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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111229, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510375

RESUMO

Oil slick thickness is a key parameter for the behaviour of oil spilled at sea. It influences evaporation and entrainment, viable response options, and the risk to marine life at the surface. Determining this value is therefore of high relevance in oil spill modelling. In open water, oil can spread as thin films due to gravity alone, and may be further dispersed by horizontal diffusion and differential advection. In the presence of ice, however, a thin oil slick may become concentrated to higher thickness, if compressed against the ice edge. In the present study, we develop a simple model for the thickness of oil forced against a barrier by a current. We compare our theory to flume experiments, and obtain reasonable agreement. We describe an implementation in a Lagrangian oil spill model, and present some examples. We discuss the operational applicability, and suggest further research needs.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Gelo
2.
Nat Protoc ; 15(6): 2024-2040, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433625

RESUMO

Preservation of human organs at subzero temperatures has been an elusive goal for decades. The major complication hindering successful subzero preservation is the formation of ice at temperatures below freezing. Supercooling, or subzero non-freezing, preservation completely avoids ice formation at subzero temperatures. We previously showed that rat livers can be viably preserved three times longer by supercooling as compared to hypothermic preservation at +4 °C. Scalability of supercooling preservation to human organs was intrinsically limited because of volume-dependent stochastic ice formation at subzero temperatures. However, we recently adapted the rat preservation approach so it could be applied to larger organs. Here, we describe a supercooling protocol that averts freezing of human livers by minimizing air-liquid interfaces as favorable sites of ice nucleation and uses preconditioning with cryoprotective agents to depress the freezing point of the liver tissue. Human livers are homogeneously preconditioned during multiple machine perfusion stages at different temperatures. Including preparation, the protocol takes 31 h to complete. Using this protocol, human livers can be stored free of ice at -4 °C, which substantially extends the ex vivo life of the organ. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed protocol describing how to perform subzero preservation of human organs.


Assuntos
Fígado/fisiologia , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Crioprotetores/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Congelamento , Humanos , Gelo/análise , Fígado/química , Preservação de Órgãos/instrumentação , Perfusão/instrumentação , Perfusão/métodos
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 327: 108658, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464431

RESUMO

The total cultivable microbiota of the ice-stored European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), the most important commercial fish species of the Mediterranean aquaculture, was determined using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. High Resolution Melting (HRM) curve profiles and sequencing analysis (V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene) were used respectively for the differentiation and identification of the collected isolates from six time intervals (day 0, 4, 8, 12, 14 and 16) while fish were stored in ice. HRM analysis differentiated the unknown microbiota in ten groups (208 isolates) and in two single isolates based on their HRM curve profiles. The isolates with HRM profiles which were >91% similar within each group were found to belong to the same species using sequencing analysis. Thus, the ten groups consist of representatives of Psychrobacter glacincola, Ps. alimentarius, Ps. cryohalolentis, Ps. maritimus, Ps. fozii, Pseudomonas sp., Paeniglutamicibacter sp., Carnobacterium sp., Leucobacter aridicolis and Bacillus thuringiensis. Based on this approach, Ps. cryohalolentis was found to be the most dominant phylotype at the beginning of fish shelf-life compared to other species. The abundance of this bacterium decreased throughout storage, while Ps. glacincola increased and dominated at the time of the sensory minimum acceptability (day 14) and rejection (day 16). To conclude, HRM could be used for the rapid determination of sea bass microbiota, using the representatives of each group as reference bacterial strains, in order for scientists to solve rapidly stakeholders problems related with microbial quality or safety of fish.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bass/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Gelo , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Psychrobacter/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302335

RESUMO

Maintaining cold chain while transporting medical supplies and samples is difficult in remote settings. Failure to maintain temperature requirements can lead to degraded sample quality and inaccuracies in sample analysis. We performed a systematic analysis on different types of transport coolers (polystyrene foam, injection-molded, and rotational molded) and transport coolants (ice, cold packs, frozen water bottles) frequently in use in many countries. Polystyrene foam coolers stayed below our temperature threshold (6°C) longer than almost all other types of coolers, but were not durable. Injection-molded coolers were durable, but warmed to 6°C the quickest. Rotational molded coolers were able to keep temperatures below our threshold for 24 hours longer than injection molded coolers and were highly durable. Coolant systems were evaluated in terms of cost and their ability to maintain cold temperatures. Long lasting commercial cold packs were found to be less cost effective and were below freezing for the majority of the testing period. Frozen plastic water bottles were found to be a reusable and economical choice for coolant and were only below freezing briefly. Finally, we modeled the coolers performance at maintaining internal temperatures below 6°C and built a highly accurate linear model to predict how long a cooler will remain below 6°C. We believe this data may be useful in the planning and design of specimen transportation systems in the field, particularly in remote or resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Plásticos/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Transportes/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Congelamento , Humanos , Gelo , Transição de Fase , Poliestirenos/química , Temperatura
7.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt A): 114387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240895

RESUMO

Recently, numerous studies concerning dye-labeled microplastic beads have reported on the end-of-life, environmental effects of microplastics because of their ubiquitous commercial usage. Less is understood about the toxicity and bioaccumulation of plastics other than microplastic beads, which can also harm the environment (e.g., fragments, fibers, foams, and films). Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is widespread in the environment owing to its many uses, however, limited research has been conducted on EPS foams. This study focuses on developing an efficient method for the preparation of micro-sized EPS foams for research purposes and compares it with previous microplastics preparation methods reported in 68 previous studies. It was demonstrated that the iced EPS block method (iced EPS block + water) generated larger quantities of smaller-sized EPS foams (20-200 and 200-500 µm) compared to the EPS + ice + water and EPS + water methods. The optimal protocol includes 1) iced EPS block preparation, 2) grinding and sieving, and 3) collecting. Additionally, it was confirmed that the iced EPS block method requires less money, labor, and time compared to previously reported methods in the literature. The method proposed in this research can assist future investigations into the environmental effects of EPS foams.


Assuntos
Poliestirenos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aerossóis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gelo , Plásticos
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 154: 111090, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319919

RESUMO

As ice extent in the Arctic is declining, oil and gas activities will increase, with higher risk of oil spills to the marine environment. To determine biotransformation of dispersed weathered oil in newly formed ice, oil dispersions (2-3 ppm) were incubated in a mixture of natural seawater and frazil ice for 125 days at -2 °C. Dispersed oil in seawater without frazil ice were included in the experimental setup. Presence or absence of frazil ice was a strong driver for microbial community structures and affected the rate of oil degradation. n-alkanes were degraded faster in the presence of frazil ice, the opposite was the case for naphthalenes and 2-3 ring PAHs. No degradation of 4-6 ring PAHs was observed in any of the treatments. The total petroleum oil was not degraded to any significant degree, suggesting that oil will freeze into the ice matrix and persist throughout the icy season.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Regiões Árticas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Gelo , Água do Mar
9.
Extremophiles ; 24(3): 367-376, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157393

RESUMO

We identified cultivable fungi present in the glacial ice fragments collected in nine sites across Antarctica Peninsula and assessed their abilities to produce bioactive compounds. Three ice fragments with approximately 20 kg were collected, melted and 3 L filtered through of 0.45 µm sterilized membranes, which were placed on the media Sabouraud agar and minimal medium incubated at 10 °C. We collected 66 isolates classified into 27 taxa of 14 genera. Penicillium palitans, Penicillium sp. 1, Thelebolus balaustiformis, Glaciozyma antarctica, Penicillium sp. 7, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Rhodotorula dairenensis had the highest frequencies. The diversity and richness of the fungal community were high with moderate dominance. Penicillium species were present in all samples, with Penicillium chrysogenum showing the broadest distribution. P. chrysogenum, P. palitans, and Penicillium spp. had trypanocidal, leishmanicidal, and herbicidal activities, with P. chrysogenum having the broadest and highest capability. 1H NMR signals revealed the presence of highly functionalized secondary metabolites in the bioactive extracts. Despite extreme environmental conditions, glacial ice harbours a diverse fungal community, including species never before recorded in the Arctic and Antarctica. Among them, Penicillium taxa may represent wild fungal strains with genetic and biochemical pathways that may produce new secondary bioactive metabolites.


Assuntos
Bioprospecção , Regiões Árticas , Fungos , Gelo , Micobioma , Penicillium
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 725e-733e, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive method for removal of subcutaneous fat for body contouring. Conventional cryolipolysis with topical cooling requires extracting heat from subcutaneous fat by conduction across the skin, thus limiting the amount and the location of the fat removed. The authors hypothesized that local injection of a physiological ice slurry directly into target adipose tissue would lead to more efficient and effective cryolipolysis. METHODS: Injectable slurries containing 20 percent and 40 percent ice content were made using common parenteral agents (normal saline and glycerol), then locally injected into the subcutaneous fat of swine. Ultrasound imaging, photography, histological, and gross tissue responses were monitored before and periodically up to 8 weeks after injection. RESULTS: Fat loss occurred gradually over several weeks following a single ice slurry injection. There was an obvious and significant 55 ± 6 percent reduction in adipose tissue thickness compared with control sites injected with the same volume of melted slurry (p < 0.001, t test). The amount of fat loss correlated with the total volume of ice injected. There was no scarring or damage to surrounding tissue. CONCLUSION: Physiological ice slurry injection is a promising new strategy for selective and nonsurgical fat removal.


Assuntos
Contorno Corporal/métodos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Gelo , Gordura Subcutânea/cirurgia , Animais , Contorno Corporal/efeitos adversos , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas/métodos , Modelos Animais , Sus scrofa
13.
Nature ; 577(7788): 69-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894147

RESUMO

More than one-third of Earth's landmass is drained by rivers that seasonally freeze over. Ice transforms the hydrologic1,2, ecologic3,4, climatic5 and socio-economic6-8 functions of river corridors. Although river ice extent has been shown to be declining in many regions of the world1, the seasonality, historical change and predicted future changes in river ice extent and duration have not yet been quantified globally. Previous studies of river ice, which suggested that declines in extent and duration could be attributed to warming temperatures9,10, were based on data from sparse locations. Furthermore, existing projections of future ice extent are based solely on the location of the 0-°C isotherm11. Here, using satellite observations, we show that the global extent of river ice is declining, and we project a mean decrease in seasonal ice duration of 6.10 ± 0.08 days per 1-°C increase in global mean surface air temperature. We tracked the extent of river ice using over 400,000 clear-sky Landsat images spanning 1984-2018 and observed a mean decline of 2.5 percentage points globally in the past three decades. To project future changes in river ice extent, we developed an observationally calibrated and validated model, based on temperature and season, which reduced the mean bias by 87 per cent compared with the 0-degree-Celsius isotherm approach. We applied this model to future climate projections for 2080-2100: compared with 2009-2029, the average river ice duration declines by 16.7 days under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, whereas under RCP 4.5 it declines on average by 7.3 days. Our results show that, globally, river ice is measurably declining and will continue to decline linearly with projected increases in surface air temperature towards the end of this century.


Assuntos
Gelo , Modelos Teóricos , Rios/química , Previsões , Fenômenos Geológicos , Imagens de Satélites
14.
Nature ; 577(7788): 60-63, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894149

RESUMO

The formation and growth of water-ice layers on surfaces and of low-dimensional ice under confinement are frequent occurrences1-4. This is exemplified by the extensive reporting of two-dimensional (2D) ice on metals5-11, insulating surfaces12-16, graphite and graphene17,18 and under strong confinement14,19-22. Although structured water adlayers and 2D ice have been imaged, capturing the metastable or intermediate edge structures involved in the 2D ice growth, which could reveal the underlying growth mechanisms, is extremely challenging, owing to the fragility and short lifetime of those edge structures. Here we show that noncontact atomic-force microscopy with a CO-terminated tip (used previously to image interfacial water with minimal perturbation)12, enables real-space imaging of the edge structures of 2D bilayer hexagonal ice grown on a Au(111) surface. We find that armchair-type edges coexist with the zigzag edges usually observed in 2D hexagonal crystals, and freeze these samples during growth to identify the intermediate edge structures. Combined with simulations, these experiments enable us to reconstruct the growth processes that, in the case of the zigzag edge, involve the addition of water molecules to the existing edge and a collective bridging mechanism. Armchair edge growth, by contrast, involves local seeding and edge reconstruction and thus contrasts with conventional views regarding the growth of bilayer hexagonal ices and 2D hexagonal matter in general.


Assuntos
Gelo , Microscopia de Tunelamento , Cristalização
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968006

RESUMO

Prolific heterotrophic biofilm growth is a common occurrence in airport receiving streams containing deicers and anti-icers, which are composed of low-molecular weight organic compounds. This study investigated biofilm spatiotemporal patterns and responses to concurrent and antecedent (i.e., preceding biofilm sampling) environmental conditions at stream sites upstream and downstream from Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during two deicing seasons (2009-2010; 2010-2011). Biofilm abundance and community composition were investigated along spatial and temporal gradients using field surveys and microarray analyses, respectively. Given the recognized role of Sphaerotilus in organically enriched environments, additional analyses were pursued to specifically characterize its abundance: a consensus sthA sequence was determined via comparison of whole metagenome sequences with a previously identified sthA sequence, the primers developed for this gene were used to characterize relative Sphaerotilus abundance using quantitative real-time PCR, and a Sphaerotilus strain was isolated to validate the determined sthA sequence. Results indicated that biofilm abundance was stimulated by elevated antecedent chemical oxygen demand concentrations, a surrogate for deicer concentrations, with minimal biofilm volumes observed when antecedent chemical oxygen demand concentrations remained below 48 mg/L. Biofilms were composed of diverse communities (including sheathed bacterium Thiothrix) whose composition appeared to shift in relation to antecedent temperature and chemical oxygen demand. The relative abundance of sthA correlated most strongly with heterotrophic biofilm volume (positive) and dissolved oxygen (negative), indicating that Sphaerotilus was likely a consistent biofilm member and thrived under low oxygen conditions. Additional investigations identified the isolate as a new strain of Sphaerotilus montanus (strain KMKE) able to use deicer components as carbon sources and found that stream dissolved oxygen concentrations related inversely to biofilm volume as well as to antecedent temperature and chemical oxygen demand. The airport setting provides insight into potential consequences of widescale adoption of organic deicers for roadway deicing.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Gelo , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Lineares , Metagenômica , Sphaerotilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sphaerotilus/genética , Sphaerotilus/fisiologia
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 110036, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825795

RESUMO

Self-contamination should not be underestimated when quantifying microplastics (MPs) in environmental matrices. Standardised and validated methodologies for MP sampling, extraction, and analysis are lacking. The various applications of plastics in our society have made them ubiquitous, even in clothing, rendering MP self-contamination inevitable. In the present study, we sampled lake sediment, snow, and ice, purposefully wearing red overalls composed of cotton; fibres from which we could quantify using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), serving as an indication of possible self-contamination from clothes. The suitability of cotton as a representation of MP contamination was also evaluated. For all detected fibres, 25 ± 1%, 20 ± 7%, and 8 ± 6% for snow, ice, and sediment, respectively, originated from sampling attire. These findings demonstrate that self-contamination can play a significant role when quantifying MP pollution, highlighting that sampling conducted to date might have overestimated the presence of MP or even contaminated MP-free samples.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Microplásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Gelo/análise , Lagos/química , Neve/química
17.
Extremophiles ; 24(1): 93-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606813

RESUMO

Ice wedges differ from other types of surface and underground glacial bodies and are widely spread in perennially frozen sub-Arctic regions, but the bacterial and archaeal diversity in these permafrost features remains poorly studied. Here, we compared the prokaryotic community composition in the active layer and ancient, 13-19 kyr BP and ~ 40 kyr BP, ice wedge horizons from the same exposure profile of the Mammoth Mountain, using pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene. The most abundant OTUs in the active layer were affiliated with Acidobacteria (31.81%) followed by Actinobacteria (18.29%), Proteobacteria (18.14%), Gemmatimonadetes (7.3%), Parcubacteria (7.13%) and Bacteroidetes (6.49%). The prokaryotic community in 13-19 kyr BP ice wedge differed at the phylum level by the predominance of Actinobacteria (29.15%) over Acidobacteria (19.52%), Proteobacteria (18.45%), Verrumicrobia (5.88%), Firmicutes (2.98%) and Gemmatimonadetes (2.87%). In contrast, the oldest (~ 40 kyr BP) ice wedge prokaryotic community was rather poor, and only three phyla Firmicutes (54.48%), Proteobacteria (31.42%) and Bacteroidetes (7.92%) constituted the major fraction of reads. Archaeal sequences contributed with no more than 0.6% to total reads in all studied samples. Apparently, the Mammoth Mountain exposure profile harbors insular microbial communities with specific structure that reflects the stratigraphy, properties and age.


Assuntos
Mamutes , Animais , Archaea , Regiões Árticas , Gelo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 929-934, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730034

RESUMO

A novel actinobacterium, strain K3-2T, was isolated in pure culture from a thawing ancient ice wedge at Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia, Russia). Colonies of strain K3-2T were yellowish orange; cells had the fine structure typical of Gram-positive bacteria, were non-motile short rods and were non-spore-forming. Strain K3-2T was mesophilic (optimum growth at 28 °Ð¡), but capable of growing at 4 °Ð¡. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain K3-2T contained lysine (the diagnostic diamino acid), glutamic acid, alanine, ornithine, glycine and serine. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylserine, three unidentified phospholipids and glycolipids. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The only menaquinone detected was MK-8(H4). 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that strain K3-2T belongs to the genus Serinibacter. The closest taxonomically described relatives were Serinibacter salmoneus Kis4-28T and Serinibacter tropicus PS-14-7T, with 97.20 and 97.20 % 16 s rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. The average nucleotide identity value of the whole genome sequence between strain K3-2T and S. salmoneus Kis4-28T was 78.9 %. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain K3-2T and S. salmoneus DSM 21801T (=Kis4-28T) and S. tropicus VKPM Ac 2044T (=PS-14-7T) were 41 and 47 %. Thus, strain K3-2T represents a novel species of the genus Serinibacter for which the name Serinibacter arcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K3-2T (DSM 103859T=VKM Ас-2719T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Gelo , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sibéria , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
19.
Food Chem ; 306: 125641, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606628

RESUMO

Temperature fluctuation is a common problem in the frozen storage of shrimp products. This study investigated the influence of carrageenan oligosaccharide (CO) and xylooligosaccharide (XO) on the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals in frozen peeled shrimp exposed to temperature fluctuations. Shrimp soaked with water and 3.0% (w/v) Na4P2O7 solution were designated as the negative and positive controls, respectively. Our data revealed that both CO- and XO-soaked shrimp had significant improvements in thawing and cooking loss, myofibrillar protein content, Ca2+-ATPase activity, and textural variables when exposed to temperature fluctuations compared to control samples. Microstructural imaging indicated that soaking the shrimp in CO and XO slowed the progression of damage caused to tissue myofibrils by large ice crystals, as well as inhibited the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals in muscle tissues. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that treatment with the oligosaccharides exhibited marked effects on the stability of muscle proteins and inhibited the degradation of muscle proteins affected by the temperature fluctuations. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the incorporated CO and XO may bind to muscle proteins and capture water molecules in the myofibrillar network through hydrogen bonding, thereby suppressing the myofibrillar denaturation and tissue structure destruction induced by the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Glucuronatos/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Penaeidae/química , Animais , Congelamento , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Gelo/análise , Temperatura , Água/química
20.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 50-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880331

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the influence of ι- and κ-carrageenan addition to strawberry sorbet prepared by various freezing methods (cryostat and conventional freezer) on freezing kinetics and ice crystals structure. Four variants of strawberry-based sorbet were prepared: with no additive, with 0.1% addition of ι- and κ-carrageenan, and 1:1 blend of both. Freezing curves and freezing time, as well as the size and morphology of ice crystals, were analyzed. The addition of carrageenan stabilizers resulted in freezing process elongation. Reference samples were characterized by different dynamics of the freezing process. The addition of carrageenan increased the final temperature of the samples, compared to the reference sample (even 2.6 °C of difference). Additives reduced ice crystals growth. The most efficient was mixture of both fractions of carrageenan--the samples in this variant frozen in conventional freezer were characterized by the smallest ice crystals diameter--average 5.44 µm, while for the reference sample it was 17.79 µm. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research can give a new path for the carrageenan's hydrolysates application--not only for dairy products. Iota carrageenan fraction was recommended for dairy products according to its water-holding capacity in the presence of calcium ions. This study showed that mix of ι- and κ-carrageenan could bring positive results to such product as sorbet without any milk proteins addition. This experiment data could also be helpful when optimizing frozen desserts production in small gastronomy--especially the temperature and time of freezing modifications.


Assuntos
Carragenina/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Gelo/análise , Temperatura , Água/química
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