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1.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208484

RESUMO

Pets play a crucial role in the development of human feelings, social life, and care. However, in the era of the prevailing global pandemic of COVID-19 disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), many questions addressing the routes of the virus spread and transmission to humans are dramatically emerging. Although cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been found in pets including dogs, cats, and ferrets, to date there is no strong evidence for pet-to-human transmission or sustained pet-to-pet transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However, an increasing number of studies reporting detection of SARS-CoV-2 in farmed minks raises suspicion of potential viral transmission from these animals to humans. Furthermore, due to the high susceptibility of cats, ferrets, minks and hamsters to COVID-19 infection under natural and/or experimental conditions, these animals have been extensively explored as animal models to study the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and transmission. In this review, we present the latest reports focusing on SARS-CoV-2 detection, isolation, and characterization in pets. Moreover, based on the current literature, we document studies aiming to broaden the knowledge about pathogenicity and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, and the development of viral therapeutics, drugs and vaccines. Lastly, considering the high rate of SARS-CoV-2 evolution and replication, we also suggest routes of protection against the virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Animais de Estimação/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Gatos/virologia , Cães/virologia , Fazendas , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Vison/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(2): 162-171, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short-term risk factors associated with dehiscence and death in cats undergoing full-thickness large intestinal incisions. ANIMALS: 84 client-owned cats that had undergone full-thickness large intestinal incisions and for which information regarding outcome through postoperative day 7 was available. PROCEDURES: Medical records from 4 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. For cats that met the inclusion criteria, signalment, history, laboratory test results, surgical and medical procedures, perioperative complications, and outcome were analyzed. A Fisher exact or Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to identify individual variables associated with dehiscence of intestinal incisions or patient nonsurvival to hospital discharge or both. RESULTS: 84 cats met the inclusion criteria. The overall dehiscence and survival to hospital discharge rates were 8.3% (7/84 cats) and 94% (79/84 cats), respectively. Factors associated with dehiscence and nonsurvival to hospital discharge included presence of band neutrophils, performance of partial colectomy with colonic resection and anastomosis, administration of blood products, postoperative cardiopulmonary arrest, and incisional inflammation or infection. Factors associated with nonsurvival to hospital discharge only included low serum globulin concentration, repair of colonic trauma or dehiscence, and postoperative colonic dehiscence. Factors associated with dehiscence only included hypoalbuminemia, renal dysfunction, administration of blood products or > 2 classes of antimicrobials, and intra-abdominal fecal contamination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that intestinal dehiscence and mortality rates associated with large intestinal incisions in cats may be higher than previously proposed, although the risk of either outcome was still low. Factors suggestive of systemic illness were associated with colonic dehiscence or death, and focused prospective studies of risk factors are warranted.


Assuntos
Intestino Grosso , Anastomose Cirúrgica/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(2): 184-189, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227865

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 16-year old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss of 2 months' duration. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Hematologic and biochemical examination results were within respective reference ranges except for moderately high pancreas-specific lipase concentration. Ultrasonographic and cytologic evaluation revealed a hepatic mass with findings consistent with mild cholestasis and inflammation and a pancreatic mass that was initially identified as a neuroendocrine tumor. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The cat underwent additional CT assessment and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 3 fractions of 8 Gy, administered every other day) for treatment of the pancreatic tumor. Follow-up ultrasonographic and CT examinations indicated a partial response to SBRT, with a maximum CT-measured size reduction from 3.6 × 4.8 × 4.0 cm at the time of treatment planning to 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.9 cm 8 months later. Increased pancreatic tumor size and signs of carcinomatosis were detected 15 months after SBRT treatment; the initial cytologic diagnosis was changed to exocrine pancreatic carcinoma on reevaluation of the slides by another veterinary pathologist. Carboplatin treatment was elected, and signs of carcinomatosis resolved. The cat was euthanized without further testing because of weakness 589 days after SBRT was started. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of SBRT for suspected exocrine pancreatic carcinoma in a cat. Further investigation is needed to determine optimal fractionation schedules for SBRT of pancreatic tumors and utility of SBRT of exocrine pancreatic carcinoma in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Radiocirurgia , Animais , Gatos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/veterinária , Radiocirurgia/veterinária
4.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 180: 359-374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225941

RESUMO

The hypocretins/orexins were discovered in 1998. Within 2 years, this led to the discovery of the cause of human narcolepsy, a 90% loss of hypothalamic neurons containing these peptides. Further work demonstrated that these neurons were not simply linked to waking. Rather these neurons were active during pleasurable behaviors in waking and were silenced by aversive stimulation. This was seen in wild-type mice, rats, cats, and dogs. It was also evident in humans, with increased Hcrt release during pleasurable activities and decreased release, to the levels seen in sleep, during pain. We found that human heroin addicts have, on average, an increase of 54% in the number of detectable Hcrt neurons compared to "control" human brains and that these Hcrt neurons are substantially smaller than those in control brains. We found that in mice, chronic morphine administration induced the same changes in Hcrt neuron number and size. Our studies in the mouse allowed us to determine the specificity, dose response relations, time course of the change in the number of Hcrt neurons, and that the increased number of Hcrt neurons after opiates was not due to neurogenesis. Furthermore, we found that it took a month or longer for these anatomical changes in the mouse brain to return to baseline. Human narcoleptics, despite their prescribed use of several commonly addictive drugs, do not show significant evidence of dose escalation or substance use disorder. Similarly, mice in which the peptide has been eliminated are resistant to addiction. These findings are consistent with the concept that an increased number of Hcrt neurons may underlie and maintain opioid or cocaine use disorders.


Assuntos
Narcolepsia , Prazer , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Ratos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Companion animals may be a positive presence for their owners during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the welfare of a companion animal is strongly influenced by the behaviour of their owners, as well as their physical and social environment. We aimed to investigate the reported changes in companion animal welfare and behaviour and to examine the association between these changes and companion animal owners' mental health. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of UK residents over 18 years of age was conducted between April and June 2020 (n = 5926). The questionnaire included validated, bespoke items measuring outcomes related to mental health, human-animal bonds and reported changes in animal welfare and behaviour. The final item of the survey invited open-ended free-text responses, allowing participants to describe experiences associated with human-animal relationships during the first UK lockdown phase. RESULTS: Animal owners made up 89.8% of the sample (n = 5323), of whom 67.3% reported changes in their animal's welfare and behaviour during the first lockdown phase (n = 3583). These reported changes were reduced to a positive (0-7) and negative (0-5) welfare scale, following principal component analysis (PCA) of 17 items. Participants reported more positive changes for cats, whereas more negative changes were reported for dogs. Thematic analysis identified three main themes relating to the positive and negative impact on companion animals of the COVID-19 pandemic. Generalised linear models indicated that companion animal owners with poorer mental health scores pre-lockdown reported fewer negative changes in animal welfare and behaviour. However, companion animal owners with poorer mental health scores since lockdown reported more changes, both positive and negative, in animal welfare and behaviour. CONCLUSION: Our findings extend previous insights into perceived welfare and behaviour changes on a very limited range of species to a wider range of companion animals. Owner mental health status has a clear, albeit small, effect on companion animal welfare and behaviour.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Gatos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Humanos , Pandemias , Animais de Estimação , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
6.
Parasite ; 28: 56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236311

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent zoonotic parasite in Brazil capable of infecting mammals and birds. The increase in the urban populations of pets and the narrowing of the human-animal relationship can facilitate the transmission of important public health zoonoses, such as toxoplasmosis. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and spatial distribution of T. gondii infection and its risk factors in domiciled dogs and cats attended at the Jorge Vaitsman Institute, Rio de Janeiro. Serum samples from 400 dogs and 272 cats were evaluated by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Epidemiological questionnaires were used to interview the animals' owners to identify risk factors for infection. Of the total, 34% (136/400) of dogs and 8.1% (22/272) of cats had anti-T. gondii antibodies. Breed (OR: 2.10-95%, CI 1.27-3.46) was a risk factor for dogs, while sex (OR: 3.40-95%, CI 1.10-10.52) and homemade food consumption (OR: 8.49-95%, CI 2.48-29.05) were risk factors for cats. Offal consumption was considered a risk factor for both species evaluated (OR: 2.74-95%, CI 1.38-5.43 for dogs; OR: 7.66-95%, CI 1.24-47.29 for cats). The spatial analysis showed that T. gondii seropositive animals were widely distributed in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro state, with a concentration observed mainly in the west and north zones of Rio de Janeiro city. The results emphasize the importance of adopting prophylactic measures to control T. gondii transmission in domiciled dogs and cats in Rio de Janeiro, contributing positively to public health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
7.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069453

RESUMO

Understanding the ecological and epidemiological roles of pets in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for animal and human health, identifying household reservoirs, and predicting the potential enzootic maintenance of the virus. We conducted a longitudinal household transmission study of 76 dogs and cats living with at least one SARS-CoV-2-infected human in Texas and found that 17 pets from 25.6% of 39 households met the national case definition for SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals. This includes three out of seventeen (17.6%) cats and one out of fifty-nine (1.7%) dogs that were positive by RT-PCR and sequencing, with the virus successfully isolated from the respiratory swabs of one cat and one dog. Whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from all four PCR-positive animals were unique variants grouping with genomes circulating among people with COVID-19 in Texas. Re-sampling showed persistence of viral RNA for at least 25 d-post initial test. Additionally, seven out of sixteen (43.8%) cats and seven out of fifty-nine (11.9%) dogs harbored SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies upon initial sampling, with relatively stable or increasing titers over the 2-3 months of follow-up and no evidence of seroreversion. The majority (82.4%) of infected pets were asymptomatic. 'Reverse zoonotic' transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected people to animals may occur more frequently than recognized.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Animais de Estimação/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Texas/epidemiologia
8.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(1): 49-55, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement in measurements of Hct values and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations in blood samples from dogs and cats between a commercially available veterinary point-of-care (POC) Hct meter and a laboratory-based (LAB) analyzer and to determine the effects of various conditions (ie, lipemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hemolysis, autoagglutination, and reticulocytosis) on the accuracy of the POC meter. SAMPLES: Blood samples from 86 dogs and 18 cats. PROCEDURES: Blood samples were run in duplicate on the POC meter, which reported Hgb concentration, measured via optical reflectance, and a calculated Hct value. The POC meter results were compared with results from a LAB analyzer. Blood samples with grossly visible lipemia, icterus, hemolysis, and autoagglutination were noted. RESULTS: Mean ± SD values for LAB Hct were 33.9 ± 15.73% (range, 3.9% to 75.8%), and for LAB Hgb were 11.2 ± 5.4 g/dL (range, 1 to 24.6 g/dL). Mean bias between POC Hct and LAB Hct values was -1.8% with 95% limits of agreement (LOAs) of -11.1% to 7.5% and between POC Hgb and LAB Hgb concentrations was -0.5 g/dL with 95% LOAs of -3.8 to 2.8 g/dL. There was no influence of lipemia (14 samples), icterus (23), autoagglutination (14), hemolysis (12), or high reticulocyte count (15) on the accuracy of the POC meter. The POC meter was unable to read 13 blood samples; 9 had a LAB Hct ≤ 12%, and 4 had a LAB Hct concentration between 13% and 17%. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Overall, measurements from the POC meter had good agreement with those from the LAB analyzer. However, LOAs were fairly wide, indicating that there may be clinically important differences between measurements from the POC meter and LAB analyzer.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Gatos , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Cães , Hematócrito/veterinária , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(1): 72-76, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ABCB11930_1931del TC predisposed cats to macrocyclic-lactone toxicosis and the frequency of the ABCB11930_1931del TC gene mutation in banked feline DNA samples. SAMPLE: DNA samples from 5 cats presented for neurologic clinical signs presumed to be caused by exposure to macrocyclic lactones and 1,006 banked feline DNA samples. PROCEDURES: The medical history pertaining to 5 cats was obtained from veterinarians who examined, treated, or performed necropsies on them. The DNA from these 5 cats and 1,006 banked feline samples were analyzed for the presence of the ABCB11930_1931del TC genotype. RESULTS: 4 of the 5 cats with neurologic signs presumed to be associated with macrocyclic-lactone exposure were homozygous for ABCB11930_1931del TC. The other cat had unilateral vestibular signs not typical of macrocyclic-lactone toxicosis. The distribution of genotypes from the banked feline DNA samples was as follows: 0 homozygous for ABCB11930_1931del TC, 47 heterozygous for ABCB11930_1931del TC, and 959 homozygous for the wild-type ABCB1 allele. Among the 47 cats with the mutant ABCB1 allele, only 3 were purebred (Ragdoll, Russian Blue, and Siamese). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested a strong relationship between homozygosity for ABCB11930_1931del TC and neurologic toxicosis after topical application with eprinomectin-containing antiparasitic products labeled for use in cats. Although this genotype is likely rare in the general cat population, veterinarians should be aware of this genetic mutation in cats and its potential for enhancing susceptibility to adverse drug reactions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Lactonas , Animais , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/genética , Gatos , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Lactonas/toxicidade , Mutação , Animais de Estimação
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(24): 13752-13759, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132301

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has recently caused an epidemic in humans and poses a huge threat to global public health. As a primary receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) exists in different hosts that are in close contact with humans, especially cats and dogs. However, the underlying mechanism of how the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 cooperates with human ACE2 (hACE2), cat ACE2 (cACE2) and dog ACE2 (dACE2) and the variation in binding remains largely unsolved. Therefore, we explored the binding behavior of the spike RBD with cACE2, dACE2 and hACE2 via all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. In accordance with the binding free energies and residue interactions, the spike RBD has respective binding specificities with cACE2, dACE2 and hACE2, and the binding affinities decrease in the order of hACE2, cACE2, dACE2, mainly due to changes in the amino acids Q24L, H34Y, and M82T in cACE2 or dACE2. Furthermore, alanine scanning analysis results validated some key residues of the spike RBD interact with ACE2 and provided clues to the variation of amino acid that could influence the transmissibility or immune responses of SARS-CoV-2. Decreasing dynamic correlations strengths of ACE2 with the RBD were found in all hACE2-RBD, cACE2-RBD and dACE2-RBD systems. The ACE2 protein shows variable motion modes across the zinc metallopeptidase domain, which induces different interactions between ACE2 and the RBD. Our studies reveal that the motion pattern of the zinc metallopeptidase domain is critical to the binding behavior of RBD with ACE2. These findings could aid our understanding of selective recognition involving various ACE2 with the SARS-CoV-2 spike and shed further light on the binding mechanisms.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Análise de Componente Principal , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Termodinâmica
11.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 33(3): 373-380, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116908

RESUMO

Dogs are the animal most frequently implicated in causing bite injuries to the human face. Dog bite injuries are most prevalent in younger patients. Pasteurella species are commensals of the oral microbiome of dogs and cats and are frequently implicated in infections resulting from dog and cat bite injuries. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C need to be considered in bites inflicted by humans. All animal bite wounds should be washed out. Most animal bite injuries can be managed in an outpatient setting. Given the cosmetically sensitive nature of the face, bite wounds generally merit suturing, even in delayed presentations.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras e Picadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
12.
J Virol Methods ; 295: 114214, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118297

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped RNA virus responsible for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that represents a global health threat, causing an ongoing pandemic in many countries and territories. WHO recommendations emphasize the importance of all personal protective equipment (PPE) that can interrupt COVID-19 transmission. The textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of or treatment with various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. Methods for determining the antiviral activity of fabrics are reported in the International Standards Organization (ISO) 18184 (2019) guidelines. Three different fabric samples treated with silver derivate, copper derivative and a not treated cotton fabric used as control were examined and put in contact with a suspension of feline coronavirus (FCoV). After 2 h of incubation a significant decrease of viral titer, as high as 3.25 log10 Tissue Culture Infectious Dose (TCID)50/50 µl, in feline cells was observed in treated fabrics, with respect to not treated fabrics. In this study, we optimized laboratory methods to evaluate the virucidal activity of silver- and copper treated cotton- based fabrics against coronavirus, using FCoV suitable as a surrogate of SARS-CoV-2 but safe for laboratory technicians.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavirus Felino/efeitos dos fármacos , Têxteis , Animais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/farmacologia , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2 , Prata/farmacologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072254

RESUMO

Registered cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the German human population increased rapidly during the second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in winter 2020/21. Since domestic cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, the occurrence of trans-species transmission needs to be monitored. A previous serosurvey during the first wave of the pandemic detected antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 0.65% of feline serum samples that were randomly sampled across Germany. In the here-presented follow-up study that was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021, the seroprevalence rose to 1.36% (16/1173). This doubling of the seroprevalence in cats is in line with the rise of reported cases in the human population and indicates a continuous occurrence of trans-species transmission from infected owners to their cats.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
14.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 77: 101676, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091279

RESUMO

To understand the epidemic status of feline bocavirus (FBoV) in Anhui Province, eastern China, FBoV was successfully extracted from fecal samples of domestic cats, and five complete genomes were amplified in this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these five strains belong to three different FBoV genotypes. Recombination analysis showed that inter- and intra-genotype recombination events occurred. Selection pressure and codon usage bias analyses indicated that FBoV-1 and FBoV-3 continuously evolve toward adaptation, and selection pressure is the main factor for codon usage bias during evolution. This study provides the first molecular evidence of FBoV prevalence in eastern China, further enriching the available information on its genetics and evolutionary characteristics and providing a basis for further research on its evolution.


Assuntos
Bocavirus , Animais , Bocavirus/genética , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Fezes , Genótipo , Filogenia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070932

RESUMO

The neuronal networks that generate locomotion are well understood in swimming animals such as the lamprey, zebrafish and tadpole. The networks controlling locomotion in tetrapods remain, however, still enigmatic with an intricate motor pattern required for the control of the entire limb during the support, lift off, and flexion phase, and most demandingly when the limb makes contact with ground again. It is clear that the inhibition that occurs between bursts in each step cycle is produced by V2b and V1 interneurons, and that a deletion of these interneurons leads to synchronous flexor-extensor bursting. The ability to generate rhythmic bursting is distributed over all segments comprising part of the central pattern generator network (CPG). It is unclear how the rhythmic bursting is generated; however, Shox2, V2a and HB9 interneurons do contribute. To deduce a possible organization of the locomotor CPG, simulations have been elaborated. The motor pattern has been simulated in considerable detail with a network composed of unit burst generators; one for each group of close synergistic muscle groups at each joint. This unit burst generator model can reproduce the complex burst pattern with a constant flexion phase and a shortened extensor phase as the speed increases. Moreover, the unit burst generator model is versatile and can generate both forward and backward locomotion.


Assuntos
Geradores de Padrão Central/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Animais , Gatos , Geradores de Padrão Central/citologia , Simulação por Computador , Extremidades/inervação , Extremidades/fisiologia , Humanos , Interneurônios/citologia , Lampreias/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/citologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/citologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
16.
Acta Virol ; 65(2): 232-236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130474

RESUMO

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. In this study, the complete genome sequence of FCV 14Q315, which was detected from a dead domestic cat with a hemorrhagic-like disease, was analyzed to identify the genetic characteristics. The FCV 14Q315 genome was 7,684 bp. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3 sequences indicated that FCV 14Q315 is more closely related to FCV 15D022 than to other FCV strains. ORF1 of FCV 14Q315 shared high sequence similarity with ORF1 of FCVs 15D022 and UTCVM-H1. We further evaluated genetic recombination in ORF1 of FCV 14Q315 and detected intergenic recombination between p30 and the ORF1/ORF2 junction with high significance. Particularly, the non-recombination region in ORF1 of FCV 14Q315 showed high sequence similarity with FCVs GX2019, CH-JL2, and 15D022. The recombination region in ORF1 of FCV 14Q315 showed the highest similarity with FCV UTCVM-H1, which is associated with a hemorrhagic-like disease. The results suggest that the UTCVM-H1-like FCV was introduced into the Republic of Korea and presumably recombined with Korean FCVs by occasional mixed infections. In addition, the Korean FCV strains were located in several phylogenetic clusters with marked genetic diversity in the ORF2 region. These results imply that Korean FCVs possess high genetic diversity owing to mutations and recombination. Furthermore, it is possible that certain FCVs caused cyclical infections in the Korean cat population based on a phylogenetic analysis of FCVs isolated at different time points. Keywords: calicivirus; virulent systemic feline calicivirus; recombination; hemorrhagic-like disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Calicivirus Felino , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Calicivirus Felino/genética , Gatos , Humanos , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , República da Coreia
17.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(12): 1325-1331, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061616
18.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 1981-1987, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical use of gabapentin has increased; transdermal delivery in cats is incompletely studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if gabapentin permeates feline skin in vitro and in vivo and to determine if pain scores improve after administration. ANIMALS: In vitro: cadaver skin from 6 cats; phase 1: 8 young, healthy client-owned cats; phase 2: 15 client-owned geriatric cats. METHODS: In vitro, gabapentin applied every q12h to ear or cervical skin in diffusion cells. Samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 12, and 24 hours after application. Phase 1: Cats assigned to 1 of 4 groups: 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg applied q8h for 5 days to either ear or cervical skin. Serum samples collected predose, and after 1 and 5 days. Phase 2: 10 mg/kg applied q8h for 5 days. Two validated pain scores recorded predose, and after days 1, 5, and 8. Serum samples collected predose, and after days 1 and 5. Samples were frozen at -80°C for concentration analysis utilizing a validated high-performance liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry method. RESULTS: Gabapentin was identified in all samples. Significant differences in gabapentin concentrations were observed from day 1 to day 5 (P < .02) and in pain scores from predose to day 5 (P < .05) and day 1 to day 5 (P < .05). No differences in pain scores were observed from predose to day 8 (P = .3). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Gabapentin in a transdermal base penetrates feline skin in vitro, is absorbed systemically in cats, and may help decrease pain scores.


Assuntos
Dor , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Gatos , Gabapentina , Dor/veterinária , Projetos Piloto
19.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 1697-1702, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injectable radioactive iodine (I-131) frequently is used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats. In human medicine, residual activity after injection of radionuclides has been reported, and the actual quantity administered is recorded after administration. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate actual administered dose variability after administration of preprepared I-131 single unit doses for the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven cats with hyperthyroidism treated with I-131 between April 2017 and March 2019. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of cats treated with preprepared single unit I-131 doses. For each dose, the measured activity before administration and residual activity were recorded. The measured dose and the actual dose administered were compared to the prescribed dose. RESULTS: Measured activity before administration ranged from 88.4% to 103.3% of the prescribed dose. Mean residual activity was 5.2 ± 3.0 MBq (ranging from 1.5% to 15% of the prescribed dose). The actual dose administered (measured activity - residual activity) ranged from 79.1% to 100.2% of the prescribed dose. Seventeen of 28 (60.7%) of the actual administered doses differed between 10% and 20% of the prescribed dose. One administered dose had a >20% difference compared to the prescribed dose (79.10% of the prescribed dose). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Our study identified variability in the residual and actual administered activity of I-131 as compared to the prescribed dose, which should be taken into consideration when treating cats with (predrawn) I-131.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Hipertireoidismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/radioterapia , Gatos , Hipertireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertireoidismo/radioterapia , Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/veterinária
20.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 1652-1662, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypochloremia is a strong negative prognostic factor in humans with congestive heart failure (CHF), but the implications of electrolyte abnormalities in small animals with acute CHF are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To document electrolyte abnormalities present upon admission of small animals with acute CHF, and to assess the relationship between electrolyte concentrations and diuretic dose, duration of hospitalization and survival time. ANIMALS: Forty-six dogs and 34 cats with first onset of acute CHF. METHODS: Retrospective study. The associations between electrolyte concentrations and diuretic doses were evaluated with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Relationship with duration of hospitalization and survival were assessed by simple linear regression and Cox proportional hazard regression, respectively. RESULTS: The most commonly encountered electrolyte anomaly was hypochloremia observed in 24% (9/46 dogs and 10/34 cats) of cases. In dogs only, a significant negative correlation was identified between serum chloride concentrations at admission (median 113 mmol/L [97-125]) and furosemide doses both at discharge (median 5.2 mg/kg/day [1.72-9.57]; r = -0.59; P < .001) and at end-stage heart failure (median 4.7 mg/kg/day [2.02-7.28]; r = -0.62; P = .005). No significant hazard ratios were found for duration of hospitalization nor survival time for any of the electrolyte concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The observed association between serum chloride concentrations and diuretic doses suggests that hypochloremia could serve as a marker of disease severity and therapeutic response in dogs with acute CHF.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Eletrólitos , Furosemida/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
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