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1.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(5): 337-350, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069070

RESUMO

Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a major concern for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with consumption of contaminated groundwater. Over 4 million people rely on private groundwater systems as their primary drinking water source in Canada; many of these systems do not meet current standards for water quality. This manuscript provides a scoping overview of studies examining STEC prevalence and occurrence in groundwater, and it includes a synopsis of the environmental variables affecting survival, transport, persistence, and overall occurrence of these important pathogenic microbes in private groundwater wells used for drinking purposes.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Canadá , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/metabolismo , Microbiologia da Água
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Conventional routine PCR testing for gastrointestinal infections is generally based on pathogen related panels specifically requested by clinicians and can be erroneous and time consuming. The BioFire FilmArray gastrointestinal (GI) panel combines 22 pathogens into a single cartridge-based test on a random-access system, thereby reducing the turnaround time to less than 2 hours. We described the clinical impact of implementing the BioFire FilmArray on patients with gastroenteritis in our hospital. METHODS: Patients attending a Dutch tertiary care center (Radboud University Medical Center), from whom stool samples were obtained, were eligible for inclusion. The clinicians selected one or a combination of different routinely performed PCR panels (bacterial panel, viral panel, clostridium testing, and three parasitic panels) based on clinical history and symptoms. All samples were in parallel tested with the FilmArray. We retrospectively collected patient data regarding infection control and patient management to assess the potential impact of implementing the FilmArray. RESULTS: In total 182 patients were included. Routine PCR detected one or more pathogens in 52 (28.6%) patients compared to 72 (39.6%) using the FilmArray. Turnaround time (including transport) decreased from median 53 hours for the routine PCR to 16 hours for the FilmArray. Twenty-six patients could have been removed from isolation 29 hours sooner, 3.6 antibiotic days could have been saved and in five patients additional imaging testing (including colonoscopies) could have been prevented. CONCLUSION: The theoretical implementation of the BioFire FilmArray GI panel in patients with clinical suspicion of gastroenteritis resulted in a significant better patient management.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Países Baixos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(3): 419-426, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999240

RESUMO

Introduction. Current testing practices for yersiniosis mean that its true incidence and epidemiology are not well understood. In mid-2016, the introduction of testing via a multiplex gastrointestinal PCR panel at Portsmouth hospital laboratory in Hampshire, UK, resulted in a marked increase in the number of Yersinia cases identified locally.Aim. Here we describe the epidemiology and microbiology of Yersinia cases identified at Portsmouth laboratory following the introduction of PCR testing.Methodology. A case was defined as a person with a stool specimen in which Yersinia was detected by PCR and/or culture at Portsmouth NHS Trust laboratory between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2018. A case list was created from laboratory data submitted by Portsmouth laboratory to Public Health England (PHE), updated with speciation and serotyping data from the PHE reference laboratory. Descriptive analysis was performed.Results. Over 30 months following introduction of PCR testing, 199 cases were confirmed with Yersinia, compared to two cases in the preceding 30 months. This corresponds to a rate of 13.8 and 0.1 per 100 000 population per year respectively (P<0.0001). In total, 85% of tested isolates were Y. enterocolitica, belonging to multiple serotypes, and the rest belonged to a range of Y. enterocolitica-like species.Conclusions. Introduction of PCR testing led to the identification of a previously unrecognized burden of yersiniosis in Hampshire. The diversity of species and serotypes suggests heterogeneity in sources and transmission routes. Further research on exposures, risk factors and clinical sequalae is needed to improve our understanding of the clinical and public health impact.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Yersiniose/epidemiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saúde Pública , Yersiniose/microbiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética , Adulto Jovem
4.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103280, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500706

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases in humans, including febrile gastroenteritis and systemic infections that has a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. This pathogen may cause massive outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated food products, which highlight its importance in public health. In the last decade, L. monocytogenes has emerged as a foodborne pathogen of major importance in Chile. A previous work showed that in Chile during 2008 and 2009, L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified in food and clinical strains. Here we report the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 2008 to 2017 in the country. Our results indicate that serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b continue to be the most commonly found in food products. In addition, we identify persistent and widespread PFGE subtypes. This study reports ten years of epidemiological surveillance ofL. monocytogenes in Chile.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Saúde Pública , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Fatores de Virulência/genética
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1018, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although, India has made steady progress in reducing deaths in children younger than 5 years, the proportional mortality accounted by diarrhoeal diseases still remains high. The present hospital based cross sectional study was carried out to understand the prevalence of various bacterial pathogens associated with the diarrhoea cases in under 5 years age group. METHODS: During, 1st September, 2015 to 30th November 2017, all the childhood diarrhoea cases (≤5 yrs) of SCB Medical College in Odisha, India were included in the study. Stool samples were collected and processed for the isolation of causative bacterial pathogen and the isolated bacterial pathogens were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing, molecular analysis of drug resistance. Clinical and demographic data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Three hundred twenty patients were enrolled in the study during the study period from whom 82 bacterial isolates were obtained indicating a proportional causality of 25.6% for bacterial diarrhoea among children in this region. Entero toxigenic E.coli (ETEC) accounted for majority of the cases and and more than 50% of the strains were found to be multi-drug resistant (resistant to more than 3 class of antibiotics). More than 50% of the strains were resistant to current choice of treatment like ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and ceftriaxone and 2.4% being resistant to Imipenem. ESBL production was also observed in some of the strains and one isolate harboured the NDM-1 gene. Fluoroquinolone resistance was found to be linked with multiple mutations in the QRDR region followed by PMQR determinants. CONCLUSION: The current study, to the best of our knowledge is first of its kind which demonstrated the etiology of bacterial diarrhoea in children less than 5 years old and identified diarrheogenic E. coli as the predominant enteropathogen in Odisha. Majority of the isolates being multi-drug resistance calls for a continuous surveillance system in the region which will be helpfulin identifying emerging resistance pattern and for developing suitable intervention stategies.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1037, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shigella spp. and entero-invasive E. coli (EIEC) use the same invasive mechanism to cause diarrheal diseases. Public health regulations apply only to Shigella spp. infections, but are hampered by the lack of simple methods to distinguish them from EIEC. In the last decades, molecular methods for detecting Shigella spp. and EIEC were implemented in medical microbiological laboratories (MMLs). However, shigellosis cases identified with molecular techniques alone are not notifiable in most countries. Our study investigates the impact of EIEC versus Shigella spp. infections and molecular diagnosed shigellosis versus culture confirmed shigellosis for re-examination of the rationale for the current public health regulations. METHODS: In this multicenter cross-sectional study, fecal samples of patients suspected for gastro-enteritis, referred to 15 MMLs in the Netherlands, were screened by PCR for Shigella spp. or EIEC. Samples were cultured to discriminate between the two pathogens. We compared risk factors, symptoms, severity of disease, secondary infections and socio-economic consequences for (i) culture-confirmed Shigella spp. versus culture-confirmed EIEC cases (ii) culture positive versus PCR positive only shigellosis cases. RESULTS: In 2016-2017, 777 PCR positive fecal samples with patient data were included, 254 of these were culture-confirmed shigellosis cases and 32 were culture-confirmed EIEC cases. EIEC cases were more likely to report ingestion of contaminated food and were less likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM). Both pathogens were shown to cause serious disease although differences in specific symptoms were observed. Culture-negative but PCR positive cases were more likely report travel or ingestion of contaminated food and were less likely to be MSM than culture-positive cases. Culture-negative cases were more likely to suffer from multiple symptoms. No differences in degree of secondary infections were observed between Shigella spp. and EIEC, and culture-negative and culture-positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: No convincing evidence was found to support the current guidelines that employs different measures based on species or detection method. Therefore, culture and molecular detection methods for Shigella spp. and EIEC should be considered equivalent for case definition and public health regulations regarding shigellosis. Differences were found regarding risks factors, indicating that different prevention strategies may be required.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/etiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/etiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saúde Pública , Shigella/genética , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
mBio ; 10(6)2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848276

RESUMO

The Gram-negative marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of infectious gastroenteritis due to the ingestion of contaminated seafood. Most virulent V. parahaemolyticus strains encode two type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2); however, the roles they and their translocated effectors play in causing intestinal disease remain unclear. While studies have identified T3SS1 effectors as responsible for killing epithelial cells in culture, the T3SS2 effectors caused massive epithelial cell disruption in a rabbit ileal loop model. Additional models are thus needed to clarify the pathogen-host interactions that drive V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis. Germfree mice were infected with a pathogenic clinical isolate of V. parahaemolyticus, RIMD2210633 (RIMD). The pathogen was found to adhere to as well as invade the cecal mucosa, accompanied by severe inflammation and dramatic mucosal damage, including widespread sloughing of infected epithelial cells. Mice infected with a V. parahaemolyticus strain lacking the T3SS1 (POR2) also developed severe pathology, similar to that seen with RIMD. In contrast, the ΔT3SS2 strain (POR3) appeared unable to invade the intestinal mucosa or cause any mucosal pathology. Confirming a role for TS332 effectors, a strain expressing the T3SS2 but lacking VopC (POR2ΔvopC), a T3SS2 effector implicated in epithelial cell invasion in culture, was strongly attenuated in invading the intestinal mucosa and in causing gastroenteritis, although infection with this mutant resulted in more pathology than the ΔT3SS2 strain. We thus present an experimental system that enables further characterization of T3SS effectors as well as the corresponding host inflammatory response involved in the gastroenteritis caused by invasive V. parahaemolyticus IMPORTANCE Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes severe gastroenteritis following consumption of contaminated seafood. Global warming has allowed this pathogen to spread worldwide, contributing to recent outbreaks. Clinical isolates are known to harbor an array of virulence factors, including T3SS1 and T3SS2; however, the precise role these systems play in intestinal disease remains unclear. There is an urgent need to improve our understanding of how V. parahaemolyticus infects hosts and causes disease. We present a novel mouse model for this facultative intracellular pathogen and observe that the T3SS2 is essential to pathogenicity. Moreover, we show that the T3SS2 effector VopC, previously shown to be a Rac and Cdc42 deamidase that facilitates bacterial uptake by nonphagocytic cells, also plays a key role in the ability of V. parahaemolyticus to invade the intestinal mucosa and cause gastroenteritis. This experimental model thus provides a valuable tool for future elucidation of virulence mechanisms used by this facultative intracellular pathogen during in vivo infection.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Morte Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Gastroenterite/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610774

RESUMO

An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with closely related Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) patterns was detected by routine surveillance by the Australian Capital Territory Health Protection Service in May 2018. The outbreak consisted of three cases in 2018 (MLVA 03-10-10-09-496) and one in 2016 (MLVA 03-10-09-09-496), who reported eating home-cooked eggs from the same local producer. Environmental investigations found significant problems with egg cleaning, hand hygiene and documentation of food safety procedures on farm. Environmental samples collected from the farm were found to have the same MLVA pattern as the 2018 cases. Although poor farm practices most likely led to contamination of the eggs, this outbreak highlights the need for consumer education about safe handling of eggs in the home.


Assuntos
Ovos/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Território da Capital Australiana/epidemiologia , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites , Saúde Pública , Salmonella typhimurium , Sorogrupo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(661): 1574-1577, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496191

RESUMO

Gastroenteritis due to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is usually considered as a benign infection. NTS can nevertheless cause severe diseases with high mortality. Invasive NTS infections may present as bacteremia without other manifestations, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. They may also correspond to extra-digestive infections in various body sites. Patients with cardiovascular diseases are at risk for endovascular infections, aortitis being the most frequent. These infections are difficult to diagnose and require surgery.


Assuntos
Aortite/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Idoso , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109131, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545226

RESUMO

Berberine and metformin, both established pharmaceutical agents with herbal origins, have incidental beneficial effects on multiple diseases, including diabetes. These effects have been speculated to occur via the gut microbiome. In this study, we administered either berberine or metformin to db/db mice and investigated changes in body weight, food intake, and blood glucose levels. Fresh stool samples were analyzed using 16 s rDNA high-throughput sequencing to evaluate the gut microbiome. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the stool were quantified using gas chromatography. The expression of NF-κB signaling pathway and tight junction (ZO1 and occludin) proteins in the intestinal epithelium was determined using qPCR and western blotting. The intestinal barrier structure was examined using transmission electron microscopy and serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured using a commercial kit. Both berberine and metformin reduced food intake, body weight, and blood glucose and HbA1c levels. Both treatments effectively restored the intestinal SCFA content, reduced the level of serum LPS, relieved intestinal inflammation, and repaired intestinal barrier structure. Intervention with metformin or berberine modified the gut microbiome in db/db mice, increasing the number of SCFA-producing bacteria (e.g., Butyricimonas, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus) and reducing opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Prevotella, Proteus). An increased abundance of other probiotics including Lactobacillus and Akkermansia was also observed. Berberine and metformin can modulate the composition of the gut microbiome and reduce body weight, blood glucose levels, and intestinal inflammation in db/db mice, which demonstrates their effectiveness in the reduction of diabetic complications in this model.


Assuntos
Berberina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Permeabilidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522662

RESUMO

A cluster of gastrointestinal illness was detected following receipt of a complaint of becoming ill after a multi-course dinner at a restaurant in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia. The complaint led to an investigation by ACT Health. Food samples retained by the restaurant for microbiological analysis returned an unsatisfactory level of Bacillus cereus in beef (19,000 colony forming units/gram [cfu/g]) and a satisfactory level in arancini (50 cfu/g). These positive samples underwent whole genome sequencing and genes encoding diarrhoeal toxins were detected with no laboratory evidence of the emetic toxin. No stool specimens were collected. A cohort study was undertaken and 80% (33/41) of patrons took part in a structured interview. There was no significant difference in age or sex between those ill and not ill. Due to universal exposure most foods were unable to be statistically analysed and no significant results were found from the food history. The ill cohort diverged into two distinct groups based on incubation period and symptoms suggesting this outbreak involved B. cereus intoxication with both diarrhoeal and potentially emetic toxins. Some hygiene practices during food preparation were noted to be inadequate and heating and cooling procedures were unverified when questioned. A combination of the incubation periods and symptom profile, food laboratory evidence, and genomic sequencing of the B. cereus diarrhoeal gene suggest a probable aetiology of B. cereus intoxication. Public health action included the restaurant rectifying hygiene practices and documenting heating/cooling procedures.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Território da Capital Australiana/epidemiologia , Bacillus cereus/genética , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Eméticos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/mortalidade , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Restaurantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 630, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In hospitalised patients with diarrhoea a positive campylobacter stool Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test with negative culture results as well as Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) positive stool PCRs, challenges the clinician and may lead the unexperienced clinician astray. The aim of the study was to elucidate the clinical significance of positive Campylobacter and/or EPEC test results in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-case study. Case groups with 1) EPEC only and 2) EPEC in combination with any other pathogen in the PCR multiplex array, 3) PCR positive/culture negative Campylobacter, and 4) PCR positive/culture positive Campylobacter were compared. Medical records were reviewed and cases classified according to pre-specified clinical criteria as infectious gastroenteritis or non-infectious causes for diarrhoea. We analyzed the association between laboratory findings (the 4 subgroups) and the pre-specified clinical classification. We further sequenced culture negative campylobacter samples and tested EPEC for bundle forming pilus A (bfpA) gene, distinguishing typical from atypical EPEC. RESULTS: A total of 291 patients were included, 169 were PCR positive for Campylobacter and 122 for EPEC. For both pathogens, co-infections were more common in culture negative/PCR positive samples than in culture positive samples. Clinical characteristics differed significantly in and between groups. Campylobacter culture positive patients had very high prevalence of characteristics of acute infectious gastroenteritis, whereas patients with PCR positive test results only often had an alternative explanation for their diarrhoea. Culture positives were almost exclusively C. jejuni/coli, whereas in culture negatives, constituting a third of the total PCR positives, C. concisus was the most frequent species. The vast majority of EPEC only positives had documented non-infectious factors that could explain diarrhoea. The EPEC co-infected group mimicked the culture positive campylobacter group, with most patients fulfilling the infectious gastroenteritis criteria. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised patients, positive PCR results for campylobacter and EPEC should be interpreted in a clinical context after evaluation of non-infectious diarrhoea associated conditions, and cannot be used as a stand-alone diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Idoso , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(8): 1201-1204, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308292

RESUMO

Two guereza colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) reared in a zoological garden in Japan suddenly died of multifocal fibrinonecrotic gastroenteritis and septicemia associated with infection by Yersinia spp. It was necessary to microbiologically differentiate Yersinia frederiksenii and Y. enterocolitica. We described the pathological findings and discuss the causal agent to emphasize the need to revert to using a combination of multiple examinations for diagnosis.


Assuntos
Colobus/microbiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação , Yersinia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Japão , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/veterinária , Yersiniose/diagnóstico , Yersiniose/microbiologia , Yersiniose/patologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
14.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(3): 190-197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220348

RESUMO

This research aims to compare the culturing conditions for enterohepatic Helicobacter, evaluating culture media, incubation atmosphere and susceptibility to antimicrobials used to generate selective conditions. Four common media for the closely related genus Campylobacter (Columbia, Bolton, Brucella and CCDA agar), as well as the need for hydrogen in the microaerobic incubation atmosphere, were evaluated. Serial dilutions of 13 strains belonging to six species (H. apodemus, H. bilis, H. canicola, H. canis, H. equorum and Helicobacter sp.) were inoculated in each media and incubated at 37°C for 48 to 96 h using CampyGen (OXOID) and gaseous exchange (including hydrogen) in parallel. Columbia or Brucella agars were the most appropriate for culturing EHH (P < 0·05). However, there was no significant difference between the atmospheres evaluated (P = 0·13). In addition, minimal inhibitory concentration for six antibiotics showed that all isolates were resistant to trimethoprim, whereas for the rest of the antibiotics (cephalothin, cefoperazone, cefsulodin, teicoplanin and vancomycin) the inhibition range was between 8 and 64 µg ml- 1 . Our findings suggest that Columbia or Brucella media, regardless of the use of hydrogen, can be used for the EHH isolation. In addition, the concentration of antibiotics included in commercial campylobacteria supplements is suitable for EHH species recovery. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Enterohepatic Helicobacter (EHH) infections have been associated with several diseases in humans such as acute gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease and hepatobiliary diseases. Although they are frequently detected in clinical samples by molecular methods, only occasionally they are isolated using culture conditions described for the taxonomic related pathogen Campylobacter sp. This is because the optimal conditions for the isolation of EHH have not yet been described, which results in an underestimation of the prevalence and clinical importance of these emerging pathogens. Therefore, this study provides insight for culturing EHH species.


Assuntos
Ágar/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Helicobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helicobacter/metabolismo , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Helicobacter/classificação , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 827-840, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169073

RESUMO

Campylobacter showae a bacterium historically linked to gingivitis and periodontitis, has recently been associated with inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Our aim was to generate genome sequences for new clinical C. showae strains and identify functional properties explaining their pathogenic potential. Eight C. showae genomes were assessed, four strains isolated from inflamed gut tissues from paediatric Crohn's disease patients, three strains from colonic adenomas, and one from a gastroenteritis patient stool. Genome assemblies were analyzed alongside the only 3 deposited C. showae genomes. The pangenome from these 11 strains consisted of 4686 unique protein families, and the core genome size was estimated at 1050 ± 15 genes with each new genome contributing an additional 206 ± 16 genes. Functional assays indicated that colonic strains segregated into 2 groups: adherent/invasive vs. non-adherent/non-invasive strains. The former possessed Type IV secretion machinery and S-layer proteins, while the latter contained Cas genes and other CRISPR associated proteins. Comparison of gene profiles with strains in Human Microbiome Project metagenomes showed that gut-derived isolates share genes specific to tongue dorsum and supragingival plaque counterparts. Our findings indicate that C. showae strains are phenotypically and genetically diverse and suggest that secretion systems may play an important role in virulence potential.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Campylobacter/classificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética
16.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 13(3): 139-150, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209187

RESUMO

Shiga toxin induced Escherichia Coli (STEC) is associated with chronic kidney disease or neurologic disability. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of STEC identified in human studies in Iran. Search engines of PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, IranMedex, MagIran, SID and ganj.irandoc were used. All human studies with stool or rectal swap samples evaluated for STEC and the outcome of HUS in Iran, which had been published between 1985 and 2017, were included. Chi-square and I2 statistic tests were applied to assess between-studies heterogeneity. Pooled prevalence and odd ratio were calculated using random effect models. A total of 30 articles containing 23379 samples were included for the final analysis. The design of study was cross sectional in 16, case control in 13 and one was cohort. The pooled prevalence of STEC was 7% (95% CI, 5 - 11; I2 = 98.3%). In subgroup analysis, the pooled prevalence was 8% (95% CI, 4 - 13; I2 = 97.55%) in children but 4% (95% CI, 2 - 7; I2 = 97.66%) in adults. The odds of patients with diarrhea having had STEC were 7.06 times the odds of healthy subjects (pooled OR = 7.06, 95% CI: 3.66-13.61). Patients with bloody diarrhea less likely to have positive STEC than patients with non-bloody diarrhea (pooled OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.10-1.02). STEC was prevalent in diarrheic patients and the rate increased in recent years. The highest contamination was seen in East-South of Iran. Public health intervention is mandatory to eliminate it effectively.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência
17.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252646

RESUMO

Citrus flavanones, with hesperidin and naringin as the most abundant representatives, have various beneficial effects, including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Evidence also indicates that they may impact the intestinal microbiome and are metabolized by the microbiota as well, thereby affecting their bioavailability. In this review, we provide an overview on the current evidence on the intestinal fate of hesperidin and naringin, their interaction with the gut microbiota, and their effects on intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. These topics will be discussed as they may contribute to gastrointestinal health in various diseases. Evidence shows that hesperidin and naringin are metabolized by intestinal bacteria, mainly in the (proximal) colon, resulting in the formation of their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin and various smaller phenolics. Studies have also shown that citrus flavanones and their metabolites are able to influence the microbiota composition and activity and exert beneficial effects on intestinal barrier function and gastrointestinal inflammation. Although the exact underlying mechanisms of action are not completely clear and more research in human subjects is needed, evidence so far suggests that citrus flavanones as well as their metabolites have the potential to contribute to improved gastrointestinal function and health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Citrus/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hesperidina/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Gastroenterite/metabolismo , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia
18.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008233, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233504

RESUMO

Pathogenic Salmonella strains that cause gastroenteritis are able to colonize and replicate within the intestines of multiple host species. In general, these strains have retained an ability to form the rdar morphotype, a resistant biofilm physiology hypothesized to be important for Salmonella transmission. In contrast, Salmonella strains that are host-adapted or even host-restricted like Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, tend to cause systemic infections and have lost the ability to form the rdar morphotype. Here, we investigated the rdar morphotype and CsgD-regulated biofilm formation in two non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) strains that caused invasive disease in Malawian children, S. Typhimurium D23580 and S. Enteritidis D7795, and compared them to a panel of NTS strains associated with gastroenteritis, as well as S. Typhi strains. Sequence comparisons combined with luciferase reporter technology identified key SNPs in the promoter region of csgD that either shut off biofilm formation completely (D7795) or reduced transcription of this key biofilm regulator (D23580). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these SNPs are conserved throughout the African clades of invasive isolates, dating as far back as 80 years ago. S. Typhi isolates were negative for the rdar morphotype due to truncation of eight amino acids from the C-terminus of CsgD. We present new evidence in support of parallel evolution between lineages of nontyphoidal Salmonella associated with invasive disease in Africa and the archetypal host-restricted invasive serovar; S. Typhi. We hypothesize that the African invasive isolates are becoming human-adapted and 'niche specialized' with less reliance on environmental survival, as compared to gastroenteritis-causing isolates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gastroenterite/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , África/epidemiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Transativadores/genética
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091403

RESUMO

Salmonella Hessarek is an uncommon serotype in Australia. We report on the investigation of a protracted outbreak of 25 cases of S. Hessarek gastroenteritis in which cases were defined as any laboratory confirmed case of Salmonella Hessarek notified to the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch from 1st March 2017 to 3 July 2018. We conducted a descriptive case series investigation interviewing all cases and 17 (68%) reported consuming brand X free-range eggs. Four samples of one-dozen brand X eggs were cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. One out of the four samples returned positive for S. Hessarek in the contents of the eggs; Salmonella was not present in any of the whole egg rinses of the four samples. The high proportion of cases reporting the consumption of brand X free-range eggs and the isolation of S. Hessarek from sampling four dozen brand X eggs is an unusually strong signal implicating brand X eggs as the source of this outbreak. From a public health perspective, it is important to understand the behaviour of S. Hessarek including its ability to be present in the content of eggs and further research is recommended. The findings in this investigation into a rare Salmonella serotype highlight the need for continuous monitoring of the epidemiology of Salmonella in Australia including the epidemiology of egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks of human disease.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Ovos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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