Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 59.237
Filtrar
1.
Water Res ; 185: 116127, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086465

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance has become a global public health concern, rendering common infections untreatable. Given the widespread occurrence, increasing attention is being turned toward environmental pathways that potentially contribute to antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) dissemination outside the clinical realm. Studies during the past decade have clearly proved the increased ARG pollution trend along with gradient of anthropogenic interference, mainly through marker-ARG detection by PCR-based approaches. However, accurate source-tracking has been always confounded by various factors in previous studies, such as autochthonous ARG level, spatiotemporal variability and environmental resistome complexity, as well as inherent method limitation. The rapidly developed metagenomics profiles ARG occurrence within the sample-wide genomic context, opening a new avenue for source tracking of environmental ARG pollution. Coupling with machine-learning classification, it has been demonstrated the potential of metagenomic ARG profiles in unambiguously assigning source contribution. Through identifying indicator ARG and recovering ARG-host genomes, metagenomics-based analysis will further increase the resolution and accuracy of source tracking. In this review, challenges and progresses in source-tracking studies on environmental ARG pollution will be discussed, with specific focus on recent metagenomics-guide approaches. We propose an integrative metagenomics-based framework, in which coordinated efforts on experimental design and metagenomic analysis will assist in realizing the ultimate goal of robust source-tracking in environmental ARG pollution.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Metagenoma , Metagenômica
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140466, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886993

RESUMO

There is a growing concern about the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during wastewater treatment and their potential impacts on the receiving water bodies. We hypothesised that the quantity of ARGs in effluents may be related to the size of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sampling season. To date, only several attempts have been made to investigate the impact of the above factors at the catchment scale. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to explore possible differences in the quantity of ARGs in treated wastewater from small, medium-sized and large WWTPs in the catchment of the Pilica River (9258 km2). The impact of treated wastewater on the concentration of ARGs was also determined along the river continuum from upland to lowland segments to the point of confluence with the Vistula (342 km). Treated effluent was sampled in 17 WWTPs, and river water was sampled in 7 sampling sites in four seasons. The concentrations of blaTEM, tet(A), ermF, sul1 and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes, the integrase gene intI1 and the 16S rRNA gene were analysed by quantitative PCR. The physical and chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations (23 various parameters) in the analysed samples were determined. The highest absolute concentrations of the studied genes were noted in effluent samples from small WWTPs (p < 0.01). The concentration of ARGs (gene copies/mL) peaked in winter and spring samples (p < 0.04). The results of statistical analyses indicate that in small WWTPs, the absolute concentration of ARGs can be predicted based on the biochemical oxygen demand, in routine water analyses. However, none of the studied parameters supported predictions of ARG abundance in medium-sized and large WWTPs or in river water.


Assuntos
Rios , Águas Residuárias/análise , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Estações do Ano
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4379, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873785

RESUMO

The gut microbiome harbors a 'silent reservoir' of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes that is thought to contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). To counteract the spread of AR, it is paramount to know which organisms harbor mobile AR genes and which organisms engage in HGT. Despite methods that characterize the overall abundance of AR genes in the gut, technological limitations of short-read sequencing have precluded linking bacterial taxa to specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs) encoding AR genes. Here, we apply Hi-C, a high-throughput, culture-independent method, to surveil the bacterial carriage of MGEs. We compare two healthy individuals with seven neutropenic patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, who receive multiple courses of antibiotics, and are acutely vulnerable to the threat of multidrug-resistant infections. We find distinct networks of HGT across individuals, though AR and mobile genes are associated with more diverse taxa within the neutropenic patients than the healthy subjects. Our data further suggest that HGT occurs frequently over a several-week period in both cohorts. Whereas most efforts to understand the spread of AR genes have focused on pathogenic species, our findings shed light on the role of the human gut microbiome in this process.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4365, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868761

RESUMO

Current approaches explore bacterial genes that change transcriptionally upon stress exposure as diagnostics to predict antibiotic sensitivity. However, transcriptional changes are often specific to a species or antibiotic, limiting implementation to known settings only. While a generalizable approach, predicting bacterial fitness independent of strain, species or type of stress, would eliminate such limitations, it is unclear whether a stress-response can be universally captured. By generating a multi-stress and species RNA-Seq and experimental evolution dataset, we highlight the strengths and limitations of existing gene-panel based methods. Subsequently, we build a generalizable method around the observation that global transcriptional disorder seems to be a common, low-fitness, stress response. We quantify this disorder using entropy, which is a specific measure of randomness, and find that in low fitness cases increasing entropy and transcriptional disorder results from a loss of regulatory gene-dependencies. Using entropy as a single feature, we show that fitness and quantitative antibiotic sensitivity predictions can be made that generalize well beyond training data. Furthermore, we validate entropy-based predictions in 7 species under antibiotic and non-antibiotic conditions. By demonstrating the feasibility of universal predictions of bacterial fitness, this work establishes the fundamentals for potentially new approaches in infectious disease diagnostics.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Entropia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008159, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925923

RESUMO

Intracellular spatial heterogeneity is frequently observed in bacteria, where the chromosome occupies part of the cell's volume and a circuit's DNA often localizes within the cell. How this heterogeneity affects core processes and genetic circuits is still poorly understood. In fact, commonly used ordinary differential equation (ODE) models of genetic circuits assume a well-mixed ensemble of molecules and, as such, do not capture spatial aspects. Reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) models have been only occasionally used since they are difficult to integrate and do not provide mechanistic understanding of the effects of spatial heterogeneity. In this paper, we derive a reduced ODE model that captures spatial effects, yet has the same dimension as commonly used well-mixed models. In particular, the only difference with respect to a well-mixed ODE model is that the association rate constant of binding reactions is multiplied by a coefficient, which we refer to as the binding correction factor (BCF). The BCF depends on the size of interacting molecules and on their location when fixed in space and it is equal to unity in a well-mixed ODE model. The BCF can be used to investigate how spatial heterogeneity affects the behavior of core processes and genetic circuits. Specifically, our reduced model indicates that transcription and its regulation are more effective for genes located at the cell poles than for genes located on the chromosome. The extent of these effects depends on the value of the BCF, which we found to be close to unity. For translation, the value of the BCF is always greater than unity, it increases with mRNA size, and, with biologically relevant parameters, is substantially larger than unity. Our model has broad validity, has the same dimension as a well-mixed model, yet it incorporates spatial heterogeneity. This simple-to-use model can be used to both analyze and design genetic circuits while accounting for spatial intracellular effects.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional , Difusão , Espaço Intracelular/química , Espaço Intracelular/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4827, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973167

RESUMO

In bacteria, translation re-initiation is crucial for synthesizing proteins encoded by genes that are organized into operons. The mechanisms regulating translation re-initiation remain, however, poorly understood. We now describe the ribosome termination structure (RTS), a conserved and stable mRNA secondary structure localized immediately downstream of stop codons, and provide experimental evidence for its role in governing re-initiation efficiency in a synthetic Escherichia coli operon. We further report that RTSs are abundant, being associated with 18%-65% of genes in 128 analyzed bacterial genomes representing all phyla, and are selectively depleted when translation re-initiation is advantageous yet selectively enriched so as to insulate translation when re-initiation is deleterious. Our results support a potentially universal role for the RTS in controlling translation termination-insulation and re-initiation across bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Óperon/genética , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Códon de Terminação/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Iniciação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111037, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888596

RESUMO

Glacier studies as of late have ruffled many eyeballs, exploring this frigid ecology to understand the impact of climate change. Mapquesting the glaciers led to the discovery of concealed world of "psychrophiles" harboring in it. In the present study, the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs) were evaluated through both the culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Samples were collected from two different glaciers, i.e., debris-covered glacier (Changme Khangpu) and debris-free glacier (Changme Khang). Functional metagenomics of both the glacier samples, provided evidence of presence of resistant genes against various antibiotic groups. Bacitracin resistant gene (bacA) was the predominant ARG in both the glaciers. MRGs in both the glacier samples were diversified as the genes detected were resistant against various heavy metals such as arsenic, tungsten, mercury, zinc, chromium, copper, cobalt, and iron. Unique MRGs identified from Changme Khangpu glacier were resistant to copper (cutA, cutE, cutC, cutF, cueR, copC, and copB) and chromium (yelf, ruvB, nfsA, chrR, and chrA) whereas, from Changme Khang glacier they showed resistance against cobalt (mgtA, dmef, corD, corC, corB, and cnrA), and iron (yefD, yefC, yefB, and yefA) heavy metals. ARGs aligned maximum identity with Gram-negative psychrotolerant bacteria. The cultured bacterial isolates showed tolerance to high concentrations of tested heavy metal solutions. Interestingly, some of the antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates also showed tolerance towards the higher concentrations of heavy metals. Thus, an introspection of the hypothesis of co-occurrence and/co-selection of ARGs and MRGs in such environments has been highlighted here.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Adaptação Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Camada de Gelo/química , Índia , Metagenômica , Siquim
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111047, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888598

RESUMO

Understanding azo dye degrading enzymes and the encoding of their functional genes is crucial for the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In this study, a thermophilic strain capable of degrading azo dye was isolated from the soil near a textile dye manufacturing factory. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Anoxybacillus sp. PDR2. The decolorization ratios of 100-600 mg/L Direct Black G (DBG) by strain PDR2 reached 82.12-98.39% within 48 h of dyes. Genome analysis revealed that strain PDR2 contains a circular chromosome of 3791144 bp with a G + C content of 42.48%. The genetic basis of azo dye degradation by strain PDR2 and its capacity to adapt to harsh environments, were further elucidated through bioinformatics analysis. RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR technology confirmed that NAD(P)H-flavin reductase, 2Fe-2S ferredoxin and NAD(P)-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase genes expressed by strain PDR2, were the key genes involved in DBG degradation. The combination of genome and transcriptome analysis was utilized to explore the key genes of strain PDR2 involved in azo dye biodegradation, with these findings providing a valuable theoretical basis for the practical treatment of azo dye wastewater.


Assuntos
Anoxybacillus/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Azo/análise , Corantes/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Microbiologia do Solo , Anoxybacillus/genética , Anoxybacillus/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Corantes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Indústria Têxtil
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4658, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938931

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important marine osmolyte. Aphotic environments are only recently being considered as potential contributors to global DMSP production. Here, our Mariana Trench study reveals a typical seawater DMSP/dimethylsulfide (DMS) profile, with highest concentrations in the euphotic zone and decreased but consistent levels below. The genetic potential for bacterial DMSP synthesis via the dsyB gene and its transcription is greater in the deep ocean, and is highest in the sediment.s DMSP catabolic potential is present throughout the trench waters, but is less prominent below 8000 m, perhaps indicating a preference to store DMSP in the deep for stress protection. Deep ocean bacterial isolates show enhanced DMSP production under increased hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, bacterial dsyB mutants are less tolerant of deep ocean pressures than wild-type strains. Thus, we propose a physiological function for DMSP in hydrostatic pressure protection, and that bacteria are key DMSP producers in deep seawater and sediment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Compostos de Sulfônio/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorofila A/análise , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Marinobacter/genética , Marinobacter/isolamento & purificação , Marinobacter/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Mutação , Oceanos e Mares , Prochlorococcus/genética , Prochlorococcus/isolamento & purificação , Prochlorococcus/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sulfetos/análise , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfônio/análise , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação , Synechococcus/metabolismo
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127392, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947654

RESUMO

Discharge of urban stormwater containing organic matter, heavy metals and sometime human feces, to the natural aquatic reservoirs without any treatment is not only an environmental problem. It can lead to prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in stormwater systems and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes to the environment. We performed antibiotic resistome identification and virus detection in stormwater samples from Stockholm, using publicly available metagenomic sequencing MinION data. A MinION platform offers low-cost, precise environmental metagenomics analysis. 37 groups of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), 11 resistance types with 26 resistance mechanisms - antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) giving tolerance to the aminoglycoside, beta-lactams, fosmidomycin, MLS, multidrug and vancomycin were identified using ARGpore pipeline. The majority of the identified bacteria species were related to the natural environment such as soil and were not dangerous to human. Alarmingly, human pathogenic bacteria carrying resistance to antibiotics currently used against them (Bordetella resistant to macrolides and multidrug resistant Propionibacterium avidum) were also found in the samples. Most abundant viruses identified belonged to Caudovirales and Herpesvirales and they were not carrying ARGs. Unlike the virome, resistome and ARB were not unique for stormwater sampling points. This results underline the need for extensive monitoring of the microbial community structure in the urban stormwater systems to assess antimicrobial resistance spread.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Metagenoma , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrolídeos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , beta-Lactamas
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(12): 2501-2510, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857738

RESUMO

The exploitation of petroleum in offshore areas is becoming more prosperous due to the increasing human demand for oil. However, the effects of offshore petroleum exploitation on the microbial community in the surrounding environment are still not adequately understood. In the present study, variations in the composition, function, and antibiotic resistance of the microbial community in marine sediments adjacent to an offshore petroleum exploitation platform were analyzed by a metagenomics-based method. Significant shifts in the microbial community composition were observed in sediments impacted by offshore petroleum exploitation. Nitrosopumilales was enriched in marine sediments with the activities of offshore petroleum exploitation compared to the control sediments. The abundances of function genes involved in carbon, butanoate, methane, and fatty acid metabolism in sediment microbial communities also increased due to the offshore petroleum exploitation. Offshore petroleum exploitation resulted in the propagation of some antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including a multidrug transporter, smeE, and arnA, in marine sediments via horizontal gene transfer mediated by class I integrons. However, the total abundance and diversity of ARGs in marine sediments were not significantly affected by offshore petroleum exploitation. This study is the first attempt to analyze the impact of offshore petroleum exploitation on the spread of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Petróleo , Antibacterianos , Bactérias/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140997, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755790

RESUMO

The occurrence and fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) worldwide were reviewed. The prevalence of antibiotics in WWTPs among different periods (1999-2009 and 2010-2019) and geographical areas (Europe, America, Asia and Africa) was summarized, analyzed and evaluated. The classes of macrolides (clarithromycin, erythromycin/erythromycin-H2O, azithromycin, roxithromycin), sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole), trimethoprim, quinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin) and tetracyclines (tetracycline) were the antibiotics most frequently detected, while bla (blaCTXM, blaTEM), sul (sul1, sul2), tet (tetO, tetQ, tetW) and ermB genes were the ARGs commonly reported in WWTPs. There was a positive correlation between antibiotics and ARGs commonly detected in WWTPs, except for ß-lactam antibiotics and bla genes. The genes bla were found frequently, despite ß-lactam antibiotics were seldom detected owing to the hydrolysis. Most of antibiotics had lower levels in the period 2010-2019 in Asian countries than that in period 1999-2009 in North American and European countries. In the effluent of secondary treatment, the concentration of trimethoprim was the highest (138 ng/L in median) and the concentration of other antibiotics remained at lower than 80 ng/L, while the relative abundance of ARGs ranged 2.9-4.6 logs (copies/mL, in median). Future researches on the development of effective antibiotic removal technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes, are suggested to focus on antibiotics frequently detected and their corresponding ARGs in WWTPs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Águas Residuárias/análise , África , Ásia , Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Genes Bacterianos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140804, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758846

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) are constantly shed into the aquatic environment, with hospital wastewater potentially acting as an important source for resistance spread into the environment. A systematic review was conducted aiming to investigate the role of hospital wastewater on dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in the aquatic environment. Studies included in the review compared the prevalence of ARB and/or ARGs in hospital versus community wastewater. Data were extracted on ARB and/or ARG prevalence. Data on sampling techniques, microbiological methodology and risk of bias of included studies were recorded. Thirty-seven studies were included. Higher frequencies of antibiotic resistance determinants were found in hospital wastewater compared to community sources in 30/37 (81%) of included studies. However, trends for specific multi-drug-resistant bacteria differed. Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative were more prevalent in hospital compared to community wastewaters, with higher concentrations of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing pathogens and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital sources in 9/9 studies and 6/7 studies, respectively. Hospitals did not contribute consistently to the abundance of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE); 5/10 studies found higher abundance of VRE in hospital compared to community wastewaters. Reporting on sampling methods, wastewater treatment processes and statistical analysis were at high risk of bias. Extreme heterogeneity in study methods and outcome reporting precluded meta-analysis. Current evidence concurs that hospital wastewater is an important source for antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments, mainly multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Future research is needed to assess the effect of wastewater treatment processes on overall antibiotic resistance in the aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Águas Residuárias , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111190, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771773

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to clarify the distribution as well as the removal mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) within three sludge treatment wetlands (STWs) during a loading period of two years. Three STW units were constructed and run during the loading period: Unit 1 (U1) built with aeration tubes, Unit 2 (U2) built with aeration tubes and reeds, and Unit 3 (U3) built with reeds only. All targeted ARGs, intI1, and 16S rRNA were detected in residual sludge in the order of magnitude: 16S rRNA>sul1>intI1>sul2>tetC>tetA>ermB. The abundance of the five targeted ARGs, intI1, and 16S rRNA increased in residual sludge, during the loading period, which may be due to the increase in bacteria caused by the continuous import of exogenous nutrients. However, STWs can also remove ARGs from sewage during the loading period and the mean removal efficiency of five resistance genes was 73.0%. The removal rates of intI1 and 16S rRNA were 73.5% and 78.6%, respectively. Positive correlations were detected in abundance of most ARGs and intI1, as well as 16S rRNA (P < 0.05), indicating intI1 plays a vital part in the propagation of ARGs. The removal of bacteria harboring these genes also occurs in the STW units.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Águas Residuárias/análise
15.
Science ; 369(6507): 1077-1084, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855333

RESUMO

Bacteria and archaea are frequently attacked by viruses and other mobile genetic elements and rely on dedicated antiviral defense systems, such as restriction endonucleases and CRISPR, to survive. The enormous diversity of viruses suggests that more types of defense systems exist than are currently known. By systematic defense gene prediction and heterologous reconstitution, here we discover 29 widespread antiviral gene cassettes, collectively present in 32% of all sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes, that mediate protection against specific bacteriophages. These systems incorporate enzymatic activities not previously implicated in antiviral defense, including RNA editing and retron satellite DNA synthesis. In addition, we computationally predict a diverse set of other putative defense genes that remain to be characterized. These results highlight an immense array of molecular functions that microbes use against viruses.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/química , Archaea/virologia , Vírus de Archaea/imunologia , Bactérias/virologia , Bacteriófagos/imunologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de RNA , Adenosina Desaminase/classificação , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Archaea/enzimologia , Proteínas Arqueais , Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias , Genes Arqueais , Genes Bacterianos , Domínios Proteicos
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140224, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806354

RESUMO

Seasonal variations of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) indicators in runoff water can help improve our understanding of AMR sources and transport within an agricultural watershed. This study aimed to monitor multiple areas throughout the Black Hawk Lake (BHL) watershed (5324 ha) in central Iowa during 2017 and 2018 that consists of both swine and cattle feeding operations as well as known areas with manure application. The measured indicators included plate counts for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Enterococcus, antibiotic resistant fecal indicator bacteria (ARBs) tylosin resistant Enterococcus, tetracycline resistant Enterococcus, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): ermB, ermF (macrolide), tetA, tetM, tetO, tetW (tetracycline), sul1, sul2 (sulfonamide), aadA2 (aminoglycoside), vgaA, and vgaB (pleuromutilin). Both the plate count and the ARG analyses showed seasonal trends. Plate counts were significantly greater during the growing season, while the ARGs were greater in the pre-planting and post-harvest seasons (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test p < 0.05). The ermB gene concentration was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with E. coli and Enterococcus concentrations in 2017, suggesting a potential use of this ARG as an indicator of environmental AMR and human health risk. Flow rate was not a significant contributor to annual variations in bacteria and AMR indicators. Based on observed seasonal patterns, we concluded that manure application was the likely contributor to elevated ARG indicators observed in the BHL watershed, while the driver of elevated ARB indictors in the growing season can only be speculated. Understanding AMR export patterns in agricultural watersheds provides public health officials knowledge of seasonal periods of higher AMR load to recreational waters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Iowa , Estações do Ano , Suínos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 115057, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806457

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment are an exposure risk to humans and animals and is emerging as a global public health concern. In this study, mercury (Hg) driven co-selection of ARGs was investigated under controlled conditions in two Australian non-agricultural soils with differing pH. Soils were spiked with increasing concentrations of inorganic Hg and left to age for 5 years. Both soils contained ARGs conferring resistance to tetracycline (tetA, tetB), sulphonamides (sul1), trimethoprim (dfrA1) and the ARG indicator class 1 integron-integrase gene, intI1, as measured by qPCR. The last resort antibiotic vancomycin resistance gene, vanB and quinolone resistance gene, qnrS were not detected. Hg driven co-selection of several ARGs namely intI1, tetA and tetB were observed in the alkaline soil within the tested Hg concentrations. No co-selection of the experimental ARGs was observed in the neutral pH soil. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed proliferation of Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes in Hg contaminated neutral and alkaline soils respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed a strong effect of Hg, soil pH and organic carbon content on the co-selection of ARGs in the experimental soils. Additionally, although aging caused a significant reduction in Hg content, agriculturally important bacterial phyla such as Nitrospirae did not regrow in the contaminated soils. The results suggest that mercury can drive co-selection of ARGs in contaminated non-agricultural soils over five years of aging which is linked to soil microbiota shift and metal chemistry in the soil.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Microbiota , Animais , Austrália , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 115084, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806463

RESUMO

The effects of the continuous accumulation of Zinc (Zn) on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in constructed wetland-microbial fuel cells (CW-MFCs) remain unclear. In this study, the impacts of Zn addition and a circuit mode on antibiotic removal, occurrence of ARGs, the bacterial community, and bacterial functions were investigated in three groups of CW-MFCs. The results showed that continuous Zn exposure enriched the target ARGs during the initial stage, while excessive Zn accumulation decreased antibiotic removal and the abundance of ARGs. A principal component analysis demonstrated that ARGs and the bacterial community distribution characteristics were significantly impacted by the mass accumulation of antibiotics and Zn, as well as the circuit mode. A redundancy analysis, partial least squares path modeling, and Procrustes analysis revealed that the accumulation of antibiotics and Zn, the composition of the bacterial community, the circuit mode, and the abundance of intI associated with horizontal gene transfer jointly contributed to the distributions of ARGs in the electrodes and effluent. Moreover, continuous exposure to Zn decreased the bacterial diversity and changed the composition and function of the bacterial community predicted using PICRUSt tool. The co-occurrence of ARGs, their potential hosts and bacterial functions were further revealed using a network analysis. A variation partition analysis also showed that the accumulation of target pollutants and the circuit mode had a significant impact on the bacterial community composition and functions. Therefore, the interaction among ARGs, the bacterial community, bacterial functions, and pollutant accumulations in the CW-MFC was complex. This study provides useful implications for the application of CW-MFCs for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with antibiotics and heavy metals.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Áreas Alagadas , Zinco
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111424, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753208

RESUMO

Although the occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environmental has been widely reported, the distribution and variations of these emerging contaminants in the coral reef regions remain unclear. This study investigated the occurrence of these contaminants, and their spatial and seasonal variations in both coral reef regions and non-coral reef regions adjacent to two typical islands in the South China Sea. Eighteen antibiotics and seven ARGs were detected in the surface water with total concentrations ranging from 43.2 to 441 ng/L, and 2.11 × 104 to 8.00 × 106 copies/L, respectively. Erythromycin-H2O was the most dominant antibiotic in all samples. QnrD was dominant in the dry season, whereas sul1, sul2, and floR were the most abundant in the wet season, indicating obvious seasonal variations. The distribution of ARGs was mainly influenced by changes in salinity caused by anthropogenic activities in wet season.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Recifes de Corais , China , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Ilhas , Estações do Ano
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140242, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758961

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance represents the greatest challenge to healthcare systems around the world. As antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are shed in faeces, many studies have focused on how wastewater effluent contributes to ARG pollution in rivers. However, small urban streams and bathing waters not impacted by treated wastewater have received little attention though they may be important reservoirs of ARGs. The main objective of this study was to assess the extent to which ARG and faecal pollution impact small urban streams and bathing waters and to determine if there is a relationship between these contaminants. For one year, bi-monthly water samples were collected from two urban streams and Dublin city's three designated bathing waters. The Liffey Estuary, that receives treated wastewater, was also sampled. The sul1, tet(O), qnrS, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M ARGs were quantified. E. coli and intestinal enterococci levels were determined and the source of faecal pollution (human, dog, gull) quantified by microbial source tracking. Our results show that the Liffey Estuary, the urban streams and the bathing waters are highly impacted by ARGs and human faeces. There were clear correlations between all of the studied faecal indicators and ARGs in the Liffey Estuary. In the urban streams relationships were observed for only some of the ARGs and faecal indicators, which is likely a result of non-continuous sewage leaks and overflows to the streams. Similarly, only some ARGs correlated with faecal indicators in the urban bathing waters. The source of ARGs in the bathing waters is likely to be multifaceted as we detected sporadic dog and gull faecal markers. This study demonstrates that small urban streams and bathing waters are reservoirs of ARGs and that they may pose a previously unrecognised public health risk as they have the potential to transmit enteric pathogens and antibiotic resistance determinants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Rios , Animais , Cidades , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA