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1.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 45, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581952

RESUMO

Feline hyperthyroidism is a rather new disease, first reported from the North American east coast in 1979. The prevalence is increasing, especially in older cats, and hyperthyroidism is now reported worldwide as the most common feline endocrinopathy. Several studies have been performed trying to identify important etiological factors such as exposure to persistent organic pollutants, and especially brominated flame retardants, have been suggested to be of importance for the development of the disease. Recent studies have shown higher concentrations of these contaminants in serum of hyperthyroid cats in comparison to cats with normal thyroid status. However, other still unknown factors are most probably of importance for the development of this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/toxicidade , Hipertireoidismo/sangue , Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipertireoidismo/etiologia
2.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 422-427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513542

RESUMO

Medicating animals poses unique challenges that are often best dealt with via compounding. Pharmacists receive compounding training while in pharmacy school, but this training is not veterinary specific. Pharmacists are expected to have enough knowledge to properly verify prescriptions that are received at their practice site while keeping with the most up-to-date guidelines related to animal and human health. Whether pharmacists have the proper training to verify and/or compound veterinary specific medications is unknown. A self-administered survey was distributed electronically to 4,550 email addresses on record with the American College of Veterinary Pharmacists, the International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists, and the Society of Veterinary Hospital Pharmacists. The survey asked questions about regulations and standards associated with the use of prescription or compounded medications. Of the 4,550 distributed surveys, 153 were received, for a 3.4% response rate. Of the responses received, only 131 were used in the final data analysis. Most respondents correctly answered the assessment question regarding the ability to compound backordered, commercially available products. A majority of respondents incorrectly answered the question regarding the proper flavoring for a medication for a ferret. Those with more training perceived themselves to have a higher level of skill (r = 0.41, P<0.001). Similarly, those with formal veterinary training had better scores on Question 4 of the assessment questions, which requires knowledge of feline toxicities (P=0.029). The most common compounded medications dispensed in practice by pharmacists are methimazole, metronidazole, and gabapentin. Pharmacists mostly recognized that compounding backordered, commercially available products is permitted. Formal training improves familiarity with current compounding rules, regulations, and best practices. Formal training in veterinary pharmacy and veterinary compounding should be promoted and encouraged. Efforts should also be made at improving pharmacists' understanding of both veterinary and compounding laws and regulations.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Drogas Veterinárias , Animais , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 299-300, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand Clonorchis sinensis infections in cats in Nanning City, so as to provide evidence for the control of the reservoir host of C. sinensis. METHODS: The cat livers were purchased from cat slaughterhouses in Nanning City. The cat gallbladder and liver were dissected, and liver flukes were collected and counted. Then, the worms were subjected to morphological observation, amplification of the ITS2 gene and sequencing. The species of the worms were identified using BLAST. RESULTS: A total of 105 cat livers were collected from two cat slaughterhouses, and 68 were detected with C. sinensis infections, with an infection rate of 64.76%. The highest burden was 980 worms in a single liver, and the mean burden was 72 worms in a liver. There were 3 types of liver flukes with various size and morphology, and all were identified as C. sinensis by means of morphological observation, ITS2 gene amplification, sequencing and sequence alignment. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high infection rate of C. sinensi in marketed cats in Nanning City, and it is therefore suggested that targeted interventions should be intensified for the management of C. sinensis infections in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Clonorquíase , Clonorchis sinensis , Reservatórios de Doenças , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Clonorquíase/veterinária , Clonorchis sinensis/anatomia & histologia , Clonorchis sinensis/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária , Prevalência
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 112-121, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476666

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is the parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis, a highly prevalent zoonosis that affects humans and warm-blooded animals. Faeces of infected cats can contain millions of T. gondii oocysts, which remain infectious in the environment for months. Sites repeatedly used by cats for defecation ('latrines') are recognised as hotspots of T. gondii soil contamination, but this contamination varies from one latrine to another. To understand this spatial heterogeneity, camera traps were deployed in 39 cat latrines on three dairy farms with high-density cat populations and programmed to record visits during sixteen 10-day sessions, rotating between three farms over a period of a year. Generalized Linear Mixed Models were used to test the effects of cat sexual maturity, latrine location and season on the number of cat faeces deposited and on the number of cats defecating per latrine, as determined from the analysis of 41,282 video recordings. Sexually immature cats defecated 6.60-fold (95% CI = [2.87-15.25]) more often in latrines located close to a feeding site than in other latrines. This pattern was also observed for mature males (odds ratio [OR] = 9.42, 95% CI = [3.29-26.91]), especially during winter, but not for mature females (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [0.80-3.94]). The number of defecating cats was also 2.67-fold (95% CI = [1.66-4.30], P < 0.001) higher in latrines located close to a feeding point than in those located far from it, regardless of cat category and season. Visits by intermediate T. gondii hosts (micromammals, birds and others) were also recorded. Out of the 39 latrines, 30 (76.92%) were visited by at least one intermediate host during the study period, and some latrines were highly frequented (up to 8.74 visits/day on average). These results provide evidence that the location of food resources in dairy farms influences the latrine use pattern by cats. Highly frequented latrines can be of high risk of T. gondii infection for definitive and intermediate hosts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Solo/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Animais , Gatos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Modelos Lineares , Densidade Demográfica
6.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2761-2768, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506786

RESUMO

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to detect and distinguish feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline bocavirus (FBoV) and feline astrovirus (FeAstV). Three pairs of primers were designed based on conserved regions in the genomic sequences of the three viruses and were used to specifically amplify targeted fragments of 237 bp from the VP2 gene of FPV, 465 bp from the NP1 gene of FBoV and 645 bp from the RdRp gene of FeAstV. The results showed that this mPCR assay was effective, because it could detect at least 2.25-4.04 × 104 copies of genomic DNA of the three viruses per µl, was highly specific, and had a good broad-spectrum ability to detect different genotypes of the targeted viruses. A total of 197 faecal samples that had been screened previously for FeAstV and FBoV were collected from domestic cats in northeast China and were tested for the three viruses using the newly developed mPCR assay. The total positive rate for these three viruses was 59.89% (118/197). From these samples, DNA from FPV, FBoV and FeAstV was detected in 73, 51 and 46 faecal samples, respectively. The mPCR testing results agreed with the routine PCR results with a coincidence rate of 100%. The results of this study show that this mPCR assay can simultaneously detect and differentiate FPV, FBoV and FeAstV and can be used as an easy, specific and efficient detection tool for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation of these three viruses.


Assuntos
Bocavirus/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Mamastrovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Animais , Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , China , Primers do DNA/genética , Fezes/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 511-513, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterial diseases of humans and animals can be caused by mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT). The transmission of the infection primarily occurs via the respiratory or oral routes, but also via a damaged skin barrier. MOTT have high resistance to external factors; therefore, infected, undiagnosed animals can pose a risk for public health. CASE REPORT: The case study describes mycobacterial skin infection in a domestic cat. The correct diagnosis was reached four months after the appearance of the first clinical signs. Those were purulent, granulomatous lesions and fistulas, which could potentially act as a source of the infection for the owners and the veterinarian who cared for the animal. CONCLUSION: Despite using advanced diagnostic techniques, establishing the final cause of the cat's illness was a lengthy process. The skin lesions could contribute to the transmission of the bacteria in the environment. Non-targeted treatments could also cause antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/veterinária , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/veterinária , Animais , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Masculino , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia
8.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(6): 1041-1061, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521406

RESUMO

Locoregional (local and regional) anesthesia is used routinely during surgical procedures of the head. The goal of this article is to provide a practical guide for the clinician to safely perform different techniques in dogs and cats and to minimize the risk of complications associated with locoregional anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/veterinária , Anestesia Local/veterinária , Gatos , Cães , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Animais , Gatos/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 35-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468384

RESUMO

Taurine content in the body is maintained by both biosynthesis from sulfur-contained amino acids in the liver and ingestion from usual foods, mainly seafoods and meat. Contrary to the rodents, the maintenance of taurine content in the body depends on the oral taurine ingestion in cats as well as humans because of the low ability of the biosynthesis. Therefore, insufficient of dietary taurine intake increases the risks of various diseases such as blind and expanded cardiomyopathy in the cats. One of the most established physiological roles of taurine is the conjugation with bile acid in the liver. In addition, taurine has effect to increase the expression and activity of bile acid synthesis rate-limiting enzyme CYP7A1. Present study purposed to evaluate the influence of taurine deficiency on bile acids in the cats fed taurine-lacking diet. Adult cats were fed the soybean protein-based diet with 0.15% taurine or without taurine for 30 weeks. Taurine concentration in serum and liver was undetectable, and bile acids in the bile were significantly decreased in the taurine-deficient cats. Taurine-conjugated bile acids in the bile were significantly decreased, and instead, unconjugated bile acids were significantly increased in the taurine-deficient cats. Present results suggested that the taurine may play an important role in the synthesis of bile acids in the liver.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Bile/química , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Taurina/deficiência , Animais , Gatos , Dieta
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 17-23, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442888

RESUMO

The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus may cause severe diarrhea in cats all over the world. In order to evaluate the methodology in coprological molecular diagnosis of feline tritrichomonosis, we compared previously published ("old") and newly developed ("novel") loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) (targeted to the T. foetus ß-tubulin and the elf1α 1 gene, respectively) as well as an old conventional and an old and novel real-time PCR (all targeted to overlapping regions of T. foetus rDNA) assays regarding their diagnostic sensitivities and specificities. Here, the novel real-time PCR yielded the best methodical performance in that a sensitivity with a detection limit of <0.1 trophozoites (corresponding to ca.<0.13 trophozoites per mg feces) and a maximal specificity for diagnosis of Tritrichomonas spp. was achieved. The other test systems exhibited either an approximately 10-times lower sensitivity (<1 trophozoite corresponding to ca.<1.3 trophozoites per mg feces) (conventional PCR and both LAMP assays) or a lower specificity (old real-time PCR). Conversely, the diagnostic performance assessed with clinical fecal samples from cats demonstrated identical sensitivities (8 of 20 samples tested were positive) for the novel PCR and both LAMP assays. Diagnostic sensitivities were significantly higher than those found for the old real-time (5 positive samples) and conventional PCR (6 positive samples), respectively. Accordingly, our data suggested the novel PCR and both LAMP assays to be well suited molecular tools for direct (i.e. without including an in vitro cultivation step) coprological diagnosis of tritrichomonosis in cats. Interestingly, relative high (novel LAMP, 7 positive samples) to at least moderate (old LAMP, 6 positive samples and 1 sample with equivocal score) diagnostic sensitivities were also achieved by testing clinical samples upon simple visual inspection of colorimetric changes during the LAMP amplification reactions. Accordingly, both LAMP assays may serve as practical molecular tools to perform epidemiological studies on feline (and bovine as well as porcine) tritrichomonosis under simple laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Tritrichomonas foetus , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 80-85, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446257

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum for which dogs are the main reservoir. In South America, presence of this disease is expanding along with increasing dispersion of its principal vector, the sand-fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Feline leishmaniasis is an emerging disease in domestic cats, but epidemiological studies in endemic areas of the Amazon region of Brazil are scarce and the role of cats as reservoirs of L. infantum has been debated. The aim of this study was to investigate L. infantum infection in cats living in the Amazon biome region, using serological and molecular methods. A total of 105 cats were subjected to clinical examination and blood samples were taken for immunofluorescent-antibody (IFAT) serological evaluation, to determine anti-Leishmania antibody titers. Conventional PCR and Sanger's sequencing targeting L. infantum chitinase and Leishmania species ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) encoding genes were performed on conjunctival swabs from these cats. Seropositivity was detected in 32 animals (30.48%), thus confirming that contact between these cats and the parasite was occurring. PCR followed by amplicon sequencing showed that three samples (2.86%) were positive for a chitinase gene and six (5.71%) were positive for the ITS-1 gene. Parasite-positive diagnoses presented a statistically significant association with free access to the streets (p = 0.0111), cohabitation with dogs affected previously by VL (p = 0.0006) and absence of backyard cleaning and garbage collection (p = 0.00003). These results emphasize that cats should be included in epidemiological surveys of leishmaniasis, especially in endemic areas, if not as the reservoir host (unproven), at least as a "sentinel host" that is useful for revealing situations of endemic circulation of L. infantum. Moreover, in these areas, feline leishmaniasis needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis among domestic cats presenting alopecia, rarefied hair, lacerations and ulcerative dermatitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Cães , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 90-96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454711

RESUMO

Tritrichomonas foetus is a common cause of large bowel diarrhea in cats. Probiotics have been suggested to be effective for many intestinal pathogens; however, there are a lack of studies evaluating the effect of probiotics in T. foetus infection. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the effect of a probiotic containing Enterococcus faecium (Efm) SF68 and a novel probiotic, Enterococcus hirae, on the inhibition of T. foetus growth, adhesion to, and cytotoxicity towards the intestinal epithelium. The effect of enterococci on T. foetus proliferation during co-culture was evaluated throughout log phase T. foetus growth. The previously validated in vitro co-culture model system using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) was used to evaluate the effect of enterococci on T. foetus adhesion and cytotoxicity towards intestinal epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed using fluorescent microscopy and spectrophotometry. Interactions of T. foetus, enterococci, and intestinal epithelial cells were assessed using scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence assays (IFA). Enterococcus-induced inhibition of T. foetus growth was demonstrated at concentrations as low as 104 enterococci colony forming units (CFU)/mL and was dependent, in part, on environmental pH and the presence of viable enterococci organisms. T. foetus adhesion, including with a ronidazole-resistant strain, was reduced with pretreatment of intestinal epithelial cells with enterococci but was not significantly affected when enterococci were introduced simultaneously or following T. foetus infection. Compared to Efm, E. hirae more effectively decreased T. foetus adhesion, suggesting its superior potential as a novel probiotic for T. foetus infection. There was no effect of enterococci treatment on T. foetus-induced intestinal epithelial cell cytotoxicity. Our results support further study into the investigation of a possible benefit of enterococci-containing probiotic treatment for prevention of T. foetus infection in at-risk uninfected cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Enterococcus/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal , Probióticos/farmacologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/microbiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Gatos , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tritrichomonas foetus
14.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(3): 262-273, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414628

RESUMO

Helicobacters have wide host diversity due to the their particular virulence and environmental factors and may cause infections in humans. As they live in and around the stomach the group is called as gastric helicobacters which particularly consists of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter heilmanni, Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter salomonis and many other species, as well. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate 195 patients (119 urban and 76 rural residents, 121 female and 74 male individuals between 18 and 93 years of age) in terms of gastric Helicobacter (H.pylori, H.felis and H.heilmanii) who have admitted to the Health Research and Application Center of Kafkas University Endoscopy Unit of the General Surgery Department with the complaints of abdominal pain. For this purpose, biopsy specimens obtained from various parts of the stomach (corpus and antrum) by endoscopy were analyzed with histopathological examination and PCR. Histopathological analysis sections were stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa and spiral-shaped helicobacters attached to the surface of the epithelium were investigated. For the direct analysis of Helicobacter in biopsy samples, 16S rRNA gene based genus-specific and urease B gene based species-specific PCR methods were used. Out of the 195 cases that were histopathologically evaluated 163 (83.58%) were found to be positive for gastric Helicobacter, while five were suspected and 27 were negative. Helicobacter spp. DNA were detected in 107 (54.87%) samples, of these samples 91 were histopathologically positive, 13 were negative and three were suspicious samples. Eighty seven (44.61%) of the samples were identified as H.pylori by species-specific PCR. H.felis and H.heilmannii could not be detected in any of the samples; meanwhile genus-specific PCR positive 20 samples were not identified. In this study, 42.85% of the individuals living in urban area and 47.36% of those living in rural area were identified as H.pylori positive. 46.28% of women and 41.89% of men were positive for H.pylori. The age range of H.pylori positive individuals were as follows: 60% of the individuals were between 15-24 years, 60.27% of the individuals were between 25-44 years, 34.66% of the individuals were between 45-64 years and 29.72% of the individuals were 65 and over. 42.64% of the cat or dog owners were found as H.pylori positive whereas H.pylori was positive in 45.66% of the individuals who do not own animals. No significant relationship was found between these determinants and the prevalence of the disease (p> 0.05). However, the positivity of H.pylori was higher in the 25-44 active working age group due to the increased agent exposure (p<0.05). This study is the first study on the prevalence of H.pylori in humans and analysis of possible risk factors in the region and hoped to provide useful information for the researchers working in this field.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter , Animais , Biópsia , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Medição de Risco
15.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2769-2774, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392428

RESUMO

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), genus Lentivirus, is responsible for feline immunodeficiency syndrome in domestic cats. FIV has been classified into six subtypes: A, B, C, D, E and F, based on regions of the env gene as well as the gag gene. In Argentina, the circulation of subtypes B and E was reported more than two decades ago. The objective of this work was to study the FIV variants circulating presently in the city of Buenos Aires in naturally infected cats utilizing a nested PCR targeting the gag gene. A phylogenetic comparison with representative sequences of five previously published subtypes shows a clustering with subtypes A and B. This is the first report of FIV subtype A in Argentina.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/epidemiologia , Produtos do Gene env/genética , Produtos do Gene gag/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/classificação , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Gatos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/virologia , Genes env/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 13-16, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395199

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) is a worldwide occurring lungworm causing verminous pneumonia in cats. To date the Baermann method is the most used procedure to diagnose A. abstrusus infection by isolating first stage larvae from faeces, though its sensitivity and specificity can be impaired by several factors. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against A. abstrusus has been recently developed as a diagnostic alternative. The present study evaluated the seroprevalence for A. abstrusus infection in cats from two endemic areas of Italy. Overall, 250 sera were sampled and tested for the presence of antibodies against A. abstrusus. Based on the results obtained from 20 cats proven to be infected by A. abstrusus using Baermann technique and molecular methods, and from 20 negative cats (Subset A), a cut off value of 0.347 optical density (OD) was determined, leading to a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100%. Two-hundred and ten cats (142 and 68 from Abruzzo and Umbria regions, respectively) were included in Subset B (i.e. 202 negative by Baermann examination and 8 positive for Troglostrongylus brevior). Antibodies against A. abstrusus were detected in forty-five (21.4%, 95% CI: 16.1-27.6%) samples. This study confirms the occurrence of A. abstrusus in endemic areas of Italy and indicates that one-fifth of randomly selected cats have or had a lungworm infection with production of antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por Strongylida/sangue , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 190, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploring the role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the lateral geniculate body (LGBd) in visual development and studying the therapeutic effect of VIP on amblyopic kittens. METHODS: Three-week-old domestic cats were divided into a control group (n = 10) and a monocular deprivation group (n = 20), with an eye mask covering the right eye of those in the deprived group. After pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) recording confirmed the formation of monocular amblyopia, the left LGBd was isolated from 5 kittens in each group. The remaining control kittens continued to be raised, and the remaining deprivation group was divided into a VIP intervention group (n = 5), Sefsol (caprylic acid monoglyceride, VIP solution) intervention group (n = 5) and amblyopia non-intervention group (n = 5) after removal of the eye mask. Three weeks later, PVEPs, VIP immunohistochemistry and VIP mRNA expression in the left LGBd were compared across groups. RESULTS: At 6 weeks of age, there were significant differences in P100 wave latency and amplitude and VIP immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization between the control group and the deprivation group (P < 0.05). After 3 weeks of the corresponding interventions, the latency and amplitude in the VIP intervention group were better than that in the Sefsol intervention group and amblyopia non-intervention group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, VIP treatment increased the number of immunohistochemical VIP-positive cells (P < 0.05) and the average optical density of positive cells (P > 0.05), as well as the number (P < 0.05) and average optical density of VIP mRNA-positive cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: VIP plays an important role in visual development. Nasal administration of VIP can improve the function of neurons in the LGBd of kittens and has a certain therapeutic effect on amblyopia.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/fisiopatologia , Privação Sensorial/fisiologia , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/fisiologia , Animais , Gatos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 238, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mupirocin is one of the few antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and is frequently used for the eradication of MRSA nasal colonisation in humans. Initially, mupirocin resistance was recognised in human S. aureus, including MRSA isolates, then also among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Nowadays, mupirocin resistance is occasionally observed in canine staphylococci, along with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains, as well as CoNS, which usually show methicillin resistance. In the current study, high-level mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from diseased dogs and cats was investigated. RESULTS: Among 140 methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolates from dogs and cats, three showed high-level mupirocin resistance in a screening test using the agar disk diffusion method. One was recognised as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, one as methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius, and one as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus. S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus were isolated from dogs, S. haemolyticus was obtained from a cat. All isolates showed high-level mupirocin resistance, confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of above 1024 µg/ml and the presence of the plasmid-located gene ileS2. This is the first report on the detection of high-level mupirocin resistance (HLMR) in S. haemolyticus of feline origin. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the occurrence of HLMR in three Staphylococcus isolates obtained from companion animals in Poland. The results of this study indicate that the monitoring of mupirocin resistance in staphylococci of animal origin, especially in methicillin-resistant isolates, is strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gatos , Cães , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
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