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1.
J Biol Dyn ; 15(1): 195-212, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827379

RESUMO

Incidence vs. Cumulative Cases (ICC) curves are introduced and shown to provide a simple framework for parameter identification in the case of the most elementary epidemiological model, consisting of susceptible, infected, and removed compartments. This novel methodology is used to estimate the basic reproduction ratio of recent outbreaks, including those associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Dinâmica não Linear , Distribuição de Poisson , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573536

RESUMO

Abstract: Significant reductions in the incidence of enteroviruses and noroviruses, both transmitted primarily by the faecal-oral route, were noted in 2020 compared to the previous decade, in Victoria, Australia. The enterovirus specimen positivity rate was reduced by 84.2% in 2020, while the norovirus outbreak positivity rate declined by 49.0%. The most likely explanation for these reductions is the concurrence of social restrictions, physical distancing, personal hygiene awareness and international and domestic border closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Enterovirus , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Vitória/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573534

RESUMO

Abstract: This report, from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2018. During this period, 690 faecal specimens were referred for rotavirus G- and P- genotype analysis, including 607 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 457/607 were wild-type rotavirus strains and 150/607 were identified as rotavirus vaccine-like. Genotype analysis of the 457 wild-type rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G3P[8] was the dominant genotype nationally, identified in 52% of samples, followed by G2P[4] (17%). The Australian National Immunisation Program, which previously included both RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines, changed to Rotarix exclusively on 1 July 2017. Continuous surveillance is needed to identify if the change in vaccination schedule could affect rotavirus genotype distribution and diversity in Australia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573535

RESUMO

Abstract: This report, from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2019. During this period, 964 faecal specimens had been referred for rotavirus G- and P- genotype analysis, including 894 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 724/894 were wild-type rotavirus strains and 169/894 were identified as vaccine-like. A single sample could not be determined as wild-type or vaccine-like due to poor sequencing. Genotype analysis of the 724 wild-type rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G3P[8] was the dominant genotype nationally, identified in 46.7% of samples, followed by G2P[4] in 8.8% of samples. The Australian National Immunisation Program (NIP) changed to the exclusive use of Rotarix as of 1 July 2017. The NIP had previously included two live-attenuated oral vaccines: Rotarix (monovalent, human) and RotaTeq (pentavalent, human-bovine reassortant) in a state-based vaccine selection. Continuous surveillance is imperative to determine the effect of this change in rotavirus vaccine schedule on the genotype distribution and diversity in Australia.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas
5.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530573

RESUMO

Sapovirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. Sapovirus infections are seldom investigated in Spain, and its epidemiology in the country is not well known. The use of molecular diagnostic procedures has allowed a more frequent detection of sapoviruses in patients with diarrhea. A total of 2545 stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis attended from June 2018 to February 2020 at the Clinic University Hospital in Valencia, Spain, were analyzed by reverse transcription (RT) and real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) to investigate the etiology of enteric infections. Sapovirus was the second enteric virus detected with a positive rate of 8%, behind norovirus (12.2%) and ahead of rotavirus (7.1%), astrovirus (4.9%) and enteric adenoviruses (2.9%). Most sapovirus infections occurred in infants and young children under 3 years of age (74%) with the highest prevalence in autumn and early winter. Coinfections were found in 25% of the patients with sapovirus diarrhea, mainly with other enteric viruses. Genotyping demonstrated the circulation of seven different genotypes during the study period, with a predominance of genotypes GI.1, GI.2, and GII.1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that genogroup GII strains form a cluster separated from genogroup GI and GV, being genotype GV.1 strains related to genotype GI.1 and GI.2 strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Sapovirus/genética , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Sapovirus/classificação , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 222-229, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, yet there is limited information on homotypic or heterotypic protection following natural infection to guide vaccine development. METHODS: A total of 6020 stools collected from 299 Peruvian children between 2010 and 2014 were tested by norovirus real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by sequence-based genotyping. Cox proportional hazards models were used to derive adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of infection among children with vs without prior exposure. RESULTS: Norovirus was detected in 1288 (21.3%) samples. GII.4 (26%), GII.6 (19%), and GI.3 (9%) viruses accounted for 54% of infections. Homotypic protection for GI.3 (HR, 0.35; P = .015), GI.7 (HR, 0.19; P = .022), GII.4 (HR, 0.39; P < .001), and GII.6 (HR, 0.52; P = .006) infections was observed. Hazard analysis showed that children with prior GII.4 infection exhibited heterotypic protection with a 48% reduction of subsequent GI.3 infection (HR, 0.52; P = .005). Prior exposure to GI.3, GII.2, and GII.17 infections enhanced susceptibility to subsequent infections with several other norovirus genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Children up to 2 years of age infected with GII.4 noroviruses demonstrated both homotypic and heterotypic protection to reinfection with other genotypes. These data support the need for ongoing vaccine development efforts with GII.4 as the main component and caution the inclusion of genotypes that may enhance susceptibility to infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Criança , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(2): 179-186, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global distribution of human bocavirus (HBoV) has been known to associate with viral gastroenteritis in pediatric population. This study was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand from 2012 to 2018 to investigate epidemiology and genotype distribution of HBoV in pediatric patients less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea. METHODS: A total of 2727 fecal specimens were investigated for the presence of HBoV using nested-PCR targeting partial VP1 capsid region. The detected HBoV strains were further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Detection rate of HBoV infection in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea was 5.2%. Three genotypes of HBoV were detected with the most predominance of HBoV1 (50.4%), followed by HBoV2 (42.5%), and HBoV3 (7.1%). The majority of HBoV positive cases were children of 1 to <2 years old (31.9%) with high detection rate of HBoV1 and HBoV2. HBoV infection occurred all year-round. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority of HBoV1 displayed the genetic relationship with HBoV1 strains reported previously from Asia whereas only a few were related to the strains from Europe, South America, and Middle East. The HBoV2 and HBoV3 were also mainly closely related to the strains reported from Asia and a few from South America and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights distribution of HBoV genotypes circulating in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Overall, three genotypes of HBoV were detected with equally high prevalence of HBoV1 and HBoV2 whereas HBoV3 was detected with much lower prevalence.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Bocavirus Humano/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Bocavirus Humano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
9.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 897-903, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459882

RESUMO

During 2006-2011, 5035 fecal samples were tested by PCR for human adenovirus (HAdV) and sequenced. HAdV was detected in 198 cases (3.9%), with the highest rate in children ≤ 5 years. Enteric HAdVs were the most prevalent genotypes (78%; 146/187): HAdV-F41 (63.6%; 119/187), HAdV-F40 (12.3%; 23/187), HAdV-A12 (1.6%; 3/187) and HAdV-A31 (0.5%; 1/187). Non-enteric HAdVs were detected in 22% (41/187): HAdV-C1 (8.0%; 15/187), HAdV-C2 (6.9%; 13/187), HAdV-C5 (4.3%; 8/187), HAdV-D8 (1.3%; 2/187), HAdV-B21 (0.5%; 1/187), HAdV-B3 (0.5%; 1/187) and HAdV-C6 (0.5%; 1/187). This 6-year retrospective study points out a high diversity of HAdV types circulating in Brazil and highlights the need to carry out molecular epidemiological studies of HAdV among patients with acute diarrheal infection on a regular basis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/classificação , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 905-913, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462673

RESUMO

From 2010-2016, a total of 251 stool samples were screened for norovirus using next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genotypic diversity of noroviruses in rural and low-income urban areas in northern Brazil. Norovirus infection was detected in 19.9% (50/251) of the samples. Eight different genotypes were identified: GII.4_Sydney[P31] (64%, 32/50), GII.6[P7] (14%, 7/50), GII.17[P17] (6%, 3/50), GII.1[P33] (6%, 3/50), GII.3[P16] (4%, 2/50), GII.2[P16] (2%, 1/50), GII.2[P2] (2%, 1/50), and GII.4_New Orleans[P4] (2%, 1/50). Distinct GII.6[P7] variants were recognized, indicating the presence of different co-circulating strains. Elucidating norovirus genetic diversity will improve our understanding of their potential health burden, in particular for the GII.4_Sydney[P31] variant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequência de Bases , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 108, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human worldwide. The aim of study was to assess the distribution of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and capsular genotypes in C. jejuni isolated from Iranian children with gastroenteritis. Furthermore, the level of dnaK gene expression in C. jejuni strains with selected capsular genotypes and LOS classes was intended. Moreover, a comprehensive study of C. jejuni MLST-genotypes and inclusive comparison with peer sequences worldwide was intended. METHODS: Twenty clinical C. jejuni strains were isolated from fecal specimens of 280 children aged 0-5 years, suspected of bacterial gastroenteritis, which admitted to 3 children hospitals from May to October, 2018. Distribution of sialylated LOS classes and specific capsular genotypes were investigated in C. jejuni of clinical origin. The expression of dnaK in C. jejuni strains was measured by Real-Time-PCR. MLST-genotyping was performed to investigate the clonal relationship of clinical C. jejuni strains and comparison with inclusive sequences worldwide. RESULTS: C. jejuni HS23/36c was the predominant genotype (45%), followed by HS2 (20%), and HS19 and HS4 (each 10%). A total of 80% of isolates were assigned to LOS class B and C. Higher expression level of dnaK gene was detected in strains with HS23/36c, HS2 and HS4 capsular genotypes and sialylated LOS classes B or C. MLST analysis showed that isolates were highly diverse and represented 6 different sequence types (STs) and 3 clonal complexes (CCs). CC21 and CC257 were the most dominant CCs (75%) among our C. jejuni strains. No new ST and no common ST with our neighbor countries was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The C. jejuni isolates with LOS class B or C, and capsular genotypes of HS23/36, HS2, HS4 and HS19 were dominant in population under study. The CC21 and CC257 were the largest CCs among our isolates. In overall picture, CC21 and CC353 complexes were the most frequently and widely distributed clonal complexes worldwide, although members of CC353 were not detected in our isolates. This provides a universal picture of movement of dominant Campylobacter strains worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Cápsulas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência
12.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(1): 22-24, ene. 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199910

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar el agente responsable de un brote de gastroenteritis ocurrido en un hotel de Menorca en septiembre de 2016. MÉTODOS: Se estudió la epidemiología de los casos y se investigaron muestras ambientales y clínicas para la presencia de microorganismos indicadores y patógenos. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron 151 casos: 123 afectaron a clientes y 28 a personal. Los análisis microbiológicos detectaron la presencia de norovirus genotipo II en heces de pacientes, así como en habitaciones y zonas comunes. El plan de control implementado permitió la erradicación del brote. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio del brote causado por norovirus del genotipo II demuestra que una rápida actuación es crítica para controlar este tipo de brotes


OBJECTIVES: To establish the agent responsible for a gastroenteritis outbreak in a hotel in Menorca (Spain) in September 2016. METHODS: The study included epidemiological and laboratory analysis. Environmental and stool samples were examined for bacterial and viral pathogens. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one cases were detected, 123 among the tourists staying in the hotel and 28 affecting the staff. The presence of genotypeII norovirus was discovered in the microbiological studies of patient's faeces, as well as in the surface samples of rooms and common areas. The control plan implemented allowed for control of the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study on a genotypeII norovirus outbreak reveals the importance of a rapid response for controlling these types of outbreaks


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/etiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/microbiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Caliciviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 9, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of enteric infections in Aboriginal children aged 0-2 years using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques and to explore associations between the presence of pathogens and child growth. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of Aboriginal children (n = 62) residing in a remote community in Northern Australia, conducted from July 24th - October 30th 2017. Stool samples were analysed for organisms by microscopy (directly in the field and following fixation and storage in sodium-acetate formalin), and by qualitative PCR for viruses, bacteria and parasites and serology for Strongyloides-specific IgG. Child growth (height and weight) was measured and z scores calculated according to WHO growth standards. RESULTS: Nearly 60% of children had evidence for at least one enteric pathogen in their stool (37/62). The highest burden of infection was with adenovirus/sapovirus (22.9%), followed by astrovirus (9.8%) and Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum (8.2%). Non-pathogenic organisms were detected in 22.5% of children. Ten percent of children had diarrhea at the time of stool collection. Infection with two or more pathogens was negatively associated with height for age z scores (- 1.34, 95% CI - 2.61 to - 0.07), as was carriage of the non-pathogen Blastocystis hominis (- 2.05, 95% CI - 3.55 to - 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Infants and toddlers living in this remote Northern Australian Aboriginal community had a high burden of enteric pathogens and non-pathogens. The association between carriage of pathogens/non-pathogens with impaired child growth in the critical first 1000 days of life has implications for healthy child growth and development and warrants further investigation. These findings have relevance for many other First Nations Communities that face many of the same challenges with regard to poverty, infections, and malnutrition.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Mamastrovirus/genética , Sapovirus/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prevalência , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 54, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in a kindergarten located Shenzhen City on March 4, 2018. We were invited to investigate to the risk factors associated with this outbreak. METHODS: We conducted retrospective cohort-studies on three different groups of subjects in order to figure out the difference of incidence of acute gastroenteritis among subjects of different activities on March 2: group one consisted of people who attended the Lantern festival activities; group two consisted of children and employees who ate breakfast and bread provided by the kindergarten; and groups three consisted of children and employees who did not eat breakfast or bread provided by the kindergarten. Fecal, anal swabs, dishware swabs and hand swabs specimens were collected in the study. Bacteria known to cause acute gastroenteritis were cultured. Viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis were tested using real-time PCR. Capsid gene fragment of 557 bp of norovirus was amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA 7.0 using neighbor-joining method based on capsid gene fragment of norovirus. RESULTS: A total of 143 suspected cases were identified in this outbreak. Diarrhea happened more often in adults than in children while emesis and bellyache were more frequently found in children than in adults. Higher AGE incidence was observed in group 2, children and employees who had breakfast in the kindergarten on March 2, as well as in group 3, and among employees who eating bread involved in breakfast provided on March 2. Five anal swab specimens were positive for norovirus. All noroviruses belongs to group II.3 and have an identity more than 99%. CONCLUSION: A chef, as an asymptomatic carrier with norovirus, was the infectious resource in this outbreak. He contaminated breakfast food provided on March 2. Although morning check is implemented in kindergartens of China, employees are often excluded in morning check. Our finding highlights the importance of morning check covering employees and periodical training for cooks.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Manipulação de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Escolas Maternais , Adulto , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Filogenia , Quarentena/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/virologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 94, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A rotavirus (RVA), despite being a leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children, is less studied in Shanxi Province, China. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genetic characterization of RVA in hospitalized children younger than 10 years of age with the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis in Shanxi Province, China. METHODS: A hospital-based active surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis was conducted at Children's Hospital of Shanxi from Jan 1, 2015, through Dec 31, 2019. Rotavirus was detected in stool samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). G- and P-genotypes were determined by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 961 children younger than 10 years of age was enrolled over the study period, of whom 183 (19.0%) were positive for RVA. The highest RVA-infection frequency (23.7%) was found among children aged 12-23 months, and the seasonal peak was in December. G9P[8] was most prevalent (76.0%), followed by G3P[8] (7.1%), G2P[4] (3.3%), G1P[8] (0.5%) and G9P[4] (0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: These results report for the first time that RVA was one of the main causes of severe infectious gastroenteritis in children, and a high proportion of G9P[8] strains circulating in most areas of Shanxi Province. While the protective efficacy of the rotavirus vaccines has been demonstrated against G9P[8] strains, our results highlight that the dominant strains have not been effectively controlled in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Estações do Ano , Proteínas Virais/genética
16.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(9): 431-433, nov. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the aetiological agent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in two hotels in Majorca (Spain) on August and September 2014. METHODS: An epidemiological study was carried out. Environmental and stool samples were analyzed for different pathogens, including norovirus. RESULTS: Epidemiological analysis detected 79 cases among the tourists hosted in the affected hotels over the period 18th August to 3rd September. They included 52 (attack rate: 6.4%) and 27 (attack rate: 3.0%) cases in hotel A and B, respectively. Seven of the staff members were also affected. Microbiological analyses detected genotype 2 norovirus in patient's stool samples, in rooms and in common areas' surfaces. The specific control plan rapidly implemented at the beginning of the outbreak, and further adapted for norovirus elimination, allowed to control the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the outbreak was caused by genotype 2 norovirus, and reflects the importance of a rapid analysis and response for its control


OBJETIVOS: Determinar el agente etiológico responsable del brote de gastroenteritis producido en 2 hoteles de Mallorca (España) en agosto y septiembre de 2014. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico y se analizaron muestras ambientales y de heces para la presencia de patógenos, incluyendo norovirus. RESULTADOS: El análisis epidemiológico detectó 79 casos entre los clientes hospedados en los hoteles desde el 18 de agosto al 3 de septiembre: 52 en el hotel A (tasa de ataque: 6,4%) y 27 en el B (tasa de ataque: 3,0%), así como en 7 miembros del personal. Los análisis microbiológicos detectaron norovirus genotipo 2 en las heces de los pacientes y en las superficies de las habitaciones y zonas comunes. El plan específico implementado rápidamente y adaptado para la eliminación de norovirus permitió el control del brote. CONCLUSIONES: En este brote causado por norovirus del genotipo 2 se refleja la importancia de un análisis y una respuesta rápida para su control


Assuntos
Humanos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Saneamento de Hotéis , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 740, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization schedule. Currently, two indigenously developed vaccines (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech; ROTASIIL, Serum Institute of India) are included in the Indian immunization program. We report the rotavirus disease burden and the diversity of rotavirus genotypes from 2005 to 2016 in a multi-centric surveillance study before the introduction of vaccines. METHODS: A total of 29,561 stool samples collected from 2005 to 2016 (7 sites during 2005-2009, 3 sites from 2009 to 2012, and 28 sites during 2012-2016) were included in the analysis. Stools were tested for rotavirus antigen using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping was performed on 65.8% of the EIA positive samples using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify the G (VP7) and P (VP4) types. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of detecting genotypes across the surveillance period and in particular age groups. RESULTS: Of the 29,561 samples tested, 10,959 (37.1%) were positive for rotavirus. There was a peak in rotavirus positivity during December to February across all sites. Of the 7215 genotyped samples, G1P[8] (38.7%) was the most common, followed by G2P[4] (12.3%), G9P[4] (5.8%), G12P[6] (4.2%), G9P[8] (4%), and G12P[8] (2.4%). Globally, G9P[4] and G12P[6] are less common genotypes, although these genotypes have been reported from India and few other countries. There was a variation in the geographic and temporal distribution of genotypes, and the emergence or re-emergence of new genotypes such as G3P[8] was seen. Over the surveillance period, there was a decline in the proportion of G2P[4], and an increase in the proportion of G9P[4]. A higher proportion of mixed and partially typed/untyped samples was also seen more in the age group 0-11 months. CONCLUSIONS: This 11 years surveillance highlights the high burden of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Indian children < 5 years of age before inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in the national programme. Regional variations in rotavirus epidemiology were seen, including the emergence of G3P[8] in the latter part of the surveillance. Having pre-introduction data is important to track changing epidemiology of rotaviruses, particularly following vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infection is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide, with a high mortality burden in developing countries, particularly during the first two years of life. Rotavirus vaccination was introduced into the United Kingdom childhood vaccination schedule in July 2013, with high coverage (>90%) achieved by June 2016. We used an emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system to assess the impact of the rotavirus vaccination programme, specifically through the demonstration of any immediate and continuing impact on ED gastroenteritis visits in England. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study used syndromic surveillance data collected from 3 EDs in the two years before (July 2011-June 2013) and 3 years post (July 2013-June 2016) introduction of rotavirus vaccination. The weekly levels of ED visits for gastroenteritis (by age group and in total) during the period before rotavirus vaccination was first described alongside the findings of laboratory surveillance of rotavirus during the same period. An interrupted time-series analysis was then performed to demonstrate the impact of rotavirus vaccination introduction on gastroenteritis ED visit levels. RESULTS: During the two years before vaccine introduction ED visits for gastroenteritis in total and for the 0-4 years age group were seen to rise and fall in line with the seasonal rotavirus increases reported by laboratory surveillance. ED gastroenteritis visits by young children were lower in the three years following introduction of rotavirus vaccination (reduced from 8% of visits to 6% of visits). These attendance levels in young children (0-4years) remained higher than in older age groups, however the previously large seasonal increases in children were greatly reduced, from peaks of 16% to 3-10% of ED visits per week. CONCLUSIONS: ED syndromic surveillance demonstrated a reduction in gastroenteritis visits following rotavirus vaccine introduction. This work establishes ED syndromic surveillance as a platform for rapid impact assessment of future vaccine programmes.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1104-1110, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115197

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of rotavirus-, norovirus-, adenovirus-and astrovirus-associ ated acute gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old in Beijing from Octorber, 2015 to March, 2017. Methods: In the intestinal clinic of 6 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, information and stool samples of the first 30 patients with acute gastroenteritis who are under the age of 5 years are collected monthly.Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus are identified by PCR.Descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the epidemiological characteristics of diarrhea caused by rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus in Beijing. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the Vesikari clinical severity score of of acute gastroenteritis caused by each virus. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to analysis the associated factors of clinical features. Results: Of the 2 052 samples, 709 (34.6%) were non-mixed infections: the positive rate of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus were 20.0%, 7.5%, 4.2% and 2.9%, respectively. A total of 135 cases (6.6%) were mixed infection. The mean and standard deviation of Vesikari clinical severity score was 8.0±3.1 for rotavirus associated acute gastroenteritis, which was significantly higher than norovirus (6.4±2.4, P<0.001), adenovirus (6.2±2.1, P<0.001) and astrovirus (6.1±2.0, P<0.001). The comparison of clinical features showed that compared with astrovirus, the children under 5 years old infected with rotavirus were more likely to have a diarrhea ≥5 days (OR=3.334), have vomiting ≥3 times within one day (OR=8.788), have vomiting≥1 day (OR=3.963), have a Vesikari clinical severity score ≥11 severe cases (OR=13.194). Norovirus infected cases were prone to have vomiting≥3 times in 1 day (OR=5.710).Adenovirus infected cases were prone to have a diarrhea≥5 days (OR=2.616). When using rotavirus as a reference, children under 5 years of age were less likely to develop fever≥38.4 ℃ after infection with norovirus (OR=0.397) or adenovirus (OR=0.280). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the characteristics of acute gastroenteritis caused by different viruses are different. The clinical symptoms caused by rotavirus are more serious. Children under 24 months of age are at high risk of rotavirus infection. Effective preventive measures such as vaccination should be taken as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 656, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown a substantial impact of Rotavirus (RV) vaccination on the burden of RV and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, the results of most impact studies could be confused by a dynamic and complex space-time process. Therefore, there is a need to analyse the impact of RV vaccination on RV and AGE hospitalisations in a space-time framework to detect geographical-time patterns while avoiding the potential confusion caused by population inequalities in the impact estimations. METHODS: A retrospective population-based study using real-world data from the Valencia Region was performed among children aged less than 3 years old in the period 2005-2016. A Bayesian spatio-temporal model was constructed to analyse RV and AGE hospitalisations and to estimate the vaccination impact measured in averted hospitalisations. RESULTS: We found important spatio-temporal patterns in RV and AGE hospitalisations, RV vaccination coverage and in their associated adverted hospitalisations. Overall, ~ 1866 hospital admissions for RV were averted by RV vaccination during 2007-2016. Despite the low-medium vaccine coverage (~ 50%) in 2015-2016, relevant 36 and 20% reductions were estimated in RV and AGE hospitalisations respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the RV vaccines has substantially reduced the number of RV hospitalisations, averting ~ 1866 admissions during 2007-2016 which were space and time dependent. This study improves the methodologies commonly used to estimate the RV vaccine impact and their interpretation.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação , Doença Aguda , Teorema de Bayes , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Cobertura Vacinal
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