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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 701-713, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032700

RESUMO

Whether exposed by grazing toxic range or pasture plants or by eating contaminated feed, there are plant toxins that produce urinary tract disease, gastroenteritis, and other miscellaneous or multisystemic diseases. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires incorporation of field studies, clinical signs, gross and microscopic pathology, and chemical identification of plants, toxins, and metabolites in animal samples. The objectives of this review are to introduce poisonous plants that commonly poison livestock in North America; describe clinical and pathologic lesions they produce in livestock; and present current technology available to identify poisoning, treat affected animals, and minimize or avoid poisoning additional animals.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Gado , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , América do Norte , Oxalatos/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Doenças Urológicas/etiologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2539-2548, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562068

RESUMO

Strongylida are gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of greatest importance in small ruminants throughout the world. Differences in resistance and resilience to GIN among goat breeds were reported. This study aims to investigate the mechanism underlying the breed-associated differences using a cosmopolitan (Alpine, AB) and an autochthonous (Nera di Verzasca, NV) goat breed. At first, fifteen goats from the same herd (NV = 7, AB = 8) at day 0 were infected with infective larvae (L3) of mixed GIN. From the 15th day post-infection (DPI), individual parasite egg excretion (faecal egg counts, FEC) was performed on all goats, once per week, until the 63rd DPI. Afterwards, in goats under field conditions (30 AB and 30 NV reared on the same farm), individual faecal and blood samples were collected; FEC-specific antibody and PCV levels were explored. In goats with experimental GIN infection, mean eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) values were consistently lower in NV goats. In goats with natural GIN infection, EPG and prevalence values showed high variability in both breeds; among individual variables, breed had a significant influence on EPG. Further, PCV and anti-T. circumcincta IgA levels were influenced by the breed. Lower PCV values were also associated with higher strongyle EPG in AB goats, and anti-T. circumcincta IgA levels were influenced by both strongyle EPG and breed, with IgA levels being higher in AB vs. NV goats and positively associated with EPG. Neither EPG nor breed had any influence on IgE levels. Both studies on experimental and natural infection confirmed that goats of NV are more resistant to infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Cabras/classificação , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções por Strongylida/sangue , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
3.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414076

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle and wild ruminant populations throughout the world. The virus causes neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, as well as upper and lower respiratory tract infection in young cattle. We isolated and deep sequenced whole genomes of BCoV from calves with respiratory distress in the south-west of France and conducted a comparative genome analysis using globally collected BCoV sequences to provide insights into the genomic characteristics, evolutionary origins, and global diversity of BCoV. Molecular clock analyses allowed us to estimate that the BCoV ancestor emerged in the 1940s, and that two geographically distinct lineages diverged from the 1960s-1970s. A recombination event in the spike gene (breakpoint at nt 1100) may be at the origin of the genetic divergence sixty years ago. Little evidence of genetic mixing between the spatially segregated lineages was found, suggesting that BCoV genetic diversity is a result of a global transmission pathway that occurred during the last century. However, we found variation in evolution rates between the European and non-European lineages indicating differences in virus ecology.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , França/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Geografia , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Seleção Genética/genética , Tropismo Viral/genética
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e015819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236331

RESUMO

An evaluation was made of the effect of anthelmintic treatments on the performance of Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves before and after weaning. To this end, the calves were divided into three groups: (1) treated monthly with a low efficacy anthelmintic drug, ivermectin; (2) treated monthly with a highly effective anthelmintic drug, albendazole; and (3) untreated control group. All the groups in this experiment showed an average fecal egg count of less than 400 eggs per gram (EPG), and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. The blood variables were within the normal range and no calf presented anemia. In most of the samplings, mean EPGs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group treated with albendazole. The calves received dietary supplementation before and after weaning, which enabled them to gain weight in every month of the experiment and reach a body weight of about 250 kg on the last sampling date, before turning one year old. The anthelmintic treatments did not affect body weight gain, leading to the conclusion that, when fed with suitable dietary supplements, Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves are not affected by gastrointestinal nematode parasites acquired by grazing.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
5.
J Helminthol ; 94: e125, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036795

RESUMO

Our objective was to measure the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and benzimidazoles (BZ, i.e. fenbendazole and albendazole) in 15 cattle farms in western France and southern Italy. A total of 11 groups were treated with IVM and 11 with BZ. Efficacy was assessed by calculating the percentage of faecal egg count reduction (%FECR) using the pre- and post-treatment arithmetic means. Anthelmintic resistance was considered to be present when the %FECR was <95% and the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval <90%. For IVM, the percentages of FECR ranged from 73% to 100%. Lack of efficacy to IVM was detected in two farms out of four in France, but was not detected in any of the seven farms in Italy. For BZ, the percentages of FECR ranged from 95% to 100%. No case of BZ resistance was detected in the five farms in France and the six farms in Italy.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , França , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Itália , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
6.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 1-15, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029177

RESUMO

This article reviews the basics of gastrointestinal nematode biology and pathophysiology in cattle and describes how gastrointestinal nematode epidemiology is driven by environmental, host, and farm economic determinants. Adverse effects from gastrointestinal nematodes on their hosts are caused by tissue damage, nutrient absorption, immunopathologic effects, and reduced food intake induced by hormonal changes. Weather and microenvironmental factors influence the development and survival of free-living parasitic stages. A holistic control approach entails the consideration of environmental, immunologic, and socioeconomic aspects of nematode epidemiology and is key for the development and communication of sustainable control strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia
7.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 45-57, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029188

RESUMO

Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can have both economic and health benefits for cattle operations in the southern United States. In the past several decades, GIN control has relied almost exclusively on the use of anthelmintics. With the increase in anthelmintic resistance new strategies must be developed. Anthelmintic use should be minimized by integrating grazing management and a good herd health program into GIN control programs. This takes knowledge of GIN biology and epidemiology in the region (climate and weather) combined with specific information from the ranch.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Canadá/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Clima , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 278: 109033, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006906

RESUMO

In Australia, Cooperia spp. are often overshadowed by parasites believed to be more pathogenic production-limiting nematodes. A rise in anthelmintic resistance and reports of reduced growth rates attributed to infection with Cooperia spp. in Europe increases the need to be able to monitor the presence of C. pectinata, C. punctata and C. oncophora in Australian cattle. Here, we present the first molecular confirmation of C. pectinata and C. punctata in Australian cattle using ITS2 rDNA and COXII mtDNA. Cultured larvae were morphologically differentiated to the genus level with the aid of iodine solution and their DNA was screened using a cattle nematode MT-PCR panel. By isolating individual iodine stained and morphologically identified nematode larvae, we demonstrated the presence of C. pectinata and C. punctata using a generic ITS2 rDNA qPCR assay following DNA amplicon sequencing. A novel suite of COXII mtDNA species/genus-specific PCR assays for Cooperia speciation from complex nematode samples enabled us to detect all three species (C. oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata) in Australia cattle samples. Our approach, utilising traditional techniques coupled with the manipulation of individual nematode larvae, provides a foundation for the inclusion of Cooperia spp. into existing high throughput molecular diagnostic panels for cattle nematode surveillance.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , DNA de Helmintos/análise , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Rhabditida/veterinária , Rabditídios/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , New South Wales , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Rabditídios/genética , Rabditídios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Rhabditida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rhabditida/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Anim Genet ; 51(2): 330-335, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900974

RESUMO

Resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes has previously been shown to be a moderately heritable trait in some breeds of sheep, but the mechanisms of resistance are not well understood. Selection for resistance currently relies upon faecal egg counts (FEC), blood packed cell volumes and FAMACHA visual indicator scores of anaemia. Identifying genomic markers associated with disease resistance would potentially improve the selection process and provide a more reliable means of classifying and understanding the biology behind resistant and susceptible sheep. A GWAS was conducted to identify possible genetic loci associated with resistance to Haemonchus contortus in Katahdin sheep. Forty animals were selected from the top and bottom 10% of estimated breeding values for FEC from a total pool of 641 sires and ram lambs. Samples were genotyped using Applied Biosystems™ Axiom™ Ovine Genotyping Array (50K) consisting of 51 572 SNPs. Following quality control, 46 268 SNPs were included in subsequent analyses. Analyses were conducted using a linear regression model in plink v1.90 and a single-locus mixed model in snp and variation suite. Genome-wide significance was determined by a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Using linear regression, loci on chromosomes 2, 3, 16, 23 and 24 were significantly associated at the genome level with FEC estimated breeding values, and we identified a region on chromosome 2 that was significant using both statistical analyses. We suggest a potential role for the gene DIS3L2 for gastrointestinal nematode resistance in Katahdin sheep, although further research is needed to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Hemoncose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Hemoncose/genética , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
10.
Anim Genet ; 51(2): 266-277, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900978

RESUMO

In dairy sheep flocks from Mediterranean countries, replacement and adult ewes are the animals most affected by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. In this study, we have exploited the information derived from an RNA-Seq experiment with the aim of identifying potential causal mutations related to GIN resistance in sheep. Considering the RNA-Seq samples from 12 ewes previously classified as six resistant and six susceptible animals to experimental infection by Teladorsagia circumcincta, we performed a variant calling analysis pipeline using two different types of software, gatk version 3.7 and Samtools version 1.4. The variants commonly identified by the two packages (high-quality variants) within two types of target regions - (i) QTL regions previously reported in sheep for parasite resistance based on SNP-chip or sequencing technology studies and (ii) functional candidate genes selected from gene expression studies related to GIN resistance in sheep - were further characterised to identify mutations with a potential functional impact. Among the genes harbouring these potential functional variants (930 and 553 respectively for the two types of regions), we identified 111 immune-related genes in the QTL regions and 132 immune-related genes from the initially selected candidate genes. For these immune-related genes harbouring potential functional variants, the enrichment analyses performed highlighted significant GO terms related to apoptosis, adhesion and inflammatory response, in relation to the QTL related variants, and significant disease-related terms such as inflammation, adhesion and necrosis, in relation to the initial candidate gene list. Overall, the study provides a valuable list of potential causal mutations that could be considered as candidate causal mutations in relation to GIN resistance in sheep. Future studies should assess the role of these suggested mutations with the aim of identifying genetic markers that could be directly implemented in sheep breeding programmes considering not only production traits, but also functional traits such as resistance to GIN infections.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Trichostrongyloidea/fisiologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , RNA-Seq/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/genética , Tricostrongiloidíase/parasitologia
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999321

RESUMO

The composition of dietary macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and fibers) and micronutrients (vitamins, phytochemicals) can markedly influence the development of immune responses to enteric infection. This has important implications for livestock production, where a significant challenge exists to ensure healthy and productive animals in an era of increasing drug resistance and concerns about the sector's environmental footprint. Nutritional intervention may ultimately be a sustainable method to prevent disease and improve efficiency of livestock enterprises, and it is now well established that certain phytonutrients can significantly improve animal performance during challenge with infectious pathogens. However, many questions remain unanswered concerning the complex interplay between diet, immunity, and infection. In this review, we examine the role of phytonutrients in regulating immune and inflammatory responses during enteric bacterial and parasitic infections in livestock, with a specific focus on some increasingly well-studied phytochemical classes-polyphenols (especially proanthocyanidins), essential oil components (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and carvacrol), and curcumin. Despite the contrasting chemical structures of these molecules, they appear to induce a number of similar immunological responses. These include promotion of mucosal antibody and antimicrobial peptide production, coupled with a strong suppression of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Although there have been some recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their bioactivity, how these phytonutrients modulate immune responses in the intestine remains mostly unknown. We discuss the complex inter-relationships between metabolism of dietary phytonutrients, the gut microbiota, and the mucosal immune system, and propose that an increased understanding of the basic immunological mechanisms involved will allow the rational development of novel dietary additives to promote intestinal health in farmed animals.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/imunologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109018, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896020

RESUMO

Control of sheep gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections mostly relies on the use of anthelmintics. Refugia-based control strategies as targeted selective treatments (TST) can delay anthelmintic resistance development, but the optimal decision criteria for selecting individuals to be treated in subclinical infection scenarios remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the suitability of body condition score (BCS) and faecal egg counts (FEC) as treatment indicators and to determine their optimized threshold values for treatment in TST by determining the relationships of BCS, FEC and anthelmintic treatment with several productive parameters in pre-mating and pre-partum periods at an individual level. Deworming in pre-mating period increased BCS gain, but its magnitude was directly associated with strongyle FEC before treatment. Deworming also increased fertility in ewes with BCS < 2.75 and the proportion of lambing ewes that got pregnant during the first ovulation cycle. Nevertheless, treatment did not yield productive benefits in ewes with higher BCS values. On the other hand, deworming in the pre-partum lowered lamb peri-partum mortality and increased lamb weight at birth and the growth of lambs during lactation, especially in lambs born from ewes with strongyle FEC > 400 epg before treatment. These results showed that FEC and especially BCS can be potential decision criteria for the implementation of TST in these types of scenarios. The TST scheme derived from the present results on the control of GIN infections should include anthelmintic treatment of ewes with BCS lower than ≈ 3 approximately five weeks before mating and lambing. In the pre-lambing period, treatment may be unnecessary if flock mean strongyle FEC is lower than ≈ 200 epg, as the proportion of ewes with individual FEC > 400 epg would be very low. The results suggest that implementation of this TST scheme would provide benefits, such as the improvement of productivity, a rational management of parasites in refugia, and preservation of future efficacy of anthelmintics, in comparison to traditional deworming schemes.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Ovinos
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1429-1432, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942639

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is an economically important gastrointestinal disease in domestic fowl. Eimeria species are the causative agents of avian coccidiosis. Current challenges in management and prevention of eimeriosis enhance the need for research in this field. Sporozoite purification is a necessary step for Eimeria spp. in vitro infection models. Current alternatives such as DE-52 anion exchange chromatography and Percoll gradient require time and resources. We present a modified protocol consisting on vacuum filtration of sporozoites using a disposable 5-µL filter. Yield percentages were similar to those reported for Percoll gradient purification. By reducing time and efforts during sporozoite purification, it could be possible to increase resources in other areas of Eimeria studies.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/isolamento & purificação , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Filtração/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 199-205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483952

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has been identified in pigs affected by different disease conditions, although its pathogenicity remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to assess the frequency of PCV-3 infection in serum samples from animals suffering from post-weaning respiratory or digestive disorders as well as in healthy animals. A total of 315 swine serum samples were analysed for PCV-3 DNA detection by conventional PCR; positive samples were further assayed with a quantitative PCR and partially sequenced. Sera were obtained from 4 week- to 4 month-old pigs clinically diagnosed with respiratory (n = 129) or digestive (n = 126) disorders. Serum samples of age-matched healthy animals (n = 60) served as negative control. Pigs with clinical respiratory signs had a wide variety of pulmonary lesions including suppurative bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, fibrinous-necrotizing pneumonia and/or pleuritis. Animals with enteric signs displayed histopathological findings like villus atrophy and fusion, catarrhal enteritis and/or catarrhal colitis. Overall, PCV-3 DNA was detected in 19 out of 315 analysed samples (6.0%). Among the diseased animals, PCV-3 was found in 6.2% (8 out of 129) and 5.6% (7 out of 126) of pigs with respiratory and digestive disorders, respectively. The frequency of PCV-3 PCR positive samples among healthy pigs was 6.7% (4 out of 60). No apparent association was observed between PCR positive cases and any type of histopathological lesion. The phylogenetic analysis of the partial genome sequences obtained showed high identity among viruses from the three groups of animals studied. In conclusion, PCV-3 was present in the serum of diseased and healthy pigs to similar percentages, suggesting that this virus does not seem to be causally associated with respiratory or enteric disorders.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , DNA Viral/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Transtornos Respiratórios/virologia , Suínos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663143

RESUMO

Using the approach of sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, we have analysed the bacterial diversity associated with the distinct compartments of the gastrointestinal tract of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and cestodes (Proteocephalus sp.) parasitizing their digestive tract. The dominant microbiota associated with cestodes (Proteocephalus sp.) was represented by bacteria from the genera Serratia, Pseudomonas and Mycoplasma. By comparing the associated microbiota of perch and cestodes, a clear difference in bacterial composition and diversity was revealed between the community from the stomach content and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract of fish. Microbiota associated with cestodes was not significantly different in comparison with microbiota of different subcompartments of perch (mucosa and content of intestine and pyloric caeca) (ADONIS, p > .05) excluding microbiota of stomach content (ADONIS, p ≤ .05). PICRUSt-based functional assessments of the microbial communities of perch and cestodes indicated that they mainly linked in terms of metabolism and environmental information processing and could play an important role in the nutrition and health of host.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Percas , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Masculino , Percas/microbiologia , Sibéria/epidemiologia
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112184, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465817

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the pre-antibiotic era, a broad spectrum of medicinal plants was used to treat livestock. This knowledge was neglected in European veterinary medicine for decades but kept alive by farmers. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains requires a severely restricted use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. We conducted a survey on the ethnoveterinary knowledge of farmers in the bilingual (French and German speaking) Western region of Switzerland, namely the cantons of Fribourg, Neuchâtel and Jura, and in the French speaking part of the canton of Bern. AIM OF THE STUDY: To find out whether differences exist in plants used by farmers in French speaking and bilingual regions of Switzerland as compared to our earlier studies conducted in Switzerland. Additional focus was on plants that are used in diseases which commonly are treated with antimicrobials, on plants used in skin afflictions, and on plants used in animal species such as horses, for which the range of veterinary medicinal products is limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted in 2015 semistructured interviews with 62 dialog partners, mainly cattle keeping farmers but also 18 horse keeping farmers. Of these, 41 were native French (FNS) and 21 native German speakers (GNS). Detailed information about homemade herbal remedies (plant species, plant part, manufacturing process) and the corresponding use reports (target animal species, category of use, route of administration, dosage, source of knowledge, frequency of use, last time of use and farmers satisfaction) were collected. RESULTS: A total of 345 homemade remedies were reported, of which 240 contained only one plant species (Homemade Single Species Herbal Remedy Reports; HSHR). A total of 289 use reports (UR) were mentioned for the 240 HSHR, and they comprised 77 plant species belonging to 41 botanical families. Of these, 35 plant species were solely reported from FNS, 20 from GNS, and 22 from both. Taking into account earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland only 10 (FNS) and 6 (GNS) plant species connected with 7% of FNS and GNS UR respectively were "unique" to the respective language group. The majority of the UR (219) was for treatment of cattle, while 38 UR were intended to treat horses. The most UR were for treatment of gastrointestinal and skin diseases. The most frequently mentioned plants were Linum usitatissimum L., Coffea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, and Quercus robur L. for gastrointestinal diseases, and Calendula officinalis L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Sanicula europaea L. for skin afflictions. CONCLUSION: No clear differences were found between the medicinal plants used by French native speakers and German native speakers. Several of the reported plants seem to be justified to widen the spectrum of veterinary therapeutic options in gastrointestinal and dermatological disorders in cattle and horses, and to reduce, at least to a certain degree, the need for antibiotic treatments. Our findings may help to strengthen the role of medicinal plants in veterinary research and practice, and to consider them as a further measure in official strategies for lowering the use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Etnobotânica , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Cavalos , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Suíça
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112249, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557509

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trachyspermum ammi has been used traditionally as a popular ethnobotanical plant in human and animal parasitic infestations. Few scientific studies have been conducted on in vitro anthelmintic activity of T. ammi against various helminths and there is no study on its in vivo/in vitro anthelmintic properties against equine helminths. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude powder (CP) and crude aqueous extract (CAE) of T. ammi seeds against gastrointestinal nematodes in the donkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty donkeys, naturally and severely infected with Strongyle-type nematodes, were randomly divided into six groups and administered orally with graded doses of CP and CAE at single dose as follow: Two groups were treated with 1 and 3 gkg-1 body weight of CP, two groups were treated with CAE at the equivalent dose rate 1 and 3 gkg-1 bw of CP and one group was treated with 200 µgkg-1 bw of Ivermectin 0.2% (Positive Control). One group received no medication (Negative Control). Efficacy was determined by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test. The faecal samples were taken from the donkeys on days 7, 14 and 28 post-treatments (PT) and the egg per gram (EPG) of faeces was determined for each animal. FECR for donkeys treated with CP, CAE, and Ivermectin 0.2% was calculated on days 7, 14, and 28 PT. In the present study, CAE was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine CAE chemical components. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a marker (thymol) was applied to confirm the existence of thymol as an active principle. RESULTS: Based on the FECR findings, the maximum FECR (71.2%) was observed in the group treated with CAE3 on day 14 PT, while it was 66.2% for CP3 on the same day. The effects of different treatments (P < 0.001), time (P < 0.001) and their interactions (P < 0.05) on EPG showed a significant difference. A dose-dependent response in the anthelmintic activity of CP and CAE was observed. GC-MS analysis indicated that thymol was the major component of CAE (Area = 45.01%) with the respective peak at retention times (Rt) 10.41 min. On HPLC analysis of CAE, thymol was found to be the major constituent of CAE (Area = 58.76%) with the same Rt at 13.233 min. CONCLUSION: The present study indicated that both CP and CAE of T. ammi had the dose-dependent anthelmintic effects. Due to the development of drug resistance against synthetic anti-helminthics, T. ammi seems to be a promising alternative for the treatment and prevention of helminths in livestock.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Apiaceae , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Strongylus , Animais , Equidae , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Masculino , Pós , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e015819, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092688

RESUMO

Abstract An evaluation was made of the effect of anthelmintic treatments on the performance of Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves before and after weaning. To this end, the calves were divided into three groups: (1) treated monthly with a low efficacy anthelmintic drug, ivermectin; (2) treated monthly with a highly effective anthelmintic drug, albendazole; and (3) untreated control group. All the groups in this experiment showed an average fecal egg count of less than 400 eggs per gram (EPG), and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. The blood variables were within the normal range and no calf presented anemia. In most of the samplings, mean EPGs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group treated with albendazole. The calves received dietary supplementation before and after weaning, which enabled them to gain weight in every month of the experiment and reach a body weight of about 250 kg on the last sampling date, before turning one year old. The anthelmintic treatments did not affect body weight gain, leading to the conclusion that, when fed with suitable dietary supplements, Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves are not affected by gastrointestinal nematode parasites acquired by grazing.


Resumo O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos anti-helmínticos no desempenho de bezerros Simental x Nelore antes e após o desmame. Os bezerros foram alocados em três grupos: (1) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmínticos de baixa eficácia, ivermectina; (2) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmíntico de alta eficácia, albendazol e (3) controle não tratado. A média das contagens de ovos de nematoides durante o experimento foi inferior a 400 ovos por grama (OPG) em todos os grupos sem manifestação clínica de gastroenterite parasitária. As variáveis ​​sanguíneas mantiveram-se dentro dos limites de normalidade e nenhum bezerro apresentou anemia. Na maioria das coletas, as médias de OPG foram significativamente inferiores (P<0,05) no grupo tratado com albendazol. Os bezerros receberam suplementação antes e depois do desmame, o que lhes permitiu ganhar peso em todos os meses do experimento, atingindo peso corporal em torno de 250 kg, ao final do experimento, antes de completarem um ano de idade. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos anti-helmínticos no ganho em peso, o que permitiu concluir que bezerros Nelore x Simental não são afetados pelo parasitismo por nematoides gastrintestinais sob condições de pastejo, quando devidamente suplementados com concentrado.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Bovinos , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 104, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783921

RESUMO

Understanding the immunological basis of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in livestock is important in order to develop novel methods of parasite control such as vaccination or genetic selection for parasite resistance. The present study aimed to investigate differences in immune response between parasite resistant Santa Ines and susceptible Ile de France sheep breeds to natural Haemonchus contortus infection. Parasitological parameters, humoral immunity, local and circulating cellular immune responses were evaluated in 19 Santa Ines and 19 Ile de France lambs undergoing different anthelmintic treatments regimens: suppressive treatments (SUP) or targeted selective treatments (TST) over a 5-month grazing period. Santa Ines lambs had significantly lower Haemonchus faecal egg count and worm burden compared to Ile de France regardless of treatment regime. In addition, circulating blood eosinophils count and parasite-specific IgG levels were significantly higher and more rapidly induced in Santa Ines lambs. Abomasal immune responses were generally greater in the resistant breed, which had significantly higher levels of parasite-specific IgA in mucus, and elevated number of globule leukocytes and CD3+ T cells within the abomasal mucosal. Furthermore, numbers of POU2F3+ epithelial cells, a tuft-cell specific transcription factor, were also elevated in the Santa Ines breed, suggesting that this breed is better able to initiate T-helper type 2 immune responses within the abomasum. In conclusion, the differential immunological responses detailed here are relevant to understanding resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in other host breeds, as well as to resistance breeding as a sustainable control approach for parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Animais , Brasil , Gastroenteropatias/imunologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Hemoncose/imunologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico
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