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1.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3355-3360, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375938

RESUMO

Four strains, KC07070T, KC07105, 11 025B-8C and 11 026B-8-C, were isolated from the oral cavity of cats in 2007 or 2011 in Japan. These strains were Gram-stain-negative rods, exhibited gliding motility, grew in air with 5 % CO2 and showed catalase and oxidase activity. The sequences of 16S rRNA genes of the four strains were 100 % identical. Additionally, the sequences of 16S rRNA genes of KC07070T had identity to those of the type strains of Capnocytophaga canimorsus (97.7 %), Capnocytophaga cynodegmi (97.8 %) and Capnocytophaga canis (97.4 %) and 91.2-93.8% identity to those of other species of the genus Capnocytophaga. The major cellular fatty acids of KC07070T were iso-C15 : 0 (56.2 %) and summed feature 11 (14.9 %). The G+C content of the DNA from KC07070T was 35.6 mol%, and the genome size was 2.88 Mbp. KC07070T had digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values of 26.2-27.6% and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of 75.4-83.3 % to the type strains of the closest relatives, C. canimorsus, C. cynodegmi and C. canis. These results of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, cellular fatty acids compositions and dDDH and ANI values indicate that strain KC07070T represents a novel species, for which we propose the name Capnocytophaga felis sp. nov., with type strain KC07070T (=JCM 32681T=DSM 107251T).


Assuntos
Capnocytophaga/classificação , Gatos/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Capnocytophaga/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Japão , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 109, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. According to the One Health concept, an important step is to monitor the resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and trends of bacteria isolated from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff in South Korea between 2017 and 2018 were investigated. RESULTS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics for Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcus spp. were determined to establish representatives of different antibiotic classes relevant for treatment or surveillance. For Coagulase-positive and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, resistance to fluoroquinolones was below 13%, but resistance to ampicillin and penicillin was high (20-88%). A total of 9.5, 12.1, and 40.3% of staphylococcal isolates from stray cats, hospital-admitted cats, and veterinary staff, respectively, were confirmed to be mecA positive. For Enterobacteriaceae, resistance to carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and 3rd generation cephalosporins was low (0-11.1%). The Enterococcus spp. isolates showed no resistance to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance rates of the Staphylococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae isolates from stray cats were usually lower than those of isolates from hospital-admitted cats and veterinary staff, but the Enterococcus spp. isolates revealed the opposite. Thus, the antimicrobial resistance varied across bacterial species according to the source from which they were isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance to critically important compounds were low. However, the presence of antimicrobial resistance in cat isolates is of both public health and animal health concern.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Animais , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Médicos Veterinários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121670

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is the most neglected widespread zoonosis worldwide. In Spain, leptospirosis reports in people and animals have increased lately. Cats can become infected with Leptospira, as well as be chronic carriers. The aim of this study was to determine serological antibody prevalence against Leptospira sp., blood DNA, and shedding of DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in the urine of cats in Spain. Microagglutination tests (MAT) and blood and urine TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. Leptospira antibodies were detected in 10/244 cats; with 4.1% positive results (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-7.18%). Titers ranged from 1:20 to 1:320 (serovars Ballum; Bataviae; Bratislava; Cynopteri; Grippotyphosa Mandemakers; Grippotyphosa Moskva; Pomona; and Proechimys). The most common serovar was Cynopteri. Blood samples from 1/89 cats amplified for Leptospira DNA (1.12%; 95% CI: 0.05-5.41%). Urine samples from 4/232 cats amplified for Leptospira DNA (1.72%; 95% CI: 0.55-4.10%). In conclusion free-roaming cats in Spain can shed pathogenic Leptospira DNA in their urine and may be a source of human infection. Serovars not previously described in cats in Spain were detected; suggesting the presence of at least 4 different species of pathogenic leptospires in the country (L. borgpetersenii; L. interrogans; L. kirschneri; and L. noguchii).


Assuntos
Gatos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Gatos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Feminino , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Sorogrupo , Espanha
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(7)2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005736

RESUMO

During the course of evolution, dogs and cats have been subjected to extensive domestication, becoming the principal companion animals for humans. For this reason, their health care, including their intestinal microbiota, is considered of considerable importance. However, the canine and feline gut microbiota still represent a largely unexplored research area. In the present work, we profiled the microbiota of 23 feline fecal samples by 16S rRNA gene and bifidobacterial internally transcribed spacer (ITS) approaches and compared this information with previously reported data from 138 canine fecal samples. The obtained data allowed the reconstruction of the core gut microbiota of the above-mentioned samples coupled with their classification into distinct community state types at both genus and species levels, identifying Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Prevotella 9 as the main bacterial components of the canine and feline gut microbiota. At the species level, the intestinal bifidobacterial gut communities of dogs and cats differed in terms of both species number and composition, as emphasized by a covariance analysis. Together, our findings show that the intestinal populations of cats and dogs are similar in terms of genus-level taxonomical composition, while at the bifidobacterial species level, clear differences were observed, indicative of host-specific colonization behavior by particular bifidobacterial taxa.IMPORTANCE Currently, domesticated dogs and cats are the most cherished companion animals for humans, and concerns about their health and well-being are therefore important. In this context, the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining and promoting host health. However, despite the social relevance of domesticated dogs and cats, their intestinal microbial communities are still far from being completely understood. In this study, the taxonomical composition of canine and feline gut microbiota was explored at genus and bifidobacterial species levels, allowing classification of these microbial populations into distinct gut community state types at either of the two investigated taxonomic levels. Furthermore, the reconstruction of core gut microbiota coupled with covariance network analysis based on bifidobacterial internally transcribed spacer (ITS) profiling revealed differences in the bifidobacterial compositions of canine and feline gut microbiota, suggesting that particular bifidobacterial species have developed a selective ability to colonize a specific host.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
6.
Microb Ecol ; 79(1): 164-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049616

RESUMO

Staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens in human and veterinary medicine in addition to being part of the normal flora of the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. The rise of antimicrobial resistance amongst staphylococci warrants closer investigation of the diversity of skin commensal organisms-including coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)-due to their potential as a source of resistance genes. This study is aimed at characterising the commensal staphylococci-including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species (spp.)-from mucocutaneous sites of dogs and cats from remote New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Pet dogs and cats were recruited from participants in a community companion animal health programme in six communities in western NSW. Three swabs were collected from each animal (anterior nares, oropharynx, and perineum) and from skin lesions or wounds if present and cultured on selective media for Staphylococcus spp. In total, 383 pets (303 dogs, 80 cats) were enrolled. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 67.3% of dogs and 73.8% of cats (494 isolates). The diversity of CoNS was high (20 species) whilst only three coagulase-positive spp. were isolated (S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. intermedius). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in dogs was high (2.6%) relative to other studies but was only a small proportion of overall commensal staphylococci. No cats carried MRSA and no MRSP was isolated from either species. Dogs were significantly more likely to carry coagulase-positive staphylococci than cats (P < 0.001). Amongst dogs, males and those with skin lesions were more likely to carry S. pseudintermedius. This study highlights important differences in the diversity and patterns of carriage of commensal staphylococci between dogs and cats in remote NSW, Australia.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , New South Wales
7.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103833, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698052

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a neglected infectious zoonotic disease that affects domestic animals and wildlife as well as humans. Although leptospirosis is known as an endemic disease in Iran, there is no accurate information on the overall prevalence of this disease in humans and animals. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among human and domestic and wild animals in Iran. A systematic review of English and Persian articles (since 1998 to December 2017) was conducted using Google Scholar, Medline/PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of science and Iranian databases Iranmedex, Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, and IRANDOC. Search terms include leptospirosis, Leptospira, serology, seroprevalence, seroepidemiology, serological, Iran, cow, goat, sheep, camel, dog, cat, equine, donkey, horse, mule and rodent. In Eventually 66 articles were selected to analyze based on inclusion criteria. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in human was 27.84% (95% CI: 13.22-22.47) and 19.71% (95% CI: 6.78-32.65%) based on ELISA and MAT, respectively. The pooled prevalence of leptospirosis in cow, sheep, goat and camel was 26.62% (95% CI: 18.76-34.48), 17.38% (95% CI: 13.32-21.43), 12.18% (95% CI: 9.96-14.41) and 22.68% (95% CI: 18.97-26.40), respectively. The prevalence of leptospirosis in horse, donkey, and mule was 19.99% (95% CI: 13.32-26.68), 40.59% (95% CI: 33.20-47.97) and 9.10% (95% CI: 2.90-15.30), respectively. The prevalence in dog and cat were estimated 14.63% (95% CI: 3.49-25.77) and 14.44% (95% CI: 3.25-25.65), respectively. The prevalence of seropositivity in rodents was estimated 20.96% (95% CI: 10.62-31.30). This study is a very comprehensive report on the status of leptospirosis in Iran. Based on our results, leptospirosis has considerable seroprevalence among human and animals in Iran. This high seroprevalence of leptospirosis showed should be given more attention for this disease in Iran and thus health measures must be taken to diagnosis, control and prevent it.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Roedores/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
9.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 7: 2324709619895165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838876

RESUMO

Peritonitis caused by gram-negative organisms is a significant complication encountered in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There has been recognition of peritonitis caused by uncommon organisms because of improved microbiological detection techniques. In this article, we report a rare case of peritonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida. We present a 58-year-old male on peritoneal dialysis with fever and abdominal pain. The peritoneal fluid was cloudy, and the analysis was consistent with peritonitis. The peritoneal fluid culture grew Pasteurella multocida. The patient was treated with a 3-week course of intraperitoneal ceftazidime, which resulted in the resolution of infection with the salvation of the peritoneal dialysis catheter. Patient education plays a very critical role in the prevention of peritonitis from Pasteurella multocida, particularly if patients have pets at home. The domestic pets should be kept away from the dialysis equipment and should not be allowed into the room during dialysis treatment. Incorporating the education in handing pets during the training session is the key aspect.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/transmissão , Pasteurella multocida , Peritonite/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Líquido Ascítico/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pasteurella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pasteurella/microbiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Diálise Peritoneal/instrumentação , Peritonite/prevenção & controle , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0221988, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756184

RESUMO

Many studies show that keeping cats and dogs has a positive impact on humans' physical and mental health and quality of life. The existence of this "pet phenomenon" is now widely discussed because other studies performed recently have demonstrated a negative impact of owning pets or no impact at all. The main problem of many studies was the autoselection-participants were informed about the aims of the study during recruitment and later likely described their health and wellbeing according to their personal beliefs and wishes, not according to their real status. To avoid this source of bias, we did not mention pets during participant recruitment and hid the pet-related questions among many hundreds of questions in an 80-minute Internet questionnaire. Results of our explorative study performed on a sample of 10,858 subjects showed that liking dogs has a weak positive association with quality of life. However, keeping pets, especially cats, and even more being injured by pets, were strongly negatively associated with many facets of quality of life. Our data also confirmed that infection by the cat parasite Toxoplasma had a very strong negative effect on quality of life, especially on mental health. However, the infection was not responsible for the observed negative effects of keeping pets, as these effects were much stronger in 1,527 Toxoplasma-free subjects than in the whole population. Any cross-sectional study cannot discriminate between a cause and an effect. However, because of the large and still growing popularity of keeping pets, the existence and nature of the reverse pet phenomenon deserve the outmost attention.


Assuntos
Gatos , Cães , Animais de Estimação , Qualidade de Vida , Toxoplasmose/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto , Animais , Gatos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cães/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Cura Mental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxoplasma
11.
Mycoses ; 62(12): 1116-1126, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since accurate identification of dermatophyte species is essential for epidemiological studies and implementing antifungal treatment, overcoming limitations of conventional diagnostics is a fruitful subject. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated real-time polymerase chain reaction(q-PCR), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nano-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS) to detect and identify the most frequently isolated dermatophytes from human and animal dermatophytosis in comparison with conventional methods. RESULTS: Among 200 samples, the identified species were Microsporum canis (78.22%), Trichophyton verrucosum (10.89%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.94%). Q-PCR assay displayed great execution attributes for dermatophytes detection and identification. Using MALDI-TOF MS, M. canis, but none of T. violacium, T. verrucosum or T. mentagrophytes, could be identified. Nano-ESI-MS accurately identified all species. The potential virulence attributes of secreted proteases were anticipated and compared between species. Secreted endoproteases belonging to families/subfamilies of metalloproteases, subtilisins and aspartic protease were detected. The analysed exoproteases are aminopeptidases, dipeptidyl peptidases and carboxypeptidases. Microsporum canis have three immunogenic proteins, siderophore iron transporter mirB, protease inhibitors, plasma membrane proteolipid 3 and annexin. CONCLUSION: In essence, q-PCR, MALDI-TOF MS and nano-ESI-MS assays are very nearly defeating difficulties of dermatophytes detection and identification, thereby, supplement or supplant conventional diagnosis of dermatophytosis.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Proteômica , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/química , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Criança , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Cães/microbiologia , Feminino , Cavalos/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 183, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the commonest microsporidians contributing to human microsporidiosis, and is frequently found in animals in various countries. However, there is limited epidemiological information on this microorganism in Australia. Here, we undertook the first molecular epidemiological study of E. bieneusi in cats and dogs in Victoria. RESULTS: Genomic DNAs were extracted from 514 individual faecal deposits from cats (n = 172) and dogs (n = 342) and then tested using PCR-based sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Four distinct genotypes (designated D, PtEb IX, VIC_cat1 and VIC_dog1) of E. bieneusi were identified in 20 of the 514 faecal samples (3.9%). Genotype D is known to have a broad host range (humans and other animals) and has a wide geographical distribution around the world. The identification of this genotype here suggests that companion animals might represent reservoir hosts that are able to transmit E. bieneusi infection to humans in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence data revealed that the novel genotype VIC_cat1 is related to the known genotype type IV within Group 1, and the new genotype VIC_dog1 is linked to a contentious "Group 3", which includes genotypes reported previously in the published literature to represent Group 2 or 3. CONCLUSIONS: A future, large-scale phylogenetic study of all known E. bieneusi genotypes, including VIC_dog1, should aid in clarifying their relationships and assignment to Groups, and in the identification of new genotypes, thus assisting epidemiological investigations.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Animais , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Vitória , Zoonoses/microbiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3571, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395864

RESUMO

Oral biofilm accumulation in pets is a growing concern. It is desirable to address this problem via non-invasive teeth cleaning techniques, such as through friction between teeth and food during chewing. Therefore, pet food design tools are needed towards optimising cleaning efficacy. Developing such tools is challenging, as several parameters affecting teeth cleaning should be considered: the food's complex mechanical response, the contacting surfaces topology as well as the wide range of masticatory and anatomical characteristics amongst breeds. We show that Finite Element (FE) models can efficiently account for all these parameters, through the simulation of food deformation and fracture during the first bite. This reduces the need for time consuming and costly in-vivo or in-vitro trials. Our in-silico model is validated through in-vitro tests, demonstrating that the initial oral processing stage can be engineered through computers with high fidelity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bioengenharia/métodos , Mastigação/fisiologia , Higiene Bucal/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/fisiologia , Animais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gatos/microbiologia , Gatos/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Cães/microbiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/fisiologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/microbiologia , Dente/fisiologia
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4278598, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380423

RESUMO

Rhodococcus equi is responsible for infections in multiple-host animals. In humans, the prevalence of rhodococcus has increased worldwide and represents an emergent risk. R. equi is a soil-borne opportunistic bacterium isolated from feces of a wide variety of domestic species, except cats; thus, there is no known potential risk of its transmission from humans. Here, the mono- and cooccurrence of Rhodococcus equi and other bacteria and selected virulence markers were investigated in feces of nondiarrheic cats from urban (n=100) and rural (n=100) areas. Seven (7/200=3.5%) R. equi isolates were recovered in ceftazidime, novobiocin, and cycloheximide (CAZ-NB) selective media, exclusively of cats from three distinct farms (p=0.01), and these cats had a history of contact with horses and their environment (p=0.0002). None of the R. equi isolates harbored hosted-adapted plasmid types associated with virulence (pVAPA, pVAPB, and pVAPN). One hundred seventy-five E. coli isolates were identified, and 23 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), 1 STEC (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli), and 1 EAEC (enteroaggregative E. coli) were detected. Eighty-six C. perfringens type A isolates were identified, and beta-2 and enterotoxin were detected in 21 and 1 isolates, respectively. Five C. difficile isolates were identified, one of which was toxigenic and ribotype 106. The main cooccurring isolates in cats from urban areas were E. coli and C. perfringens A (26/100=26%), E. coli and C. perfringens type A cpb2+ (8/100=8%), and aEPEC (eae+/escN+) and C. perfringens type A (5/100=5%). In cats from farms, the main cooccurring isolates were E. coli and C. perfringens type A (21/100=21%), E. coli and C. perfringens type A cpb 2 + 8/100=8%), and E. coli and R. equi (4/100=4%). We identified, for the first time, R. equi in nondiarrheic cats, a finding that represents a public health issue because rhodococcus has been reported in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent humans, particularly people living with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Rhodococcus equi/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , /isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Cavalos/microbiologia , Humanos , Rhodococcus equi/genética , Rhodococcus equi/patogenicidade
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12340, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451747

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a common and important health problem in domestic cats. The subgingival microbiota of cats diagnosed with chronic periodontitis (CP), aggressive periodontitis (AP), and feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) are not well characterized. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterize and compare the periodontal microbiota of periodontally healthy cats versus cats diagnosed with CP, AP, and FCGS by using next-generation sequencing. In total, 44 domestic cats were enrolled, and 139 subgingival samples were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the microbiota composition of each periodontal group evaluated. Our results identified several key genera previously described in periodontal disease (e.g. Treponema and Filifactor) and in the oral microbiota (e.g. Moraxella and Capnocytophaga) of healthy cats. Phylogenetic beta diversity analysis showed that the microbiota of periodontally healthy cats were distinguishable from diseased cats. Even though most of the genera known to be associated with periodontal disease were also identified in healthy cats, they were present at significantly lower relative abundance. Remarkably, alpha diversity was found to be higher in the disease groups compared to healthy animals. These results suggest a pathological mechanism involving opportunistic behavior. Our findings corroborate those in the current literature regarding the complexity of the subgingival microbiota of the domestic cat and reveal both differences and similarities among periodontally healthy and diseased cats.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Periodontite Crônica/veterinária , Gengiva/microbiologia , Gengiva/patologia , Microbiota , Animais , Biodiversidade , Filogenia
16.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 18: 223-224, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: TEM-52 extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) have been detected in members of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from human and non-human reservoirs, mainly in European countries. Here we report the first draft genome of a multidrug-resistant TEM-52b-positive Escherichia coli isolated from a companion animal in France. METHODS: Whole genomic DNA from E. coli 39590 was extracted and was sequenced using an Illumina NextSeq platform. De novo genome assembly was performed using Velvet v.1.2.10 and the draft genome was annotated using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline v.3.2. Genomic analyses were performed through bioinformatics tools from the Center for Genomic Epidemiology. RESULTS: The genome size was calculated as 5362108bp, with 5268 protein-coding sequences and a GC content of 50.5%. E. coli strain 39590 belonged to ST219, serotype O4:H34 and phylogroup E. The antimicrobial resistome consisted of genes encoding resistance to ß-lactams (blaTEM-52b), aminoglycosides [aph(3″)-Ib, aph(6)-Id, aadA2, aadA24], phenicols (catA1), sulfonamides (sul1, sul2), trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA14), lincosamides (lnuG) and tetracycline (tetA) as well as mutations in gyrA (Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn) and parC (Ser80Ile) conferring resistance to quinolones. Virulome analysis revealed iss, astA and eilA genes, and IncQ1, IncX4, IncX1, IncFIB and IncFIC plasmid incompatibility groups were identified. CONCLUSION: This draft genome can be used as a reference sequence for comparative studies using human and non-human E. coli isolates to identify genetic events that have contributed to pathogenicity and adaptation of TEM-52-producing E. coli clones at the human-animal interface as well as to elucidate dynamics of the spread of blaTEM-52 ESBL genes.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Genômica , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , França , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Bacteriano , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 118-126, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282369

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that originated from Austrian companion animals during the last five-year period. A total of 90 non-repetitive MRSA isolates were obtained during diagnostic activities from autumn 2013 to autumn 2018. They originated from horses (n = 62), cats (n = 13), dogs (n = 10), rabbits (n = 2), a domestic canary, a zoo-kept hammer-headed bat (Hypsignathus monstrosus) and a semi-captive northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. All isolates were mecA-positive and mecC-negative. The isolates were genotyped by SCCmec, spa and dru typing, Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analyses (MLVA), S. aureus DNA microarray, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Eight sequence types (STs - ST398, ST5275 (new ST), ST225, ST8, ST22, ST152, ST1, and ST45), three SCCmec types (II, IV, and V), sixteen spa types (t003, t008, t011, t015, t032, t034, t1381, t1928, t1985, t223, t334, t355, t430, t6447, t6867, and t7105), fourteen dru types (dt10a, dt10az, dt10q, dt10r, dt11a, dt5e, dt6j, dt9a, dt9ak, dt9g, and four new types dt8as, dt7ak, dt4j, dt14n), and thirty-five MLVA types were detected. WGS-based core genome MLST (cgMLST) displayed five main clusters. Compared to the time period 2004-2013, the results of the present study show not only a higher diversity among the MRSA isolates within the population of Austrian companion animals, but also the introduction of new clones. Although ST398 isolates remained predominant, mainly due to high presence of this lineage among horses, increasing isolation rates of human-associated MRSA clones were observed in cats and dogs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105058, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185223

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) of domestic and wild carnivores are of major public health concern both in industrialized and developing countries, especially in poor socioeconomic settings. War-torn areas specifically suffer from absence of veterinary surveillance of VBDs, resulting in lack of scientific knowledge on this topic. To investigate occurence and prevalence of several vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in some carnivore species from Iraq, blood samples (n = 397) were obtained from 190 canids [97 stray dogs (Canis familiaris), 55 jackals (Canis aureus) and 38 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)] and 207 stray cats (Felis catus) collected during a feral animal control and zoonotic disease surveillance program in several United States military bases in Iraq. The presence of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Dirofilaria spp. and Leishmania spp. DNA was molecularly investigated. Out of 397 animals tested, 176 (44.3%; 95% CI: 39.5-49.2%) were positive for at least one pathogen with the highest prevalence in foxes (73.7%; 95% CI: 58-85%), followed by jackals (54.5%; 95% CI: 41.5-67%), dogs (38.1%; 29.1-48.1%) and cats (39.1%; 95% CI: 32.7-45.9%). Up to five pathogens were diagnosed in dogs. Hepatozoon canis was the most prevalent VBP in jackals (49.1%; 95% CI: 36.4-61.9%), foxes (47.3%; 95% CI: 32.5-62.7%) and dogs (33%; 95% CI: 24.4-42.8%), whereas Hepatozoon felis was the only species detected in cats (39.1%; 95% CI: 32.7-45.9%). A species of Babesia related to but different from Babesia lengau and designated as Babesia sp. MML was detected in six foxes (15.8%; 95% CI: 7.4-30.4%) and in one jackal (1.8%; 95% CI: 0.3-9.6%). This finding suggested the existence of a new species in the genus Babesia as inferred by molecular and phylogenetical analysis. Further, Babesia vulpes was identified only in two foxes (5.3%; 95% CI: 1.5-17.3%). All samples were negative for Leishmania spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Co-infection with H. canis and Babesia spp. was the most prevalent (5/176, 2.8%, i.e., 4 foxes and 1 jackal), followed by H. canis and Dirofilaria immitis (1/176, 1.3%, i.e., in 1 jackal), H. canis and Dirofilaria repens or Acanthocheilonema reconditum (1/176, 1.3%, i.e., in one dog, each). Data presented fill gaps into knowledge of VBPs in dogs, cats and wild canids in Iraq, indicating that different pathogens circulate amongst animal populations living in the same areas, possibly sharing the same tick vectors. Large-scale surveys are urgently needed to further assess VBPs distribution in Iraq and establish preventative strategies in domestic animals to minimize the risk of infection for animals and humans.


Assuntos
Gatos/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Chacais/parasitologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Gatos/microbiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Cães/microbiologia , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Raposas/microbiologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Chacais/microbiologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Prevalência
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 61-67, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176414

RESUMO

The incidence of infections with extended spectrum ß-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) is increasing both in humans and animals. There is a paucity of data about the rate of faecal carriage of ESBL-E in pets. In this study, faecal swabs collected from 586 pets (225 cats; 361 dogs) in Auckland, New Zealand, were analysed for the presence of ESBL-E by culture, and a questionnaire was delivered to the owners. The ESBL-E were characterised and data elicited by the questionnaires were used for a multivariable analysis, to investigate the factors associated with faecal ESBL-E carriage. The prevalence of ESBL-E in faecal swabs was 6.4%. The ß-lactamase genes detected in the ESBL-E were the blaCTX-M-14 (n = 2) and blaCMY-2 (n = 34). Several isolates displayed multilocus sequence types (ST) associated with human and animal infections. Multiple isolates sharing the same ST displayed different antibiograms and ß-lactamase genes, reflecting horizontal gene transfer between and within ST. Variables independently associated with increased odds of ESBL-E carriage were: animal received systemic antimicrobial treatment in the six months before the sampling; presence of household members working in veterinary clinics; presence of household members travelling overseas in the six months before the sampling. We conclude that pets are colonised by ESBL-E which are genotypically similar to the bacteria found to infect humans and animals. The statistical analysis suggested a number of eco-epidemiological factors associated with ESBL-E carriage. In particular, they suggest veterinary clinics may represent hot-spots of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/genética , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese
20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 7(3)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124433

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a mammalian commensal and opportunistic pathogen that colonizes niches such as skin, nares and diverse mucosal membranes of about 20-30% of the human population. S. aureus can cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans and both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant strains are common causes of nosocomial- and community-acquired infections. Despite the prevalence of literature characterising staphylococcal pathogenesis in humans, S. aureus is a major cause of infection and disease in a plethora of animal hosts leading to a significant impact on public health and agriculture. Infections in animals are deleterious to animal health, and animals can act as a reservoir for staphylococcal transmission to humans.Host-switching events between humans and animals and amongst animals are frequent and have been accentuated with the domestication and/or commercialisation of specific animal species. Host-switching is typically followed by subsequent adaptation through acquisition and/or loss of mobile genetic elements such as phages, pathogenicity islands and plasmids as well as further host-specific mutations allowing it to expand into new host populations.In this chapter, we will be giving an overview of S. aureus in animals, how this bacterial species was, and is, being transferred to new host species and the key elements thought to be involved in its adaptation to new ecological host niches. We will also highlight animal hosts as a reservoir for the development and transfer of antimicrobial resistance determinants.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Antibacterianos , Gatos/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Haplorrinos/microbiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Plasmídeos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Coelhos/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
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