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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573536

RESUMO

Abstract: Significant reductions in the incidence of enteroviruses and noroviruses, both transmitted primarily by the faecal-oral route, were noted in 2020 compared to the previous decade, in Victoria, Australia. The enterovirus specimen positivity rate was reduced by 84.2% in 2020, while the norovirus outbreak positivity rate declined by 49.0%. The most likely explanation for these reductions is the concurrence of social restrictions, physical distancing, personal hygiene awareness and international and domestic border closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Enterovirus , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Vitória/epidemiologia
2.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 897-903, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459882

RESUMO

During 2006-2011, 5035 fecal samples were tested by PCR for human adenovirus (HAdV) and sequenced. HAdV was detected in 198 cases (3.9%), with the highest rate in children ≤ 5 years. Enteric HAdVs were the most prevalent genotypes (78%; 146/187): HAdV-F41 (63.6%; 119/187), HAdV-F40 (12.3%; 23/187), HAdV-A12 (1.6%; 3/187) and HAdV-A31 (0.5%; 1/187). Non-enteric HAdVs were detected in 22% (41/187): HAdV-C1 (8.0%; 15/187), HAdV-C2 (6.9%; 13/187), HAdV-C5 (4.3%; 8/187), HAdV-D8 (1.3%; 2/187), HAdV-B21 (0.5%; 1/187), HAdV-B3 (0.5%; 1/187) and HAdV-C6 (0.5%; 1/187). This 6-year retrospective study points out a high diversity of HAdV types circulating in Brazil and highlights the need to carry out molecular epidemiological studies of HAdV among patients with acute diarrheal infection on a regular basis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/classificação , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 905-913, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462673

RESUMO

From 2010-2016, a total of 251 stool samples were screened for norovirus using next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genotypic diversity of noroviruses in rural and low-income urban areas in northern Brazil. Norovirus infection was detected in 19.9% (50/251) of the samples. Eight different genotypes were identified: GII.4_Sydney[P31] (64%, 32/50), GII.6[P7] (14%, 7/50), GII.17[P17] (6%, 3/50), GII.1[P33] (6%, 3/50), GII.3[P16] (4%, 2/50), GII.2[P16] (2%, 1/50), GII.2[P2] (2%, 1/50), and GII.4_New Orleans[P4] (2%, 1/50). Distinct GII.6[P7] variants were recognized, indicating the presence of different co-circulating strains. Elucidating norovirus genetic diversity will improve our understanding of their potential health burden, in particular for the GII.4_Sydney[P31] variant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequência de Bases , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 94, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A rotavirus (RVA), despite being a leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children, is less studied in Shanxi Province, China. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genetic characterization of RVA in hospitalized children younger than 10 years of age with the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis in Shanxi Province, China. METHODS: A hospital-based active surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis was conducted at Children's Hospital of Shanxi from Jan 1, 2015, through Dec 31, 2019. Rotavirus was detected in stool samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). G- and P-genotypes were determined by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 961 children younger than 10 years of age was enrolled over the study period, of whom 183 (19.0%) were positive for RVA. The highest RVA-infection frequency (23.7%) was found among children aged 12-23 months, and the seasonal peak was in December. G9P[8] was most prevalent (76.0%), followed by G3P[8] (7.1%), G2P[4] (3.3%), G1P[8] (0.5%) and G9P[4] (0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: These results report for the first time that RVA was one of the main causes of severe infectious gastroenteritis in children, and a high proportion of G9P[8] strains circulating in most areas of Shanxi Province. While the protective efficacy of the rotavirus vaccines has been demonstrated against G9P[8] strains, our results highlight that the dominant strains have not been effectively controlled in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Estações do Ano , Proteínas Virais/genética
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 54, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in a kindergarten located Shenzhen City on March 4, 2018. We were invited to investigate to the risk factors associated with this outbreak. METHODS: We conducted retrospective cohort-studies on three different groups of subjects in order to figure out the difference of incidence of acute gastroenteritis among subjects of different activities on March 2: group one consisted of people who attended the Lantern festival activities; group two consisted of children and employees who ate breakfast and bread provided by the kindergarten; and groups three consisted of children and employees who did not eat breakfast or bread provided by the kindergarten. Fecal, anal swabs, dishware swabs and hand swabs specimens were collected in the study. Bacteria known to cause acute gastroenteritis were cultured. Viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis were tested using real-time PCR. Capsid gene fragment of 557 bp of norovirus was amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA 7.0 using neighbor-joining method based on capsid gene fragment of norovirus. RESULTS: A total of 143 suspected cases were identified in this outbreak. Diarrhea happened more often in adults than in children while emesis and bellyache were more frequently found in children than in adults. Higher AGE incidence was observed in group 2, children and employees who had breakfast in the kindergarten on March 2, as well as in group 3, and among employees who eating bread involved in breakfast provided on March 2. Five anal swab specimens were positive for norovirus. All noroviruses belongs to group II.3 and have an identity more than 99%. CONCLUSION: A chef, as an asymptomatic carrier with norovirus, was the infectious resource in this outbreak. He contaminated breakfast food provided on March 2. Although morning check is implemented in kindergartens of China, employees are often excluded in morning check. Our finding highlights the importance of morning check covering employees and periodical training for cooks.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Manipulação de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Escolas Maternais , Adulto , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Filogenia , Quarentena/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/virologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 9, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of enteric infections in Aboriginal children aged 0-2 years using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques and to explore associations between the presence of pathogens and child growth. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of Aboriginal children (n = 62) residing in a remote community in Northern Australia, conducted from July 24th - October 30th 2017. Stool samples were analysed for organisms by microscopy (directly in the field and following fixation and storage in sodium-acetate formalin), and by qualitative PCR for viruses, bacteria and parasites and serology for Strongyloides-specific IgG. Child growth (height and weight) was measured and z scores calculated according to WHO growth standards. RESULTS: Nearly 60% of children had evidence for at least one enteric pathogen in their stool (37/62). The highest burden of infection was with adenovirus/sapovirus (22.9%), followed by astrovirus (9.8%) and Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum (8.2%). Non-pathogenic organisms were detected in 22.5% of children. Ten percent of children had diarrhea at the time of stool collection. Infection with two or more pathogens was negatively associated with height for age z scores (- 1.34, 95% CI - 2.61 to - 0.07), as was carriage of the non-pathogen Blastocystis hominis (- 2.05, 95% CI - 3.55 to - 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Infants and toddlers living in this remote Northern Australian Aboriginal community had a high burden of enteric pathogens and non-pathogens. The association between carriage of pathogens/non-pathogens with impaired child growth in the critical first 1000 days of life has implications for healthy child growth and development and warrants further investigation. These findings have relevance for many other First Nations Communities that face many of the same challenges with regard to poverty, infections, and malnutrition.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Mamastrovirus/genética , Sapovirus/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prevalência , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 740, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization schedule. Currently, two indigenously developed vaccines (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech; ROTASIIL, Serum Institute of India) are included in the Indian immunization program. We report the rotavirus disease burden and the diversity of rotavirus genotypes from 2005 to 2016 in a multi-centric surveillance study before the introduction of vaccines. METHODS: A total of 29,561 stool samples collected from 2005 to 2016 (7 sites during 2005-2009, 3 sites from 2009 to 2012, and 28 sites during 2012-2016) were included in the analysis. Stools were tested for rotavirus antigen using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping was performed on 65.8% of the EIA positive samples using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify the G (VP7) and P (VP4) types. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of detecting genotypes across the surveillance period and in particular age groups. RESULTS: Of the 29,561 samples tested, 10,959 (37.1%) were positive for rotavirus. There was a peak in rotavirus positivity during December to February across all sites. Of the 7215 genotyped samples, G1P[8] (38.7%) was the most common, followed by G2P[4] (12.3%), G9P[4] (5.8%), G12P[6] (4.2%), G9P[8] (4%), and G12P[8] (2.4%). Globally, G9P[4] and G12P[6] are less common genotypes, although these genotypes have been reported from India and few other countries. There was a variation in the geographic and temporal distribution of genotypes, and the emergence or re-emergence of new genotypes such as G3P[8] was seen. Over the surveillance period, there was a decline in the proportion of G2P[4], and an increase in the proportion of G9P[4]. A higher proportion of mixed and partially typed/untyped samples was also seen more in the age group 0-11 months. CONCLUSIONS: This 11 years surveillance highlights the high burden of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Indian children < 5 years of age before inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in the national programme. Regional variations in rotavirus epidemiology were seen, including the emergence of G3P[8] in the latter part of the surveillance. Having pre-introduction data is important to track changing epidemiology of rotaviruses, particularly following vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infection is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide, with a high mortality burden in developing countries, particularly during the first two years of life. Rotavirus vaccination was introduced into the United Kingdom childhood vaccination schedule in July 2013, with high coverage (>90%) achieved by June 2016. We used an emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system to assess the impact of the rotavirus vaccination programme, specifically through the demonstration of any immediate and continuing impact on ED gastroenteritis visits in England. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study used syndromic surveillance data collected from 3 EDs in the two years before (July 2011-June 2013) and 3 years post (July 2013-June 2016) introduction of rotavirus vaccination. The weekly levels of ED visits for gastroenteritis (by age group and in total) during the period before rotavirus vaccination was first described alongside the findings of laboratory surveillance of rotavirus during the same period. An interrupted time-series analysis was then performed to demonstrate the impact of rotavirus vaccination introduction on gastroenteritis ED visit levels. RESULTS: During the two years before vaccine introduction ED visits for gastroenteritis in total and for the 0-4 years age group were seen to rise and fall in line with the seasonal rotavirus increases reported by laboratory surveillance. ED gastroenteritis visits by young children were lower in the three years following introduction of rotavirus vaccination (reduced from 8% of visits to 6% of visits). These attendance levels in young children (0-4years) remained higher than in older age groups, however the previously large seasonal increases in children were greatly reduced, from peaks of 16% to 3-10% of ED visits per week. CONCLUSIONS: ED syndromic surveillance demonstrated a reduction in gastroenteritis visits following rotavirus vaccine introduction. This work establishes ED syndromic surveillance as a platform for rapid impact assessment of future vaccine programmes.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22641, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019489

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rotavirus is routinely diagnosed by the detection of antigens or the viral genome. However, these tests have limitations, in that they do not detect all rotavirus strains. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 27-month-old girl who was hospitalized for 4 days with severe gastroenteritis, including high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, mild dehydration, and periumbilical pain. Notably, the patient previously received the Rotarix vaccine. DIAGNOSES: The laboratory tests were negative for rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and norovirus as well as common diarrhea-causing bacteria. Human-bovine recombinant rotavirus was detected by MinION sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: To investigate the cause agents from the unexplained severe gastroenteritis infant, the stool sample was prepared by random amplification for Nanopore MinION sequencing. OUTCOMES: Treatment through the administration of ORS solution and galtase powder with probiotics was successful after the diagnosis of unusual rotavirus infection. LESSONS: This case report is the first detection of an unusual human-bovine recombinant rotavirus in an idiopathic gastroenteritis using Nanopore MinION sequencing.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Rotavirus/genética , Dor Abdominal , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/patologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vômito/etiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745122

RESUMO

Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Outbreaks normally occur via the fecal-oral route. HuNoV infection is thought to occur by viral particle transmission, but increasing evidence suggests a function for exosomes in HuNoV infection. HuNoV is contained within stool-derived exosomes, and exosome-associated HuNoV has been shown to replicate in human intestinal enteroids. In this study, we examine exosome-associated HuNoV infection of Vero cells and show that exosomes containing HuNoV may attach, infect, and be passaged in Vero cells. These findings support earlier findings and have implications for developing HuNoV disease intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Exossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enterocolite/virologia , Exossomos/genética , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Células Vero , Vírion
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2461-2469, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770482

RESUMO

Human astrovirus (HAstV) is recognized as one of the major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Data on the genetic diversity of HAstV in Nigeria are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of classical HAstV in children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Ogun State, Nigeria. Fecal samples (331) as well as socio-demographic and clinical data were collected across the three senatorial districts of the state from February 2015 to April 2017. One hundred seventy-five samples were randomly selected and analyzed for the presence of HAstV using RT-PCR. PCR amplicons from positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was done to determine genotypes and lineages. The overall prevalence rate was 19.4% (34), with the highest occurrence observed in 2015 (41.4%). Viral coinfections were detected in 13 cases (38.2%). HAstV infection occurred throughout the year and in all age groups, mainly in the age group of 0-12 months. There was significant association between prevalence rate and collection year; however, no association was observed with gender, age, symptoms or risk factors. HAstV-5 was the predominant genotype (76.5%) circulating throughout the study period, followed by HAstV-1 (23.5%), which circulated only in the first 2 years of the study. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all HAstV-5 strains detected belonged to the 5a lineage, while HAstV-1 strains were grouped into lineage 1b. This study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first comprehensive report on molecular characterization of classical HAstV among children with gastroenteritis in the country, and this will serve as baseline information for implementing appropriate infection control practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Epidemiologia Molecular , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
13.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 198-202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820733

RESUMO

Background: Rotavirus remains one of the main causative agents of gastroenteritis in young children. This happens, especially in countries (e.g., Nigeria) that have not yet introduced the vaccine into the national immunization program. A significant prevalence of Rotavirus infection both in children and adults without major symptoms has earlier been reported. This study aimed at defining the prevalence of asymptomatic Rotavirus infection from apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 269 stool samples were randomly collected from apparently healthy children <15 years of age from July 2017 to June 2018. All samples were screened using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for the presence of Rotavirus antigen. The Rotavirus-positive samples were further subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine their RNA electropherotypes. Results: A total of 59 stool samples (19.9%) were Rotavirus positive with peaks observed in the cold dry season, among male children, and 6-10 years of age group. A total of 50 randomly selected Rotavirus-positive samples were subjected to PAGE, and none of the samples showed either long or short profiles. Conclusion: This study shows that Rotavirus can be shed into environments without any signs and symptoms. In view of this, the Rotavirus vaccine should be considered a priority and be introduced in the existing national immunization program in Nigeria, particularly in Borno State.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
14.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2495-2501, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776176

RESUMO

Canine kobuvirus (CaKoV), a newly described virus, is the causative agent of gastroenteritis in dogs. In this study, 57 fecal samples from dogs with diarrhea in Anhui Province, eastern China, were collected. Among these, five samples were identified to be infected with CaKoV, by polymerase chain reaction targeting the CaKoV 3D gene. The five CaKoV strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequences of VP1 from the five CaKoV strains were 93.6%-96.1% identical to each other and 91.75%-97.95% identical to other reported CaKoV VP1 sequences. In addition, the complete genome of one strain was successfully amplified and sequenced. The genome consisted of 8223 nucleotides and shared 94.6%-97.0% nucleotide and 93.1%-94.0% amino acid sequence identity with other CaKoV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CaKoV strain from Anhui Province was similar to other Chinese strains, and it was more closely related to feline and mouse kobuviruses than to sheep and bovine kobuviruses. Interestingly, all of the CaKoV-positive samples were coinfected with canine parvovirus. The finding of CaKoV infection in dogs with diarrhea and coinfection with canine parvovirus are a cause for concern and highlight the need for management and preventive measures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Kobuvirus/classificação , Kobuvirus/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genes Virais , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 596, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A Rotavirus (RVA), despite being an important pathogen in hospitalized children, is less studied in pediatric outpatients, and even rarely investigated in adults. This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of RVA in outpatients across all age groups in Shanghai, and thus providing a molecular basis for vaccine implementation and evaluation. METHODS: Stool samples were first screened by Real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). RVA genotyping was performed through the amplification of partial VP7 and VP4 gene. Strains of interest were further sequenced and analyzed using MEGA 6.0. RESULTS: Four thousand nine hundred one samples were collected, from which 7.61% (373 cases) were screened positive for RVA. RVA prevalence was higher in children (9.30%) than in adults (7.21%) (χ2 = 4.72, P < 0.05). 9.38% RVA positive cases had taken antibiotics before hospital visit while 49.60% had been prescribed antibiotics afterwards. RVA displayed a strong seasonality in both adults and children with a shared commonality in genotype repertoire, where G9P[8] was the most prevalent strain (67.96%) followed by G3P[8] (15.49%) and G1P[8] (12.32%). Meanwhile the first local case of fecal shedding of the G10P[15] vaccine strain was also discovered. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of rotavirus is highest during cold seasons, it is revealed for the first time that G9P[8] is the predominant genotype in both adults and pediatric outpatients. Clinically, higher occurrence of nausea or vomiting was observed in RVA positive cases. Antibiotic overuse was implicated in both non-clinical and clinical settings. The finding emphasizes the importance of RVA genotyping in surveillance as it provides the basis for new vaccine application as well as a baseline for future vaccine efficacy evaluation.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2335-2340, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719956

RESUMO

Sapoviruses are increasingly being recognized as pathogens associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Human sapoviruses are currently assigned to 18 genotypes (GI.1-7, GII.1-8, GIV.1, and GV.1-2) based on the sequence of the region encoding the major structural protein. In this study, we evaluated 11 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using published and newly designed/modified primers and showed that four PCR assays with different primer combinations amplified all of the tested human sapovirus genotypes using either synthetic DNA or cDNA prepared from human sapovirus-positive fecal specimens. These assays can be used as improved broadly reactive screening tests or as tools for molecular characterization of human sapoviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Primers do DNA/química , Gastroenterite/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sapovirus/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Primers do DNA/genética , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Sapovirus/classificação , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Alinhamento de Sequência
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008375, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries where limited access to potable water, poor sanitation, deficient hygiene, and food product contamination are prevalent. Research on the changing etiology of AGE and associated risk factors in Latin America, including Colombia, is essential to understand the epidemiology of these infections. The primary objectives of this study were to describe etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age from Bucaramanga, Colombia, a middle-income country in Latin American, and to identify the presence of emerging E. coli pathotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a prospective, matched for age, case-control study to assess the etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age in Bucaramanga, Colombia, South America. We tested for 24 pathogens using locally available diagnostic testing, including stool culture, polymerase chain reaction, microscopy and enzyme-linked immunoassay. Adjusted attributable fractions were calculated to assess the association between AGE and each pathogen in this study population. The study included 861 participants, 431 cases and 430 controls. Enteric pathogens were detected in 71% of cases and in 54% of controls (p = <0.001). Co-infection was identified in 28% of cases and in 14% of controls (p = <0.001). The adjusted attributable fraction showed that Norovirus GII explained 14% (95% CI: 10-18%) of AGE, followed by rotavirus 9.3% (6.4-12%), adenovirus 3% (1-4%), astrovirus 2.9% (0.6-5%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 2.4% (0.4-4%), Cryptosporidium sp. 2% (0.5-4%), Campylobacter sp. 2% (0.2-4%), and Salmonella sp.1.9% (0.3 to 3.5%). Except for Cryptosporidium, all parasite infections were not associated with AGE. Three emergent diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were identified in cases (0.7%), including an enteroaggregative/enterotoxigenic E.coli (EAEC/ETEC), an enteroaggregative/enteropathogenic E.coli (EAEC/EPEC), and an emergent enteroinvasive E. coli with a rare O96:H19. No deaths were reported among cases or controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Norovirus and rotavirus explained the major proportion of moderate to severe AGE in this study. Higher proportion of infection in cases, in the form of single infections or co-infections, showed association with AGE. Three novel E. coli pathotypes were identified among cases in this geographic region.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Adenoviridae , Infecções por Adenoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Campylobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Norovirus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rotavirus , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108787, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702583

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the primary non-bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we reported a co-infection of HuNoVs with different genotypes during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in travelers. The aim was to trace the source and transmission patterns of the infections using next-generation sequencing (NGS). An investigation was conducted on a cross-border travel group who came back to China from Thailand for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Anal swabs were collected from 23 people and samples were analyzed using RT-qPCR. A total of 11 samples tested positive for HuNoVs. All samples tested negative for bacterial pathogens in the surveillance list. Positive samples for HuNoVs were further analyzed using NGS. Seven out of 11 positive samples were sequenced and 16 viral genome sequences for 10 different strains of HuNoVs were obtained. We demonstrated that the outbreak was associated with co-infection of multiple genotypes of HuNoVs and the source of infections was probably contaminated water or food. Besides, four different HuNoVs genotypes (GI.5[P12], GIX.1[GII·P15], GI.7[P7] and GII.8[P8]) were identified in one patient. Co-infection with both genogroup GI and GII, and co-infection with two different P types ([P10] and [P13]) of genotype GI.3 were identified in different patients. Findings from this study show that individuals can be simultaneously infected with multiple strains of HuNoVs and NGS can help investigating these issues. Further, this study shows that food and water are potential vehicles for transmission of multiple foodborne viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tailândia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702014

RESUMO

The transmission of human norovirus excreted from infected persons occasionally causes sporadic infections and outbreaks. Both symptomatic patients and asymptomatic carriers have been reported to contribute to norovirus transmission, but little is known about the magnitude of the contribution of asymptomatic carriers. We carried out a 1-year survey of residents of a district of Bangkok, Thailand to determine the percentage of norovirus transmissions originating from asymptomatic individuals. We screened 38 individuals recruited from 16 families from May 2018 to April 2019 for GI and GII genotypes. Norovirus was detected every month, and 101 of 716 stool samples (14.1%) from individuals with no symptoms of acute gastroenteritis were norovirus-positive. The average infection frequency was 2.4 times per person per year. Fourteen genotypes were identified from the positive samples, with GII.4 being detected most frequently. Notably, 89.1% of the norovirus-positive samples were provided by individuals with no diarrhea episode. Similar to cases of symptomatic infections in Thailand, asymptomatic infections were observed most frequently in December. We detected 4 cases of NV infection caused by household transmission, and 3 of the 4 transmissions originated from asymptomatic individuals. We also identified a case in which norovirus derived from an asymptomatic individual caused diarrhea in a family member. These results suggest that asymptomatic individuals play a substantial role in both the maintenance and spreading of norovirus in a community through household transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Caliciviridae/patologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Criança , Diarreia/patologia , Diarreia/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2759, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488028

RESUMO

Human noroviruses are a major cause of diarrheal illness, but pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cellular tropism of norovirus in specimens from four immunocompromised patients. Abundant norovirus antigen and RNA are detected throughout the small intestinal tract in jejunal and ileal tissue from one pediatric intestinal transplant recipient with severe gastroenteritis. Negative-sense viral RNA, a marker of active viral replication, is found predominantly in intestinal epithelial cells, with chromogranin A-positive enteroendocrine cells (EECs) identified as a permissive cell type in this patient. These findings are consistent with the detection of norovirus-positive EECs in the other three immunocompromised patients. Investigation of the signaling pathways induced in EECs that mediate communication between the gut and brain may clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and lead to the development of in vitro model systems in which to evaluate norovirus vaccines and treatment.


Assuntos
Células Enteroendócrinas/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Norovirus/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , District of Columbia , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Intestino Delgado/virologia , Norovirus/genética , RNA Viral , Replicação Viral
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