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1.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 3119958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594160

RESUMO

Fish and fish products are considered a fundamental part of the human diet due to their high nutritional value. Food-borne diseases are considered a major public health challenge worldwide due to their incidence, associated mortality, and negative economic repercussions. Food safety is the guarantee that foods will not cause harm to the health of those who consume them, and it is a fundamental property of food quality. Food safety can be at risk of being lost at any stage of the food chain if the food is contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. Many diverse bacteria are present in the environment and as part of the microbiota of food that can be transmitted to humans during the handling and consumption of food. Plesiomonas shigelloides has been mainly associated with outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases due to the consumption of fish. This bacterium inhabits the environment and aquatic animals and is associated with the microbiota of fish such as tilapia, a fish of importance in fishing, aquaculture, commercialization, and consumption worldwide. The purpose of this document is to provide, through a bibliographic review of databases (Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, among others), a general informative perspective on food-borne diseases and, in particular, the consumption of fish and tilapia. Diseases derived from contamination by Plesiomonas shigelloides are included, and control and prevention actions and sanitary regulations for fishery products established in several countries around the world are discussed to promote the safety of foods of aquatic origin intended for human consumption and to protect public health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Plesiomonas/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Tilápia/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Carga Bacteriana , Criopreservação , Reservatórios de Doenças , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Plesiomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prevalência , Controle de Qualidade , Poluição da Água
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516365

RESUMO

Introduction. The identification of enteropathogens is critical for the clinical management of patients with suspected gastrointestinal infection. The FLOW multiplex PCR system (FMPS) is a semi-automated platform (FLOW System, Roche) for multiplex real-time PCR analysis.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. FMPS has greater sensitivity for the detection of enteric pathogens than standard methods such as culture, biochemical identification, immunochromatography or microscopic examination.Aim.The diagnostic performance of the FMPS was evaluated and compared to that of traditional microbiological procedures.Methodology. A total of 10 659 samples were collected and analysed over a period of 7 years. From 2013 to 2018 (every July to September), samples were processed using standard microbiological culture methods. In 2019, the FMPS was implemented using real-time PCR to detect the following enteropathogens: Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidum spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, adenovirus, norovirus and rotavirus. Standard microbiological culture methods (2013-2018) included stool culture, microscopy and immunochromatography.Results. A total of 1078 stool samples were analysed prospectively using the FMPS from July to September (2019): bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens were identified in 15.3, 9.71 and 5.29 % of cases, respectively. During the same period of 6 years (2013-2018), the proportion of positive identifications using standard microbiological methods from 2013 to 2018 was significantly lower. A major significant recovery improvement was observed for all bacteria species tested: Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) (P <0.05), Salmonella spp. (P <0.05) and Campylobacter spp. (P <0.05). Marked differences were also observed for the parasites G. intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and D. fragilis.Conclusion. These results support the value of multiplex real-time PCR analysis for the detection of enteric pathogens in laboratory diagnosis with outstanding performance in identifying labile micro-organisms. The identification of unsuspected micro-organisms for less specific clinical presentations may also impact on clinical practice and help optimize patient management.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Dientamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/fisiologia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202742

RESUMO

The potential benefit of the administration of probiotics in children has been studied in many settings globally. Probiotics products contain viable micro-organisms that confer a health benefit on the host. Beneficial effects of selected probiotic strains for the management or prevention of selected pediatric conditions have been demonstrated. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of current available evidence on the efficacy of specific probiotics in selected conditions to guide pediatricians in decision-making on the therapeutic or prophylactic use of probiotic strains in children. Evidence to support the use of certain probiotics in selected pediatric conditions is often available. In addition, the administration of probiotics is associated with a low risk of adverse events and is generally well tolerated. The best documented efficacy of certain probiotics is for treatment of infectious gastroenteritis, and prevention of antibiotic-associated, Clostridioides difficile-associated and nosocomial diarrhea. Unfortunately, due to study heterogeneity and in some cases high risk of bias in published studies, a broad consensus is lacking for specific probiotic strains, doses and treatment regimens for some pediatric indications. The current available evidence thus limits the systematic administration of probiotics. The most recent meta-analyses and reviews highlight the need for more well-designed, properly powered, strain-specific and dedicated-dose response studies.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/normas , Pediatria/normas , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Clostridioides difficile , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 905-914, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted the Probiotic Regimen for Outpatient Gastroenteritis Utility of Treatment (PROGUT) study, which identified no improvements in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) administered a probiotic. However, the aforementioned study did not evaluate immunomodulatory benefits. OBJECTIVES: The object of this study was to determine if stool secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations in children with AGE increase more among participants administered a Lactobacillus rhamnosus/helveticus probiotic compared with those administered placebo. METHODS: This a priori planned multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled ancillary study enrolled children presenting for emergency care who received a 5-d probiotic or placebo course. Participants submitted stool specimens on days 0, 5, and 28. The primary endpoint was the change in stool sIgA concentrations on day 5 compared with baseline. RESULTS: A total of 133 (n = 66 probiotic, 67 placebo) of 886 PROGUT participants (15.0%) provided all 3 specimens. Median stool sIgA concentrations did not differ between the probiotic and placebo groups at any of the study time points: day 0 median (IQR): 1999 (768, 4071) compared with 2198 (702, 5278) (P = 0.27, Cohen's d = 0.17); day 5: 2505 (1111, 5310) compared with 3207 (982, 7080) (P = 0.19, Cohen's d = 0.16); and day 28: 1377 (697, 2248) compared with 1779 (660, 3977) (P = 0.27, Cohen's d = 0.19), respectively. When comparing measured sIgA concentrations between days 0 and 5, we found no treatment allocation effects [ß: -0.24 (-0.65, 0.18); P = 0.26] or interaction between treatment and specimen collection day [ß: -0.003 (-0.09, 0.09); P = 0.95]. Although stool sIgA decreased between day 5 and day 28 within both groups (P < 0.001), there were no differences between the probiotic and placebo groups in the median changes in sIgA concentrations when comparing day 0 to day 5 median (IQR) [500 (-1135, 2362) compared with 362 (-1122, 4256); P = 0.77, Cohen's d = 0.075] and day 5 to day 28 [-1035 (-3130, 499) compared with -1260 (-4437, 843); P = 0.70, Cohen's d = 0.067], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found no effect of an L. rhamnosus/helveticus probiotic, relative to placebo, on stool IgA concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01853124.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora , Imunomodulação , Lactobacillus helveticus/imunologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/imunologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
6.
Infect Immun ; 89(8): e0012121, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097470

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that mostly enters the human body through contaminated food. It causes a gastrointestinal disorder called salmonellosis in humans and typhoid-like systemic disease in mice. OmpV, an outer membrane protein of S. Typhimurium, helps in adhesion and invasion of bacteria to intestinal epithelial cells and thus plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of S. Typhimurium. In this study, we have shown that intraperitoneal immunization with OmpV is able to induce high IgG production and protection against systemic disease. Further, oral immunization with OmpV-incorporated proteoliposome (OmpV-proteoliposome [PL]) induces production of high IgA antibody levels and protection against gastrointestinal infection. Furthermore, we have shown that OmpV induces Th1 bias in systemic immunization with purified OmpV, but both Th1 and Th2 polarization in oral immunization with OmpV-proteoliposome (PL). Additionally, we have shown that OmpV activates innate immune cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cells, in a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. Interestingly, OmpV is recognized by the TLR1/2 heterodimer in monocytes, but by both TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 heterodimers in macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells. Further, downstream signaling involves MyD88, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (both p38 and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)), and transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. Due to its ability to efficiently activate both the innate and adaptive immune systems and protective efficacy, OmpV can be a potential vaccine candidate against S. Typhimurium infection. Further, the fact that OmpV can be recognized by both TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 heterodimers increases its potential to act as good adjuvant in other vaccine formulations.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Imunidade , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010301

RESUMO

Campylobacter spp. are the most common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. Contaminated chicken is the food vehicle associated with the majority of reported cases of campylobacteriosis, either by the consumption of undercooked meat or via cross- contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods during the handling of contaminated raw chicken parts and carcasses. Our results indicate that cooking salt (used for seasoning) is a potential vehicle for Campylobacter spp. cross-contamination from raw chicken to lettuce, through unwashed hands after handling contaminated chicken. Cross-contamination events were observed even when the chicken skin was contaminated with low levels of Campylobacter spp. (ca. 1.48 Log CFU/g). The pathogen was recovered from seasoned lettuce samples when raw chicken was contaminated with levels ≥ 2.34 Log CFU/g. We also demonstrated that, once introduced into cooking salt, Campylobacter spp. are able to survive in a culturable state up to 4 hours. After six hours, although not detected following an enrichment period in culture medium, intact cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. These findings reveal a "novel" indirect cross-contamination route of Campylobacter in domestic settings, and a putative contamination source to RTE foods that are seasoned with salt, that might occur if basic food hygiene practices are not adopted by consumers when preparing and cooking poultry dishes.


Assuntos
Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alface/microbiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Infecções por Campylobacter/transmissão , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Culinária , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Europa (Continente) , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(2): 224-229, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the course of a community gastroenteritis outbreak by Salmonella and implement interventional activities and roles to prevent occurring such an outbreak in the future. METHODS: From August 27 to 2 September 2015, 101 individuals were reported among a local community. All affected individuals had a history of food consumption at a local restaurant. A rapid response team conducted active surveillance and interview with the affected individuals and workers of the restaurant. Food items and stools from food handlers and affected individuals were cultured and sent for genotyping. An environmental audit of the restaurant had been conducted. RESULTS: The total majority of the affected individuals were male and more than 70% belonged to the young age group from 15 to 45 years. Out of the total, 97% had diarrhea, 70% fever, 56% abdominal cramps and 49% vomiting. All those affected were managed symptomatically except for 14 cases admitted for intravenous rehydration. Breakdown of food safety and basic personal hygiene were detected in the environment of the restaurant and among the workers. There are 39 out of 49 stool cultures of cases, six out of 18 food handlers, and five food samples were positive for Salmonella spp. The identical DNA fingerprinting pattern among S. Weltevreden strains originating from human cases and food was detected. CONCLUSION: This is the first reported community foodborne of S. Weltevreden outbreak in Oman. The importance of food safety and rigors environmental safety is emphasized. Basic personal hygiene and training of food handlers in restaurants are recommended with public health measurements.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite , Restaurantes , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omã/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11194, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045602

RESUMO

Pollutants found in the water and air environment represent an ever-growing threat to human health. Contact with some air-, water- and foodborne pathogens (e.g. norovirus) results in gastrointestinal diseases and outbreaks. For future risk mitigation, we aimed to measure people's awareness of waterborne and foodborne norovirus relative to other environment-associated pollutants (e.g. pesticides, bioaerosols, antibiotic resistant bacteria) and well-known risks (e.g. diabetes, dementia, terrorist attack). We used an online survey, which included a best-worst scaling component to elicit personal levels of control and fear prompted by norovirus relative to 15 other risks. There was a negative correlation between levels of fear vs. control for all 16 measured risks. Perceived infection control levels were higher amongst women compared to men and correlated with age and the level of qualification in both groups. Participants who had sought advice regarding the symptoms caused by norovirus appeared to have more control over the risks. Norovirus is associated with high levels of fear, however, the levels of control over it is low compared to other foodborne illnesses, e.g. Salmonella. Addressing this deficit in the public's understanding of how to control exposure to the pathogen in an important health need.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/psicologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/psicologia , Gastroenterite/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Norovirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental , Medo , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many hospitals have transitioned from conventional stool diagnostics to rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction gastrointestinal panels (GIP). The clinical impact of this testing has not been evaluated in children. In this study, we compare use, results, and patient outcomes between conventional diagnostics and GIP testing. METHODS: This is a multicenter cross-sectional study of children who underwent stool testing from 2013 to 2017. We used bivariate analyses to compare test use, results, and patient outcomes, including length of stay (LOS), ancillary testing, and hospital charges, between the GIP era (24 months after GIP introduction) and conventional diagnostic era (historic control, 24 months before). RESULTS: There were 12 222 tests performed in 8720 encounters. In the GIP era, there was a 21% increase in the proportion of children who underwent stool testing, with a statistically higher percentage of positive results (40% vs 11%), decreased time to result (4 vs 31 hours), and decreased time to treatment (11 vs 35 hours). Although there was a decrease in LOS by 2 days among those who received treatment of a bacterial and/or parasitic pathogen (5.1 vs 3.1; P < .001), this represented only 3% of tested children. In the overall population, there was no statistical difference in LOS, ancillary testing, or charges. CONCLUSIONS: The GIP led to increased pathogen detection and faster results. This translated into improved outcomes for only a small subset of patients, suggesting that unrestricted GIP use leads to low-value care. Similar to other novel rapid diagnostic panels, there is a critical need for diagnostic stewardship to optimize GIP testing.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
11.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1915615, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877031

RESUMO

A high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens has been reported in adult and pediatric populations of Pakistan. However, data describing the effect of MDR microbes on the gut microbiota is scarce. We designed a cross-sectional pediatric study to investigate the effect of MDR microbes' infection on the gut microbiome and its resistome of children using high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS). A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary health care hospital in Peshawar Pakistan, between 5 September 2019 to 15 February 2020. Pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis (n = 200) were enrolled. All the enrolled pediatric patients underwent initial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) screening using the disk diffusion method. Children with MDR infections were identified and selected for gut microbiome and its resistome profiling using NGS. Out of 200 enrolled pediatric patients, 80 (40%) were found infected with MDR diarrheagenic Enterobacteriaceae consisting of 50 (62.5%) infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli while 30 (37.5%) by MDR Enterobacter specie. A total of 63 and 17 antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) conferring resistance to 7 and 5 classes of antibiotics were identified in the resistomes of MDR diarrheagenic Enterobacteriaceae infected and healthy children, respectively. NGS-based gut microbial profiling of MDR Enterobacter spp., ESBL producing E. coli infected pediatric patients and healthy controls revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, respectively. An increased abundance of several pathogenic gram-negative bacteria namely E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Salmonella enterica was observed in the gut microbiota of children infected with MDR bacterial infections than that of the healthy controls. This work indicates that children with MDR infections have reduced microbial diversity and enriched ARGs than healthy controls. The emergence of MDR bacterial strains and their association with gut dysbiosis needs immediate attention to regulate antibiotics usage in Pakistani children.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2464, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927201

RESUMO

National-based prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute diarrhea was conducted in China between 2009‒2018. Here we report the etiological, epidemiological, and clinical features of the 152,792 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Rotavirus A and norovirus are the two leading viral pathogens detected in the patients, followed by adenovirus and astrovirus. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and nontyphoidal Salmonella are the two leading bacterial pathogens, followed by Shigella and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Patients aged <5 years had higher overall positive rate of viral pathogens, while bacterial pathogens were more common in patients aged 18‒45 years. A joinpoint analysis revealed the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. Our findings fill crucial gaps of how the distributions of enteropathogens change across China in patients with diarrhea. This allows enhanced identification of the predominant diarrheal pathogen candidates for diagnosis in clinical practice and more targeted application of prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/patologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/patologia , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/patologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 347: 109188, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839439

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is commonly found in marine and estuarine environments worldwide and isolated from aquatic products, is one of the most important food-borne pathogens. Among the various typing methods, serotyping is widely accepted and utilized by infectious disease specialists and infection control agencies for the detection and epidemiological investigation of this pathogen. Thus far, 13 O serotypes and 71 K serotypes have been defined; however, untypeable strains are frequently isolated during routine detection, and some new O and/or K antigens have been identified and characterized. During a serotyping survey in Shandong province, China from 2016 to 2018, we collected 411 clinical V. parahaemolyticus strains and found that nine of them are untypeable K antigen strains. In this study, we identified three K serotypes of V. parahaemolyticus through in-depth genetic analysis of the K antigen gene cluster, serological tests, and the production of antisera. Among the nine strains, seven possess K untypeable 2 (KUT2) antigens, which have been reported recently by another group. However, two new O and K combinations (O3:KUT2 and O11:KUT2) were first characterized by us, with the remaining two each representing a novel K serotype. Moreover, through comparative genomic analysis, we showed that the Shandong KUT2 strains exhibit different virulence profiles compared to their identical K serotype partners from Zhejiang province, another Chinese coastal province; however, strains from these two regions are clustered into the same linage and may have evolved from a recent common ancestor. Additionally, one isolate, SD2016062, was phylogenetically similar to the strains associated with several local gastroenteritis outbreaks, with similar toxin patterns, suggesting its potential to cause sporadic occurrences of disease or even local pandemics. Finally, we developed a sero-specific PCR assay targeting the three novel K serotypes, which can monitor the V. parahaemolyticus spectrum for clinical and epidemiological purposes. Thus, we identified and characterized novel strains of V. parahaemolyticus and proposed a new technique for tracking the diversity of strains, which can help manage this food-borne pathogen.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Antígenos O/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 346: 109153, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744818

RESUMO

Laribacter hongkongensis is a foodborne organism that is associated with gastroenteritis and diarrhea in humans. Here we describe the structural characteristics and potential function of CRISPR systems to obtain insight into the genotypic diversity of L. hongkongensis. Specifically, we analyzed the genomic content of six L. hongkongensis genomes and identified two CRISPR loci (CRISPR1 and CRISPR2) belonging to the I-F subtype of CRISPR systems. CRISPR1 was flanked on one side by cas genes and a 170 bp-long putative leader sequence, while CRISPR2 arrays located further and processed by the same cas genes. Then a combination of PCR and sequencing was used to determine the prevalence and distribution of the two CRISPR arrays in 112 L. hongkongensis strains isolated from patients, animals, and water reservoirs. In total, the CRISPR1-Cas system of complete subtype I-F was detected in 91.5% (108/118) of the isolates, whereas CRISPR2 locus existed in 72.0% (85/118). Ten strains only possessed part of the cas genes of subtype I-F and four of them with CRISPR2 array. The two loci contained highly conserved and identical direct repeat sequences which were stable in their RNA secondary structure. Additionally, 2564 total spacers including 980 unique spacers arranged in 59 alleles were identified. Homology analysis showed only 1.8% (18/980) of the spacers matched with plasmid or phage. CRISPR polymorphism present in human isolates and frog isolates was more closely related and more extensive than that of fish isolates based on spacer polymorphism. The elucidation of the structural characteristics of the CRISPR-Cas system may be helpful for further studying the specific mechanism of adaptive immunity and other biological functions mediated by CRISPR in L. hongkongensis. The conservation of CRISPR loci and hypervariable repeat-spacer arrays imply the potential for molecular typing of L. hongkongensis.


Assuntos
Anuros/microbiologia , Betaproteobacteria/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Diarreia/microbiologia , Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Alelos , Animais , Betaproteobacteria/classificação , Betaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3033, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542335

RESUMO

We investigated the efficiency of the Verigene Enteric Pathogens Nucleic Acid Test (Verigene EP test), which is an automated microarray-based assay system that enables rapid and simultaneous genetic detection of gastrointestinal pathogens and toxins, including those in the Campylobacter Group, Salmonella species, Shigella species, the Vibrio Group, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shiga toxin 1 and 2, norovirus GI/GII, and rotavirus A. Three clinical laboratories evaluated the Verigene EP test, using 268 stool samples for bacterial and toxin genes and 167 samples for viral genes. Culture-based reference methods were used for the detection of bacteria and toxins, while a different molecular assay was used for viral detection. The overall concordance rate between the Verigene EP test and the reference methods for the 1940 assays was 99.0%. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Verigene EP test were 97.0% and 99.3%, respectively. Of the 19 samples with discordant results, 13 samples were false positives and six were false negatives. The Verigene EP test simultaneously detected two targets in 11 samples; overall, the test demonstrated high efficiency in detecting crucial diarrheagenic pathogens, indicating its suitability for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/genética , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Toxina Shiga I/química , Toxina Shiga I/genética , Toxina Shiga I/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/genética , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/patogenicidade
16.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1599-1607.e5, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastrointestinal infections have been linked to changes in the composition and function of gut microbiome and development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We therefore sought to examine the relationship between gastroenteritis and risk of microscopic colitis (MC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of all adult patients with MC diagnosed between 1990 and 2016 in Sweden matched to up to 5 general population controls according to age, sex, calendar year, and county. Cases of MC were identified using Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes from the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, a cohort of gastrointestinal pathology reports from all 28 pathology centers in Sweden. We used logistic regression modeling to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Through December of 2016, we matched 13,468 MC cases to 64,479 controls. The prevalence of previous diagnosed gastrointestinal infection was 7.5% among patients with MC, which was significantly higher than in controls (3.0%, Pcomparison < .001). After adjustment, gastroenteritis was associated with an increased risk of MC (aOR 2.63; 95% CI 2.42-2.85). Among specific pathogens, Clostridioides difficile (aOR 4.39; 95% CI 3.42-5.63), Norovirus (aOR 2.87; 95% CI 1.66-4.87), and Escherichia species (aOR 3.82; 95% CI 1.22-11.58), but not Salmonella species, were associated with an increased risk of MC. The association between gastrointestinal infections and risk of MC was stronger for collagenous subtype (aOR 3.23; 95% CI 2.81-3.70) as compared with lymphocytic colitis (aOR 2.51; 95% CI 2.28-2.76; Pheterogeneity = .005). The associations remained significant after adjustment for immune-mediated conditions and polypharmacy and when compared with unaffected siblings. CONCLUSION: In a nationwide study, we found that gastrointestinal infection, particularly Clostridioides difficile, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent MC. This study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee, Stockholm, Sweden (Protocol no. 2014/1287-31/4).


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Colite Microscópica/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colite Colagenosa/diagnóstico , Colite Colagenosa/epidemiologia , Colite Colagenosa/microbiologia , Colite Linfocítica/diagnóstico , Colite Linfocítica/epidemiologia , Colite Linfocítica/microbiologia , Colite Microscópica/diagnóstico , Colite Microscópica/microbiologia , Disbiose , Feminino , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 108, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human worldwide. The aim of study was to assess the distribution of sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and capsular genotypes in C. jejuni isolated from Iranian children with gastroenteritis. Furthermore, the level of dnaK gene expression in C. jejuni strains with selected capsular genotypes and LOS classes was intended. Moreover, a comprehensive study of C. jejuni MLST-genotypes and inclusive comparison with peer sequences worldwide was intended. METHODS: Twenty clinical C. jejuni strains were isolated from fecal specimens of 280 children aged 0-5 years, suspected of bacterial gastroenteritis, which admitted to 3 children hospitals from May to October, 2018. Distribution of sialylated LOS classes and specific capsular genotypes were investigated in C. jejuni of clinical origin. The expression of dnaK in C. jejuni strains was measured by Real-Time-PCR. MLST-genotyping was performed to investigate the clonal relationship of clinical C. jejuni strains and comparison with inclusive sequences worldwide. RESULTS: C. jejuni HS23/36c was the predominant genotype (45%), followed by HS2 (20%), and HS19 and HS4 (each 10%). A total of 80% of isolates were assigned to LOS class B and C. Higher expression level of dnaK gene was detected in strains with HS23/36c, HS2 and HS4 capsular genotypes and sialylated LOS classes B or C. MLST analysis showed that isolates were highly diverse and represented 6 different sequence types (STs) and 3 clonal complexes (CCs). CC21 and CC257 were the most dominant CCs (75%) among our C. jejuni strains. No new ST and no common ST with our neighbor countries was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The C. jejuni isolates with LOS class B or C, and capsular genotypes of HS23/36, HS2, HS4 and HS19 were dominant in population under study. The CC21 and CC257 were the largest CCs among our isolates. In overall picture, CC21 and CC353 complexes were the most frequently and widely distributed clonal complexes worldwide, although members of CC353 were not detected in our isolates. This provides a universal picture of movement of dominant Campylobacter strains worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Cápsulas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência
19.
Gastroenterology ; 160(1): 39-46, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130103

RESUMO

The role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 has expanded from regulating the renin angiotensin system to regulating intestinal amino acid homeostasis and the gut microbiome. Recently, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 was identified as a primary receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 being expressed in multiple tissues including the luminal surface of the gut. In this brief perspective, we examine the role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the impact of coronavirus disease 19 infection on the gut microbiome and on the gut epithelium.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/enzimologia , Gastroenterite/enzimologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus
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