland of the endocrine system, there has been little research focusing on the molecular mechanisms controlling the development and function of the pituitary gland during the peri-hatch period in birds. In the present study, we aimed to determine the genome-wide mRNA and miRNA transcriptome profiles of the pituitary during the embryo-to-hatchling transition period from embryonic day 22 (E22) to post-hatching day 6 (P6) in the goose (Anser cygnoides). Of note, expression of Anser_cygnoides_newGene_32456 and LOC106031011 were significantly different among these 4 stages (i.e., E22, E26, P2, and P6). Meanwhile, the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway was significantly enriched by the DEGs commonly identified among three pairwise comparisons. At the miRNA transcriptome level, there were not commonly identified DE miRNAs among these 4 stages, while the 418 of their predicted target genes were mutually shared. Both the target genes of DE miRNAs in each comparison and these 418 shared target genes were significantly enriched in the ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways. In the predicted miRNA-mRNA interaction networks of these 2 pathways, novel_miRNA_467, novel_miRNA_154, and novel_miRNA_340 were the hub miRNAs. In addition, multiple DE miRNAs also showed predicted target relationships with the DEGs associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among them, expression of novel_miR_120, tgu-miR-92-3p, and novel_miR_398 was significantly negatively correlated with that of LAMC3 (laminin subunit gamma3), suggesting that these miRNAs may regulate pituitary tissue remodeling and functional changes through targeting LAMC3 during development. These identified DE mRNAs and miRNAs as well as their predicted interaction networks involved in regulation of tissue remodeling and cellular functions were most likely to play critical roles in facilitating the embryo-to-hatchling transition. These results provide novel insights into the early developmental process of avian pituitary gland and will help better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Animais , Galinhas , Gansos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , MicroRNAs/genética , Hipófise , RNA Mensageiro , Transcriptoma
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431769

RESUMO

Two rod-shaped and Gram-stain-positive bacteria (strains C64T and C62) were isolated in 2020 from faeces of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from Poyang Lake, PR China. Their optimal growth conditions were at 37 °C, pH 7.0 and with 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The two isolates showed a highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bowdeniella nasicola DSM 19116T (92.1 %). Phylogenetic/phylogenomic analyses indicated that strains C64T and C62 clustered independently in the vicinity of the genera Varibaculum, Winkia and Mobiluncus within the family Actinomycetaceae, but could not be classified clearly as members of any of these known genera. The average amino acid identity values between our isolates and available genomes of members of the family Actinomycetaceae were around the genus threshold value (45-65 %). The major cellular fatty acids of the strains were C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and cardiolipin. The amino acid composition of peptidoglycan contained alanine, glutamic acid and glycine. The major respiratory menaquinones were MK-8(H4) and MK-9(H4). The whole cell sugars included galactose, arabinose and glucose. On the basis of the results of the 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison, whole-genome phylogenomic analysis, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, we propose that strains C64T and C62 represent a novel species belonging to a novel genus within the family Actinomycetaceae, for which the name Nanchangia anserum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Nanchangia anserum C64T (=CGMCC 1.18410T=GDMCC 1.1969T=KCTC 49511T=KACC 22143T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetaceae/classificação , Gansos , Filogenia , Actinomycetaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Gansos/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101237, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198099

RESUMO

The effect of water bath cooking (WBC), oven convection roasting (OCR), grilling (G), pan-frying (PF) on the fatty acid profile and health lipid indices of goose meat was investigated in this study. The experimental material covered 80 breast muscles (40 with skin and subcutaneous fat and 40 without skin) cut from carcasses of 17-week-old "Polish oat geese". The fatty acid profile of meat was determined by gas chromatography and health lipid indices were calculated. It was stated that the kind of heat treatment as well as the type of goose meat (muscles with and without skin) affected the fatty acid profile and health lipid indices. The sum of SFA was significantly higher in cooked samples for both kinds of meat than in raw ones. The cooked samples with skin had a lower increase in Æ© SFA than the skinless meat. Boiling (meat without skin) and pan-frying (both kinds of meat) caused a slight decrease, while grilling and oven convection roasting (both kinds of meat) caused an increase of Æ© MUFA in comparison to raw samples. Moreover, meat with skin is characterized by a higher value of Æ© MUFA than meat without skin for all cooking methods. The Æ© PUFA was lower in all cooked samples than in raw meat, wherein this decline was usually higher for skinned meat. The G meat was the lowest and PF the highest in Σ PUFA for both kinds of meat after heat treatment. The highest loss showed C20:4 n-6 in OCR samples and the lowest C18:2 n-6 in PF (both kinds of meat). Heat treatment caused an increase in the Σ PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio, wherein the lowest value was shown by the WBC samples without skin, and the highest by OCR with skin. Water bath cooking of meat was more beneficial for consumers in terms of AI, TI, Σ DFA/Σ OFA, Σ PUFA/Σ SFA, Σ UFA/Σ SFA indexes and Σ SFA, Σ OFA values than the remaining methods.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Gansos , Animais , Galinhas , Temperatura Alta , Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Polônia
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101244, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217905

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of different dietary levels of calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (P) on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood components of growing geese. A total of 120, 4-wk-old Egyptian goslings with similar body weights were randomly distributed to four groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, which included 2 levels of Ca (0.85% and 0.70%) and 2 levels of non-phytate P (0.45% and 0.35%). Each group was subdivided into 6 replicates of five birds. The experiment lasted 8 wk, from 4 to 12 wk of age. Results show that dietary Ca level had no significant effect on any of the studied growth performance traits over the full experimental period. Dietary P level also had no significant impact on these traits, with the exception of daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio at 8 to 12 wk of age; these improved significantly with the low P diet. Geese received a diet containing 0.70% Ca + 0.45% P had the lowest body weight values at 12 wk of age and the lowest daily body weight gain, and feed intake at 8 to 12 weeks of age. While, the lowest value of feed conversion ratio was recorded in geese fed low level of Ca with low level of P (0.70% Ca + 0.35% P). There were no significant effects of the different dietary levels of Ca, P, or their interaction on all studied carcass parameters. Low dietary Ca level significantly increased the plasma levels of total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and creatinine and significantly decreased the plasma levels of Ca and P. Different dietary P levels had no significant effect on plasma levels of albumin, AST, ALT, ALP, and urea, whereas the 0.35% P-based diet significantly decreased the plasma contents of total protein, creatinine, Ca, and P. Plasma levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, Ca, and P were not affected by an interaction between Ca and P. Diets containing 0.70% Ca and 0.45% P lead to the highest plasma values for total protein, ALT, AST, and ALP compared with the other dietary Ca and P combinations. In conclusion, dietary Ca and P levels can be simultaneously reduced without negative impacts on growth performance, carcass characteristics, or blood biochemical components. We advise to avoid increasing the dietary Ca: P ratio, as it leads to negative effects on growth performance and blood biochemistry in growing geese. So, the findings of the current study recommended the low levels of Ca (0.70%) and non-phytate P (0.35%) for the performance of Egyptian geese during the fattening period.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cálcio , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Egito , Gansos , Rim , Fígado , Fósforo
10.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2495-2504, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232400

RESUMO

Short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) emerged in Cherry Valley duck flocks in China in 2015, and novel goose parvovirus (NGPV) was shown to be the etiological agent of SBDS. To date, it is not known whether SBDS-related NGPV isolates possess common molecular characteristics. In this study, three new NGPV strains (namely, SDHT16, SDJN19, and SDLC19) were isolated from diseased ducks showing typical signs of SBDS and successfully passaged in embryonated goose or Cherry Valley duck eggs. The complete genome sequences of these NGPV strains were 98.9%-99.7% identical to each other but showed slightly less similarity (95.2%-96.1% identity) to classical GPV strains. A total of 16 common amino acid substitutions were present in the VP1 proteins of six NGPV strains (SDHT16, SDJN19, SDLC19, QH, JS1, and SDLC01) compared with the classical Chinese GPV strains, nine of which were identical to those found in European GPV strain B. The non-structural protein Rep1 of the six NGPV strains had 12 common amino acid substitutions compared with the classical GPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Chinese NGPV strains clustered with the European SBDS-related NGPV strains, forming a separate branch that was distinct from the group formed by the classical GPV strains. The present study shows the common molecular characteristics of NGPV isolates and suggests that the Chinese NGPV isolates probably share a common ancestor with European SBDS-related NGPV strains.


Assuntos
Nanismo/veterinária , Nanismo/virologia , Parvovirinae/classificação , Parvovirinae/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , China , Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 487, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During domestication, remarkable changes in behavior, morphology, physiology and production performance have taken place in farm animals. As one of the most economically important poultry, goose owns a unique appearance characteristic called knob, which is located at the base of the upper bill. However, neither the histomorphology nor the genetic mechanism of the knob phenotype has been revealed in geese. RESULTS: In the present study, integrated radiographic, histological, transcriptomic and genomic analyses revealed the histomorphological characteristics and genetic mechanism of goose knob. The knob skin was developed, and radiographic results demonstrated that the knob bone was obviously protuberant and pneumatized. Histologically, there were major differences in structures in both the knob skin and bone between geese owing knob (namely knob-geese) and those devoid of knob (namely non-knob geese). Through transcriptome analysis, 592 and 952 genes differentially expressed in knob skin and bone, and significantly enriched in PPAR and Calcium pathways in knob skin and bone, respectively, which revealed the molecular mechanisms of histomorphological differences of the knob between knob- and non-knob geese. Furthermore, integrated transcriptomic and genomic analysis contributed to the identification of 17 and 21 candidate genes associated with the knob formation in the skin and bone, respectively. Of them, DIO2 gene could play a pivotal role in determining the knob phenotype in geese. Because a non-synonymous mutation (c.642,923 G > A, P265L) changed DIO2 protein secondary structure in knob geese, and Sanger sequencing further showed that the AA genotype was identified in the population of knob geese, and was prevalent in a crossing population which was artificially selected for 10 generations. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to uncover the knob histomorphological characteristics and genetic mechanism in geese, and DIO2 was identified as the crucial gene associated with the knob phenotype. These data not only expand and enrich our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of head appendages in both mammalian and avian species, but also have important theoretical and practical significance for goose breeding.


Assuntos
Gansos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Testa , Gansos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma
12.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207913

RESUMO

The emergence of a novel goose nephritic astrovirus (GNAstV) has caused economic losses to the Chinese goose industry. High viral load is found in the spleen of goslings infected with GNAstV, but pathological injuries to the spleen due to GNAstV are largely unknown. In this study, 50 two-day-old goslings were infected orally with GNAstV, and 50 goslings were treated with PBS as control. Spleens were collected at different times following infection to assess damage. GNAstV infection caused visceral gout and urate deposition in joints, and resulted in 16% mortality. GNAstV was found in the lymphocytes and macrophages within the spleen. Lymphocyte loss, especially around the white pulp, and destruction and decline in the number of reticular fibers was observed in GNAstV-infected goslings. Moreover, in GNAstV-infected goslings, ultrahistopathological examination found that splenic lymphocytes exhibited condensed chromatin and apoptotic bodies, and reticular cells displayed damage to plasma membrane integrity and swollen mitochondria. Furthermore, TUNEL staining confirmed apoptosis of lymphocytes, and the mRNA levels of Fas and FasL were significantly increased in the GNAstV-infected goslings. In addition, GNAstV infection reduced the number and protein expression of CD8. In conclusion, GNAstV infection causes lymphocyte depletion, reticular cell necrosis, reticular fiber destruction, lymphocyte apoptosis, and reduction in CD8 levels, which contribute to spleen injury.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Avastrovirus/fisiologia , Gansos/virologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Animais , Avastrovirus/classificação , Avastrovirus/genética , Biópsia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia , Carga Viral
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101230, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171653

RESUMO

The transmission of antimicrobial resistance bacteria from animals to humans has become an important concern. The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -AmpC- producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-AmpC EC) and quinolones resistant E. coli are of particular interest. The present study aimed to evaluate the load and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant commensal E. coli along the goose production cycle on 2 free-range farms in central Italy. On A farm, oxytetracycline was administered, while the B farm did not use antibiotics during the geese productive cycle. One hundred geese of 1-day-old from the same batch were divided into the two farms. At hatching, the animals showed an average of E. coli loads was 6.83 ± 0.48 log CFU/g, and 0.28 ± 0.28, 0, 5.12 ± 0.54 log CFU/g for E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid (E. colinal), to cefotaxime (E. colicef) and to tetracyclines (E. colitet), respectively. The loads of E. coli, E. colinal, E. colicef and E. colitet on 224 environmental faecal pools were determined at 8 time points. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of E. colicef isolates were performed. The ANOVA was used to assess the difference in bacterial loads between the two farms. We described more than 50% of resistances for tetracyclines in both farms, and sulphonamides and cephazolin in the A farm. The loads of E. coli and E. colinal in faeces were estimated at approximately 6-7 log (CFU/g) and 5-6 log (CFU/g) in the two farms, respectively. The average load of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli (ESBL EC) in goose faeces varied broadly along the production cycle: in the first weeks, a sharp increase was observed in both farms, while later on A farm, the burden of ESBL EC remained steady until the end of the production cycle and on B farm the load dramatically decreased from 6 wk of age onward. An increase in the proportion of E. colinal was observed on A farm shortly after the antibiotic administration. Our study shows that the dynamics of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in farmed geese are similar to the ones observed in broilers. However, the risk of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant commensal E. coli, might be mitigated by the adoption of good management practices, including prudent use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Gansos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , beta-Lactamases
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101251, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175799

RESUMO

Previously, we isolated a novel strain of goose pegivirus (GPgV) that infects geese and shows high levels of lymphotropism. This novel pegivirus strain is phylogenetically distinct from previously known Pegivirus species, Pegivirus A-K, and qualifies as a candidate new Pegivirus species, GPgV. GPgV is tentatively named Pegivirus M. Here, to better understand the epidemic of GPgV infection and the coinfection of this virus with other viruses in Southwest China, 25 geese in poor health from Sichuan Province and 24 geese in poor health from the municipality of Chongqing were collected. The geese were tested for 9 types of goose viruses (goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus, GPgV, astrovirus, parvovirus, circovirus, reovirus, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, and avian influenza virus) by RT-PCR or nested RT-PCR. GPgV RNA was detected in 2 out of 25 monoinfections and 8 out of 25 coinfections with other viruses on Sichuan farms and 2 out of 24 monoinfections and 10 out of 24 coinfections on Chongqing farms. Overall, 22 of the 49 (44.9%) geese were positive for GPgV, which indicated a high infection rate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of GPgV coinfection with other epidemic viruses. This study enhances our understanding of the emergence and epidemiology of Pegivirus.


Assuntos
Circovirus , Coinfecção , Parvovirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Gansos , Parvovirus/genética , Pegivirus , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101185, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192641

RESUMO

Goose (Anas cygnoides), as a typical species domesticated from a migratory bird, has maintained the capability of depositing excess lipid and preferentially accumulating fat within the abdomen and subcutaneous, which not only leads to decrease in yield of meat product, but also affects the feed conversion rate. Here, an experiment was conducted to examine the difference in developmental dynamics between subcutaneous (SAT) and abdominal adipose tissues (AAT) in goose. The results showed that SAT could be clearly observed at embryonic days (E) 15, whereas AAT were clearer until E20. Although the weights of SAT and AAT showed a significant rising with advancing age (P < 0.05), their gains were not completely uniform, and more adipose deposited preferentially toward AAT after birth (P < 0.05). Additionally, a clear expansion in adipocyte size was observed in AAT and SAT during embryonic stages (P < 0.05). The average adipocyte area in AAT continued to increase after birth (P < 0.05), while the cell areas in SAT were relatively invariable (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of FABP4/aP2, ACSL1 and PPARγ were much higher in SAT than in AAT, whereas relative higher expression level of IL-6 was observed in the AAT during embryonic stages. After birth, the more expression of LPL and PPARα were detected in AAT than did in SAT (P < 0.05), whereas greater ATGL expression was in SAT (P < 0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that AAT may display greater fat storage capacity than SAT accompanied by changes in cell area and lipogenic capacity. Considering that there is disparity in the individual adipose tissues, we suggested that careful consideration for the precise interventions used to control SAT or AAT deposition in meat-producing animals to improve feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Gansos , Gordura Subcutânea , Gordura Abdominal , Animais , Galinhas , Carne
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101226, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175802

RESUMO

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) plays an indispensable role in the process of polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines are a pivotal part of living cells and have diverse roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, aging and reproduction. However, to date, there have been no reports about ODC regulating follicular development in goose ovaries. Here, we constructed ODC siRNA and overexpression plasmids and transfected them into goose primary granulosa cells (GCs) to elucidate the effects of ODC interference and overexpression on the polyamine metabolism, hormone levels, cell apoptosis and proliferation of granulosa cells. After interfering with ODC in GCs, the mRNA and protein levels of ODC and the content of putrescine were greatly decreased (P < 0.05). When ODC was overexpressed, ODC mRNA and protein levels and putrescine content were greatly increased (P < 0.05). The polyamine-metabolizing enzyme genes ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1) and spermidine / spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) were significantly increased, and spermidine synthase (SPDS) was significantly decreased when ODC was downregulated (P < 0.05). OAZ1, SPDS and SSAT were significantly increased when ODC was upregulated (P < 0.05). In addition, after interference with ODC, progesterone (P4) levels in the culture medium of GCs increased greatly (P < 0.05), while the overexpression of ODC caused the P4 level to decrease significantly (P < 0.05). After ODC downregulation, granulosa cell activity was significantly reduced, the apoptosis rate was significantly increased, and the BCL-2 / BAX ratio was downregulated (P < 0.05). Under ODC overexpression, the activity of GCs was notably increased, the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced, and the BCL-2 / BAX protein ratio was upregulated (P < 0.05). Our study successfully induced ODC interference and overexpression in goose ovarian GCs, and ODC regulated mainly putrescine content in GCs with a slight influence on spermidine and spermine. Moreover, ODC participated in the adjustment of P4 levels in the culture medium of GCs, promoted granulosa cell proliferation and inhibited granulosa cell apoptosis.


Assuntos
Gansos , Células da Granulosa/citologia , Ornitina Descarboxilase , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Hormônios , Ornitina Descarboxilase/genética
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148619, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182443

RESUMO

Large population increases of Arctic-breeding waterfowls over recent decades have intensified the conflict with agricultural interests in both Eurasia and North America. In the spring-staging region Vesterålen in sub-Arctic Norway, sheep, dairy and meat farmers have reported reduced agricultural grassland yields due to pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus and barnacle geese Branta leucopsis that rest and forage in the region for 3-4 weeks in spring on their way to their breeding grounds on Svalbard. Here, we report from an experimental exclosure design where goose access to plots at three grassland fields in Vesterålen was prevented. The experiment was conducted over 3 years between 2012 and 2014. Goose abundance varied greatly between fields and years as a function of variable spring weather and forage quantity, facilitating evaluation of longer-term impacts under contrasting grazing intensities. First and second harvest yields across fields and years were 20% and 19% higher in exclosures than in plots open for grazing, while total yields (sum of first and second harvests) were on average 27% higher. Within-year effects on harvest yields varied substantially, primarily due to highly contrasting sward development during the spring-staging periods. Cool weather (2012) led to slow sward development and little or no effects on harvest yields, warmer weather (2013) resulted in generally large effects, while variable weather (2014) led to treatment effects varying across fields, with one field experiencing 61% higher yields in exclosures while there were no significant impacts on first-harvest yields at the two other fields. Goose grazing did not increase dry weight-based proportions of weeds. Overall, the farmers' reports on yield-loss due to goose grazing were confirmed, although impacts varied substantially between years. A novel finding is that second-harvest yields were also reduced. For the most affected farmers, it is unlikely that the current subsidy scheme is sufficient to cover all the their losses.


Assuntos
Gansos , Pradaria , Agricultura , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estações do Ano , Ovinos
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101208, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102480

RESUMO

To explored the difference of goose fatty liver formation induced-by different types of sugar from the intestinal physiology and the gut microflora, an integrated analysis of intestinal physiology and gut microbiota metagenomes was performed using samples collected from the geese including the normal-feeding geese and the overfed geese which were overfed with maize flour or overfeeding dietary supplementation with 10% sugar (glucose, fructose or sucrose, respectively), respectively. The results showed that the foie gras weight of the fructose group and the sucrose group was heavier (P < 0.05) than other groups. Compared with the control group, the ileum weight was significantly higher (P < 0.01), and the cecum weight was significantly lower in the sugar treatment groups (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, the ratio of villi height to crypt depth in the fructose group was the highest in jejunum (P < 0.05); the trypsin activity of the ileum was higher in the fructose group and the sucrose group (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the main intestinal flora of geese; and the abundance of Firmicutes in the jejunum was higher in the sugar treatment groups than that of the maize flour group. At the genus level, the abundance of Lactobacillus in the jejunum was higher (P < 0.05) in the sugar treatment groups than that of the maize flour group. In conclusion, forced-feeding diet supplementation with sugar induced stronger digestion and absorption capacity, increased the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and the abundance of Lactobacillus (especially fructose and sucrose) in the gut. So, the fructose and sucrose had higher induction on hepatic steatosis in goose fatty liver formation.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Galinhas , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Gansos , Açúcares
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(21): 5986-5996, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019403

RESUMO

Aroma-active compounds in the roasted leg meat of White Koluda goose were assayed by gas chromatography-olfactometry, using aroma extract dilution analysis and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Quantitation, recombination-omission tests, and sensory evaluation were carried out. Thirty aroma compounds, for which odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated and for which the flavor dilution factors were greater than or equal to 1, were identified. The concentration of aroma compounds ranged from 0.06 to 633 (µg/kg). The highest OAVs (>1024) were for 2-furfurylthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 1-octen-3-one. Nine key aroma compounds were: 2-furfurylthiol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenylethanethiol, 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 3-(methylthio)propanal. The intensity of the dominating roasted, meaty/broth, and fatty notes in the recombination model consisting of the key odorants were rated (10-point scale) at 4.6-5.8 points, relative to the original roasted goose (5.2-6.2). The aroma compounds defined predominantly the meaty, roasted, and fatty flavors during the descriptive sensory evaluation of the roasted goose meat.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Gansos , Carne , Olfatometria
20.
Geospat Health ; 16(1)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000793

RESUMO

Long-distance migrations influence the dynamics of hostpathogen interactions and understanding the role of migratory waterfowl in the spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) is important. While wild geese have been associated with outbreak events, disease ecology of closely related species has not been studied to the same extent. The swan goose (Anser cygnoides) and the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) are congeneric species with distinctly different HPAIV infection records; the former with few and the latter with numerous records. We compared movements of these species, as well as the more distantly related whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) through their annual migratory cycle to better understand exposure to HPAIV events and how this compares within and between congeneric and noncongeneric species. In spite of their record of fewer infections, swan geese were more likely to come in contact with disease outbreaks than bar-headed geese. We propose two possible explanations: i) frequent prolonged contact with domestic ducks increases innate immunity in swan geese, and/or ii) the stress of high-elevation migration reduces immunity of bar-headed geese. Continued efforts to improve our understanding of species-level pathogen response is critical to assessing disease transmission risk.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Gansos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia
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