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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130636, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314929

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the efficiency of advanced chelate compounds-based trace minerals (OTM) in laying hens. Laying hens (240, 32 weeks old) were assigned to one of the following five groups: NOTM (no added trace minerals), CONTM (standard mineral salts), and three experimental groups in which chelates were used to replace 33, 66, and 100% of mineral salts (OTM33, OTM66, and OTM100, respectively). Each treatment had six replicates with eight hens per replicate. After 18 weeks, performance and physicochemical properties of eggs in all experimental groups was better than those in the NOTM group. Among the treatments, OTM66 and OTM100 produced the best results in terms of laying performance, yolk PUFA/SFA ratio, Zn and Se contents, and malondialdehyde concentration in both serum and yolk. In conclusion, up to 66% OTM supplementation was beneficial for performance, lipid and mineral composition of yolk, and oxidative status.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Minerais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107797, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162159

RESUMO

Specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 structural protein have a wide range of effects in the diagnose, prevention and treatment of the COVID-19 epidemic. Among them, egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY), which has high safety, high yield, and without inducing antibody-dependent enhancement, is an important biological candidate. In this study, specific IgY against the conservative nucleocapsid protein (NP) of SARS-CoV-2 was obtained by immunizing hens. Through a series of optimized precipitation and ultrafiltration extraction schemes, its purity was increased to 98%. The hyperimmune IgY against NP (N-IgY) at a titer of 1:50,000 showed strong NP binding ability, which laid the foundation of N-IgY's application targeting NP. In an in vitro immunoregulatory study, N-IgY (1 mg/mL) modulated NP-induced immune response by alleviating type II interferon secretion stimulated by NP (20 µg/mL). In summary, N-IgY can be mass produced by achievable method, which endows it with potential value against the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/terapia , Galinhas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação , Técnicas In Vitro , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 355: 129569, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773456

RESUMO

Gelation is one of the most important functional properties of egg yolk. High content and rich variety of protein and lipid in egg yolk are the material basis of gel formation. The natural structure of proteins in egg yolk is unfolded under treatments such as heat, alkali, salt, etc., thus causing the interactions between protein-protein and protein-lipid and forming the gel. Under different methods of induction, egg yolk is solidified to form different three-dimensional network structures. Different inducing methods exhibit different gel formation mechanisms. In this paper, the gelation behavior of egg yolk and its internal molecular agglomeration mechanism induced by heat, alkali, salt, freezing, high pressure, and salt-heating synergy were reviewed to provide a reference for further studies on the formation mechanisms and product development of egg yolk gel.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/química , Géis/química , Álcalis/química , Animais , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Congelamento , Pressão , Sais/química , Temperatura
5.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13512, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522058

RESUMO

The effects of feeding diets containing astaxanthin with different Z-isomer ratios to laying hens on egg qualities, such as astaxanthin concentration in egg yolk and yolk color, were investigated. As the astaxanthin source, a natural microorganism Paracoccus carotinifaciens was used. Astaxanthin with different Z-isomer ratios was prepared by thermal treatment with different conditions and then added to the basal diet at a final astaxanthin concentration of 8 mg/kg. We found that, as the Z-isomer ratios of astaxanthin in the diet increased, the astaxanthin concentration in egg yolk and the yolk color fan score also increased significantly. Importantly, feeding a 50.6% Z-isomer ratio diet increased astaxanthin concentration in egg yolk by approximately fivefold and the color fan score by approximately 2 compared to that in hens fed an all-E-isomer-rich diet. Moreover, we showed that feeding Z-isomer-rich astaxanthin to laying hens increased plasma astaxanthin concentration by more than five times in comparison to that in hens fed an all-E-isomer-rich diet. These results indicate that Z-isomers of astaxanthin have higher bioavailability than that of the all-E-isomer and thus they exhibit greater egg yolk-accumulation efficiency.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Pigmentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cor , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Isomerismo , Xantofilas/administração & dosagem , Xantofilas/sangue , Xantofilas/química , Xantofilas/metabolismo
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 63, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389265

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the effects of addition of humate, probiotic, and their combination into diets on performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition of hens during the second laying period. Lohmann LSL white layers (n = 192), 46 weeks of age, were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with basal diet (control, C), 0.3% humate (H), 0.3% probiotic (P), 0.15% humate + 0.15% probiotic (HP) for 18 weeks. Feed consumption and egg production were determined daily, egg weight was measured biweekly, and body weights were recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Also, 12 egg samples from each group were randomly collected to determine the egg quality every 30 days. Laying performance, yolk color, and fatty acid composition were significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) affected by addition of humate, probiotic, and their combination into diets of layers. The HP group had higher cracked egg yield and feed conversion ratio values than control and H and P groups. Except for egg yolk color, the other egg quality parameters such as shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, albumen index, yolk index, and Haught unit were not affected by treatment (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The egg yolks of treatment groups had less stearic acid than those of control group. In conclusion, supplementation of humate and probiotic into the diets of laying hens increased monounsaturated fatty acids in yolk and improved feed conversion ratio and egg yolk color.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Substâncias Húmicas , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Óvulo
7.
Food Chem ; 346: 128901, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450645

RESUMO

An electrochemical deposition method was used to fabricate a gold nanoflower (AuNF) and carbon nanoparticle (CNP) modified carbon paper (CP) sensor (AuNFs-CNPs/CP) for the low-cost detection of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-mTHF) in egg yolk. AuNF morphology and structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealing nanoflower sizes in the 50 to 200 nm range. AuNFs formed on the sensor were in the Au0. We evaluated 5-mTHF assay performance using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The AuNFs-CNPs/CP sensor detected 5-mTHF concentrations in the ranges from 1 to 5 mg L-1 and 1-20 µg L-1, with an excellent limit of detection of 1 µg L-1 and good selectivity toward 5-mTHF, when compared to other potentially interfering molecules in samples. The AuNFs-CNPs/CP sensor was also used to detect 5-mTHF in folate-rich, and was found to be twice than that of ordinary egg yolk.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Papel , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/análise , Carbono/química , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanoestruturas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6678513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506061

RESUMO

Vibrio (V.) vulnificus infection is a rare disease whose death rates exceed 50% despite aggressive antibiotic treatment and surgical debridement. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of specific anti-V. vulnificus immunoglobulins Y (IgYs) for preventing and treating V. vulnificus infections. IgYs were produced by immunizing egg laying hens with inactivated whole cell bacteria. Peritoneal cytokines, blood's bacterial load, and survival curves were obtained from both prophylactic and therapeutic mouse models. The results showed that the specific IgYs (i) inhibited the growth of V. vulnificus in vitro, (ii) dramatically reduced the inflammatory response and blood's bacterial load, and (iii) improved the survival rate of V. vulnificus-infected mice. These results prove that anti-V. vulnificus IgYs can be markedly effective means for the prophylaxis and the therapy of V. vulnificus infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Gema de Ovo/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Vibrioses/terapia , Vibrio vulnificus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Galinhas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/microbiologia , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/isolamento & purificação , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Camundongos , Vibrioses/sangue , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio vulnificus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107172, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191178

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is still spreading worldwide, and there is an urgent need to effectively prevent and control this pandemic. This study evaluated the potential efficacy of Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) as a neutralizing agent against the SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the neutralizing effect of anti-spike-S1 IgYs on the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, as well as its inhibitory effect on the binding of the coronavirus spike protein mutants to human ACE2. Our results show that the anti-Spike-S1 IgYs showed significant neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, various spike protein mutants, and even SARS-CoV in vitro. It might be a feasible tool for the prevention and control of ongoing COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/terapia , Galinhas/imunologia , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Mutação/genética , Pandemias , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(9): 3942-3951, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While eggs are a low-cost source of protein, rich in macro- and micronutrients, the association of egg intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. This study investigated the effect of egg consumption on CVD parameters. Eggs were boiled, separated into four fractions (whole egg, 50% yolk-reduced whole egg, egg yolk and egg white) and then freeze-dried. The different egg fractions or distilled water (control) were orally gavaged to adult male Wistar rats at 1 g kg-1 rat body weight, each day for 8 weeks, following which basal blood pressure, heart rate, complete blood cell count, blood biochemistry, body fat and liver cell lipid accumulation were determined. The vascular functions of isolated thoracic aorta were studied using classical pharmacological techniques. RESULTS: In comparison to the control group, none of the egg fractions affected body weight, food intake, plasma glucose or lipid profile. The yolk group experienced increased plasma alkaline phosphatase and creatinine levels, while egg white caused decreased plasma cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen. Whole egg and egg yolk increased blood pressure and mean hemoglobin concentration and the yolk increased liver lipid accumulation. Egg white decreased the white blood cell count and body fat lipids. No changes were found in basal heart rate or vascular functions in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of whole egg or egg yolk at the dosage given caused hypertension, with impairment of liver and kidney functions following the intake of yolk alone. However, egg white is beneficial for the cardiovascular system as it decreased plasma cholesterol and body fat accumulation. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Clara de Ovo/análise , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Galinhas , Colesterol/sangue , Culinária , Creatinina/sangue , Ovos/análise , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Food Chem ; 338: 127913, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092000

RESUMO

The salted egg yolk (SEY) is very popular in China for its pleasant flavor and texture. However, the long production cycle of traditional pickling and the waste of salted egg white had limited its industrialization. To solve these problems, a salted egg yolk flavoring was generated through enzymatic hydrolysis and microwave irradiation from fresh egg yolk in this study. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and microwave irradiation could force water and lipids in egg yolk to migrate out, and lead to lipid oxidation in high temperature. Lipid oxidation and Strecker degradation were defined as the major pathways of flavor generation. Among the generated volatile compounds, Hexanal, Heptanal, Benzaldehyde and 2-Pentyl-furan were supposed closely related to SEY flavor. This method could be used as an alternative method for the production of salted egg yolk. Furthermore, it could provide a foundation for further investigation of egg yolk containing flavor system.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Micro-Ondas , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Gema de Ovo/química , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Hidrólise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Reologia , Viscosidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(50): 15048-15060, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267575

RESUMO

Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) for laying hens enriches eggs with these essential fatty acids. However, the enrichment patterns and changes to intact lipids in egg yolk have not been sufficiently revealed. Herein, egg yolk lipids from hens fed with diets supplemented with flaxseed, Schizochytrium sp. residue, or their mixture were comprehensively analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). A total of 335 individual lipid species covering 23 (sub)classes were identified and quantified. Distinct n-3 PUFA-lipid profiles were revealed among different groups. Dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) was mainly deposited in the TAG fraction, whereas synthesized or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) predominantly existed in the glycerophospholipid form. Furthermore, different lipid species were identified and related lipid pathways after dietary supplementation were analyzed. Collectively, these findings provide us with new knowledge for production, nutritional evaluation, authentication, and application of n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Óleo de Semente do Linho/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho/metabolismo , Lipidômica
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5587-5597, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142476

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to evaluate the dynamic changes of early posthatch starvation on residual yolk absorption, synthesis of macronutrients (protein, lipid, and glycogen), and organ development in broiler chicks. A total of 720 1-day-old chicks (Lingnan Yellow) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: group A (nonfasted), group B (fasting for 24 h after placement), and group C (fasting for 48 h after placement). The trial lasted for 168 h, and water was provided ad libitum all the time. Sampling was performed at 0, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 168 h. Nonfasting (group A) promoted (P < 0.05) the absorption of amino acids, fatty acids, mineral elements, protein, and maternal antibody in the residual yolk of broiler chicks. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 in plasma and the liver was higher (P < 0.05) in group A. Nonfasting enhanced (P < 0.05) the synthesis of protein and glycogen in the breast muscle and liver; the relative weights of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; and body weight, but retarded (P < 0.05) the synthesis of triglyceride in the liver. The results indicated that nonfasting (group A) after placement promoted the absorption of residual yolk and synthesis of protein and glycogen in the breast muscle and liver, whereas early feed deprivation promoted the synthesis of lipid in the liver. Thereby, nonfasting after placement promoted organ development and body growth of broiler chicks.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais , Galinhas , Gema de Ovo , Privação de Alimentos , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Glicogênio/biossíntese , Nutrientes/biossíntese , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5874-5882, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142505

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the effects of natural astaxanthin (ASTA) from Haematococcus pluvialis on the antioxidant capacity, lipid metabolism, and ASTA accumulation in the egg yolk of laying hens. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 288, 50 wk old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatment groups. Each group had 6 replicates of 12 hens each. All birds were given a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg ASTA for 6 wk. The results showed that the total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase level, and glutathione peroxidase level in the plasma, livers, and egg yolks were significantly increased in the ASTA groups compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05), whereas the content of malondialdehyde linearly decreased (P < 0.05). The plasma levels of high-density and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the ASTA groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, ASTA supplementation decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the other lipid metabolism parameters among the ASTA-supplemented groups relative to the control group except for an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the liver. Compared with the control, dietary ASTA supplementation significantly increased the enrichment of ASTA in egg yolks at the end of week 2, 4, and 6 (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) and very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) in the ASTA groups was markedly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the control group in the liver and ovaries, respectively. In conclusion, these results suggest that dietary ASTA enhances the antioxidant capacity and regulates lipid metabolism in laying hens. ASTA enrichment in egg yolks may be closely related to the upregulation of SCARB1 and VLDLR gene expression.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Oxirredutases , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Clorofíceas/química , Dieta/veterinária , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/enzimologia , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases/análise , Oxirredutases/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Xantofilas/farmacologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980739

RESUMO

Membrane phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), consist of distinct fatty acids occupying the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, reflecting the highly regulated nature of lipid biosynthesis. However, little is known about the influence of dietary lipids on the positional nature of fatty acids in tissues, including the enrichment of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in chicken egg yolk phospholipids. This study was undertaken to characterize the PC and PE species in egg lipids derived from Lohmann hens (n=10/treatment) randomly allocated to either a control (no supplementation), a flaxseed oil (FO) or a marine algal oil (MA) diet. Each of the FO or MA diets supplied three levels of total omega-3 PUFA (0.20, 0.40 and 0.60% of diet) that were provided for 6 weeks. A combination of multiplexed mass spectrometry (MS) experiments are used to determine total, isobaric, and position molecules for PC and PE in egg yolk. The distribution of phospholipids in the yolk was predominantly PC over PE (~72 vs. 23%, respectively) across treatments. The longer chain PUFA existed in the sn-2 position in the PC and PE. Although docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) formed isomers with fatty acids 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1; it was preferentially enriched in the egg in combination with 16:0 with both the FO and MA-fed groups in both lipid pools. All 22:6-containing isomers were enriched by ~2-fold more (P < 0.0001) with MA than FO, however, all isomers exhibited a plateau with the FO-fed group. In addition, the MS analyses of PCs revealed several isobaric species containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), however, in the PE, EPA formed only one isomer (i.e. in combination with 16:0). These results may assist to elucidate potential aspects regulating the limited enrichment of omega-3 PUFA, particularly EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) in chicken eggs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Biomassa , Galinhas/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Lipidômica
16.
Food Chem ; 327: 127077, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485660

RESUMO

Compositional analyses of eggs have primarily focused on nutritional components, including large molecules, such as proteins. However, few reports have investigated the effects of heating and hen feed crops on taste components, such as free amino acids and sugars. Herein, water-soluble metabolites in raw and boiled eggs produced from chickens raised with corn- or rice-fed were analyzed. Each egg was separated into yolk and white, and freeze-dried samples were analyzed by CE-MS and LC-MS. Abundant metabolites included amino acids in yolks and sugars in whites. Compared to corn-fed, rice-fed resulted in three times higher betaine and uridine monophosphate concentrations in yolks and whites, respectively. Boiled whites contained more than four times higher concentrations of amino acids and fructose than raw whites. Metabolites in yolks exhibited minimal changes after boiling. Our findings support the use of water-soluble metabolomics to evaluate the effects of heating and feed crops on taste components.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Clara de Ovo , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Oryza , Zea mays , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Culinária , Clara de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/química , Metaboloma
17.
Anal Chem ; 92(12): 8133-8141, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407102

RESUMO

We explored the influence of embryonic bioactivity on the water structure using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging. Four groups of Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) eggs were studied: (a) one group of eggs was activated by fertilization, and (b-d) three groups of eggs were not activated because embryogenesis was stopped or not started by (b) culturing under cold temperature, (c) instant freezing, or (d) lack of fertilization. The yolks of the activated eggs contained higher proportions of weakly hydrogen bonded water than those of nonactivated eggs. A possible factor responsible for the significant changes in the water structure was revealed to be a protein secondary structural change from an α-helix to a ß-sheet in the activated eggs. NIR images of the activated eggs successfully visualized the water structural variation in the yolk with a higher proportion of weak hydrogen bonds due to the activation of embryonic development. The embryogenic activity could be assessed through the water hydrogen bond network, which is affected by newly generated proteins with different secondary structures.


Assuntos
Óvulo/química , Água/química , Animais , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Oryzias/embriologia , Óvulo/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Água/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407420

RESUMO

In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/biossíntese , Adipocinas/sangue , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Dieta , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Adipocina/genética , Receptores de Adipocina/metabolismo , Células Tecais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tecais/metabolismo
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1914-1920, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241471

RESUMO

In avian species, maternal immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is transferred from the blood to the yolks of maturing oocytes; however, the mechanism underlying this transfer is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms of maternal IgY transfer into egg yolks, IgY-depleted chickens were generated by removing the bursa of Fabricius (bursectomy) during egg incubation, and their egg production and IgY transport ability into egg yolks were determined. After hatching, blood IgY concentrations of the bursectomized chickens decreased gradually until sexual maturity, whereas those of IgA remained low from an early stage of growth (from at least 2 wk of age). Chickens identified as depleted in IgY through screening of blood IgY and IgA concentrations were raised to sexual maturity. At 20 wk of age, both blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations in the IgY-depleted group were 600-fold lower than those of the control group, whereas egg production did not differ between the groups. Intravenously injected, digoxigenin-labeled IgY uptake into the egg yolk was approximately 2-fold higher in the IgY-depleted chickens than in the controls, suggesting that IgY depletion may enhance IgY uptake in maturing oocytes. DNA microarray analysis of the germinal disc, including the oocyte nucleus, revealed that the expression levels of 73 genes were upregulated more than 1.5-fold in the IgY-depleted group, although we could not identify a convincing candidate gene for the IgY receptor. In conclusion, we successfully raised IgY-depleted chickens presenting a marked reduction in egg yolk IgY. The enhanced uptake of injected IgY into the egg yolks of the IgY-depleted chickens supports the existence of a selective IgY transport mechanism in maturing oocytes and ovarian follicles in avian species.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/deficiência , Bolsa de Fabricius/cirurgia , Galinhas/cirurgia , Feminino , Imunoglobulinas/deficiência
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2123: 165-175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170688

RESUMO

The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test is used to detect antibodies to Type A influenza group-specific antigens, i.e., the nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M) proteins. Therefore, this test will detect antibodies to all influenza A virus subtypes. AGID is commonly used to screen poultry flocks for avian influenza virus infection. The AGID is a simple and economical serological test. All serological testing has its advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered before choosing the optimal test for the laboratory needs. Each laboratory must evaluate the laboratory's resources, the volume of testing, the goal of testing, how the test results are used, and what types of samples are being tested in order to select the optimal test.


Assuntos
Ágar/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Géis/química , Imunodifusão/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Animais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/virologia
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