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1.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932592

RESUMO

Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) infect both wild and domestic cat populations world-wide. FCoVs present as two main biotypes: the mild feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the fatal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FIPV develops through mutations from FECV during a persistence infection. So far, the molecular mechanism of FECV-persistence and contributing factors for FIPV development may not be studied, since field FECV isolates do not grow in available cell culture models. In this work, we aimed at establishing feline ileum and colon organoids that allow the propagation of field FECVs. We have determined the best methods to isolate, culture and passage feline ileum and colon organoids. Importantly, we have demonstrated using GFP-expressing recombinant field FECV that colon organoids are able to support infection of FECV, which were unable to infect traditional feline cell culture models. These organoids in combination with recombinant FECVs can now open the door to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which FECV can persist in the gut for a longer period of time and how transition to FIPV is achieved.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Felino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/veterinária , Organoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Colo/citologia , Colo/virologia , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Íleo/citologia , Íleo/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Organoides/citologia
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(10): 796-803, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in mean hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) during body weight gain in cats by use of MRI. ANIMALS: 12 purpose-bred adult neutered male cats. PROCEDURES: The cats underwent general health and MRI examination at time 0 (before dietary intervention) and time 1 (after 40 weeks of being fed high-energy food ad libitum). Sequences included multiple-echo gradient-recalled echo MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI with 3 b values (0, 400, and 800 s/mm2). Variables (body weight and the HFF and ADC in selected regions of interest in the liver parenchyma) were compared between time points by Wilcoxon paired-sample tests. Relationships among variables were assessed with generalized mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Median body weight was 4.5 and 6.5 kg, mean ± SD HFF was 3.39 ± 0.89% and 5.37 ± 1.92%, and mean ± SD hepatic ADC was 1.21 ± 0.08 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.01 ± 0.2 × 10-3 mm2/s at times 0 and 1, respectively. Significant differences between time points were found for body weight, HFF, and ADC. The HFF was positively associated with body weight and ADC was negatively associated with HFF. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Similar to findings in people, cats had decreasing hepatic ADC as HFF increased. Protons associated with fat tissue in the liver may reduce diffusivity, resulting in a lower ADC than in liver with lower HFF. Longer studies and evaluation of cats with different nutritional states are necessary to further investigate these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Peso Corporal , Gatos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ganho de Peso
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008164, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877405

RESUMO

The majority of neurons in primary visual cortex respond selectively to bars of light that have a specific orientation and move in a specific direction. The spatial and temporal responses of such neurons are non-separable. How neurons accomplish that computational feat without resort to explicit time delays is unknown. We propose a novel neural mechanism whereby visual cortex computes non-separable responses by generating endogenous traveling waves of neural activity that resonate with the space-time signature of the visual stimulus. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the response are defined by the local topology of excitatory and inhibitory lateral connections in the cortex. We simulated the interaction between endogenous traveling waves and the visual stimulus using spatially distributed populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons with Wilson-Cowan dynamics and inhibitory-surround coupling. Our model reliably detected visual gratings that moved with a given speed and direction provided that we incorporated neural competition to suppress false motion signals in the opposite direction. The findings suggest that endogenous traveling waves in visual cortex can impart direction-selectivity on neural responses without resort to explicit time delays. They also suggest a functional role for motion opponency in eliminating false motion signals.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Córtex Visual , Animais , Gatos , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Haplorrinos , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/citologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15917, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985513

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus responsible for the outbreak of COVID-19, a disease that has spread to over 100 countries and, as of the 26th July 2020, has infected over 16 million people. Despite the urgent need to find effective therapeutics, research on SARS-CoV-2 has been affected by a lack of suitable animal models. To facilitate the development of medical approaches and novel treatments, we compared the ACE2 receptor, and TMPRSS2 and Furin proteases usage of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein in human and in a panel of animal models, i.e. guinea pig, dog, cat, rat, rabbit, ferret, mouse, hamster and macaque. Here we showed that ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 or Furin, has a higher level of sequence variability in the Spike protein interaction surface, which greatly influences Spike protein binding mode. Using molecular docking simulations we compared the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Spike proteins in complex with the ACE2 receptor and showed that the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein is compatible to bind the human ACE2 with high specificity. In contrast, TMPRSS2 and Furin are sufficiently similar in the considered hosts not to drive susceptibility differences. Computational analysis of binding modes and protein contacts indicates that macaque, ferrets and hamster are the most suitable models for the study of inhibitory antibodies and small molecules targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein interaction with ACE2. Since TMPRSS2 and Furin are similar across species, our data also suggest that transgenic animal models expressing human ACE2, such as the hACE2 transgenic mouse, are also likely to be useful models for studies investigating viral entry.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Gatos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Furões , Furina/genética , Furina/metabolismo , Cobaias , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9089768, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923488

RESUMO

Purpose: We investigated sequences of the feline coronaviruses (FCoV), which include feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), from China and other countries to gain insight into the adaptive evolution of this virus. Methods: Ascites samples from 31 cats with suspected FIP and feces samples from 8 healthy cats were screened for the presence of FCoV. Partial viral genome sequences, including parts of the nsp12-nsp14, S, N, and 7b genes, were obtained and aligned with additional sequences obtained from the GenBank database. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was conducted, and the possibility of recombination within these sequences was assessed. Analysis of the levels of selection pressure experienced by these sequences was assessed using methods on both the PAML and Datamonkey platforms. Results: Of the 31 cats investigated, two suspected FIP cats and one healthy cat tested positive for FCoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the sequences from mainland China cluster together with a few sequences from the Netherlands as a distinct clade when analyzed with FCoV sequences from other countries. Fewer than 3 recombination breakpoints were detected in the nsp12-nsp14, S, N, and 7b genes, suggesting that analyses for positive selection could be conducted. A total of 4, 12, 4, and 4 positively selected sites were detected in the nsp12-nsp14, S, N, and 7b genes, respectively, with the previously described site 245 of the S gene, which distinguishes FIPV from FECV, being a positive selection site. Conversely, 106, 168, 25, and 17 negative selection sites in the nsp12-14, S, N, and 7b genes, respectively, were identified. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the FCoV genes encoding replicative, entry, and virulence proteins potentially experienced adaptive evolution. A greater number of sites in each gene experienced negative rather than positive selection, which suggests that most of the protein sequence must be conservatively maintained for virus survival. A few of the sites showing evidence of positive selection might be associated with the more severe pathology of FIPV or help these viruses survive other harmful conditions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Gatos , China , Coronavirus Felino/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/patologia , Panleucopenia Felina/patologia , Mutação , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Seleção Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
6.
F1000Res ; 9: 668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913640

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, typically presents with symptoms including fever, cough, headache, myalgia, asthenia, anosmia, diarrhea, and sometimes pneumonia, which can be fatal.  Recently, new dermatologic findings have been described in association with the disease that can potentially be a distinguishing feature of infection. One such feature resembles chilblains and this case report represents a unique presentation of this feature.


Assuntos
Pérnio/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Dermatopatias/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Dedos do Pé/patologia
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 423-425, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and spontaneous abortion among pregnant women, so as to provide the evidence for the developmentofpreventivemeasuresforspontaneousabortion. METHODS: A total of 228 serum samples collected from women with spontaneous abortion for the first time from January 2018 to December 2019 were selected as the case group, while 228 serum samples collected from pregnant women with a normal delivery and without a history of abortion during the same period were selected as the control group. The serum IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii were detected and compared in both groups, and the correlation between T. gondii infection and spontaneous abortion was evaluated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the case and control groups in terms of age, education levels, occupation, residency and proportion of keeping cats (all P values > 0.05). The positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (adjusted χ2 = 4.08, P < 0.05; OR = 8.25), while no significant difference was seen between the case and control groups (χ2 = 0.42, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Acute maternal T. gondii infection may remarkably increase the chance of spontaneous abortion. Progestational health education regarding toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge and detection of T. gondii infection during pregnancy should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Aborto Espontâneo/sangue , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 356-360, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the seroprevalence of antibodies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) and Leptospira interrogans sensu lato (Lisl) and their possible concurrence in domestic cats living in variable conditions in South Moravia in the district of Brno and its environs. Additional objectives were to discover possible differences in seroprevalence between groups of cats living in different living conditions, and to determine the spectrum of Leptospira serogroups in cats in the same places. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 360 blood sera from domestic cats of 3 different sets were collected during the period 2013-2015. All samples were examined using ELISA for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Bbsl, and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the detection of antibodies against 8 serogroups of Lisl. RESULTS: The ELISA method determined 15.8%, 4.8% and 10.3% IgM anti-Borrelia antibodies in the patient group, shelter cats and street cats, respectively. IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies were found in 6.2%, 9.5%, 5.2%, respectively. Antibodies specific for 5 Leptospira serogroups were detected by the use of MAT in 8.8%, 9.5% and 10.3% of cats from the investigated groups. The total positivity of all examined cats for anti-Borrelia antibodies was 18.0% and for anti-Leptospira - 9.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Cats can be infected with both Bbsl and Lisl. The obtained results are exclusive to the city of Brno and its environs, and are comparable to the limited previous studies. There is a need for further studies of clinical signs of both infections and the possible transmission of Leptospira by ticks.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
9.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 358, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957995

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) during late 2019. It has spread across the globe affecting nearly 21 million people with a toll of 0.75 million deaths and restricting the movement of most of the world population during the past 6 months. COVID-19 became the leading health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. In addition to the considerable COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in humans, several cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animal hosts (dog, cat, tiger, lion, and mink) have been reported. Thus, the concern of pet owners is increasing. Moreover, the dynamics of the disease requires further explanation, mainly concerning the transmission of the virus from humans to animals and vice versa. Therefore, this study aimed to gather information about the reported cases of COVID-19 transmission in animals through a literary review of works published in scientific journals and perform genomic and phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from animal hosts. Although many instances of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 have been reported, caution and further studies are necessary to avoid the occurrence of maltreatment in animals, and to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of the disease in the environment, humans, and animals. Future research in the animal-human interface can help formulate and implement preventive measures to combat the further transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Gatos , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 797-804, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Climate and lifestyle changes increase an individual's susceptibility to various allergens and also the incidence of allergic diseases. We aimed to examine the changes in sensitization rate for aeroallergens over a 10-year period in Korean children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 4493 children who visited the allergy clinic at a tertiary hospital in Korea for allergic rhinitis or asthma from January 2009 to December 2018. The serum specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were measured to confirm the sensitization against Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae), Alternaria, weed and tree pollen mixtures, as well as cat and dog dander through ImmunoCAP test. RESULTS: D. farinae was the most common sensitizing aeroallergen (45.9%) during the 10-year span. The sensitization rate for tree pollen mixture (p for trend <0.001), weed pollen mixtures (p for trend <0.001), dog dander (p for trend=0.025), and cat dander (p for trend=0.003) showed ascending trends during the 10-year study period. Furthermore, the sensitization rate for multiple allergens (≥2) in 2018 increased significantly compared to that in 2009 (p for trend=0.013). Compared with children without sensitization to D. farinae, those with sensitization to D. farinae showed higher sensitization rates to other aeroallergens (p for interaction <0.001). CONCLUSION: Children's sensitization rate to cat and dog dander and weed and tree pollen mixtures significantly increased during the 10-year period in Korea. Children with sensitization to D. farinae are likely to be sensitized to other aeroallergens as well.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Gatos , Criança , Dermatophagoides farinae , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Masculino , Pólen/imunologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico
11.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934084

RESUMO

Bats are primary reservoirs for multiple lethal human viruses, such as Ebola, Nipah, Hendra, rabies, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and, most recently, SARS-CoV-2. The innate immune systems of these immensely abundant, anciently diverged mammals remain insufficiently characterized. While bat genomes contain many endogenous retroviral elements indicative of past exogenous infections, little is known about restrictions to extant retroviruses. Here, we describe a major postentry restriction in cells of the yinpterochiropteran bat Pteropus alecto Primate lentiviruses (HIV-1, SIVmac) were potently blocked at early life cycle steps, with up to 1,000-fold decreases in infectivity. The block was specific, because nonprimate lentiviruses such as equine infectious anemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus were unimpaired, as were foamy retroviruses. Interspecies heterokaryons demonstrated a dominant block consistent with restriction of incoming viruses. Several features suggested potential TRIM5 (tripartite motif 5) or myxovirus resistance protein 2 (MX2) protein restriction, including postentry action, cyclosporine sensitivity, and reversal by capsid cyclophilin A (CypA) binding loop mutations. Viral nuclear import was significantly reduced, and this deficit was substantially rescued by cyclosporine treatment. However, saturation with HIV-1 virus-like particles did not relieve the restriction at all. P. alecto TRIM5 was inactive against HIV-1 although it blocked the gammaretrovirus N-tropic murine leukemia virus. Despite major divergence in a critical N-terminal motif required for human MX2 activity, P. alecto MX2 had anti-HIV activity. However, this did not quantitatively account for the restriction and was independent of and synergistic with an additional CypA-dependent restriction. These results reveal a novel, specific restriction to primate lentiviruses in the Pteropodidae and advance understanding of bat innate immunity.IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic suggests that bat innate immune systems are insufficiently characterized relative to the medical importance of these animals. Retroviruses, e.g., HIV-1, can be severe pathogens when they cross species barriers, and bat restrictions corresponding to retroviruses are comparatively unstudied. Here, we compared the abilities of retroviruses from three genera (Lentivirus, Gammaretrovirus, and Spumavirus) to infect cells of the large fruit-eating bat P. alecto and other mammals. We identified a major, specific postentry restriction to primate lentiviruses. HIV-1 and SIVmac are potently blocked at early life cycle steps, but nonprimate lentiviruses and foamy retroviruses are entirely unrestricted. Despite acting postentry and in a CypA-dependent manner with features reminiscent of antiretroviral factors from other mammals, this restriction was not saturable with virus-like particles and was independent of P. alecto TRIM5, TRIM21, TRIM22, TRIM34, and MX2. These results identify a novel restriction and highlight cyclophilin-capsid interactions as ancient species-specific determinants of retroviral infection.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/imunologia , Gammaretrovirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Lentivirus de Primatas/imunologia , Spumavirus/imunologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Aotidae , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Quirópteros/virologia , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Furões , Gammaretrovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lentivirus de Primatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Spumavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo
13.
J Vet Dent ; 37(2): 66-70, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875972

RESUMO

Buccal bone expansion (BBE) refers to bulbous enlargement of the periodontium in domestic cats. The origin of BBE is unknown, and some of its epidemiological, clinical, and radiographic features have not been fully characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific demographic characteristics are associated with BBE in cats; and whether BBE is associated with other relevant radiographic findings. Pertinent data were collected from archived dental radiographs and electronic medical records of 97 client-owned cats. Results showed that BBE is common in cats presented for evaluation and treatment of dental disease; that breed, sex, and age are not associated with BBE; that BBE is not associated with a pattern of horizontal alveolar bone loss/extrusion or tooth resorption; that a pattern of vertical alveolar bone loss is a typical feature of BBE; and that BBE represents a common cause of canine tooth loss in cats.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Doenças do Gato , Reabsorção de Dente , Perda do Osso Alveolar/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reabsorção de Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Reabsorção de Dente/epidemiologia , Reabsorção de Dente/veterinária
14.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911718

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence and potential risk factors of feline coronavirus (FCoV) shedding. Four consecutive fecal samples of 179 cats from 37 German breeding catteries were analyzed for FCoV ribonucleic acid (RNA) by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Prevalence of shedding was calculated using different numbers of fecal samples per cat (1-4) and different sampling intervals (5-28 days). Information on potential risk factors for FCoV shedding was obtained by a questionnaire. Risk factor analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Most cats (137/179, 76.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 69.8-82.2) shed FCoV at least at once. None of the tested 37 catteries was free of FCoV. Prevalence calculated including all four (76.5%, 95% CI 69.8-82.2) or the last three (73.7%, 95% CI 66.8-79.7) samples per cat was significantly higher than the prevalence calculated with only the last sample (61.5%, 95% CI 54.2-68.3; p = 0.0029 and 0.0175, respectively). Young age was significantly associated with FCoV shedding while the other factors were not. For identification of FCoV shedders in multi-cat households, at least three fecal samples per cat should be analyzed. Young age is the most important risk factor for FCoV shedding.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Abrigo para Animais , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2013-2019, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867625

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a new respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, and has constituted a global public health emergency. Cat is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. However, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in cats remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cats during COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan by serological detection methods. A cohort of serum samples were collected from cats in Wuhan, including 102 sampled after COVID-19 outbreak, and 39 prior to the outbreak. Fifteen sera collected after the outbreak were positive for the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among them, 11 had SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies with a titer ranging from 1/20 to 1/1080. No serological cross-reactivity was detected between SARS-CoV-2 and type I or II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In addition, we continuously monitored serum antibody dynamics of two positive cats every 10 days over 130 days. Their serum antibodies reached the peak at 10 days after first sampling, and declined to the limit of detection within 110 days. Our data demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 has infected cats in Wuhan during the outbreak and described serum antibody dynamics in cats, providing an important reference for clinical treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Felino/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
16.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 243-249, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921279

RESUMO

Several cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection transmitted from human owners to their dogs have recently been reported. The first ever case of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from a human owner to a domestic cat was confirmed on March 27, 2020. A tiger from a zoo in New York, USA, was also reportedly infected with SARS-CoV-2. It is believed that SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted to tigers from their caretakers, who were previously infected with this virus. On May 25, 2020, the Dutch Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality reported that two employees were infected with SARS-CoV-2 transmitted from minks. These reports have influenced us to perform a comparative analysis among angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) homologous proteins for verifying the conservation of specific protein regions. One of the most conserved peptides is represented by the peptide "353-KGDFR-357 (H. sapiens ACE2 residue numbering), which is located on the surface of the ACE2 molecule and participates in the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD). Multiple sequence alignments of the ACE2 proteins by ClustalW, whereas the three-dimensional structure of its binding region for the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by means of Spanner, a structural homology modeling pipeline method. In addition, evolutionary phylogenetic tree analysis by ETE3 was used. ACE2 works as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein between humans, dogs, cats, tigers, minks, and other animals, except for snakes. The three-dimensional structure of the KGDFR hosting protein region involved in direct interactions with SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD of the mink ACE2 appears to form a loop structurally related to the human ACE2 corresponding protein loop, despite of the reduced available protein length (401 residues of the mink ACE2 available sequence vs 805 residues of the human ACE2). The multiple sequence alignments of the ACE2 proteins shows high homology and complete conservation of the five amino acid residues: 353-KGDFR-357 with humans, dogs, cats, tigers, minks, and other animals, except for snakes. Where the information revealed from our examinations can support precision vaccine design and the discovery of antiviral therapeutics, which will accelerate the development of medical countermeasures, the World Health Organization recently reported on the possible risks of reciprocal infections regarding SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Vison , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Tigres
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 24790-24793, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948692

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, is considered a zoonotic pathogen mainly transmitted human to human. Few reports indicate that pets may be exposed to the virus. The present report describes a cat suffering from severe respiratory distress and thrombocytopenia living with a family with several members affected by COVID-19. Clinical signs of the cat prompted humanitarian euthanasia and a detailed postmortem investigation to assess whether a COVID-19-like disease was causing the condition. Necropsy results showed the animal suffered from feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and severe pulmonary edema and thrombosis. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was only detected in nasal swab, nasal turbinates, and mesenteric lymph node, but no evidence of histopathological lesions compatible with a viral infection were detected. The cat seroconverted against SARS-CoV-2, further evidencing a productive infection in this animal. We conclude that the animal had a subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infection concomitant to an unrelated cardiomyopathy that led to euthanasia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/virologia , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
18.
Vet Res Commun ; 44(3-4): 119-130, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926266

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to infect both humans and animals. However, the evidence of inter-transmission of coronavirus between humans and companion animals is still a debatable issue. There is substantial evidence that the virus outbreak is fueled by zoonotic transmission because this new virus belongs to the same family of viruses as SARS-CoV associated with civet cats, and MERS-CoV associated with dromedary camels. While the whole world is investigating the possibility about the transmission of this virus, the transmission among humans is established, but the interface between humans and animals is not much evident. Not only are the lives of human beings at risk, but there is an equal potential threat to the animal world. With multiple reports claiming about much possibility of transmission of COVID-19 from humans to animals, there has been a significant increase in the number of pets being abandoned by their owners. Additionally, the risk of reverse transmission of COVID-19 virus from companion pets like cats and dogs at home is yet another area of concern. The present article highlights different evidence of human-animal interface and necessitates the precautionary measures required to combat with the consequences of this interface. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have suggested various ways to promote awareness and corroborate practices for helping people as well as animals to stay secure and healthy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Gatos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Cães/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e002320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935768

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw/undercooked meat is considering an important route of infection. Consumption of meat from equids is common in European and Asian countries and an increase in Brazil has been observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrences of anti-T. gondii antibodies and risk factors relating to infection in equids slaughtered for human consumption in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 192 horses and 208 donkeys were collected in the exsanguination area during the slaughter. Serum samples were subjected to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Association analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher's exact test, to evaluate risk factors relating to the prevalence of seroreagents. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 13.5% of the equids, with higher occurrence in horses (18.75%) than in donkeys (8.65%). Associations between seropositivity and the following variables were found (p ≤ 0.05): species, animal origin, purpose of rearing and source of water for animal consumption and contact with cats. Farms need to implement preventive measures to control T. gondii infection in these species and avert transmission of the parasite to the human population that will consume their meat.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil , Gatos , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
20.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933150

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. The host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric coronavirus, canine enteric coronavirus, equine coronavirus, and alpaca enteric coronavirus, while canine respiratory coronavirus and alpaca respiratory coronavirus result in respiratory infection. Ferret systemic coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus, a mutated feline enteric coronavirus, can lead to lethal immuno-inflammatory systemic disease. Recent human viral pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, COVID-19, all thought to originate from bat coronaviruses, demonstrate the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and their potential to have devastating impacts. A better understanding of the coronaviruses of companion animals, their capacity for cross-species transmission, and the sharing of genetic information may facilitate improved prevention and control strategies for future emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. This article reviews the clinical, epidemiologic, virologic, and pathologic characteristics of nine important coronaviruses of companion animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Furões/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
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