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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 18780, 2023 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37907693

RESUMO

Viral enteric pathogens continuously burden intensive pig farming, causing gastrointestinal diseases of epidemic and endemic nature. The present study investigated two diarrhoea outbreaks on a large farrow-to-finish holding and subsequent circulation of outbreak-related enteric viruses. These viruses were characterised by whole genome sequencing, and statistical evaluation of the impact on specific production metrics was performed. The results provided evidence that the Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus-swine enteric coronavirus (PEDV-SeCoV) S gene recombinant strain was responsible for the first outbreak, whilst Rotavirus A (RVA) in a mixed infection with Rotavirus B (RVB) and porcine kobuvirus (PKV) probably caused the second diarrhoea outbreak. Whole genome characterisation revealed a porcine origin of all viruses involved and significant heterogeneity of RVB strain, proposing four novel genotypes and changes in RVB VP1 genotype classification. The statistical evaluation confirmed only a minor disturbance in the number of weaned pigs per sow, with statistical forecasting showing positive trends. A follow-up study corroborated the endemicity of RVA and PKV, in contrast to PEDV-SeCoV. Punctual, comprehensive and timely investigation of diarrhoea outbreaks is a prerequisite for applying adequate pig health and biosecurity management. Calculating such outbreaks' impact on production metrics can potentially shape future decisions on management improvements.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Gastroenterite , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Vírus , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Surtos de Doenças , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Filogenia
2.
Viruses ; 15(11)2023 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005842

RESUMO

Rotavirus (RV), norovirus (NoV), sapovirus (SaV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) are the most common viral causes of gastroenteritis in children worldwide. From 2016 to 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to determine the prevalence of these viruses in hospitalized children under five years old in Nam Dinh and Thua Thien Hue provinces in Vietnam during the pilot introduction of the RV vaccine, Rotavin-M1 (POLYVAC, Hanoi, Vietnam). We randomly selected 2317/6718 (34%) acute diarrheal samples from children <5 years of age enrolled at seven sentinel hospitals from December 2016 to May 2021; this period included one year surveillance pre-vaccination from December 2016 to November 2017. An ELISA kit (Premier Rotaclone®, Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA) was used to detect RV, and two multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were used for the detection of NoV, SaV and HAstV. The prevalence of RV (single infection) was reduced from 41.6% to 22.7% (p < 0.0001) between pre- and post-vaccination periods, while the single NoV infection prevalence more than doubled from 8.8% to 21.8% (p < 0.0001). The SaV and HAstV prevalences slightly increased from 1.9% to 3.4% (p = 0.03) and 2.1% to 3.3% (p = 0.09), respectively, during the same period. Viral co-infections decreased from 7.2% to 6.0% (p = 0.24), mainly due to a reduction in RV infection. Among the genotypeable samples, NoV GII.4, SaV GI.1, and HAstV-1 were the dominant types, representing 57.3%, 32.1%, and 55.0% among the individual viral groups, respectively. As the prevalence of RV decreases following the national RV vaccine introduction in Vietnam, other viral pathogens account for a larger proportion of the remaining diarrhea burden and require continuing close monitoring.


Assuntos
Enterite , Infecções por Enterovirus , Gastroenterite , Mamastrovirus , Norovirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Sapovirus , Vírus , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Prevalência , Criança Hospitalizada , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Rotavirus/genética , Fezes
3.
Viruses ; 15(11)2023 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005863

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis, mostly affecting young children worldwide. However, limited data are available to determine the severity of norovirus-associated AGE (acute gastroenteritis) and to correlate it with the NoV-specific IgA antibodies' level. Between October 2019 and September 2021, two hundred stool samples were randomly collected from symptomatic cases for the vesikari score and NoV-specific IgA assessment in young children from rural South Africa. Additionally, one hundred saliva specimens were concomitantly sampled within the same cohort to evaluate the NoV-specific salivary IgA levels. In addition, 50 paired saliva and stool samples were simultaneously collected from asymptomatic children to serve as controls. NoV strains in stool samples were detected using real-time RT-PCR, amplified, and genotyped with RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. ELISA using NoV VLP (virus-like particles) GII.4 as antigens was performed on the saliva specimens. Dehydrated children were predominantly those with NoV infections (65/74, 88%; p < 0.0001). NoV-positive infections were significantly associated with the severe diarrhea cases having a high vesikari score (55%, 33/60) when compared to the non-severe diarrheal score (29.3%, 41/140; p < 0.0308). NoV of the GII genogroup was mainly detected in severe diarrhea cases (50.9%, 30/59; p = 0.0036). The geometric means of the NoV-specific IgA level were higher in the asymptomatic NoV-infected group (0.286) as compared to the symptomatic group (0.174). This finding suggests that mucosal immunity may not protect the children from the NoV infection. However, the findings indicated the contribution of the pre-existing NoV-specific IgA immune response in reducing the severity of diarrheal disease. A high vesikari score of AGE associated with the NoV GII genogroup circulating in the study area underscores the need for an appropriate treatment of AGE based on the severity level of NoV-associated clinical symptoms in young children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Diarreia , Genótipo , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina A , Filogenia
4.
Vaccine ; 41 Suppl 2: S134-S152, 2023 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951692

RESUMO

Norovirus is attributed to nearly 1 out of every 5 episodes of diarrheal disease globally and is estimated to cause approximately 200,000 deaths annually worldwide, with 70,000 or more among children in developing countries. Noroviruses remain a leading cause of sporadic disease and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis even in industrialized settings, highlighting that improved hygiene and sanitation alone may not be fully effective in controlling norovirus. Strengths in global progress towards a Norovirus vaccine include a diverse though not deep pipeline which includes multiple approaches, including some with proven technology platforms (e.g., VLP-based HPV vaccines). However, several gaps in knowledge persist, including a fulsome mechanistic understanding of how the virus attaches to human host cells, internalizes, and induces disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Vacinas Virais , Criança , Humanos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19467, 2023 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945663

RESUMO

Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) occurs in about 10% of cases following gastroenteritis. The incidence of IBS is higher in females. However, it is not clear whether this is due to biological or psychosocial factors. We aimed to investigate the influence of gender roles on the incidence of PI-IBS, alongside traditional risk factors. Our study included 231 patients diagnosed with gastroenteritis who were hospitalized and treated with antibiotics between 2018 and 2021. The Korean Sex Role Inventory-Short Form (KSRI-SF), based on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to categorize patients (androgynous, masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated types). Six months after treatment, we conducted a telephone survey to confirm the presence of PI-IBS using the ROME IV criteria. Among the patients, 43.3% were female, and the mean age was 43.67 ± 16.09 years. After 6 months, 34 patients developed PI-IBS. Univariate analysis revealed that younger age, female sex, KSRI-SF undifferentiated type, and longer duration of antibiotic use independently influenced the occurrence of PI-IBS. Multivariate analysis showed that PI-IBS was associated with the KSRI-SF undifferentiated type and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Our study showed that the KSRI-SF undifferentiated type and high CRP levels at initial infection were associated with PI-IBS.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/etiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Incidência , Papel de Gênero , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Pós-Infecções
6.
Virol J ; 20(1): 268, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37974193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sapovirus (SaV) infection is increasing globally. Concurrently, several SaV-outbreaks were observed in children of Zhejiang province, China, in recent years, In this study, the genotypes of Sapovirus from seven outbreaks in the Zhejiang province were analysed. METHODS: A total of 105 faecal samples were collected from children aged between 4 and 17 years from the Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention between October 2021 and February 2023. Genotypes were processed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing, while next-generation sequencing was used to generate a complete viral genome. Deduced amino acid sequences were analysed to detect VP1 gene mutations. RESULTS: In total, 60 SaV-positive patients were detected at a 57.14% (60/105) positivity rate. Positive rates in the seven outbreaks were: 22.22% (2/9), 15.00% (3/20), 93.10% (27/29), 84.21% (16/19), 28.57% (2/7), 53.33% (8/15) and 33.33% (2/6), respectively. Four genotypes were identified in the seven outbreaks, of which, GI.1 accounted for 14.29% (1/7), GI.2 accounted for 14.29% (1/7), GI.6 and GII.5 accounted for 14.29% (1/7), and GI.6 accounted for 57.14% (4/7). All patients were children and outbreaks predominantly occurred in primary schools and during cold seasons. Additionally, the complete sequence from the GI.6 outbreak strain showed high homology (identity: 99.99%) with few common substitutions (Y300S, N302S and L8M) in VP1 protein. CONCLUSIONS: SaV genotype diversity was observed in the seven outbreaks, with GI.6 being the main SaV genotype in Zhejiang province. It demonstrated high homology and may provide a platform for SaV prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Sapovirus , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Sapovirus/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Genótipo , Surtos de Doenças , Fezes
7.
J Med Virol ; 95(10): e29153, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37804388

RESUMO

The transmissibility is a crucial feature for norovirus, yet its quantitative estimation has been limited. Our objective was to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0 ) of norovirus and investigate its variation characteristics. Norovirus outbreaks reported from September 2016 to August 2021 in Beijing were analyzed. The susceptible-infected-removed compartment model was established to estimate R0 . Linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting the transmissibility of norovirus. The overall median R0 of norovirus was estimated as 2.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.8-2.5), with 650 norovirus outbreaks. The transmissibility of norovirus varied by year, outbreak setting and genotype. The R0 of norovirus during September 2019 to August 2020 (median 2.1, IQR 1.8-2.4) and September 2020 to August 2021 (median 2.0, IQR 1.7-2.3) was lower than that of September 2016 to August 2017 (median 2.3, IQR 1.8-2.7) (ß = 0.94, p = 0.05; ß = 0.93, p = 0.008). The R0 of norovirus for all other settings was lower than that for kindergarten (median 2.4, IQR 2.0-2.9) (primary school: median 2.0, IQR 1.7-2.4, ß = 0.94, p = 0.001; secondary school: median 1.7, IQR 1.5-2.0, ß = 0.87, p < 0.001; college: median 1.7, IQR 1.5-1.8, ß = 0.89, p = 0.03; other closed settings: median 1.8, IQR 1.5-2.0, ß = 0.90, p = 0.004). GⅡ.2[P16] outbreaks had a median R0 of 2.2 (IQR 1.8-2.7), which was higher than that for GⅡ.6[P7] outbreaks (median 1.8, IQR: 1.8-2.0, odds ratio = 0.19, p = 0.03; GⅡ.2[P16] as reference) and mixed-genotype outbreaks (median 1.7, IQR: 1.5-1.8, ß = 0.92, p = 0.02; mixed-genotype as reference). In kindergartens and primary schools, norovirus shows increased transmissibility, emphasizing the vulnerable population and high-risk settings. Furthermore, the transmissibility of norovirus may change over time and with virus evolution, necessitating additional research to uncover the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Humanos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo
8.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1147180, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37808985

RESUMO

Introduction: Campylobacter bacteria is a major cause of foodborne-related bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. It is known to cause diarrhea in young children which has been shown to directly affect their weight and height as a result of malnutrition. Severe cases of diarrhea can also lead to death. Most of the burden is experienced in resource-limited countries in Africa and Southeast Asia where the disease is linked to poor hygiene and sanitation. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in children aged between 6 and 24 months in Nairobi, Kenya and identify potential risk factors associated with their occurrence. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between May to December 2021. A total of 585 randomly selected households were visited in two wards (Uthiru/Ruthimitu and Riruta) in Dagoretti South sub-county, Nairobi. A questionnaire regarding how children's food is handled, the major foods consumed, sanitation and hygiene, and animal ownership was conducted among caregivers to identify associated risk factors. Stool samples were collected from 540/585 children and screened for the presence of Campylobacter using culture-based methods and confirmed through PCR. Results: Of the 540 children's stool samples processed, Campylobacter isolates were detected in 4.8% (26/540). Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) was the most common species in 80.8% of positive samples compared to Campylobacter coli (C. coli) in 26.9% of samples. In six samples, both C. jejuni and C. coli were isolated, while in four samples, it was not possible to speciate the Campylobacter. Drinking cow's milk (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.4 - 12.6) and the presence of animal feces in the compound (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 - 10.3) were found to be statistically associated with Campylobacter carriage in children. Discussion: The carriage of Campylobacter in children in this community indicates a need for further investigation on source attribution to understand transmission dynamics and inform where to target interventions. Awareness creation among caregivers on good personal and food hygiene is needed, including boiling milk before consumption. Implementation of biosecurity measures at the household level is highly recommended to reduce contact between animals and humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia
9.
Euro Surveill ; 28(41)2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37824248

RESUMO

BackgroundUnprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic also had an effect on other infectious diseases.AimWe aimed to determine their impact on transmission and diagnosis of notifiable diseases other than COVID-19 in Bavaria, Germany, in 2020 and 2021.MethodsWe compared weekly cases of 15 notifiable infectious diseases recorded in Bavaria between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2021 in time series analyses, median age and time-to-diagnosis using Wilcoxon rank sum test and hospitalisation rates using univariable logistic regression during three time periods: pre-pandemic (weeks 1 2016-9 2020), pandemic years 1 (weeks 10-52 2020) and 2 (2021).ResultsWeekly case numbers decreased in pandemic year 1 for all diseases assessed except influenza, Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis; markedly for norovirus gastroenteritis (IRR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.12-0.20) and pertussis (IRR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.18-0.26). In pandemic year 2, influenza (IRR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.02-0.09) and pertussis (IRR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.09-0.14) decreased markedly, but also chickenpox, dengue fever, Haemophilus influenzae invasive infection, hepatitis C, legionellosis, noro- and rotavirus gastroenteritis and salmonellosis. For enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, median age decreased in pandemic years 1 and 2 (4 years, interquartile range (IQR): 1-32 and 3 years, IQR: 1-18 vs 11 years, IQR: 2-42); hospitalisation proportions increased in pandemic year 1 (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.08-2.34).ConclusionReductions for various infectious diseases and changes in case characteristics in 2020 and 2021 indicate reduced transmission of notifiable diseases other than COVID-19 due to interventions and under-detection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Gastroenterite , Influenza Humana , Coqueluche , Humanos , Pandemias , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia
10.
J Food Prot ; 86(11): 100174, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37783288

RESUMO

Oysters and other shellfish are not a food that is commonly highlighted as high risk for Campylobacter contamination. The Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH) conducted a multiagency investigation of a Campylobacter jejuni outbreak that was linked to the consumption of raw oysters; the first such outbreak was detected in Rhode Island. The environmental investigation identified birds as the likely source of contamination of the aquacultured oysters. As a result of this outbreak response, several investigative processes and best practice recommendations are offered. 1) RIDOH will be including exposure to raw shellfish as a question on their case report forms to better identify future oyster-related Campylobacter clusters. 2) It is important that shellfish aquaculture farms be aware of the risks of using floating gear to hold oyster cages and of the importance of using bird abatement to keep birds off floating aquaculture gear to prevent contamination of oysters from bird feces. 3) It should be recognized that fecal coliform water samples collected near an oyster aquaculture farm may not act as an adequate indicator for the presence of Campylobacter. 4) For the first time, Rhode Island has developed guidelines for the closure and reopening of oyster harvest areas due to contamination with Campylobacter. It is hoped that increased awareness and mitigation of the described risk factors will help prevent future similar outbreaks of illness.


Assuntos
Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Gastroenterite , Ostreidae , Animais , Humanos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Rhode Island , Surtos de Doenças
11.
J Hosp Infect ; 142: 32-38, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37805116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus outbreaks in hospitals can potentially impair patient care and result in significant financial expenses. There is currently limited information on hospital norovirus outbreaks in the Chinese mainland. AIM: To systematically review the published literature to describe the characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in Chinese mainland hospitals to facilitate prompt identification and control of outbreaks. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis standards. Databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese Journals Online databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Wan Fang digital database (WANFANG) were searched from inception to July 18th, 2022. FINDINGS: A total of 41 norovirus Chinese hospital outbreaks occurring before July 18th, 2022 were reported in 32 articles. Most reported outbreaks were from Shanghai and Beijing, and occurred in December and January. Cases were mainly adults. The male:female ratio was 1.22:1. The majority of cases in norovirus outbreaks were hospitalized patients (56.82%); medical staff were affected in 15 outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks occurred in both private and public hospitals, and in secondary and tertiary care centres, and occurred mainly in internal medicine and geriatric departments. Person-to-person transmission was the primary transmission mode and GII was more prevalent. CONCLUSION: Norovirus outbreaks in hospitals can affect both patients and healthcare workers, sometimes causing serious financial losses. In order to have a more complete understanding of the disease burden caused by norovirus outbreaks, surveillance needs to be established in hospitals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Hospitais Públicos , Genótipo
12.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0293739, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37906587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, public health surveillance systems often underestimate the burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) because they only identify disease among those who interact with the healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with healthcare-seeking behavior among individuals experiencing community-acquired AGE. METHODS: From October 2016 -September 2017, we conducted a weekly, age-stratified, random sample of Kaiser Permanente Northwest members located in northwest Oregon and southwest Washington, United States. Individuals who completed the online survey and experienced AGE were included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify predictors of healthcare-seeking behavior. RESULTS: Of the 3,894 survey respondents, 395 experienced an AGE episode and were eligible for analysis, of whom, 82 (21%) sought care for their AGE episode. In the final multivariable model, individuals with a concurrent fever (odds ratio [OR]: 4.76, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.48-9.13), increased diarrhea duration (≥6 days vs 1-4 days, OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 1.78-10.03), or increased vomiting duration (≥3 days vs 1 days, OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 1.22-7.26), were significantly more likely to seek healthcare. In the adjusted model, no sociodemographic or chronic disease variables were associated with healthcare-seeking behavior. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that individuals with a short duration of AGE and those without concurrent fever are underrepresented in healthcare facility-based surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Oregon/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia
13.
J Med Virol ; 95(10): e29159, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37805831

RESUMO

Saffold virus (SAFV) and human cosavirus (HCoSV) are emerging viruses of the Picornaviridae family. They have been shown to associate with gastrointestinal infection and more recently these viruses have also been demonstrated to associate with other clinical infections such as the respiratory tract, cardiovascular system, and the cerebral ventricular system. In this study, 2459 stool specimens collected from pediatric patients admitted to hospitals with acute gastroenteritis from January 2017 to December 2022, were screened for SAFV and HCoSV utilizing reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Positive samples were then characterized into genotypes via nucleotide sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Of the 2459 samples, 21 and 39 were positive for SAFV (0.9%) and HCoSV (1.6%), respectively. Three genotypes of SAFV were identified-SAFV-1 (38%), SAFV-2 (24%), and SAFV-3 (38%). Two genetic groups of HCoSV were identified-HCoSV-C (97%) and HCoSV-A (3%), demonstrating a large increase of HCoSV-C as compared to those reported previously from the same geographical region in Thailand. This study provides the prevalence of SAFV and HCoSV genotypes in Chiang Mai, Thailand during a period of 6 years from 2017 to 2022.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Picornaviridae , Criança , Humanos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Hospitais
14.
Food Environ Virol ; 15(4): 318-330, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37872461

RESUMO

Group A Rotavirus, Human Astrovirus, and Norovirus (RVA, HAstV, and NoV) are recognized as the major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in children and adults worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of RVA, HAstV, and NoV in wastewater from three cities in Uruguay. Thirty-six samples from Bella Unión, Salto, and Fray Bentos cities were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative PCR. RVA was the most frequently detected virus (50%), followed by HAstV (39%), NoV GII (36%), and NoV GI (25%). RVA strains were characterized as P[8] and G3 based on the VP4 and VP7 genes, respectively. Among NoV-positive samples, genotypes GI.2, GI.3, GI.5, GI.6, GI.7, GII.2, GII.6, and GII.4 were detected, and only one HAstV genotype (MLB1) was found. Our wastewater-based epidemiological approach provides a snapshot of the overall genetic diversity of these viruses in three cities of the Uruguay River basin during 2017-2018. These findings reinforce the importance of this environmental surveillance tool for monitoring epidemiological trends of enteric viruses circulating in the population, which can be used to guide public health intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Rotavirus , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Águas Residuárias , Cidades , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Filogenia , Fezes
15.
Pediatrics ; 152(4)2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37671462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections are the most common culture-confirmed foodborne illness in the United States. Although extremes of age and chronic or immunosuppressing conditions are known risk factors for NTS bloodstream infection (BSI), further predictors of BSI and BSI with focal infection in children remain poorly understood. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of NTS-positive blood cultures collected from 1999 to 2018 and stool studies collected from 2009 to 2018 in children. Incidence rates and risk factors for NTS BSI with and without focal infection were determined. RESULTS: Incidence rates of NTS BSI have not decreased over the last 20 years. There were 211 cases of NTS BSI with an incidence rate of 1.4 per 100 000 children per year. Twenty-one (10%) had underlying comorbidities. S. heidelberg was the most common serotype occurring in 45 (21%) cases. Compared with children with uncomplicated NTS BSI, children with NTS BSI with focal infection were more likely to have an underlying comorbidity, less diarrhea, and higher absolute neutrophil count. On multivariable analysis, the only difference in having NTS BSI in children with NTS gastroenteritis who had blood cultures obtained was a longer duration of fever (4.4 vs 2.5 days), less bloody diarrhea, and S. heidelberg isolated from stool. Laboratory studies, group of NTS, and other symptoms were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should remain vigilant for NTS BSI in children with prolonged fevers. S. heidelberg is the most common cause of NTS BSI in children and a predictor of BSI in children with NTS gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecção Focal , Gastroenterite , Infecções por Salmonella , Sepse , Criança , Humanos , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Febre , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia
16.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 107(3): 116056, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37683387

RESUMO

Human adenoviruses (HAdV) of species F are commonly involved in pediatric acute gastroenteritis (AGE). The real impact on Venezuelan health is unknown. To investigate the prevalence and molecular diversity of HAdV in Venezuela, 630 fecal samples collected from children with AGE in 3 cities, from 2001 to 2013, were tested by PCR. Species F and types F40/41 were identified by REA. HAdV was detected in 123 cases (19.5%), most from outpatient females under 24 months old. A progressive and substantial increase in the detection rate was observed over time, significantly higher in rotavirus vaccinated than unvaccinated children (28.4% vs. 9.5%, P = 0.00019). Phylogenetic analysis of 28 randomly selected genomes showed high similarity among HAdV-F40/41 and those worldwide. HAdV-F of type 41 prevailed (79.8%) and clustered into 2 intratypic major clades. The significant involvement of HAdV-F41 in AGE suggests the importance of actively monitoring viral agents other than rotavirus, especially after vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , Gastroenterite , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Rotavirus/genética , Venezuela/epidemiologia , Masculino
17.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; 42(6): 901-913, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37766589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We determined the molecular prevalence and genotype distribution of human adenovirus (HAdV) among children under five years of age with gastroenteritis in Iran. METHODS: One hundred stool samples from children hospitalized were tested by PCR for adenovirus, and some of the positive samples were sequenced to determine the specific genotype. RESULTS: HAdV DNA was found in 15 samples (15%). The highest and the lowest prevalence of HAdV was observed in the age groups 24-60 months (n = 6; 40%) and 7-12 months (n = 2; 13.3%), respectively (p = 0.01). Nine HAdV-positive samples were sequenced, of which four isolates were HAdV type 2 and five isolates were HAdV type 41. CONCLUSION: HAdV was most common in the 24-60-month-old children. Of the samples sequenced, we found only types 2 and 41. Our results show that in addition to HAdV types 40 and 41, HAdV type 2 may also play a role in causing gastroenteritis in children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos , Adenovírus Humanos , Gastroenterite , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Prevalência , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Fezes , Filogenia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 905: 167161, 2023 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37730068

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated that Wastewater Based Epidemiology is a fast and economical alternative for monitoring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the community level in high-income countries. In the present study, wastewater from a city in the Peruvian Highlands, which lacks a wastewater treatment plant, was monitored for one year to assess the relationship between the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 and the reported cases of COVID-19 in the community. Additionally, we compared the relationship between rotavirus (RV), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GGII), and human adenovirus (HAdV) with the number of reported cases of acute gastroenteritis. Before commencing the analysis of the samples, the viral recovery efficacy of three processing methods was determined in spiked wastewater with SARS-CoV-2. This evaluation demonstrated the highest recovery rate with direct analysis (72.2 %), as compared to ultrafiltration (50.8 %) and skimmed milk flocculation (5.6 %). Wastewater monitoring revealed that 72 % (36/50) of the samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, with direct analysis yielding the highest detection frequency and quantification of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the reported cases of COVID-19, mainly when we shift the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 by two weeks, which allows us to anticipate the onset of the fourth and fifth waves of the pandemic in Peru up to two weeks in advance. All samples processed using the skimmed milk flocculation method tested positive and showed high concentrations of RV, NoV GGII, and HAdV. In fact, the highest RV concentrations were detected up to four weeks before outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis reported in children under four years of age. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that periodic wastewater monitoring is an excellent epidemiological tool for surveillance and can anticipate outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , COVID-19 , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Águas Residuárias , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 115: 105499, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37734510

RESUMO

While the GII.4 norovirus was the predominant genotype, non-GII.4 genotype was increasingly focused since the non-GII.4 genotype caused regional epidemics. In this study, the detection rate was16.51% (183/1108) in Ningxia from January to December 2020. Among identified genotypes, GII.4[P31] and GII.4[P16] were the dominant genotypes (n = 20 and 18, respectively) while GII.6[P7] was the main type (n = 6) in non-GII.4 strains which was mainly detected in from May to July. The whole genome sequences of the norovirus diarrhea samples identified as GII.6 [P7] with Ct ≤ 30 collected in 2020 were determined. In this study, the complete genome sequences of norovirus strains PL20-044 and QTX20-071 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORF1and ORF2 regions showed that these strains evolved from the GII·P7-GII.6 strains detected in recent years from different country. The results showed that PL20-044 had intra-type recombination with GII·P7-GII.6c and GII·P7-GII.6a, while QTX20-071 had intre-type recombination within GII·P7-GII.6a. The evolutionary rates of the RdRp gene region of the GII·P7 genotype and the VP1 gene region of the GII.6 genotype were 2.91 × 10-3 (95%HPDs2.32-3.51 × 10-3) and 2.61 × 10-3 (95%HPDs2.14-3.11 × 10-3) substitutions/site/year, respectively. Comparative analysis of the amino acid mutation sites in VP1 with the GII·P7-GII.6a strains before 1997, the later detected strains have changed in aa131 and aa354. Moreover, PL20-044 strains showed special mutations at aa316 and aa395. These results help to understand the norovirus genotype circulating in the human population in Ningxia, and discover the evolutionary characteristics of the GII·P7-GII.6 strain.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Humanos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Genótipo , China/epidemiologia
20.
Eur J Med Res ; 28(1): 337, 2023 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37697336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intertwined association between infectious gastroenteritis (IGE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been investigated clearly. We aimed to examine the bidirectional association between IGE and IBD. METHODS: A bidirectional study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was designed. Through a case-control design, we identified 2899 new IBD cases during 2006-2017 and matched to 28,990 non-IBD controls. We used conditional logistic regression model to estimate odds ratios (OR) of IBD for previous IGE in different exposure time-windows within 5-years before IBD diagnosis and Poisson regression model to estimate incidence rate ratio (IRR) of subsequent IGE for IBD group to non-IBD group. RESULTS: The mean age at the initial IBD diagnosis was 41 years. More IBD patients (21.49%) than controls (12.60%) had been exposed to IGE during > 6 months to 5 years before IBD diagnosis, the OR of IBD for IGE was 1.89 [95% confidence interval: 1.69-2.11]. Excess OR decreased as IGE exposure time before the index date increased. More IGE episodes were associated with additional increase in IBD risk (OR: 1.64, 2.19, 2.57, 3.50, and 4.57 in patients with 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥ 5 IGE episodes, respectively). The IRR of having IGE for IBD group to non-IBD group was 2.42 before IBD diagnosis and increased to 5.74 after IBD diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested an IGE-IBD bidirectional association. More attention is needed for physicians to develop preventive strategies and be aware of the higher risk of subsequent IGE in IBD patients.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Médicos , Humanos , Adulto , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Imunoglobulina E
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