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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. METHODS: We performed an analysis on the blood oxygenation parameters collected in sixty-nine severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy and presenting a CT lung involvement ≥50%. Twenty-nine patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, azithromycin and Remdesivir. In addition, forty subjects received SLAB51. Blood gas analyses were performed before the beginning of treatments and at 24 h. RESULTS: The patients receiving only standard therapy needed significantly increased oxygen amounts during the 24 h observation period. Furthermore, they presented lower blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 than the group also supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. In vitro data suggest that SLAB51 can reduce nitric oxide synthesis in intestinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may present lesions in the lungs compromising their gas exchange capability. The functionality of the organs essential for these patients' survival depends mainly on the levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2. SLAB51 contains enzymes that could reduce oxygen consumption in the intestine, making it available for the other organs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Gasometria , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Heparina , Humanos , Hipóxia , Itália , Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 05 27.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346595

RESUMO

Prescription of long term oxygen treatment ( LTOT),based on old studies, is only indicated if there is severe hypoxaemia at rest (PaO2 < 8,0 kPa) and should be used atleast 15 hours per day.However as newer treatments like nocturnal non-invasive ventilatory support showed to be beneficial, LTOT stands not on its own but should be part of a multidimensional approach in individual patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Gasometria , Humanos , Hipóxia/terapia , Assistência de Longa Duração , Oxigênio , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia
3.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(3): 239-245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390628

RESUMO

Breathing less than 50 kPa of oxygen over time can lead to pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Vital capacity (VC) as the sole parameter for POT has its limitations. In this study we try to find out the changes of acid-base status in a POT rat model. Fifty male rats were randomly divided into five groups, exposed to 230 kPa oxygen for three, six, nine and 12 hours, respectively. Rats exposed to air were used as controls. After exposure the mortality and behavior of rats were observed. Arterial blood samples were collected for acid-base status detection and wet-dry (W/D) ratios of lung tissues were tested. Results showed that the acid-base status in rats exposed to 230 kPa oxygen presented a dynamic change. The primary status was in the compensatory period when primary respiratory acidosis was mixed with compensated metabolic alkalosis. Then the status changed to decompensated alkalosis and developed to decompensated acidosis in the end. pH, PCO2, HCO3-, TCO2, and BE values had two phases: an increase and a later decrease with increasing oxygen exposure time, while PaO2 and lung W/D ratio showed continuously increasing trends with the extension of oxygen exposure time. Lung W/D ratio was significantly associated with PaO2 (r = 0.6385, p = 0.002), while other parameters did not show a significant correlation. It is concluded that acid-base status in POT rats presents a dynamic change: in the compensatory period first, then turns to decompensated alkalosis and ends up with decompensated acidosis status. Blood gas analysis is a useful method to monitor the development of POT.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/sangue , Acidose Respiratória/metabolismo , Alcalose Respiratória/metabolismo , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/efeitos adversos , Oxigênio/toxicidade , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/etiologia , Animais , Pressão Atmosférica , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Análise Química do Sangue , Gasometria , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Tamanho do Órgão , Pressão Parcial , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo , Capacidade Vital
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348536

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis parameters (blood carbon dioxide, pCO2; oxygen, pO2; carbonate, HCO3-; standard base excess, SBE) in monitoring respiratory function and ventilation compliance after noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) adaptation, predicting survival in ALS patients. Methods: We selected the first ABG performed after NIV start in ALS patients followed from 2000 to 2015 in Turin ALS Center. Correlations between ABG parameters and survival were calculated. Risk for death/tracheostomy was computed at modifying ABG parameters by using Cox regression models, adjusted for the main prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were then performed and compared. Results: A total of 186 post-NIV ABGs were included. HCO3- and SBE showed a significant correlation with survival after NIV (respectively, R = -0.183, p = 0.018 and R = -0.200, p = 0.010). Risk for death/tracheostomy after NIV was significantly higher at increasing HCO3- and SBE blood levels, especially when HCO3- was >29 mmol/L and SBE >4 mmol/L (respectively, HR 1.466, 95% CI 1.068-2.011, p = 0.018 and HR = 1.411, 95% CI 1.030-1.32, p = 0.032). Survival in NIV was higher in patients with HCO3- < 29.0 mmol/L and SBE < 4.0 mmol/L. Conclusions: HCO3- and SBE blood levels are markers of ventilation compliance, tolerance and efficacy, being able to predict survival after NIV start in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Gasometria , Carbonatos , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(30): 2370-2374, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404129

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of giant emphysematous bulla (GEB) volume reduction via medical thoracoscope. Methods: This was a prospective, single-arm study conducted between July 2018 and September 2020 in Ri Zhao Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were treated with GEB volume reduction via medical thoracoscope and were followed up to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the technique. According to comparison of preoperative and postoperative chest CT results, the self-designed evaluation criteria of imaging efficacy were as follows: complete or nearly complete disappearance of GEB (GEB volume reduction ≥90%), significant reduction of GEB (75%≤GEB volume reduction<90%), reduction of GEB (50%≤GEB volume reduction<75%) and no change (GEB volume reduction<50%). Results: A total of 47 patients were included, among whom 43 were males, with an age M (Q1, Q3) of 63.0 (55.0, 67.0). The CT results showed complete or nearly complete disappearance of GEB in 43 patients, significant reduction of GEB in 3 patients and reduction of GEB in 1 patient before discharge. The degree of dyspnea improved significantly (P<0.05). Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) decreased from (48.2±8.4)mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) to (45.4±7.3)mmHg (P<0.05). The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) increased from (245.6±162.4)m to (283.5±152.2)m (P<0.05). Six-month postoperative follow-up was completed in 24 patients, and CT results showed that the efficacy of volume reduction was continuous compared with that before discharge. GEB was further reduced or even disappeared in 3 of the cases. Besides, the degree of dyspnea, 6MWT (384.4±148.2)m and PaCO2 (42.7±6.6)mmHg were improved significantly (P<0.05). The oxygenation index (356.86±61.21)mmHg was significantly higher than that before surgery (295.20±67.16)mmHg and before discharge (294.50±76.69)mmHg (P<0.05). No perioperative deaths occurred. Conclusions: GEB volume can be completely eliminated or significantly reduced by this innovative technique, while PaCO2, the degree of dyspnea and exercise endurance can be significantly improved after operation. The 6-month follow-up after surgery showed that the above benefits continued, and that the oxygenation index improved significantly.


Assuntos
Enfisema Pulmonar , Toracoscópios , Vesícula , Gasometria , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Enfisema Pulmonar/cirurgia
6.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 31(5): 578-584, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare in vivo central venous hemoglobin saturation measurement (ScvO2 ) using a fiber optic catheter with saturation calculated from blood gas analysis in critically ill dogs. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital intensive care unit. ANIMALS: A convenience sample of 20 dogs with severe illness. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs were instrumented with either a central venous catheter with an integrated fiber optic cable or a conventional catheter with a fiber optic probe inserted through its distal port. Baseline saturation was measured with the fiber optic system (FSO2 ), then monitored continuously. Central venous blood was collected for analysis and FSO2 was recorded by the principal investigator (PI) or nursing staff participating in data collection (staff) at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2 ) values calculated using human Bohr coefficients were taken directly from the analyzer (GPSO2 ), and were also calculated using temperature-correction and canine Bohr coefficients (RSO2 ). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-seven paired measurements from 20 dogs were analyzed. FSO2 obtained by the PI (n = 41) had better agreement with both GPSO2 (concordance correlation coefficient ρc = 0.926 vs 0.5562) and RSO2 (ρc = 0.75 for PI vs 0.54) than did staff (n = 56). RSO2 values were always smaller than GPSO2 . FSO2 - GPSO2 differences were smaller when measurements were collected by the PI versus Staff (mean difference 0.21 vs -6.6, respectively, P < 0.02). Thirty-six of 41 FSO2 values obtained by PI were within 5% of GPSO2 . CONCLUSIONS: Concordance between FSO2 and either calculation method was low, but was better when performed by PI. The larger difference between methods when using RSO2 suggests a positive bias by FSO2 . Difficulty obtaining stable measurements may have contributed to the poor concordance between methods within Staff.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Gasometria/veterinária , Cães , Hemoglobinas , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Oximetria/veterinária , Oxigênio
7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 241, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273962

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 can infect the respiratory tract causing a spectrum of disease varying from mild to fatal pneumonia, and known as COVID-19. Ongoing clinical research is assessing the potential for long-term respiratory sequelae in these patients. We assessed the respiratory function in a cohort of patients after recovering from SARS-Cov-2 infection, stratified according to PaO2/FiO2 (p/F) values. METHOD: Approximately one month after hospital discharge, 86 COVID-19 patients underwent physical examination, arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and six-minute walk test (6MWT). Patients were also asked to quantify the severity of dyspnoea and cough before, during, and after hospitalization using a visual analogic scale (VAS). Seventy-six subjects with ABG during hospitalization were stratified in three groups according to their worst p/F values: above 300 (n = 38), between 200 and 300 (n = 30) and below 200 (n = 20). RESULTS: On PFTs, lung volumes were overall preserved yet, mean percent predicted residual volume was slightly reduced (74.8 ± 18.1%). Percent predicted diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was also mildly reduced (77.2 ± 16.5%). Patients reported residual breathlessness at the time of the visit (VAS 19.8, p < 0.001). Patients with p/F below 200 during hospitalization had lower percent predicted forced vital capacity (p = 0.005), lower percent predicted total lung capacity (p = 0.012), lower DLCO (p < 0.001) and shorter 6MWT distance (p = 0.004) than patients with higher p/F. CONCLUSION: Approximately one month after hospital discharge, patients with COVID-19 can have residual respiratory impairment, including lower exercise tolerance. The extent of this impairment seems to correlate with the severity of respiratory failure during hospitalization.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Gasometria , COVID-19/complicações , Monóxido de Carbono , Dispneia/virologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Pressão Parcial , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Volume Residual , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Teste de Caminhada
8.
Physiol Rep ; 9(13): e14802, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250766

RESUMO

In severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-prolonging treatment, especially among COVID-19 patients. Evaluation of lung injury progression is challenging with current techniques. Diagnostic imaging or invasive diagnostics are risky given the difficulties of intra-hospital transportation, contraindication of biopsies, and the potential for the spread of infections, such as in COVID-19 patients. We have recently shown that particle flow rate (PFR) from exhaled breath could be a noninvasive, early detection method for ARDS during mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that PFR could also measure the progress of lung injury during ECMO treatment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was thus used to induce ARDS in pigs under mechanical ventilation. Eight were connected to ECMO, whereas seven animals were not. In addition, six animals received sham treatment with saline. Four human patients with ECMO and ARDS were also monitored. In the pigs, as lung injury ensued, the PFR dramatically increased and a particular spike followed the establishment of ECMO in the LPS-treated animals. PFR remained elevated in all animals with no signs of lung recovery. In the human patients, in the two that recovered, PFR decreased. In the two whose lung function deteriorated while on ECMO, there was increased PFR with no sign of recovery in lung function. The present results indicate that real-time monitoring of PFR may be a new, complementary approach in the clinic for measurement of the extent of lung injury and recovery over time in ECMO patients with ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado/análise , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Animais , Gasometria/métodos , COVID-19/induzido quimicamente , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/induzido quimicamente , Suínos
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101368, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314937

RESUMO

The blood gas and biochemical reference range established with i-STAT clinical analyzer in avian has become common, however, the reference value for various laying hen lines is limited. Therefore, blood gas and biochemical reference intervals will be established for Lohmann Silver layers in the pre- and post-laying periods. The blood sample was collected at a 4-wk interval. A total of 230 Lohmann Silver layers including 80 pullets (5-17 wk) and 150 laying hens (21-37 wk) were collected for whole blood measurement with the i-STAT clinical analyzer. The CG8+ cartridge provides values of the following 13 parameters: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dL), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dL). The correlation of these parameters and the effect of physiological status were investigated. The reference value interval was established with a reference value advisor for pre-laying and post-laying birds. Correlations were found to be statistically significant, especially between BE and HCO3 and TCO2. Besides, values in Na, iCa, K, Hct, Hb, sO2 differed significantly between the pre- and post-laying periods. Data in this study might serve as important information for facilitating the genetic selection and assessing the health of Lohmann Silver laying hens.


Assuntos
Gasometria/veterinária , Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Valores de Referência , Sódio
10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 248, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in physiology of ARDS have been described between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to compare initial values and longitudinal changes in respiratory system compliance (CRS), oxygenation parameters and ventilatory ratio (VR) in patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pulmonary ARDS matched on oxygenation. METHODS: 135 patients with COVID-19 ARDS from two centers were included in a physiological study; 767 non-COVID-19 ARDS from a clinical trial were used for the purpose of at least 1:2 matching. A propensity-matching was based on age, severity score, oxygenation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and pulmonary cause of ARDS and allowed to include 112 COVID-19 and 198 non-COVID pulmonary ARDS. RESULTS: The two groups were similar on initial oxygenation. COVID-19 patients had a higher body mass index, higher CRS at day 1 (median [IQR], 35 [28-44] vs 32 [26-38] ml cmH2O-1, p = 0.037). At day 1, CRS was correlated with oxygenation only in non-COVID-19 patients; 61.6% and 68.2% of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pulmonary ARDS were still ventilated at day 7 (p = 0.241). Oxygenation became lower in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients at days 3 and 7, while CRS became similar. VR was lower at day 1 in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients but increased from day 1 to 7 only in COVID-19 patients. VR was higher at days 1, 3 and 7 in the COVID-19 patients ventilated using heat and moisture exchangers compared to heated humidifiers. After adjustment on PaO2/FiO2, PEEP and humidification device, CRS and VR were found not different between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients at day 7. Day-28 mortality did not differ between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients (25.9% and 23.7%, respectively, p = 0.666). CONCLUSIONS: For a similar initial oxygenation, COVID-19 ARDS initially differs from classical ARDS by a higher CRS, dissociated from oxygenation. CRS become similar for patients remaining on mechanical ventilation during the first week of evolution, but oxygenation becomes lower in COVID-19 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT04385004.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Idoso , Gasometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(6): 727-730, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of early mechanical ventilation on the expression of inflammatory factors and prognosis of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). METHODS: From January 2017 to December 2020, 138 patients with sTBI admitted to the department of the emergency of Xinhua Hospital Chongming Branch were enrolled. Although some patients were admitted to hospital without acute respiratory failure, their Glasgow coma score (GCS) were less than 8, they bad risk of hypoxia, so early mechanical ventilation was required. According to the patient's condition and the willingness of family members, patients were divided into mechanical ventilation group (tracheal intubation mechanical ventilation) and conventional oxygen inhalation group (nasal catheter or mask oxygen inhalation) in the end. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL-6, IL-10) levels at admission, preoperation and 72 hours postoperation, as well as GCS before operation and 1 week after operation, the duration and number of patients successfully evacuated from the ventilator within 1 week after surgery were observed and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 138 sTBI patients were enrolled in the study, including 72 cases in the mechanical ventilation group and 66 cases in the routine oxygen inhalation group. In the two groups, PaO2, PaO2/FiO2 and IL-10 were higher, and PaCO2, TNF-α and IL-6 were lower at 72 hours post operation than that before operation. Moreover, the changes in the mechanical ventilation group were more significant than those in the conventional oxygen inhalation group [PaO2 (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 94.6±7.7 vs. 92.5±6.8, PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg): 351±94 vs. 319±89, IL-10 (ng/L): 8.2±2.7 vs. 7.4±1.8, PaCO2 (mmHg): 35.6±1.8 vs. 37.5±2.7, TNF-α(ng/L): 71.5±6.3 vs. 96.8±15.5, IL-6 (ng/L): 10.8±3.9 vs. 14.4±6.5, all P < 0.05]. There were 17 patients with severe respiratory insufficiency or failure in the conventional oxygen inhalation group before operation. Compared with the conventional oxygen inhalation group, the GCS score (11.7±3.1 vs. 9.1±4.6) and the proportion of successful weaning [62.5% (45/72) vs. 44.0% (29/66)] were significantly higher, and the duration of successful weaning (hours: 63.5±28.6 vs. 88.1±33.9) was significantly shorter in the mechanical ventilation group 1 week after operation. CONCLUSIONS: Early mechanical ventilation in sTBI patients can significantly improve oxygen supply, inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory factors, reduce secondary brain damage, and effectively improve the prognosis.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Gasometria , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The duration of labor has become a central axis of its clinical management, most of the studies that analyze its relationship with the neonatal state focus on indirect tests such as the Apgar test or admissions to the NICU. The aim of the study was to analyze the repercussions of the duration of labor on the condition of the neonates without added risk factors through a direct analysis test such as the umbilical artery blood gas test at birth. METHODS: An observational, analytical, retrospective, and prevalence study was conducted on a sample of 286 infants no previous risk factors obtained from the computerized clinical registry. For a confidence level of p<0.05, parametric tests such as Pearson's correlation coefficient and Chi-square were applied. RESULTS: Showed a significant negative correlation between umbilical artery pH values and delivery times (Dilation: R=-0.207; p=0.002 - Expulsive: R=-0.150; p=0.027 - Total delivery: R=-0.181; p=0.006). Presenting deliveries with times above the mean greater possibilities of fetal acidosis and hypercapnia in dilation (pH: OR=3.10; IC 1.64-5.51 - pCO2: OR=2.19; IC 1.23-3.89), the expulsive (pH: OR=2.24; IC 1.21-4.16 - pCO2: OR=1.77; IC 0.98-3.22) and the total duration (pH: OR=3.36, IC 1.84-6.13- pCO2: OR=2.53; IC 1.44-4.46). CONCLUSIONS: A significant association is was found between the prolongation of labor times and acidosis and neonatal hypercapnia.


Assuntos
Acidose/epidemiologia , Sangue Fetal/química , Hipercapnia/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Parto , Gasometria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Indian J Pediatr ; 88(7): 679-689, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097229

RESUMO

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), otherwise known as inherited metabolic disorders (IMD), are individually rare, but collectively common. IEM pose a challenge to diagnosis, as neonates present with nonspecific signs. A high index of suspicion is essential. Knowledge on clinical presentation may be life saving, especially for conditions that are treatable. It is important for the first-line physicians not to miss treatable disorders. Simplified classification and algorithmic approach help in the clinical setting. This article describes the classification of IEM into three groups, namely group 1 - intoxication disorders, group 2 - energy defects, and group 3 - storage disorders. Clinical presentations of IEM in the neonatal period, a quick guide to the diagnosis with the help of baseline investigations (glucose, arterial blood gas, lactate, ammonia, and ketone abbreviated as GALAK), a tabulated guide to the diagnosis with the help of tandem mass spectrometry (TMS), and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) are summarized in this article. Four principles of therapy that include substrate reduction, provision of deficient metabolites, disposal of toxic metabolites, and increase in enzyme activity are elaborated with particular stress to the diet management. In addition, a list of medications used in the treatment of different disorders classified according to Society for the Study of IEM (SSIEM) is presented.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Gasometria , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/terapia , Triagem Neonatal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139154

RESUMO

COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Proteoma/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Gasometria , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
16.
Br J Nurs ; 30(11): 666-670, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109812

RESUMO

Pulse oximetry is widely used to assess oxygen saturation (SpO2) in order to guide patient care and monitor the response to treatment. However, inappropriate oximeter probe placement has been shown to affect the measured oximetry values in healthy and normoxic outpatients. This study evaluated how treatment decisions might be impacted by SpO2 values obtained using a finger probe placed on the pinna of the ear in a cohort of 46 patients receiving non-invasive ventilation compared with values obtained from a probe on the finger and the results of arterial blood gas (ABG) (SaO2) analysis. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate agreement between the methods. Finger probe saturation was not statistically different from SaO2, with a mean difference of -0.66% (P>0.05). Saturation from the ear was significantly different (-4.29%; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis in hypoxic patients (SaO2<90%) showed a significant difference between ABG SaO2, and finger and ear SpO2. The study provides evidence that placement of a finger probe on the ear is unsafe clinical practice, potentially leading to patient mismanagement.


Assuntos
Oximetria , Oxigênio , Gasometria , Humanos , Hipóxia , Monitorização Fisiológica
17.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 79, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical chest compression devices are accepted alternatives for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) under specific circumstances. Current devices lack prospective and comparative data on their specific cardiovascular effects and potential for severe thoracic injuries. OBJECTIVES: To compare CPR effectiveness and thoracic injuries of two mechanical chest compression devices in pigs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised trial. ANIMALS: Eighteen male German landrace pigs. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation was induced in anaesthetised and instrumented pigs and the animals were randomised into two intervention groups. Mechanical CPR was initiated by means of LUCAS™ 2 (mCCD1) or Corpuls™ cpr (mCCD2) device. Advanced life support was applied for a maximum of 10 cycles and animals achieving ROSC were monitored for 8 h. Ventilation/perfusion measurements were performed and blood gas analyses were taken. Thoracic injuries were assessed via a standardised damage score. RESULTS: Five animals of the mCCD1 group and one animal of the mCCD2 group achieved ROSC (p = 0.048). Only the mCCD1 animals survived until the end of the monitoring period (p < 0.01). MCCD1 animals showed less pulmonary shunt (p = 0.025) and higher normal V/Q (p = 0.017) during CPR. MCCD2 animals showed significantly more severe thoracic injuries (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: The LUCAS 2 device shows superior resuscitation outcomes and less thoracic injuries compared to Corpuls cpr when used for experimental CPR in juvenile pigs. Researchers should be aware that different mCCDs for experimental studies may significantly influence the respective outcome of resuscitation studies and affect comparability of different trials. Controlled human and animal CPR studies and a standardised post-resuscitation injury evaluation could help to confirm potential hazards. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial approval number: G16-1-042-E4.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Parada Cardíaca/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/terapia , Traumatismos Torácicos/veterinária , Animais , Gasometria , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Suínos , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Tórax , Fibrilação Ventricular
18.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 131(2): 464-473, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138647

RESUMO

Patients with sepsis have typically reduced concentrations of hemoglobin and albumin, the major components of noncarbonic buffer power (ß). This could expose patients to high pH variations during acid-base disorders. The objective of this study is to compare, in vitro, noncarbonic ß of patients with sepsis with that of healthy volunteers, and evaluate its distinct components. Whole blood and isolated plasma of 18 patients with sepsis and 18 controls were equilibrated with different CO2 mixtures. Blood gases, pH, and electrolytes were measured. Noncarbonic ß and noncarbonic ß due to variations in strong ion difference (ßSID) were calculated for whole blood. Noncarbonic ß and noncarbonic ß normalized for albumin concentrations (ßNORM) were calculated for isolated plasma. Representative values at pH = 7.40 were compared. Albumin proteoforms were evaluated via two-dimensional electrophoresis. Hemoglobin and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with sepsis. Patients with sepsis had lower noncarbonic ß both of whole blood (22.0 ± 1.9 vs. 31.6 ± 2.1 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and plasma (0.5 ± 1.0 vs. 3.7 ± 0.8 mmol/L, P < 0.01). Noncarbonic ßSID was lower in patients (16.8 ± 1.9 vs. 24.4 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and strongly correlated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Noncarbonic ßNORM was lower in patients [0.01 (-0.01 to 0.04) vs. 0.08 (0.06-0.09) mmol/g, P < 0.01]. Patients with sepsis and controls showed different amounts of albumin proteoforms. Patients with sepsis are exposed to higher pH variations for any given change in CO2 due to lower concentrations of noncarbonic buffers and, possibly, an altered buffering function of albumin. In both patients with sepsis and healthy controls, electrolyte shifts are the major buffering mechanism during respiratory acid-base disorders.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Patients with sepsis are poorly protected against acute respiratory acid-base derangements due to a lower noncarbonic buffer power, which is caused both by a reduction in the major noncarbonic buffers, i.e. hemoglobin and albumin, and by a reduced buffering capacity of albumin. Electrolyte shifts from and to the red blood cells determining acute variations in strong ion difference are the major buffering mechanism during acute respiratory acid-base disorders.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base , Sepse , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Ácidos , Gasometria , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 214, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have pathophysiological lung features characterized by perfusion abnormalities. However, to date no study has evaluated whether the changes in the distribution of pulmonary gas and blood volume are associated with the severity of gas-exchange impairment and the type of respiratory support (non-invasive versus invasive) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Northern Italy during the first pandemic wave. Pulmonary gas and blood distribution was assessed using a technique for quantitative analysis of dual-energy computed tomography. Lung aeration loss (reflected by percentage of normally aerated lung tissue) and the extent of gas:blood volume mismatch (percentage of non-aerated, perfused lung tissue-shunt; aerated, non-perfused dead space; and non-aerated/non-perfused regions) were evaluated in critically ill COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity as reflected by the need for non-invasive or invasive respiratory support. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients admitted to the intensive care unit between February 29th and May 30th, 2020 were included. Patients requiring invasive versus non-invasive mechanical ventilation had both a lower percentage of normally aerated lung tissue (median [interquartile range] 33% [24-49%] vs. 63% [44-68%], p < 0.001); and a larger extent of gas:blood volume mismatch (43% [30-49%] vs. 25% [14-28%], p = 0.001), due to higher shunt (23% [15-32%] vs. 5% [2-16%], p = 0.001) and non-aerated/non perfused regions (5% [3-10%] vs. 1% [0-2%], p = 0.001). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio correlated positively with normally aerated tissue (ρ = 0.730, p < 0.001) and negatively with the extent of gas-blood volume mismatch (ρ = - 0.633, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and oxygenation impairment were associated with loss of aeration and the extent of gas:blood volume mismatch.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo/fisiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/metabolismo , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/metabolismo , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Idoso , Gasometria/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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