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1.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 56(2): 304-314, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477232

RESUMO

Acute infectious gastroenteritis is a prevalent disease worldwide, and most of the cases are caused by viral pathogens. Many different viruses, including Rotavirus (RV), Norovirus, Adenovirus, and Astroviruses, are responsible for most acute viral gastroenteritis cases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), viral gastroenteritis infections cause more than 200 000 child mortalities each year worldwide. One of the best strategies to reduce the global burden of RV gastroenteritis is the development and administration of effective vaccines. However, since there are differences in the coverage of the vaccines, the choice of appropriate vaccine for localized genotypes based on regions is important. The aim of this study was to detect the RV infections in our region and to perform genotyping using real time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis. A total of 341 stool samples collected from pediatric patients were tested. Lateral flow immunochromatographic assay principle based assay was used for antigen detection. RT-PCR and HRM were applied for genotype analysis. Similar to the data from our country and Eastern Mediterranean region, RV positivity in stool samples was 23.1%. The majority of the patients (51%) were aged 0-2 years and the vast majority of the patients, with a rate of 77%, were between the ages of 0-5. Most of the cases were detected in the winter months, especially in February. The distribution of 40 samples, whose G genotype could be detected, was as follows: G2, 21 (52.5%); G1, 11 (27.5%); G9, 5 (12.5%); G3, 2 (5%); G4, 1 (2.5%). The distribution of 53 samples, whose P genotype could be detected, was as follows: P4, 44 (83.0%); P9, 8 (15.1%); P10, 1 (1.9%). Among those whose genotype could be detected, the most prevalent genotypes were G2 with 52.5% and P4 with 83%. When the distribution of 25 samples was evaluated, in which RV G and P genotypes were detected simultaneously, G1P [4] 11 (44%), G2P[9] 5 (20%), G9P[4] 5 (20%), G2P[4] 2 (8%), G3P[10] 1 (4%), and G4P[4] 1 (4%) genotypes were determined, respectively. The most commonly observed genotype was G1P[4]. In the HRM analysis, it was observed that the melting curve peaks were at different temperatures in nine of the G2 genotype samples and 16 of the P4 and P9 genotype samples. Thus, genotyping with HRM analysis could not be fully finalized, especially for G2 and P. Of the Rota Teq® and RotarixTM vaccines administered on demand in our country, Rota Teq® is considered the vaccine that has the widest coverage for the genotypes observed in our country and region. ROTASIIL® vaccine, which covers all the genotypes in our region (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9) is not available in our country. The emergence of the strains with the potential to increase the current burden of RV disease should be continuously monitored, as different results are obtained by region and year, even within the same country. Thus, the emergence of vaccine-resistant strains can be followed up, especially in countries with higher viral diversity.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estados Unidos
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336893

RESUMO

Molecular characterization of human norovirus (HuNoV) genotypes enhances the understanding of viral features and illustrates distinctive evolutionary patterns. The aim of our study was to describe the prevalence of the genetic diversity and the epidemiology of the genotypes involved in HuNoV outbreaks in Catalonia (Spain) between 2017 and 2019. A total of 100 HuNoV outbreaks were notified with the predominance of GII (70%), followed by GI (27%) and mixed GI/GII (3%). Seasonality was observed for GII outbreaks only. The most prevalent genotypes identified were GII.4[P31] Sydney 2012, GII.4[P16] Sydney 2012 and GII.2[P16]. As compared to person-to-person (P/P) transmitted outbreaks, foodborne outbreaks showed significantly higher attack rates and lower duration. The average attack rate was higher in youth hostel/campgrounds compared to nursing homes. Only genotypes GI.4[P4], GII.2[P16], GII.4[P16], GII.4[P31] and GII.17[P17] were consistently detected every year, and only abundance of GII.2[P16] showed a negative trend over time. GII.4 Sydney 2012 outbreaks were significantly associated to nursing homes, while GII.2[P16] and GI.3[P3] were most frequently identified in youth hostel/campgrounds. The average attack rate was significantly higher when comparing GII.2[P16] vs. GI.4[P4], GII.2[P16] vs. GII.4[P31] Sydney 2012, and GII.6[P7] vs. GII.4[P31] Sydney 2012. No correlations were found between genotype and outbreak duration or age of affected individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Adolescente , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336944

RESUMO

Norovirus, an ssRNA + virus of the family Caliciviridae, is a leading disease burden in humans worldwide, causing an estimated 600 million cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. Since the discovery of norovirus in the faeces of swine in Japan in the 1990s, swine norovirus has been reported in several countries on several continents. The identification of the human-associated GII.4 genotype in swine has raised questions about this animal species as a reservoir of norovirus with zoonotic potential, even if species-specific P-types are usually detected in swine. This review summarises the available data regarding the geographic distribution of norovirus in swine, the years of detection, the genotype characterisation, and the prevalence in specific production groups. Furthermore, we discuss the major bottlenecks for the detection and characterisation of swine noroviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Suínos
4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2037983, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240934

RESUMO

Rotavirus (RV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis in children. In Japan, Rotarix (RV1; GlaxoSmithKline), which is a monovalent vaccine derived from human RV (G1P[8]), has been introduced since November 2011, and RotaTeq (RV5; MSD) which is an pentavalent, human-bovine mono-reassortant vaccine (G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1A[8]), has been introduced since July 2012. Long-term follow-up on vaccine efficacy and RV genotypical change should be carried out in order to control RV infection. The RV gastroenteritis (RVGE) outbreak occurred during the 2018/2019 season in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Therefore, the molecular epidemiology of RV among three different groups of RVGE, which were outpatients who received RV1, those who received RV5, and those without vaccination, was explored. Clinical features of RVGE patients were compared among the three patient groups. Children less than 15 years of age with gastroenteritis who visited any of seven pediatric practices between January and June 2019 were enrolled in the study. G, P, and E genotypes were determined by direct sequencing of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products amplified from stool samples. Among 110 patients, there were 27, 28, and 55 in the RV1-vaccinated, RV5-vaccinated, and unvaccinated groups, respectively. The most frequent genotype was G8P[8] (92/110 patients, 83.6%). Genotype distributions did not significantly differ among the three patient groups (P = .125). Mean Vesikari score was significantly lower among RV1-vaccinated (7.1) and RV5-vaccinated patients (6.4) than among unvaccinated patients (10.2) (P < .001). Even in RVGE patients treated in an outpatient clinic, RV vaccine reduced the severity of the disease in this cohort.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas Combinadas
5.
Balkan Med J ; 39(2): 153-156, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35330567

RESUMO

Aims: Noroviruses may cause both epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis globally. Thus, this study evaluated the prevalence of norovirus in stool samples of hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aydin, Turkey using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and genotyped positive samples to detect which genotypes have currently circulated. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study collected 92 stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis symptoms from Aydin Adnan Menderes University Hospital from September 2017 to May 2019. The samples were tested using the commercial Third Generation Ridascreen norovirus ELISA and rRT-PCR. Positive samples were genotyped by sequencing of conventional positive RT-PCR products followed by phylogenetic analysis. Results: Of the 92 samples, 5 (5.4%) using ELISA and 12 (13%) using rRT-PCR tested positive for norovirus. All positive samples were genogroup II (GII). Two norovirus positive samples were genotyped successfully using DNA sequencing of the nested conventional PCR products. One sample (GII/Hu/TR/2019/Aydin25) could be categorized as GII.3 and the other (GII/Hu/TR/2019/Aydin20) as GII.13. Conclusion: rRT-PCR testing of stool samples is more sensitive than Ridascreen ELISA. Data from our study provide protocols for how to study norovirus epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia
6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(8): e0236021, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348387

RESUMO

Contamination of oysters with a variety of viruses is one key pathway to trigger outbreaks of massive oyster mortality as well as human illnesses, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis. Much effort has gone into examining the fate of viruses in contaminated oysters, yet the current state of knowledge of nonlinear virus-oyster interactions is not comprehensive because most studies have focused on a limited number of processes under a narrow range of experimental conditions. A framework is needed for describing the complex nonlinear virus-oyster interactions. Here, we introduce a mathematical model that includes key processes for viral dynamics in oysters, such as oyster filtration, viral replication, the antiviral immune response, apoptosis, autophagy, and selective accumulation. We evaluate the model performance for two groups of viruses, those that replicate in oysters (e.g., ostreid herpesvirus) and those that do not (e.g., norovirus), and show that this model simulates well the viral dynamics in oysters for both groups. The model analytically explains experimental findings and predicts how changes in different physiological processes and environmental conditions nonlinearly affect in-host viral dynamics, for example, that oysters at higher temperatures may be more resistant to infection by ostreid herpesvirus. It also provides new insight into food treatment for controlling outbreaks, for example, that depuration for reducing norovirus levels is more effective in environments where oyster filtration rates are higher. This study provides the foundation of a modeling framework to guide future experiments and numerical modeling for better prediction and management of outbreaks. IMPORTANCE The fate of viruses in contaminated oysters has received a significant amount of attention in the fields of oyster aquaculture, food quality control, and public health. However, intensive studies through laboratory experiments and in situ observations are often conducted under a narrow range of experimental conditions and for a specific purpose in their respective fields. Given the complex interactions of various processes and nonlinear viral responses to changes in physiological and environmental conditions, a theoretical framework fully describing the viral dynamics in oysters is warranted to guide future studies from a top-down design. Here, we developed a process-based, in-host modeling framework that builds a bridge for better communications between different disciplines studying virus-oyster interactions.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Herpesviridae , Norovirus , Ostreidae , Animais , Vírus de DNA , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos
7.
Microb Genom ; 8(3)2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302932

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with multidrug resistance cause invasive disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Specific lineages of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis have been implicated. Here we characterized the genomic diversity of 100 clinical non-typhoidal Salmonella collected from 93 patients in 2001 from the eastern, and in 2006-2018 from the western regions of The Gambia respectively. A total of 93 isolates (64 invasive, 23 gastroenteritis and six other sites) representing a single infection episode were phenotypically tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Whole genome sequencing of 100 isolates was performed using Illumina, and the reads were assembled and analysed using SPAdes. The Salmonella in Silico Typing Resource (SISTR) was used for serotyping. SNP differences among the 93 isolates were determined using Roary, and phylogenetic analysis was performed in the context of 495 African strains from the European Nucleotide Archive. Salmonella serovars Typhimurium (26/64; 30.6 %) and Enteritidis (13/64; 20.3 %) were associated with invasive disease, whilst other serovars were mainly responsible for gastroenteritis (17/23; 73.9 %). The presence of three major serovar Enteritidis clades was confirmed, including the invasive West African clade, which made up more than half (11/16; 68.8 %) of the genomes. Multidrug resistance was confined among the serovar Enteritidis West African clade. The presence of this epidemic virulent clade has potential for spread of resistance and thus important implications for systematic patient management. Surveillance and epidemiological investigations to inform control are warranted.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Salmonella , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Filogenia , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
8.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215766

RESUMO

Few studies have shown the presence of norovirus (NoV) RNA in blood circulation but there is no data on norovirus antigenemia. We examined both antigenemia and RNAemia from the sera of children with NoV infections and studied whether norovirus antigenemia is correlated with the levels of norovirus-specific antibodies and clinical severity of gastroenteritis. Both stool and serum samples were collected from 63 children admitted to Mie National Hospital with acute NoV gastroenteritis. Norovirus antigen and RNA were detected in sera by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. NoV antigenemia was found in 54.8% (34/62) and RNAemia in 14.3% (9/63) of sera samples. Antigenemia was more common in the younger age group (0-2 years) than in the older age groups, and most patients were male. There was no correlation between stool viral load and norovirus antigen (NoV-Ag) levels (rs = -0.063; Cl -0.3150 to 0.1967; p = 0.6251). Higher levels of acute norovirus-specific IgG serum antibodies resulted in a lower antigenemia OD value (n = 61; r = -0.4258; CI -0.62 to -0.19; p = 0.0006). Norovirus antigenemia occurred more commonly in children under 2 years of age with NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis. The occurrence of antigenemia was not correlated with stool viral load or disease severity.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/sangue , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Cinética , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Carga Viral
9.
J Med Life ; 15(1): 52-57, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35186136

RESUMO

Almost all of the deaths happening under the age of 5 occur in the developed countries of Africa and Asia. This study included children admitted to the surgical care, aged 6 months to 5 years, who suffered from acute gastroenteritis and received treatment at Samawah, Iraq, from December 2018 to December 2019. Test results detected different types of rotaviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses using ELISA. 56.6% of the infections were attributed to a viral pathogen. The main cause was attributed to rotavirus and adenovirus. The causative agents of diarrheal diseases in 28.1% of cases are rotaviruses, in 17.05% - adenoviruses, in 11.43% - astroviruses. Viral mono-infections are detected more often than mixed infections. Viral intestinal infections are characterized by seasonality and rise in the cold season, with a peak incidence of rotavirus infection in April, adenovirus infection in November, and astrovirus infection in December.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Rotavirus , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(5): e203-e207, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35185141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sapovirus, norovirus and rotavirus are major causes of childhood acute gastroenteritis (AGE) globally. Asymptomatic infections of these viruses have not been extensively studied. AIM: To examine the prevalence and the genetic variations of sapovirus, norovirus and rotavirus in children with and without symptoms of AGE. METHODS: We collected 999 stool samples from children under 16 years old from September 2009 to August 2011 at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. In total 442 children (44%) had symptoms of AGE and 557 patients (56%) had acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) only. Samples were examined for sapovirus, norovirus and rotavirus using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the positive amplicons were sequenced. RESULTS: Totally 54% and 14% of the patients in AGE and ARTI groups, respectively, tested positive. All viruses were more frequently detected in AGE patients than in ARTI patients (norovirus, 25% vs. 7.2%, respectively; rotavirus, 24% vs. 6.1%; sapovirus, 5.2% vs. 1.4%). In ARTI patients, the cases were seen most frequently during the first two years of life. Norovirus was the most detected pathogen in both groups with genogroup GII covering ≥97% of norovirus strains. Sapovirus was mostly detected in children under 18 months old without predominating genotype. Rotavirus was often detected after recent rotavirus vaccination and 18% and 88% of the strains were rotavirus vaccine-derived in AGE and ARTI groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the most common viruses causing gastroenteritis in children may be found in the stools of an asymptomatic carrier which may function as a potential reservoir for AGE.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Sapovirus , Adolescente , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Fezes , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Norovirus/genética , Rotavirus/genética , Sapovirus/genética
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 99: 105241, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150892

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, affecting mainly children, the immunocompromised and elderly people. Enteric viruses, especially rotavirus A, are considered important etiological agents, while long-term care facilities are considered favorable environments for the occurrence of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Therefore, it is important to monitor the viral agents present in nursing homes, especially because studies involving the elderly population in Brazil are scarce, resulting in a lack of available virological data. As a result, the causative agent remains unidentified in a large number of reported acute gastroenteritis cases. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing provides new opportunities for viral detection and discovery. The aim of this study was to identify the viruses that circulate among elderly people with and without acute gastroenteritis, living in residential care homes in Belém, Pará, Brazil, between 2017 and 2019. Ninety-three samples were collected and screened by immunochromatography and qPCR. After, the samples were analyzed individually or in pools by next generation sequencing to identify the viruses circulating in this population. In 26 sequenced samples, members of 13 eukaryotic virus families were identified. The most abundantly present virus families were Parvoviridae, Genomoviridae and Smacoviridae. Contigs displaying similarity to pegiviruses were also detected. Furthermore, a near-complete rotavirus A genome was obtained and could be classified as G3P[8] genotype with the equine DS-1-like genetic background. Complete sequences of the VP4 and VP7 genes of a rotavirus C were also detected, belonging to G4P[2]. This study demonstrates the first characterization of the gastrointestinal virome in elderly in Northern Brazil. A diversity of viruses was found to be present in patients with and without diarrhea, reinforcing the need to monitor elderly people residing in long-term care facilities, especially in cases of acute gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Vírus , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Eucariotos , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Cavalos , Humanos , Filogenia , Rotavirus/genética , Viroma
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 240: 113924, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between ambient temperature and common viral and bacterial gastroenteritis in the Republic of Korea, which has a high-income and temperate climate, considering the different lagged effects of each causative pathogen. METHODS: We obtained the number of weekly reported cases of infectious gastroenteritis caused by norovirus, group A rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, Clostridium perfringens, non-typhoidal Salmonella, and Campylobacter between 2015 and 2019 from the Korean Infectious Diseases Sentinel Surveillance System. We obtained weather data from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the same period. Generalized linear models with quasi-Poisson distributions and distributed lag non-linear models were utilized after adjusting for relative humidity, precipitation, long-term trends, and seasonality. We investigated the associations between weekly mean temperature and the weekly number of reported cases of each type of infectious gastroenteritis by applying different maximum lags for each type. RESULTS: Compared with the 50th percentile temperature, the lag-cumulative relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at the 5th percentile temperature for norovirus gastroenteritis, rotavirus gastroenteritis, adenovirus gastroenteritis were 11.0 (4.7-25.7), 2.7 (1.4-5.2), and 4.7 (1.4-15.8) by applying the maximum lag of 6, 4, and 3 weeks, respectively. Compared with the 50th percentile temperature, the lag-cumulative RRs with 95% CIs at the 95th percentile temperature for C. perfringens gastroenteritis, Salmonella gastroenteritis, and Campylobacter gastroenteritis were 1.2 (0.8-1.9), 3.0 (1.5-6.2), and 2.0 (1.1-3.6), by applying the maximum lag of 2, 3, and 2 weeks, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cold temperature increased the risk of viral gastroenteritis and showed relatively long lagged effects. Hot temperature increased the risk of bacterial gastroenteritis and showed relatively short lagged effects.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Gastroenterite , Rotavirus , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia)
14.
Food Environ Virol ; 14(1): 59-68, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075605

RESUMO

Human norovirus causes sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and the predominant strains are genotype GII.4 variants. Recently, a novel GII.17[P17] and a recombinant GII.2[P16] strain have been reported as the causes of gastroenteritis outbreaks. Outbreaks of norovirus are frequently associated with foodborne illness. In this study, each of 75 oyster samples processed by a proteinase K extraction method and an adsorption-elution method were examined for noroviruses using RT-nested PCR with capsid primers. Thirteen (17.3%) samples processed by either method tested positive for norovirus genogroup II (GII). PCR amplicons were characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as GII.2 (n = 6), GII.4 (n = 1), GII.17 (n = 3), and GII.unclassified (n = 3). Norovirus-positive samples were further amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR targeting the polymerase-capsid genes. One nucleotide sequence revealed GII.17[P17] Kawasaki strain. Five nucleotide sequences were identified as belonging to the recombinant GII.2[P16] strains by recombination analysis. The collected oyster samples were quantified for norovirus GII genome copy number by RT-quantitative PCR. Using the proteinase K method, GII was found in 13/75 (17.3%) of samples with a range of 8.83-1.85 × 104 genome copies/g of oyster. One sample (1/75, 1.3%) processed by the adsorption-elution method was positive for GII at 5.00 × 101 genome copies/g. These findings indicate the circulation of a new variant GII.17 Kawasaki strain and the recombinant GII.2[P16] in oyster samples corresponding to the circulating strains reported at a global scale during the same period of time. The detection of the recombinant strains in oysters emphasizes the need for continuing systematic surveillance for control and prevention of norovirus gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Ostreidae , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Tailândia
15.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 19(4): 290-292, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020464

RESUMO

The rate of enteric infections reported to public health surveillance decreased during 2020 amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Changes in medical care-seeking behaviors may have impacted the diagnosis of enteric infections contributing to these declines. We examined trends in outpatient medical care-seeking behavior for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Colorado during 2020 compared with the that of previous 3 years using electronic health record data from the Colorado Health Observation Regional Data Service (CHORDS). Outpatient medical encounters for AGE were identified using diagnoses codes from the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision and aggregated by year, quarter, age group, and encounter type. The rate of encounters was calculated by dividing the number of AGE encounters by the corresponding total number of encounters. There were 9064 AGE encounters in 2020 compared with an annual average of 18,784 from 2017 to 2019 (p < 0.01), representing a 52% decrease. The rate of AGE encounters declined after the first quarter of 2020 and remained significantly lower for the rest of the year. Moreover, previously observed trends, including seasonal patterns and the preponderance of pediatric encounters, were no longer evident. Telemedicine modalities accounted for 23% of all AGE encounters in 2020. AGE outpatient encounters in Colorado in 2020 were substantially lower than during the previous 3 years. Decreases remained stable over the second, third, and fourth quarters of 2020 (April-December) and were especially pronounced for children <18 years of age. Changes in medical care-seeking behavior likely contributed to declines in the number of enteric disease cases and outbreaks reported to public health. It is unclear to what extent people were ill with AGE and did not seek medical care because of concerns about the infection risk during a health care visit or to what extent there were reductions in certain exposures and opportunities for disease transmission resulting in less illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenterite , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colorado/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262084, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile illness is frequent among patients in the tropics. It is caused by a wide variety of common diseases such as malaria or gastrointestinal infections but also by less common but highly contagious pathogens with epidemic potential. This study describes the clinical features of adult and paediatric patients with febrile illness in in the largest tertiary referral hospital in south-eastern Guinea, a region at high risk for viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks. The study further compares their diagnostic characteristics, treatments and outcomes with non-febrile patients in order to contribute to the local epidemiology of febrile illness. METHODS: We used retrospective data collection to record demographic and clinical data of all incoming patients during a study period of three months. For the follow-up study of inpatients, we retrospectively reviewed patient charts for diagnostic characteristics, diagnoses and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 4317 incoming patients during the study period, 9.5% had a febrile illness. The most used diagnostic measures to identify causative agents in febrile patients were point-of-care tests and most treatments relied on antibiotics. Most common discharge diagnoses for febrile inpatients were malaria (9.6% adults, 56.7% children), salmonella gastroenteritis/typhoid (10.6% adults, 7.8% children) and respiratory infection/pneumonia (5.3% adults, 18.7% children). Inpatient mortality for children was significantly higher in febrile than non-febrile children (18.5% vs. 5.1%, p<0.001) and considerably higher in febrile than non-febrile adults (29.8% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.404). CONCLUSIONS: Malaria, respiratory infection and gastroenteritis are considered the main causes for febrile illness. The wide reliance on rapid diagnostic tests to diagnose febrile patients not only risks to over- or under-diagnose certain diseases but also leaves the possibility of highly infectious diseases in febrile patients unexplored. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on antibiotics risks to cause antimicrobial resistance. High mortality rates in febrile patients, especially children, should be of concern to public health authorities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Febre/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Seguimentos , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Guiné , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mortalidade , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(16): 22829-22842, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048346

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), thereby imposing threat to health globally. It is unclear how quantitation of wastewater NoV reflects the incidence of human AGE infections; therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis of published NoV wastewater surveillance studies. A literature search was performed, and all studies on NoV wastewater surveillance were identified. Quantitative results were evaluated. The results showed that the overall detection rate of NoV in wastewater was 82.10% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.22-89.92%); NoV concentration was statistically significant in terms of season (P < 0.001), with higher concentration in spring and winter. There were positive correlations between NoV GII concentration in wastewater and GII AGE cases (rs = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.18-0.74, I2 = 0%), total AGE cases (rs = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.15-0.61, I2 = 23%) and NoV outbreaks (rs = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.30-0.62, I2 = 0%). Results of cross-correlation analysis of partial data indicated that variations in GII concentration were consistent with or ahead of those in the number of AGE cases. The diversity of NoV genotypes in wastewater was elucidated, and the dominant strains in wastewater showed a consistent temporal distribution with those responsible for human AGE. Our study demonstrated the potential association of NoV detected in wastewater with AGE infections, and further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
18.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(2): 120-127, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Stockholm, Sweden, rotavirus vaccination was offered to children born after 1 March 2014. Our aim was to describe rates of hospitalisation due to community-acquired gastroenteritis before and after the introduction of the vaccine, and aetiology, underlying medical conditions and complications in admitted children. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients from our catchment area hospitalised with a diagnosis of gastroenteritis during ten infection seasons 2008/2009-2017/2018, whereof six seasons prevaccination and four seasons postvaccination. We studied virus detection data and the patients' medical records. RESULTS: We included 3718 episodes in 3513 children. In 2967 (80%), stools were tested with virus isolation, ELISA, PCR, or bacterial culture; 479 (16%) tested negative. The incidence rates, with 95% confidence intervals, for children <5 years hospitalised for rotavirus gastroenteritis were 2.9 (2.8-3.1) per 1000 person-years prevaccination and 0.65 (0.56-0.74) postvaccination, for a rate ratio (RR) of 0.22 (0.19-0.26, p < .001). The rates for all-cause gastroenteritis were 5.6 (5.4-5.9) prevaccination and 2.5 (2.3-2.7) postvaccination, RR 0.45 (0.42-0.50, p < .001). In 5-17-year-old children norovirus dominated with little change over time. Of patients <5 years, those with underlying conditions constituted a larger proportion postvaccination than prevaccination (30.7% vs. 24.2%, p < .001). A complication other than dehydration, most commonly seizures, arose in 8.8% of the patients <5 years prevaccination and 11.4% postvaccination (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus vaccination reduced the number of children <5 years requiring hospital care for gastroenteritis. We saw no replacement of rotavirus by other viruses.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle
19.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(4): 655-661, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676943

RESUMO

AIM: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) significantly impact health service use among children; however, recent trends in hospital admission rates are not well documented. Our objectives were to describe admission rates for RTI and AGE among children in one jurisdiction over a 10-year period and their associated length of stay (LOS), monetary costs and chronic conditions. METHODS: This is retrospective review of hospital admissions data for Australian Capital Territory residents aged 0-16 years admitted with a primary diagnosis commensurate with RTI or AGE. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2018, there were 8668 admissions. Admission rates rose from 9.2/1000 age-adjusted population in 2009 to 10.5/1000 in 2018. LOS reduced by 10 h (43 to 33 h). The median cost per admission was AUD$3158 (AUD$148 to AUD$175 271) and 16.4% of children had a chronic condition, associated with longer LOS and higher episode costs. Median age at admission was 1 year 5 months. Infants were admitted three times as often as older children and admissions for lower RTI were more common than for upper RTI or AGE (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric hospital admission rates for RTI in the Australian Capital Territory are increasing and LOS is decreasing. Admissions for AGE remain relatively low following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in 2007. Effective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of paediatric RTI.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Hospitalização , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(1): 147-157, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751672

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) have been reported with great variability and without standardization. In hospitalized patients, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of GI symptoms, factors associated with their occurrence, and variation at 1 month. METHODS: The GI-COVID-19 is a prospective, multicenter, controlled study. Patients with and without COVID-19 diagnosis were recruited at hospital admission and asked for GI symptoms at admission and after 1 month, using the validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire. RESULTS: The study included 2036 hospitalized patients. A total of 871 patients (575 COVID+ and 296 COVID-) were included for the primary analysis. GI symptoms occurred more frequently in patients with COVID-19 (59.7%; 343/575 patients) than in the control group (43.2%; 128/296 patients) (P < 0.001). Patients with COVID-19 complained of higher presence or intensity of nausea, diarrhea, loose stools, and urgency as compared with controls. At a 1-month follow-up, a reduction in the presence or intensity of GI symptoms was found in COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms at hospital admission. Nausea remained increased over controls. Factors significantly associated with nausea persistence in COVID-19 were female sex, high body mass index, the presence of dyspnea, and increased C-reactive protein levels. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of GI symptoms in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is higher than previously reported. Systemic and respiratory symptoms are often associated with GI complaints. Nausea may persist after the resolution of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Egito/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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