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Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3140070, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937408


Background: Most of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases are sporadic and develop along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis is involved in the development of colorectal cancer. However, there are still no absolute markers predicting the progression from adenoma to carcinoma. Aims: To investigate the characteristics of intestinal microbiota in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma patients and the correlations with clinical characteristics. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from 154 colorectal carcinoma patients (CRC group), 20 colorectal adenoma patients (AD group), and 199 healthy controls (control group). The intestinal microbiota was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Compared to the healthy controls, microbial diversity was dramatically decreased in AD/CRC. At the genus level, Acidaminococcus significantly decreased with the order of control-AD-CRC (P < 0.05). Parvimonas, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella, Butyricimonas, Alistipes, and Odoribacter were the key genera in the network of colorectal adenoma/carcinoma-associated bacteria. Combination of the top 10 most important species, including Butyricimonas synergistica, Agrobacterium larrymoorei, Bacteroides plebeius, Lachnospiraceae bacterium feline oral taxon 001, Clostridium scindens, Prevotella heparinolytica, bacterium LD2013, Streptococcus mutans, Lachnospiraceae bacterium 19gly4, and Eubacterium hallii, showed the best performance in distinguishing AD patients from CRC (AUC = 85.54%, 95% CI: 78.83%-92.25%). The clinicopathologic features, including age, sex, tumor location, differentiation degree, and TNM stage, were identified to be closely linked to the intestinal microbiome in CRC. Conclusion: Several intestinal bacteria changed along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence and might be the potential markers for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal adenoma/carcinoma. Intestinal microbiota characteristics in CRC should account for the host factors.

Adenoma , Carcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adenoma/patologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Gatos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271600, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917321


Significant improvement in thiamin retention of canned cat food has not been achieved by altering processing conditions. Some ingredients, such as yeasts, may supply thiamin able to withstand thermal processing. Therefore, the study objective was to evaluate yeast ingredients as thiamin sources for canned cat food. Six yeast ingredients were screened for thiamin content, and values ranged from 9.9-4,283.8 mg/kg dry matter basis (DMB). Treatments for thermal processing were arranged as a 2×4 factorial with 2 levels of vitamin premix (with or without) and 4 yeast ingredients (NY = none and LBV, BY, or EA from the ingredient screening). Replicates (n = 3) were processed in a horizontal still retort to an average lethality of 79.23 minutes. Thiamin degradation was analyzed as a mixed model with pre-retort thiamin content as a covariate and production day as a random effect. Main effects of vitamin premix and yeast and their interaction were significant at P-values less than 0.05. The Fisher's LSD post hoc comparison test was used to separate means. On average, experimental formulas retained 33.75% thiamin. The main effect of vitamin premix (average -42.9 mg/kg DMB) was not significant (P > 0.05). Thiamin degradation between NY (-31.3 mg/kg DMB) and BY (-33.8 mg/kg DMB) was similar (P > 0.05) whereas EA (-40.5 mg/kg DMB) and LBV (-55.6 mg/kg DMB) lost more (P < 0.05) thiamin than NY. The experimental formula of EA with vitamin premix (-70.3 mg/kg DMB) lost more (P < 0.05) thiamin than no yeast, BY, or EA without vitamin premix (average -17.4 mg/kg DMB) and all others (average -57.3 mg/kg DMB) were intermediate (P > 0.05). In summary, thiamin from yeast ingredients didn't exhibit better thermal stability than thiamin mononitrate. However, those ingredients with similar degradation levels or uniquely high thiamin levels may provide added value.

Tiamina , Vitaminas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Gatos , Alimentos em Conserva , Tiamina/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo
Can Vet J ; 63(8): 851-854, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919467


Objective: To calculate prescribed daily doses (PDDs) for selected antimicrobials and evaluate application of defined daily doses (DDDs) using an antimicrobial purchasing dataset. Animals: Data from dogs and cats treated for bacterial cystitis at a veterinary practice network were evaluated. Procedure: A dataset containing antimicrobial prescriptions for dogs and cats diagnosed with bacterial cystitis was evaluated. Median dose and frequency and median weight of treated animals were used to calculate PDDs. To account for differences in use between dogs and cats, an adjusted DDD was calculated based on adjustment for proportional use in dogs versus cats. Results: PDDs for dogs and cats were determined and adjusted DDDs were calculated and applied to an antimicrobial purchasing dataset from 886 veterinary clinics, demonstrating the difference between mass-based and DDD data. Conclusions: DDDs can be estimated using prescription datasets, accounting for differences in weights (between and within species) and relative use between dogs and cats. These can be applied to broader (sales, purchase) datasets to provide a more detailed understanding of how antimicrobials are used. Clinical relevance: DDDs could be a useful measure for assessing mass-based antimicrobial use datasets as part of antimicrobial stewardship surveillance efforts.

Objectif: Calculer les doses quotidiennes prescrites (PDDs) pour certains antimicrobiens et évaluer l'application de doses quotidiennes définies (DDDs) à l'aide d'un ensemble de données d'achat d'antimicrobiens. Animaux: Les données de chiens et de chats traités pour une cystite bactérienne dans un réseau de pratiques vétérinaires ont été évaluées. Procédure: Un ensemble de données contenant des prescriptions d'antimicrobiens pour les chiens et les chats diagnostiqués avec une cystite bactérienne a été évalué. La dose et la fréquence médianes et le poids médian des animaux traités ont été utilisés pour calculer les PDDs. Pour tenir compte des différences d'utilisation entre les chiens et les chats, une DDD ajustée a été calculée sur la base d'un ajustement pour une utilisation proportionnelle chez les chiens par rapport aux chats. Résultats: Les PDDs pour les chiens et les chats ont été déterminées et les DDDs ajustées ont été calculés et appliqués à un ensemble de données d'achat d'antimicrobiens provenant de 886 cliniques vétérinaires, démontrant la différence entre les données basées sur la masse et les données DDD. Conclusions: Les DDD peuvent être estimées à l'aide d'ensembles de données de prescription, en tenant compte des différences de poids (entre et au sein des espèces) et de l'utilisation relative entre les chiens et les chats. Celles-ci peuvent être appliquées à des ensembles de données plus larges (ventes, achats) pour fournir une compréhension plus détaillée de la façon dont les antimicrobiens sont utilisés. Pertinence clinique: Les DDDs pourraient être une mesure utile pour évaluer les ensembles de données sur l'utilisation massive d'antimicrobiens dans le cadre des efforts de surveillance de la gestion des antimicrobiens.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).

Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções Bacterianas , Doenças do Gato , Cistite , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães
J Vet Sci ; 23(4): e52, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920120


This paper reports a presumptive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a cat. A cat with respiratory disease living with three individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 showed bilateral ground-glass opacities in the lung on X-ray and computed tomography. The clinical swabs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, but the serum was positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Interstitial pneumonia and prominent type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia were noted on histopathology. Respiratory tissues were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA or antigen, but the cat was positive for feline parvovirus DNA. In conclusion, the respiratory disease and associated pathology in this cat could have been due to exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Doenças do Gato , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
Am J Vet Res ; 83(7)2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930783


OBJECTIVE: To assess whether hyperinoculation of cats with a feline herpesvirus-1, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus (FVRCP) vaccine could be used as a model to study interstitial nephritis and to assess humoral and cell-mediated immune responses toward vaccinal α-enolase. ANIMALS: 6 healthy young adult purpose-bred research cats. PROCEDURES: Baseline renal cortical biopsies, whole blood, serum, and urine were collected prior to administration of a commercial FVRCP parenteral vaccine. Vaccine hyperinoculation was defined as a total of 8 vaccinations given at 2-week intervals over a 14-week period. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to each vaccination, and a second renal biopsy was performed 2 weeks after hyperinoculation (week 16). Renal histopathology, renal α-enolase immunohistochemistry, and assays to detect humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions against Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell lysates and α-enolase were performed. An α-enolase immunoreactivity score for renal tubules and glomeruli based on signal intensity was determined by a blinded pathologist. RESULTS: Hyperinoculation with the vaccine was not associated with clinicopathologic evidence of renal dysfunction, and interstitial nephritis was not recognized by light microscopy in the time studied. The mean serum absorbance values for antibodies against CRFK antigen and α-enolase were significantly (P < 0.001) higher at weeks 4, 8, and 16 versus week 0. Renal tubular and glomerular α-enolase immunoreactivity scores were higher at week 16 compared to baseline. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that systemic immunological reactions occurred and renal tissues were affected by vaccine hyperinoculation; however, short-term FVRCP vaccine hyperinoculation cannot be used to study interstitial nephritis in cats.

Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Herpesviridae , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina , Rim , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase , Varicellovirus
Am J Vet Res ; 83(7)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930788


OBJECTIVE: To characterize uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in cases of clinical feline urinary tract infection (UTI) and subclinical bacteriuria and investigate the in vitro effects of E coli strain Nissle 1917 on isolate growth. ANIMALS: 40 cats with positive E coli culture results for urine collected during routine evaluation. PROCEDURES: Characterization of UPEC isolates was performed by PCR-based phylotype analysis and serotyping. Nissle 1917 effects on growth inhibition and competitive overgrowth against UPEC isolates were evaluated in vitro using a plate-based competition assay. RESULTS: Feline phylogroups were similar to previous human and feline UPEC studies, with most of the isolates belonging to phylogroup A (42.5%), B2 (37.5%), and D (15.0%). Fifty-two percent of isolates were found to be resistant to antimicrobials, with 19% of these being multidrug resistant (MDR). Nissle 1917 adversely affected the growth of 82.5% of all isolates and 100% of MDR isolates in vitro. The median zone of inhibition was 3.33 mm (range, 1.67 to 10.67 mm). Thirteen isolates were affected via competitive overgrowth and 20 via growth inhibition. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: UPEC isolates from cats were similar in phylogroup analysis to human and dog isolates. The in vitro effects of Nissle 1917 on UPEC warrant additional studies to determine if similar results can be duplicated in vivo.

Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Probióticos , Infecções Urinárias , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Humanos , Filogenia , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 300, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927668


BACKFROUND: Treatment options for metacarpal/metatarsal fractures include conservative and surgical management. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is any significant difference in healing and complication rates, between open and closed treatment. Medical records of dogs and cats with metacarpal/metatarsal fractures with complete follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were allocated in two groups: open or closed stabilization. Minor and major complications were recorded and compared. Fracture healing was classified as good, delayed and non-union, and it was statistically compared. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (35 dogs and 28 cats) were included. Thirty-one were treated with an open approach and 32 by a closed stabilization. Regarding fracture healing a significantly higher proportion of delayed healing/non-union was found in the closed group (12/32 vs 2/31). Regarding postoperative complications, a significantly higher number of animals in the open group did not develop any complications (12/31 vs 3/32). A significantly higher proportion of minor complications were reported in the closed group (27/32 vs 12/31). However, a higher number of major complications was reported in the open group (7/31 vs 2/32) although this was not statistically significant. Fracture malalignment was significantly more prevalent in patients undergoing closed stabilization (11/32 vs 2/31). CONCLUSION: According to the results, better healing, fracture alignment and a lower complication rate are found when fractures are stabilised with an open technique. However, other factors such as configuration of the fracture, soft tissue involvement, patient´s character and client´s situation would also need to be taken into account in the decision of stabilization technique.

Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Fraturas Ósseas , Ossos Metacarpais , Ossos do Metatarso , Animais , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia , Gatos/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Ossos Metacarpais/cirurgia , Ossos do Metatarso/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 225, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794282


The objective of the study was to analyse the prevalence of infection by N. caninum and T. gondii in breeding ewes from central western Mexico. For this purpose, 184 blood samples were collected from sheep in the reproductive stage, which were analysed by ELISA and PCR tests, respectively, and the association between seroprevalence and some management factors was estimated by means of a logistic regression analysis. For N. caninum, a seroprevalence of 15.22% was identified, while the DNA detection in blood was 14.13% (26/184); positive animals were found in 75% of the farms (6/8). The variables poor placental waste management (OR 8.4), abortion history (OR 1.5) and presence of rodents (OR 1.3) were identified as risk factors for N. caninum infection. In the case of T. gondii, a seroprevalence of 61.96% was found, and antibodies were detected in eight farms included in the study; no positive samples were identified for T. gondii by the PCR test. The main identified risk factors for T. gondii were as follows: poor hygiene conditions (OR 12.5), presence of cats (OR 9.5), presence of other domestic animals (OR 5.7), urban context of the farm (OR 9.5) and public water supply (OR 5.3). The seroprevalence of co-infection of T. gondii and N. caninum in breeding ewes was 7% (13/184; 95% CI 6.92-7.20). T. gondii has a high seroprevalence while N. caninum was of lower proportion, and both may be associated with reproductive losses for these herds studied.

Doenças do Gato , Neospora , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Cruzamento , Gatos , Feminino , México/epidemiologia , Placenta , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e004222, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792756


We evaluated the epidemiological, hematological, and pathological data of Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Platynosomum illiciens, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections and the coinfections in stray cats of an endemic area for leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was performed by serological tests and necropsy. We described gross lesions and histopathological findings. We used immunohistochemistry and chromogenic in situ hybridization for L. infantum detection. We found infection in 27 out of 50 sampled cats, among them, 14 presented coinfections. A strong correlation between splenomegaly and lymphadenomegaly with FeLV, and an association between hepatic lesions and cachexia with parasitism due to P. illiciens were observed. Moreover, we found a significant increase in the monocyte count in the FeLV-infected and a decrease in the red blood cell count in the FIV-infected animals. Amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. and tissue changes were detected in lymphoid organs of an animal coinfected with P. illiciens, T. gondii, and FIV. Polyparasitism recorded in stray cats of the Brazilian Midwest should be considered in effective control strategies for public health diseases. Moreover, stray cats of Campo Grande may be a source of infection of FIV, FeLV and P. illiciens for populations of domiciled cats.

Doenças do Gato , Coinfecção , Leishmaniose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leishmaniose/complicações , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Leucemia Felina/complicações , Leucemia Felina/epidemiologia
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 58(4): 207-212, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793486


A 7 yr old female neutered domestic shorthair was presented with a 2 mo history of lethargy and hyporexia progressing to anorexia. Initial diagnostics indicated pancreatitis with secondary hepatic lipidosis. Supportive care, including the placement of an esophageal feeding tube, was initiated. The feeding tube was removed traumatically by the cat and thus replaced. The cat acutely deteriorated while hospitalized, developing marked hypersalivation and an obtunded mentation. Radiographs were taken to confirm placement of the feeding tube in case tube dislodgement was contributing to the hypersalivation; results confirmed appropriate positioning and gastric pneumatosis. Despite intensified medical management, the patient suffered cardiopulmonary arrest 7 days after hospital admission. Post-mortem examination confirmed necrotizing gastritis with emphysema alongside segmental mucosal necrosis in the jejunum, focal pancreatic necrosis, and diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Gas in the gastric wall is a rare finding in veterinary medicine and can arise due to gastric pneumatosis or emphysematous gastritis; there are scant reports of either in feline medicine. This report documents a case of emphysematous gastritis in a cat with concurrent pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis. The cat developed emphysematous gastritis without undergoing gastrointestinal surgery which is currently the only reported feline predis-posing factor for development.

Doenças do Gato , Enfisema , Gastrite , Lipidoses , Pancreatite , Sialorreia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Enfisema/complicações , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Enfisema/veterinária , Feminino , Gastrite/complicações , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/veterinária , Lipidoses/complicações , Lipidoses/veterinária , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/veterinária , Sialorreia/complicações , Sialorreia/veterinária
Can Vet J ; 63(7): 695-700, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784779


A 6-year-old, intact female, domestic short-hair cat had a 3-month history of obstipation. On physical examination and diagnostic imaging, megacolon secondary to a large, intrapelvic vaginal mass was diagnosed. An ovariohysterectomy and a complete vaginectomy via a ventral midline celiotomy and bilateral pubic and ischial osteotomies were performed. This approach allowed excellent exposure of the entire genital tract necessary to excise the large vaginal mass. The mass was histologically diagnosed as a vaginal fibrous stromal polyp. Obstipation resolved 12 h after surgery. On radiographic recheck 11 d after surgery, the colon had returned to normal size. No major surgical complications were observed. This is the first case report of a complete vaginectomy via the ventral approach with a pelvic osteotomy in a cat. Furthermore, this report describes the different surgical techniques used in animals affected by a large vaginal mass and provides evidence that an aggressive surgical approach and en-bloc excision can be considered for the management of extensive intrapelvic vaginal masses in cats.

Vaginectomie complète par voie ventrale avec ostéotomie pelvienne chez une chatte. Une chatte domestique à poils courts, intacte, âgée de 6 ans, présentait des antécédents d'obstipation depuis 3 mois. À l'examen physique et à l'imagerie diagnostique, un mégacôlon secondaire à une grosse masse vaginale intra-pelvienne a été diagnostiqué. Une ovario-hystérectomie et une vaginectomie complète via une céliotomie médiane ventrale et des ostéotomies pubiennes et ischiatiques bilatérales ont été réalisées. Cette approche a permis une excellente exposition de l'ensemble du tractus génital nécessaire pour exciser la grosse masse vaginale. La masse a été histologiquement diagnostiquée comme étant un polype stromal fibreux vaginal. L'obstipation a été résolue 12 h après la chirurgie. Lors d'une nouvelle vérification radiographique 11 jours après la chirurgie, le côlon avait retrouvé sa taille normale. Aucune complication chirurgicale majeure n'a été observée. Il s'agit du premier rapport de cas d'une vaginectomie complète par voie ventrale avec ostéotomie pelvienne chez une chatte. En outre, ce rapport décrit les différentes techniques chirurgicales utilisées chez les animaux atteints d'un gros polype vaginal et fournit des preuves qu'une approche chirurgicale agressive et une excision en bloc peuvent être envisagées pour la prise en charge des masses vaginales intra-pelviennes étendues chez les chats.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).

Colpotomia , Constipação Intestinal , Osteotomia , Abdome , Animais , Gatos , Colpotomia/efeitos adversos , Colpotomia/veterinária , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/veterinária , Feminino , Histerectomia/veterinária , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Osteotomia/veterinária , Gravidez , Osso Púbico/cirurgia
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 258, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790990


BACKGROUND: Bronchiolar disorders are rarely recognized in cats. Constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans is characterized by concentric peribronchiolar fibrosis and inflammation of the bronchioles, but the underlying causes remain poorly understood in current small animal medicine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old cat presented with paroxysmal tachypnea, infrequent cough and persistent labor breathing. Thoracic radiography showed lung hyperinflation and bronchointerstitial pattern, and pulmonary function assessment revealed flow limitation in the late-expiratory phase and poor response to short-acting bronchodilator. Dorsally distributed subpleural ground glass opacities with distinct margin and tree-in-bud opacities were observed on lung high-resolution computed tomography. The cat underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and showed severe neutrophilic inflammation. Feline herpesvirus was the only pathogen detected in the BAL fluid. Multiple therapeutic attempts were unsuccessful and the cat died 8 weeks after the initial presentation. Necropsy revealed the infiltration of inflammatory cells, obstruction of the bronchiolar lumen, and submucosal concentric fibrosis suggesting constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans. Combining the pre- and post-mortem findings, as well as the time from symptom onset or BAL to necropsy, constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans was possibly triggered by a preceding feline herpesvirus infection in this case. CONCLUSIONS: The history of nonvaccinated status, lower airway neutrophilic inflammation, and presence of feline herpesvirus in the BAL fluid without coexistence of other pathogens led to the presumption that constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans was induced by a preceding feline herpesvirus infection in this cat. The pathological changes of bronchiolitis obliterans induced by a preceding feline herpesvirus infection could be different from that of cats with acute herpesvirus pneumonia, such as intranuclear inclusions would disappear over time and were no longer found 7-10 days after inoculation. The presence of patchy distribution of subpleural ground glass opacities on lung high-resolution computed tomography should raise the suspicion of peribronchiolar fibrosis. Clinical awareness of bronchiolar disorders as a differential diagnosis is important in cats with lung hyperinflation and labored breathing who show poor reversibility to bronchodilator.

Bronquiolite Obliterante , Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Animais , Bronquiolite Obliterante/diagnóstico por imagem , Bronquiolite Obliterante/etiologia , Bronquiolite Obliterante/veterinária , Broncodilatadores , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Constrição Patológica/veterinária , Fibrose , Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Varicellovirus
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11418, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794167


Thoracic radiograph (TR) is a complementary exam widely used in small animal medicine which requires a sharp analysis to take full advantage of Radiographic Pulmonary Pattern (RPP). Although promising advances have been made in deep learning for veterinary imaging, the development of a Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to detect specifically RPP from feline TR images has not been investigated. Here, a CNN based on ResNet50V2 and pre-trained on ImageNet is first fine-tuned on human Chest X-rays and then fine-tuned again on 500 annotated TR images from the veterinary campus of VetAgro Sup (Lyon, France). The impact of manual segmentation of TR's intrathoracic area and enhancing contrast method on the CNN's performances has been compared. To improve classification performances, 200 networks were trained on random shuffles of training set and validation set. A voting approach over these 200 networks trained on segmented TR images produced the best classification performances and achieved mean Accuracy, F1-Score, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value and Sensitivity of 82%, 85%, 75%, 81% and 88% respectively on the test set. Finally, the classification schemes were discussed in the light of an ensemble method of class activation maps and confirmed that the proposed approach is helpful for veterinarians.

Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Gatos , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Radiografia
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 253, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818075


BACKGROUND: There is limited information about feline leishmaniosis (FeL) management in clinical practice. Leishmania infantum is the species of Leishmania most frequently reported in both dogs and cats in countries of the Mediterranean region (henceforth 'Mediterranean countries'), Central and South America, and Iran. This study was conducted to provide veterinary clinicians with an updated overview of evidence-based information on leishmaniosis in cats. METHODS: A review was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Case reports of FeL caused by L. infantum were sought for the period 1912 to 1 June 2021. RESULTS: Sixty-three case reports are included in this review. Fifty-nine out of the 63 cats were from Europe, mostly from Mediterranean countries (88.9%). Most of them were domestic short-haired cats (90%) with a mean age of 7.9 years, and had access to the outdoors (77.3%). Sixty-six percent of the cats had comorbidities, of which feline immunodeficiency virus infection was the most frequent (37.7%). Dermatological lesions (69.8%) was the most frequent clinical sign, and hyperproteinemia (46.3%) the most frequent clinicopathological abnormality. Serology was the most performed diagnostic method (76.2%) and was positive for 93.7% of cats. Medical treatment was applied in 71.4% of cats, and allopurinol was the most used drug (74.4%). Survival time was greater for treated cats (520 days; 71.4% of cats) than non-treated cats (210 days; 25.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the cats had comorbidities, of which feline immunodeficiency virus was the most frequent. Dermatological lesions were frequently reported, and systemic clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities were also common. Serology may be useful for the diagnosis of FeL in clinical practice, and a positive titer of ≥ 1/40 may be a useful cut-off for sick cats. The reported treatments and dosages varied, but there was a good clinical response and longer survival in most of the cats treated with allopurinol monotherapy.

Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 276, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836213


BACKGROUND: Feline injection-site sarcomas (FISSs) are malignant mesenchymal tumors of different histotypes. The pathogenesis of FISS has been correlated with chronic inflammation, resulting in neoplastic transformation. Activation of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) have been demonstrated to play a critical role in tumor development by regulating signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis in human medicine. To characterize the role of STAT3 in FISS, we first detected STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) FISS tissues using immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: STAT3 was detected in 88.9% (40/45) of FISS cases, and phosphorylated STAT3 was detected in 53.3% (24/45) of cases. However, the expression levels of both forms of STAT3 were not correlated with tumor grade. To study the role of STAT3 in tumor survival, two primary cells derived from FISSs of two cats exhibiting consistent immunophenotypes with their parental FFPE tissues were established. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell proliferation was observed in both primary FISS cells treated with the STAT3 inhibitor, 5-hydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1-sulfonamide. CONCLUSIONS: The STAT 3 may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of FISS and be a potential molecular therapeutic target for FISS.

Doenças do Gato , Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Animais , Gatos , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Sarcoma/etiologia , Sarcoma/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Sulfonamidas
Can J Vet Res ; 86(3): 203-208, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794970


The objectives of this study were to retrospectively compare blood pressure measurements obtained in clinic with those obtained at home from cats and dogs seen at our hospital and to investigate the potential for white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) in this population of 10 cats and 7 dogs. Medical records from Western College of Veterinary Medicine were searched to identify patients with paired home and in-clinic blood pressure measurements taken within 14 d. The results were compared with matched-pair analysis to determine the agreement and bias. Significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured in the clinic compared with those from home measurements. A mean difference of +27.7 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 17.1 to 38.3 mmHg, P < 0.001] and +12.9 mmHg (95% CI: 6.4 to 19.5 mmHg, P = 0.0007) was found for systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively. The prevalence of WCH in this population was 41%. A total of 39% of home blood pressure measurements by owners were free of artefacts as evaluated by waveforms on high-definition oscillometry (HDO) devices. The results of this study showed that blood pressure measurements taken at home and at a clinic varied significantly, which was attributed to a high prevalence of white-coat effect and white-coat hypertension in this clinical population.

Les objectifs de cette étude étaient de comparer rétrospectivement les mesures de pression sanguine obtenues en clinique avec celles obtenues à la maison pour des chats et des chiens vus en consultation à notre hôpital et d'examiner le potentiel pour l'effet pelage blanc (WCE) et l'hypertension pelage blanc (WCH) dans cette population de dix chats et sept chiens. Les dossiers médicaux du Western College of Veterinary Medicine ont été consultés afin d'identifier des patients avec mesures pairées de la pression sanguine en clinique et à la maison prises dans un délai de 14 jours. Les résultats furent comparés par analyse par paires appariées pour déterminer l'accord et le biais. Des pressions sanguines systoliques et diastoliques significativement plus élevées ont été mesurées en clinique comparativement à celles mesurées à la maison. Une différence moyenne de + 27,7 mmHg [intervalle de confiance 95 % (CI) : 17,1 à 38,3 mmHg, P < 0,001] et + 12,9 mmHg (CI 95 % : 6,4 à 19,5 mmHg, P = 0,0007) a été trouvée pour la pression systolique et diastolique, respectivement. La prévalence de WCH dans cette population était de 41 %. Un total de 39 % des mesures de pression sanguine à la maison par les propriétaires était exempt d'artéfact, tel qu'évalué par la forme des ondes sur des équipements d'oscillométrie à haute définition (HDO). Les résultats de cette étude ont montré que les mesures de pression sanguine prises à la maison et à une clinique variaient de manière significative, ce qui a été attribué à une prévalence élevée de l'effet pelage blanc et d'hypertension pelage blanc dans cette population clinique.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).

Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/diagnóstico , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/veterinária
Can J Vet Res ; 86(3): 181-187, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794971


Obesity, which is the most common spontaneous nutritional disorder in cats, is a known risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus and has been linked to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and altered adipose-derived hormone secretion in cats. The objective of this study was to monitor and report changes in the results of serial intravenous glucose tolerance testing (IVGTT) and other metabolic parameters in 4 obese cats over a 4-year period. Serial IVGTT, insulin sensitivity indices, adipokine concentrations, and lipid profiles were evaluated. All cats had IVGTT changes consistent with impaired glucose tolerance and altered insulin secretory patterns during the 4-year study period. There was no significant increase in the fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations and no changes in the insulin sensitivity indices evaluated. The mean adiponectin concentration decreased significantly over time, but there was no significant increase in the leptin concentration and no changes were observed in lipid profiles. Although IVGTT can be used to document early and/or mild impairment of glucose tolerance and changes in insulin secretory pattern, this test cannot be easily or readily carried out on client-owned cats in most clinical settings. More work needs to be done to establish reliable, convenient methods for earlier identification of cats at risk of developing clinical diabetes mellitus.

L'obésité, qui est le désordre nutritionnel spontané le plus fréquent chez les chats, est un facteur de risque connu pour le développement du diabète mellitus et a été associé à une résistance à l'insuline, à de l'hyperinsulinémie et à une sécrétion altérée d'hormone dérivée du tissu adipeux chez les chats. L'objectif de cette étude était de surveiller et rapporter les changements dans les résultats de tests de tolérance au glucose intraveineux en série (IVGTT) et autres paramètres métaboliques chez quatre chats obèses sur une période de 4 ans. Des IVGTT en série, les indices de sensibilité à l'insuline, les concentrations d'adipokines et les profils lipidiques ont été évalués. Tous les chats avaient des changements d'IVGTT compatibles avec une tolérance réduite au glucose et des patrons de sécrétion d'insuline altérés durant la période d'étude de 4 ans. Il n'y avait pas d'augmentation significative des concentrations de glucose sanguin ou d'insuline à jeun et aucun changement dans les indices de sensibilité à l'insuline évalués. La concentration moyenne d'adiponectine a diminué de manière significative en fonction du temps, mais il n'y avait pas d'augmentation significative de la concentration de leptine et aucun changement n'a été observé dans les profils lipidiques. Bien que l'IVGTT peut être utilisé pour documenter une diminution naissante et/ou légère de la tolérance au glucose et des changements dans le patron de sécrétion d'insuline, ce test ne peut pas être réalisé facilement ou rapidement sur des chats de clients dans la plupart des milieux de pratique. Plus de travail doit être fait pour établir des méthodes fiables et pratiques pour une identification plus précoce des chats à risque de développer un diabète mellitus.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).

Doenças do Gato , Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gatos , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinária , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Lipídeos , Obesidade/veterinária
Can J Vet Res ; 86(3): 229-232, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794972


The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of protective antibody titers against feline panleukopenia (FPL) in cats presenting to an emergency service. Seventy-five cats presenting for care for any injury or illness were eligible for inclusion. Using American Association of Feline Practitioners guidelines, vaccine status - up-to-date, not up-to-date, or unconfirmed - was recorded. Titers against FPL were semi-quantified using a point-of-care test and were classified as protective or non-protective. Of the 75 cats enrolled, 49 had protective titers (65%), whereas 26 (35%) did not. Fifty cats (66.7%) were considered up-to-date, whereas 25 cats (33.3%) were not up-to-date or unconfirmed. Not all up-to-date cats had positive titers and some cats with lapsed vaccines were still considered protected. Of the up-to-date cats, 35/50 (70%) had protective titers, whereas 15 (30%) did not. Of the 25 cats that were not up-to-date, titers were considered protective in 14 (56%) and absent in 11 (44%). This study supports that even in cats considered up-to-date, it is possible that adequate protection against FPL is not present. Care should be taken to appropriately isolate cats affected with illness attributable to FPL from other cats and prevent inadvertent nosocomial transmission.

Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence des titres d'anticorps protecteurs contre la panleucopénie féline (FPL) chez des chats présentés à un service d'urgence. Soixante-quinze chats présentés pour diverses blessures et maladies étaient éligibles à l'inclusion. L'état de vaccination, à jour ou non à jour/non confirmé selon les directives de l'AAFP a été enregistré. Les titres de FPL ont été semi-quantifiés à l'aide d'un test au chevet du patient et ont été classés comme protecteurs ou non protecteurs. Sur les 75 chats inclus, 49 avaient des titres protecteurs (65 %), tandis que 26 (35 %) n'en avaient pas. Cinquante chats (66,7 %) ont été considérés comme à jour, tandis que 25 chats (33,3 %) étaient non à jour ou non confirmés. Parmi les chats à jour, 35/50 (70 %) avaient des titres protecteurs, tandis que 15 (30 %) n'en avaient pas. Sur les 25 chats qui étaient non à jour, les titres étaient considérés comme protecteurs chez 14 (56 %) et absents chez 11 (44 %). Les chats qui étaient à jour n'avaient pas uniformément des titres positifs, tandis que certains chats dont les vaccins n'étaient pas à jour étaient encore considérés comme protégés. Cette étude soutient que même chez les chats considérés à jour, il est possible qu'une protection adéquate contre la FPL ne soit pas présente. Des précautions doivent être prises pour isoler de manière appropriée les chats atteints de maladies attribuables à la panleucopénie féline des autres chats et éviter une transmission nosocomiale accidentelle.(Traduit par les auteurs).

Doenças do Gato , Panleucopenia Felina , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Panleucopenia Felina/diagnóstico , Panleucopenia Felina/epidemiologia , Panleucopenia Felina/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prevalência , Universidades
Can J Vet Res ; 86(3): 209-217, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794975


Urine output measurement is critical for the management of hospitalized cats and their underlying conditions. Ultrasound-guided estimation of urinary bladder volume (UBV) is a non-invasive surrogate measurement that can provide important clinical information. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a novel 3D computation method in estimating UBV using 2D point-of-care ultrasonographic images. Bladder volume estimation was performed using coordinates from bladder circumference tracings on paired longitudinal and transverse ultrasonographic images (n = 359) aligned in 3D space for mathematical algorithmic computation. Ultrasonographic images were obtained by 2 different observers at 18 different time points on 10 healthy, purpose-bred male cats under general anesthesia in sternal recumbency. Actual urine volumes were measured via urinary catheterization and compared to UBV estimations using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Estimation of UBV using the 3D computational bladder circumference tracing method showed moderate strength-of-agreement with actual bladder volume (ρc = 0.94 to 0.95) with clinically insignificant bias (3D computation-derived minus actual volume) of -1.96 mL (IQR = -3.89 to -0.57 mL, P < 0.001) and -2.42 mL (IQR = -4.64 to -0.66 mL, P < 0.001) for the 2 observers, respectively. Our study demonstrated acceptable accuracy of 3D computation method for UBV estimation in healthy cats. This method may provide a bridging alternative until 3D ultrasound becomes more readily accessible.

La mesure de la diurèse est critique pour la gestion de chats hospitalisés ainsi que de leurs conditions sous-jacentes. L'estimation échoguidée du volume vésical (UBV) est une mesure de substitution non-invasive qui peut fournir d'importantes informations cliniques. L'objectif de cette étude fut de valider la précision d'une nouvelle méthode de calcul 3D dans l'estimation du volume vésical à l'aide d'images 2D obtenues par échographie au point d'intervention. L'estimation du volume vésical a été réalisée à l'aide de coordonnées des tracés de la circonférence de la vessie sur des images échographiques longitudinales et transversales appariées (n = 359), alignées dans l'espace 3D pour le calcul algorithmique mathématique. Des images échographiques ont été obtenues par deux observateurs différents à 18 moments différents sur 10 chats mâles sains et élevés à cette fin, sous anesthésie générale en décubitus sternal. Les volumes d'urine réels ont été mesurés par cathétérisme urinaire et comparés aux estimations de volume vésical à l'aide du coefficient de corrélation de concordance de Lin et de l'analyse de Bland-Altman. L'estimation du volume vésical à l'aide de la méthode 3D de traçage de la circonférence de la vessie a démontré un degré d'accord modérée avec le volume réel de la vessie (ρc = 0,94 to 0,95) avec un biais cliniquement insignifiant (calcul 3D moins volume réel) de −1,96 mL (écart interquartile = −3,89 à −0,57 mL, P < 0,001) et de −2,42 mL (écart interquartile = −4,64 à −0,66 mL, P < 0,001) pour les deux observateurs respectivement. Notre étude a démontré une précision acceptable de la méthode de calcul 3D pour l'estimation du volume vésical chez des chats en bonne santé. Cette méthode peut fournir une alternative de transition jusqu'à ce que l'échographie 3D devienne plus facilement accessible.(Traduit par Docteur Sabrina Ayoub).

Gatos , Modelos Teóricos , Ultrassonografia , Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 45 Suppl 1: S67-S84, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790012


Transdermal buprenorphine solution (TBS) is approved for the control of postoperative pain in cats where a single preoperative dose provides 4 days of analgesia. It is administered as a unit dose of 8 mg to cats weighing 1.2-3 kg and 20 mg to cats weighing to >3-7.5 kg, which is equivalent to a dosage on a bodyweight basis of 2.7-6.7 mg/kg. In this safety study, the 1X dose was defined as 6.7 mg/kg. Thirty-two cats (16 males and 16 females) were randomly allocated to placebo, 1, 2, and 3X TBS administered topically to the dorsal cervical skin every 4 days for 3 doses. Clinical observations, behavioral scores, mydriasis score (yes/no), and physiological variables were assessed or measured prior to each dose administration (0 h) and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h following each treatment and prior to euthanasia on Day 12 or 13. Blood samples for clinical pathology were collected on Days - 1, 4, 8, and prior to euthanasia. There was little evidence of respiratory, cardiovascular, or gastrointestinal effects. Respiratory rates were above the reference range in all groups and lower by 10 breaths/min in the 3X group during the third dosing interval compared to placebo. There were no differences in heart rates. Constipation was transiently observed in approximately equal numbers in placebo- and TBS-treated cats. Behavioral scores showed sedation or euphoria was transient in the first dosing interval but became more prolonged with each dosing interval. Mydriasis was prolonged in the first dosing interval and diminished by the third dosing interval consistent with accommodation. Mean body temperatures in TBS-treated cats were up to 0.6°C (1.8°F) greater than placebo-treated cats. There were no clinically relevant changes to serum chemistry, hematology, or urinalysis outcomes nor gross or microscopic observations attributable to TBS. These data demonstrate that TBS is safe and well-tolerated when administered to 16-week-old cats at multiples of the approved dose and duration and supports clinical safety in the event of delayed buprenorphine metabolism, medication errors, or alterations in the dosing regimen.

Analgesia , Buprenorfina , Doenças do Gato , Midríase , Analgesia/veterinária , Analgésicos Opioides , Animais , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Midríase/tratamento farmacológico , Midríase/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária