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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216764

RESUMO

In this article, we present the development and validation of an implicit association test for measuring secondary school students' associations between genetics concepts and teleology concepts on the one hand, and between genetics concepts and essentialism concepts on the other hand. In total, 169 students from 16 school classes took part in the study, from January 2018 to May 2018. We investigated the strength of the aforementioned associations and the influence of various covariates such as gender, age, school class, or previous learning of biology on the association of teleology or essentialism concepts with genetics concepts through an analysis of covariance and a multi-level analysis. We found moderate associations between genetics and teleology concepts, as well as between genetics and essentialism concepts. These results might reflect a tendency of students of different ages and with various backgrounds to think about genes in terms of goals (teleology) and stability (essentialism), which should be investigated further in future research.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Genética/educação , Filosofia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 48(5): 460-463, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663901

RESUMO

In the spring semester of 2020, colleges and universities adopted online teaching as the primary modality due to campus closure for social distancing. While lectures could be more readily converted to online classes, biology labs were challenging to handle since students could not physically conduct experiments in lab classrooms. In the present report, various online teaching materials, including educational and research videos, simulation labs, and real research data, were utilized to achieve the learning objectives of the originally in-person lab classes of an upper-level undergraduate genetics course. Furthermore, certain advantages of online teaching, such as detailed and high-quality annotation of lecture slides using the Apple Pencil and iPad, were observed. While online teaching has its unique strengths, it could not provide students with hands-on experience in performing real biology experiments to master technical skills; the latter are essential for students to develop a career in conducting research in an academic or industrial laboratory setting. Hence, a well-designed hybrid modality of using online teaching to complement conventional face-to-face instruction may allow for better teaching in undergraduate biology courses.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação a Distância , Genética/educação , Laboratórios , Estudantes , Universidades , Humanos
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(4): e3000667, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298256

RESUMO

As biodiversity loss continues to accelerate, there is a critical need for education and biomonitoring across the globe. Portable technologies allow for in situ molecular biodiversity monitoring that has been historically out of reach for many researchers in habitat nations. In the realm of education, portable tools such as DNA sequencers facilitate in situ hands-on training in real-time sequencing and interpretation techniques. Here, we provide step-by-step protocols as a blueprint for a terrestrial conservation genetics field training program that uses low-cost, portable devices to conduct genomics-based training directly in biodiverse habitat countries.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Genética/educação , Genética/instrumentação , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/instrumentação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Ecossistema , Feminino , Genética/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/instrumentação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
4.
Nurs Child Young People ; 32(3): 25-34, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148010

RESUMO

This article is the first of a series that outlines the fundamental aspects of the biological basis of child health. Cells and genes are the basic units of life. Therefore, it is essential that nurses have knowledge of how cells function to understand normal physiology and pathophysiology, and how specific conditions are inherited. This article describes the components of the human cell, detailing their structure and function. It also discusses genetics, providing examples of inherited diseases including those caused by mutations that affect specific components of the cell. The aim is to provide children's nurses with an accessible introduction to cell biology and genetics linked to their clinical practice.


Assuntos
Biologia Celular/educação , Saúde da Criança , Genética/educação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Criança , Transtornos Cromossômicos , Humanos , Enfermagem Pediátrica/educação
5.
Yi Chuan ; 41(12): 1148-1155, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857286

RESUMO

The cultivation of innovative abilities has become an important guide for higher education in China. Strengthening the integrated knowledge to design experiments is an effective way to improve undergraduate students' innovative abilities. Herein we designed a comprehensive experiment for molecular genetics by utilizing a rice Ds insertion mutant identified previously in our research project. In the comprehensive experiment, we adopt the method of scientific research as the main line of teaching and take the interesting phenotype of the rice mutant as the breakthrough point to reform and innovate genetics laboratory teaching. On the basis of this, we combined the progressive teaching method and guided the students to learn the TAIL-PCR skill and conduct an innovative experiment through expanding their knowledge. The comprehensive experiment will deepen students' understandings of the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes, help them master the effective way of thinking and technologies for scientific research to further improve their ability of the integrated application capability of theory and practices.


Assuntos
Genética , Mutagênese Insercional , China , Genética/educação , Humanos
7.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 18(3): ar45, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469622

RESUMO

Prior studies have shown that students have difficulty understanding the role of mutation in evolution and genetics. However, little is known about unifying themes underlying students' difficulty with mutation. In this study, we examined students' written explanations about mutation from a cognitive science perspective. According to one cognitive perspective, scientific phenomena can be perceived as entities or processes, and the miscategorization of processes as entities can lead to noncanonical ideas about scientific phenomena that are difficult to change. Students' incorrect categorization of processes as entities is well documented in physics but has not been studied in biology. Unlike other scientific phenomena that have been studied, the word "mutation" refers to both the process causing a change in the DNA and the entity, the altered DNA, making mutation a relevant concept for exploration and extension of this theory. In this study, we show that, even after instruction on mutation, the majority of students provided entity-focused descriptions of mutation in response to a question that prompted for a process-focused description in a lizard or a bacterial population. Students' noncanonical ideas about mutation occurred in both entity- and process-focused descriptions. Implications for conceptual understanding and instruction are discussed.


Assuntos
Cognição , Genética/educação , Mutação , Estudantes/psicologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Yi Chuan ; 41(7): 653-661, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307974

RESUMO

RNA interference is a gene silencing phenomenon mediated by short double-stranded RNAs, which has become a widely used research technology for reverse genetics. In order to make students understand the technology better, the students were required to select target genes, to design small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and primers, and then to test the effect of gene silencing mediated by siRNAs. Taking the fifth group in 2018 as an example, Mus musculus acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (Acsl1) was selected as the target gene, two pairs of siRNAs targeting Acsl1 mRNA were designed and transfected into 3T3-L1 by electroporation, then the total RNAs were extracted and synthesized to cDNA, and the expression levels of mRNAs were finally tested by relative quantitative PCR. The results showed that both pairs of siRNAs had more than 60% silencing effects. In the past three years, about 83% of the students completed all the experiments successfully and screened out at least a pair of effective siRNA. This teaching practice for undergraduates enhances students' understanding of RNA interference principle and technology, and exercises students' lab experience and scientific research ability.


Assuntos
Genética/educação , Interferência de RNA , Estudantes , Ensino , Animais , Coenzima A Ligases , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Interferente Pequeno
9.
Yi Chuan ; 41(6): 548-563, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257202

RESUMO

Gene structure and expression regulation mechanism are the research hotspots and focus of modern life sciences. The lac operon is a cluster of genes through which Escherichia coli catabolizes lactose. It was first proposed by F. Jacob and J. Monod, who were also awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965 for their contributions. Thereafter, the lac operon has become the classic teaching case of the gene regulation mechanism in microbiology, genetics and molecular biology, and been highly valued by teachers and students alike. Although the conclusion is easy to follow and memorize, its rich connotation and esoteric reasoning has rendered it difficult to understand, neither is it easy for teachers to fully exploit the advantages of this teaching case. Therefore it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the genetic structure and working principle of the lac operon, especially the scientific background and thinking process through which scientists revealed these mysteries. In this paper, the historical discovery and analysis process of the E. coli lac operon was reviewed by following their footprints, listening to their analysis of experimental results. Based on the DNA sequences, the reasons for several unusual phenomena of lac operon expression were also discussed to exemplify the teaching value of the classic cases in genetics and molecular biology.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Genética/educação , Óperon Lac , Biologia Molecular/educação , Sequência de Bases , Lactose
11.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 18(2): ar23, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144570

RESUMO

Problem solving is an integral part of doing science, yet it is challenging for students in many disciplines to learn. We explored student success in solving genetics problems in several genetics content areas using sets of three consecutive questions for each content area. To promote improvement, we provided students the choice to take a content-focused prompt, termed a "content hint," during either the second or third question within each content area. Overall, for students who answered the first question in a content area incorrectly, the content hints helped them solve additional content-matched problems. We also examined students' descriptions of their problem solving and found that students who improved following a hint typically used the hint content to accurately solve a problem. Students who did not improve upon receipt of the content hint demonstrated a variety of content-specific errors and omissions. Overall, ultimate success in the practice assignment (on the final question of each topic) predicted success on content-matched final exam questions, regardless of initial practice performance or initial genetics knowledge. Our findings suggest that some struggling students may have deficits in specific genetics content knowledge, which when addressed, allow the students to successfully solve challenging genetics problems.


Assuntos
Genética/educação , Resolução de Problemas , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Idioma , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Probabilidade , Recombinação Genética/genética , Análise de Regressão , Estudantes
12.
Yi Chuan ; 41(5): 439-446, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106780

RESUMO

Genetics is a branch of biology that studies the laws of inheritance and variation from the level of genes (genomes). Genetics teaching should be compatible with the evolving genetic disciplines and social needs. In view of the continuous development of the genetics knowledge system and the requirements for the training of biological students, our teaching team carried out the curriculum design and implementation of genetics blended course under the principle of constructive alignment. The reform actions include: (1) constructing genetics online resources with genetic analysis as the main line; (2) optimizing the learning objectives according to bloom's educational goals classification; (3) designing learning activities and learning assessments under the principle of constructive alignment; (4) enrich the forms of learning activities, highlighting learning-centered course design and learner interaction, promoting active learning, and improving learning outcomes. The results of the questionnaire survey and exam result analysis suggest that the blended course reform has achieved initial results. The course is fully affirmed by the students and helps to improve learning outcomes, which is worthy of further consolidation and promotion. This paper generally introduces the curriculum design and preliminary practice of genetics blended course, providing new insights and approaches for the continued development of genetics teaching in the new era.


Assuntos
Currículo , Genética/educação , Humanos , Pesquisa , Estudantes , Ensino
13.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 28(2): 408-423, 2019 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091132

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, self-rated confidence, and perceived relevance of genetics in the clinical practice of audiologists and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward a better understanding of the need for genetics education, given that genetics plays a growing role in the diagnosis of hearing impairment and communication disorders. Method A survey consisting of 8 demographic items and 16 content questions was returned by 233 audiologists and 283 SLPs. Knowledge of applied genetics was queried with clinical scenarios in a multiple-choice format. Self-assessment of clinical confidence and perceived relevance of genetics in one's field was queried with questions and statements rated on 5-point Likert scales. The benefit of additional training in genetics was rated with a yes/no question, and if answered with yes, suggested topics were entered. Results A large significant gap between confidence in one's own genetics skills and the perceived relevance of genetics was evident, regardless of professional group. Over one third of the audiologists and over two thirds of the SLPs indicated low or somewhat low confidence in their own ability to implement principles of genetics, whereas over two thirds of both groups agreed that genetics is relevant for their field. Regardless of group, confidence scores were significantly and positively associated with relevance scores. Over 80% of respondents in both groups indicated that they would benefit from additional training in genetics. Most commonly suggested topics included genetic causes, general information about genetics, and making referrals. Conclusion Both audiologists and SLPs felt that genetics is relevant for their fields and that additional training in genetics would be beneficial. Future studies should evaluate the effect of genetics training on patient outcomes and the need for incorporating genetics more extensively into audiology and speech-language pathology training programs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Audiologistas/educação , Transtornos da Comunicação , Educação Profissionalizante , Genética/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Transtornos da Audição , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/educação , Adulto , Idoso , Audiologistas/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Transtornos da Comunicação/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Comunicação/genética , Transtornos da Comunicação/terapia , Currículo , Escolaridade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos da Audição/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Audição/genética , Transtornos da Audição/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Yi Chuan ; 41(4): 349-358, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992256

RESUMO

Genetics is one of the core courses for undergraduates majoring in related disciplines. Most universities use general genetics textbooks in teaching, which will lead to different teaching qualities for students in different majors, especially in sericulture, apiculture, plant protection, and animal science. This is especially true for students majoring in insects. Although there are some entomology cases in general textbooks, they have not been updated with developments in entomology and cannot meet the needs of comprehensive quality training. Therefore, we review entomology cases that can be used in genetics courses, introduce genetics teaching points, offers replacements for some non-classical cases in general genetics textbooks, and supplement several cases of insect developmental genetics, extranuclear genetics, and evolutionary genetics, which are seldom described in general genetics textbooks. We also establish a genetics theoretical system and experimental teaching design for entomology-related majors to highlight the characteristics of entomology- related majors in genetics teaching, aiming to help students and teachers in related majors.


Assuntos
Entomologia/educação , Genética/educação , Evolução Biológica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudantes , Ensino , Universidades
15.
J Prof Nurs ; 35(2): 89-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902411

RESUMO

Nursing science is a diverse field of study, the scope of which has broadened to more fully incorporate genetics and genomics. In recent years, these topics have become focus areas for many nursing researchers. However, recent evidence suggests that doctoral level nursing students and nursing faculty may be underprepared to conduct independent research using genomic approaches. Furthermore, genetics and genomics are severely underrepresented in doctoral level nursing curricula across the United States. This article suggests a thorough, yet manageable three-part curriculum designed to educate doctoral level nursing students on genetics, genomics, and their use in nursing science. Recommendations are then given for the integration of the curriculum into existing nursing PhD programs.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Genética/educação , Genômica/educação , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estados Unidos
16.
Yi Chuan ; 41(3): 262-270, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872262

RESUMO

It has always been a challenge to combine research progress with undergraduate laboratory teaching. Herein we designed a comprehensive experiment to compare classical Mendelian segregation and non-Mendelian distorted segregation by utilizing a rice material (DSSL) containing F1 hybrid male sterility locus S23 constructed previously in our research project. Using the four SSR markers located on two chromosomes of rice, the genotypes of the F2 population and the two parents were analyzed, and the phenotypes of the pollen fertility of the two parents and their F1 plants were investigated. The results not only verified segregation law at the molecular level, but also fully demonstrated the distorted segregation in both genotypes and phenotypes, thus deepening students' understandings of plant genetics and the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes, inspiring students' interests in genetics experiments, and enhancing students' consciousness and enthusiasm for experimental learning. On the basis of this, a sustainable development idea of transforming scientific research progress into teaching applications was conceived to promote the reform and innovation of genetics laboratory teaching.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Genética/educação , Aprendizagem , Oryza/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Pólen , Estudantes
18.
MedEdPORTAL ; 15: 10797, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800997

RESUMO

Introduction: Genetics is ubiquitous in OB-GYN. However, data suggest that trainees feel underprepared to counsel patients about genetic testing, the nuances of which are becoming increasingly complicated. We sought to develop and implement a genetics curriculum for OB-GYN residents. Methods: This five-module (screening for fetal aneuploidy, prenatal diagnostic testing, prenatal carrier screening, pedigrees, and cancer genetics), interactive, case-based curriculum is linked to Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology objectives and can stand alone or work as part of an ultrasound or obstetrics rotation. Each module, containing objectives, assigned readings, and cases with answers, is used in a small-group format and can be completed in 20-30 minutes prior to the start of a clinical day. Modules were implemented at two academic centers with first-year OB-GYN residents. Qualitative real-time feedback and summative quantitative feedback from OB-GYN residents were obtained. Results: Twenty-one OB-GYN residents completed the curriculum, which was well received by trainees and program directors. All residents (100%) felt the curriculum increased knowledge of prenatal genetics and felt more comfortable counseling patients after completion. Seventy-three percent enjoyed the discussion/case-based format; associated articles were found helpful by 100% of trainees. Facilitators enjoyed teaching the curriculum and felt learner knowledge improved dramatically. Discussion: These low-cost modules were easy to implement and resulted in increased knowledge and confidence in prenatal and cancer genetics. Designed to stand alone and take as little as 20 minutes, the modules provide a helpful adjunct to a women's health rotation or didactic curriculum.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Genética/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Saúde da Mulher/normas , Aneuploidia , Estágio Clínico/métodos , Feminino , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Aconselhamento Genético/normas , Ginecologia/educação , Humanos , Conhecimento , Obstetrícia/educação , Gravidez/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/normas
20.
Genet Med ; 21(3): 727-735, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In response to genetic testing being widely ordered by nongenetics clinicians, the Consent and Disclosure Recommendations (CADRe) Workgroup of the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen; clinicalgenome.org ) developed guidance to facilitate communication about genetic testing and efficiently improve the patient experience. Considering ethical, legal, and social implications, and medical factors, CADRe developed and pilot tested two rubrics addressing consent for genetic testing and results disclosure. The CADRe rubrics allow for adjusting the communication approach based on circumstances specific to patients and ordering clinicians. METHODS: We present results of a formative survey of 66 genetics clinicians to assess the consent rubric for nine genes (MLH1, CDH1, TP53, GJB2, OTC; DMD, HTT, and CYP2C9/VKORC1). We also conducted interviews and focus groups with family and patient stakeholders (N = 18), nongenetics specialists (N = 27), and genetics clinicians (N = 32) on both rubrics. RESULTS: Formative evaluation of the CADRe rubrics suggests key factors on which to make decisions about consent and disclosure discussions for a "typical" patient. CONCLUSION: We propose that the CADRe rubrics include the primary issues necessary to guide communication recommendations, and are ready for pilot testing by nongenetics clinicians. Consultation with genetics clinicians can be targeted toward more complex or intensive consent and disclosure counseling.


Assuntos
Revelação/ética , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Confidencialidade , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/normas , Testes Genéticos/ética , Genética/educação , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Idioma , Masculino , Estudantes
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