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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 17-34, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471024

RESUMO

Is our food safe and free of the crisis of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (AR)? And will the derived food waste (FW) impose AR risk to the environment after biological treatment? This study used restaurant FW leachates flowing through a 200 tons-waste/day biological treatment plant as a window to investigate the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) during the acceptance and treatment of FW. Sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole) and quinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin) were detected during FW treatment, while tetracyclines, macrolides and chloramphenicols were not observable. ARGs encoding resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines and macrolides emerged in FW leachates. Material flow analysis illustrated that the total amount of antibiotics (except sulfamethazine) and ARGs were constant during FW treatment processes. Both the concentration and total amount of most antibiotics and ARGs fluctuated during treatment, physical processes (screening, centrifugation, solid-liquid and oil-water separation) did not decrease antibiotic or ARGs concentrations or total levels permanently; the affiliated wastewater treatment plant appeared to remove sulfonamides and most ARGs concentrations and total amount. Heavy metals Ni, Co and Cu were important for disseminating antibiotics concentrations and MGEs for distributing ARGs concentrations. Humic substances (fulvic acids, hydrophilic fractions), C-associated and N-associated contents were essential for the distribution of the total amounts of antibiotics and ARGs. Overall, this study implied that human food might not be free of antibiotics and ARGs, and FW was an underestimated AR pool with various determinants. Nonetheless, derived hazards of FW could be mitigated through biological treatment with well-planned daily operations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Metais Pesados/análise , Restaurantes , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122096, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493731

RESUMO

The microbial community characteristics, functional and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), anammox performance under individual and combined oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were tested under environmentally relevant levels. The results showed that anammox performance was inhibited when the OTC or SMX concentration increased from 0.5 to 1.0 mg L-1. The absolute abundance of tetX in OTC (3.03 × 106 copies mg-1), SMX (2.80 × 106 copies mg-1) and OTC + SMX (2.03 × 106 copies mg-1) was the highest and one more order of magnitude higher than that of tetG, tetM, intI1, or sul2. The anammox performance in the presence of OTC or SMX was lower than that sum of their independent effects. The enrichment of sludge resistomes with prolonged exposure time and increasing OTC and SMX doses might be due to succession of bacterial hosts and potential elevation of ARGs by horizontal transfer.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oxitetraciclina , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Sulfametoxazol
3.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 127, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375931

RESUMO

Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes serious infections in aquaculture and exhibits significant multidrug resistance. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) family proteins are a well-known group of transcriptional regulators involved in diverse physiological functions. However, the role of LTTRs in the regulation of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is still largely unknown. In this study, to further investigate the role of four putative LTTR family proteins (A0KIU1, A0KJ82, A0KPK0, and A0KQ63) in antibiotic resistance in A. hydrophila, their genes were cloned and overexpressed in engineered Escherichia coli. After the optimization of experimental conditions including incubation time, temperature, and IPTG concentration, these proteins were successfully purified, and their specific antibodies against mice were obtained. Using western blot analysis, we found that these LTTR family proteins were downregulated in A. hydrophila following antibiotic treatment, indicating that they may be involved in the regulation of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays of chloramphenicol (CM), chlortetracycline (CTC), ciprofloxacin (CF), furazolidone (FZ), and balofloxacin (BF) in E. coli showed that overexpression of these LTTRs led to increased sensitivity to several antibiotics. To further validate their functional role in antibiotic resistance, we demonstrated that bacteria with loss of A0KQ63 (ΔAHA_3980) exhibited multi-drug resistance properties. Our results indicate that these LTTR family proteins may play an important role in the antibiotic resistance of A. hydrophila, and the that underlying mechanisms controlling antibiotic resistance should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas hydrophila/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reguladores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Western Blotting , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 134, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432266

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic pathogens and may induce severe diarrheagenic diseases in humans and other animals. Non-O157 STEC have been emerging as important pathogens causing outbreaks worldwide. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has become a global public health problem, which involves different ecological spheres, including animals. This study aimed to characterize the resistance to antimicrobials, plasmids and virulence, as well as the serotypes and phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolated from sheep in Brazil. A total of 57 isolates were obtained and showed different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Nineteen isolates presented acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (blaCTX-M-Gp9, qnrB, qnrS, oqxB, oqxA, tetA, tetB, tetC, sul1 and sul2) and plasmid families (F, FIA, FIB, I1, K, HI1 and ColE-like). The stx1, stx2 and ehxA virulence genes were detected by PCR, being 50 isolates (87.7%) classified as STEC. A great diversity of serotypes was detected, being O176:HNM the most predominant. Phylogenetic group E was the most prevalent, followed by B1, A and B2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the world of blaCTX-M-Gp9 (O75, O114, O100, O128ac and O176 serogroups), qnrB and oqxB genes in non-O157 STEC in healthy sheep. The results obtained in the present study call attention to the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant non-O157 STEC harboring acquired ARGs worldwide and indicate a zoonotic risk due to the profile of virulence, resistance and serotype found.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética
5.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126292, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421719

RESUMO

Azotobacter chroococcum (Az) and Trichoderma viride (Tv) represent agriculturally important and beneficial plant growth promoting options which contribute towards nutrient management and biocontrol, respectively. When Az and Tv are co-cultured, they form a biofilm, which has proved promising as an inoculant in several crops; however, the basic aspects related to regulation of biofilm formation were not investigated. Therefore, whole transcriptome sequencing (Illumina NextSeq500) and gene expression analyses were undertaken, related to biofilm formation vis a vis Tv and Az growing individually. Significant changes in the transcriptome profiles of biofilm were recorded and validated through qPCR analyses. In-depth evaluation also identified several genes (phoA, phoB, glgP, alg8, sipW, purB, pssA, fadD) specifically involved in biofilm formation in Az, Tv and Tv-Az. Genes coding for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, ABC transporters, translation elongation factor EF-1, molecular chaperones and double homeobox 4 were either up-regulated or down-regulated during biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the modulation of gene expression in an agriculturally beneficial association, as a biofilm. Our results provide insights into the regulatory factors involved during biofilm formation, which can help to improve the beneficial effects and develop more effective and promising plant- microbe associations.


Assuntos
Azotobacter/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Microbianas/genética , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/microbiologia , Regulação para Cima
6.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(4): 600-612, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397434

RESUMO

A new plasmid, pSM22, was isolated from Serratia marcescens and sequenced. Its 43 190-bp sequence with an average GC-content of 58% contains 31 open reading frames (ORFs) which form replication, conjugation, stability, and adaptive modules. The replication module includes a site of initiation of leading-strand synthesis in plasmid replication, a replication termination site (terC), the rep A (=repA1) and repA4 genes, and the copA sequence, which codes for an antisense RNA (asRNA). These structures are functionally integrated in an FII replicon (incompatibility group IncFII). Based on the significant differences between the FII replicon and the canonical sequences of the R plasmids R1 and NR1 (=R100=R222), pSM22 was assigned to a new subtype. The conjugation module includes 13 genes with a high identity to the genes responsible for conjugation of the F plasmid. A comparative genomic analysis showed that the conjugation modules of pSM22 and F are structurally similar. By the conjugation system and the presence of three conserved motifs in relaxase (TraI), pSM22 belongs to the F12 clade of the MOBF type. The stability module includes the resD and parA genes, which are responsible for the resolution of multimeric plasmid forms and their subsequent segregation between daughter cells. The adaptive module contains the microcin H47 (MccH47) secretion/processing and UV resistance genes. The mosaic structure of pSM22 and reductive evolution of its modules suggest high genomic plasticity for the genus Serratia. An analysis of the architecture of the pSM22 modules clarifies the evolutionary relationships among IncF/MOBF12 group plasmids in bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and opens a novel avenue for further comparative genomic studies of Serratia plasmids.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Plasmídeos/classificação , Plasmídeos/genética , Replicação do DNA , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Replicon/genética , Serratia marcescens/genética
7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3299-3304, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395107

RESUMO

A halophilic archaeaon, strain LT12T, was isolated from saline soil sampled at the Tarim Basin, PR China. The novel strain stained Gram-negative, cells were rod-shaped, and formed light red-pigmented colonies on agar plate. Strain LT12T grew optimally at 3.1 M NaCl, 0.05 M MgCl2, 37 °C and pH 7.5. The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 1.4 M. Based on the results of phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and rpoB' genes, strain LT12T was most closely related to Halostella salina CBA1114T(94.4-95.9  and 93.6 % similarities, respectively). The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LT12T and H. salina CBA1114T were 81.0 and 24.3 %, respectively. The major polar lipids of strain LT12T were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and three unidentified glycolipids. The DNA G+C content was 67.2 mol % (genome). Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain LT12T represents a novel species of the genus Halostella for which the name Halostellalimicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LT12T (=CGMCC 1.14941T=JCM 30667T).


Assuntos
Halobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Salinidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Arqueal/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Glicolipídeos/química , Halobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3170-3177, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395108

RESUMO

Ten strains of an Actinobacillus-like organism were isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in the UK over a period of 5 years, with no known epidemiological linkages. The isolates are distinct, based on both phenotype and genotype, from any previously described Actinobacillus species. Molecular analysis, based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and infB gene sequences, placed the isolates as a novel, early branching, lineage within the currently recognised Actinobacillus sensu stricto. In agreement with the results of the single-gene analysis, average nucleotide identity values, based on whole genome sequences, showed very similar identities to a number of members of the Actinobacillus sensu stricto notably Actinobacillus equuli, Actinobacillus suis and Actinobacillus ureae. At least two phenotypic characteristics differentiate the alpaca isolates from other Actinobacillus sensu stricto species, and from taxa likely falling within this group but awaiting formal species description, with Actinobacillus anseriformium and A. equulisubsp. haemolyticus being the most closely related phenotypically. The alpaca isolates can be differentiated from A. anseriformium by production of ß-galactosidase (ONPG) and acid from raffinose, and from A. equulisubsp. haemolyticus by production of acid from d-sorbitol and failure to produce acid from d-xylose. Isolates were obtained from multiple sites in alpaca including respiratory tract, alimentary tract and internal organs although further evidence is required to understand any pathogenic significance. Based on the results of characterization described here, it is proposed that the isolates constitute a novel species, Actinobacillus vicugnae sp. nov. The type strain is W1618T (LMG30745T NCTC14090T) isolated in the UK in 2012 from oesophageal ulceration in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).


Assuntos
Actinobacillus/classificação , Camelídeos Americanos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Reino Unido
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 122011, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442833

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of Bacillus subtilis at four levels (0, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w compost) on the variations in ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the bacterial community during composting. The composting process had a greater impact on ARGs than Bacillus subtilis. The main ARG detected was sul1. The addition of Bacillus subtilis at 0.5% reduced the relative abundances of ARGs, MGEs, and human pathogenic bacteria (by 2-3 logs) in the mature products. Network and redundancy analyses suggested that intI1, Firmicutes, and pH were mainly responsible for the changes in ARGs, thus controlling these factors might help to inhibit the spread of ARGs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bacillus subtilis , Bovinos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Esterco
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1145: 55-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364071

RESUMO

Polymyxin antibiotics are increasingly being used as last-line therapeutic options against a number of multidrug resistant bacteria. These antibiotics show strong bactericidal activity against a range of Gram-negative bacteria, but with the increased use of these antibiotics resistant strains are emerging at an alarming rate. Furthermore, some Gram-negative species, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia spp., are intrinsically resistant to the action of polymyxins. Most identified polymyxin resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria involve changes to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, as polymyxins initially interact with the negatively charged lipid A component of LPS. The controlled addition of positively charged residues such as 4-amino-L-arabinose, phosphoethanolamine and/or galactosamine to LPS results in a reduced negative charge on the bacterial surface and therefore reduced interaction between the polymyxin and the LPS. Polymyxin resistant species produce LPS that intrinsically contains one or more of these additions. While the genes necessary for most of these additions are chromosomally encoded, plasmid-borne phosphoethanolamine transferases (mcr-1 to mcr-8) have recently been identified and these plasmids threaten to increase the rate of dissemination of clinically relevant colistin resistance. Uniquely, Acinetobacter baumannii can also become highly resistant to polymyxins via spontaneous mutations in the lipid A biosynthesis genes lpxA, lpxC or lpxD such that they produce no LPS or lipid A. A range of other non-LPS-dependent polymyxin resistance mechanisms has also been identified in bacteria, but these generally result in only low levels of resistance. These include increased anionic capsular polysaccharide production in Klebsiella pneumoniae, expression of efflux systems such as MtrCDE in N. meningitidis, and altered expression of outer membrane proteins in a small number of species.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Polimixinas/farmacologia , Acinetobacter baumannii , Colistina , Genes Bacterianos , Lipopolissacarídeos/química
11.
Waste Manag ; 96: 190-197, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376964

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation coupled with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation was developed to degrade antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from the erythromycin fermentation (EryF) residual wastes. The experimental results showed that the ERY content and ARGs abundance decreased with increase of the absorbed dose and PMS dosage and gamma irradiation was more effective to abate ARGs from the EryF wastes. The removal efficiency of ERY reached 49-55% and more than 96-99% of ARGs (1.32-2.55 log) was eliminated with the absorbed dose of 25-50 kGy and PMS dosage of 50-100 mM. Illumina pyrosequencing revealed that 3 bacterial phyla, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Fusobacteria were highly enriched and the ARGs-linked hosts were affiliated to the genera Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria. The abundance of the ARGs-linked bacteria decreased by gamma/PMS treatment. Ionizing radiation/PMS treatment with the doses of 25 kGy and 50 mM PMS is proposed for potential practical application.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Eritromicina , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fermentação , Genes Bacterianos , Peróxidos
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2875-2882, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418214

RESUMO

The contamination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) caused by abuse of antibiotics has attracted more and more attention. Due to their low price, tetracyclines and sulfonamides are widely used. The plenty of residual tetracyclines and sulfonamides is discharged into wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs), with consequent ARGs pollution. To understand the current status of ARGs contamination and removal efficiency, we summarized the distribution and spread mechanism of tetracyclines and sulfonamides ARGs, and further emphasized the ARGs removal efficiency across different treatment technologies. Based on the current knowledge and lack of ARGs, future work were proposed, such as investigating ARGs contamination in WWTPs, improving ARGs removal technologies, exploring spread mechanisms of ARGs.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Antibacterianos , Sulfonamidas , Tetraciclinas
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 115, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332542

RESUMO

Antibiotic and arsenic (As) contaminations are worldwide public health problems. Previously, the bacterial ABC-type efflux protein MacAB reportedly conferred resistance to macrolide-type antibiotics but not to other metal(loid)s. In this study, the roles of MacAB for the co-resistance of different antibiotics and several metal(loid)s were analyzed in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A, a strain resistant to arsenite [As(III)] and several types of antibiotics. The macA and macB genes were cotranscribed, and macB was deleted in A. tumefaciens 5A and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli AW3110 and E. coli S17-1. Compared to the wild-type strain 5A, the macB deletion strain reduced bacterial resistance levels to several macrolide-type and penicillin-type antibiotics but not to cephalosporin-type antibiotics. In addition, the macB deletion strain showed lower resistance to As(III) but not to arsenate [As(V)], antimonite [Sb(III)] and cadmium chloride [Cd(II)]. The mutant strain 5A-ΔmacB cells accumulated more As(III) than the cells of the wild-type. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MacAB in E. coli S17-1 showed that MacAB was essential for resistance to macrolide, several penicillin-type antibiotics and As(III) but not to As(V). Heterologous expression of MacAB in E. coli AW3110 reduced the cellular accumulation of As(III) but not of As(V), indicating that MacAB is responsible for the efflux of As(III). These results demonstrated that, in addition to macrolide-type antibiotics, MacAB also conferred resistance to penicillin-type antibiotics and As(III) by extruding them out of cells. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the bacterial resistance mechanisms of antibiotics and metal(loid)s.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolismo , Arsenitos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Penicilinas/farmacologia
14.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 34-40, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284942

RESUMO

Carotenoid composition has been studied in mesophilic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 grown photoautotrophically, under diazotrophic conditions at four different temperatures (15 °C, 23 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C). The relative accumulation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and proteins was the highest at temperature of 23 °C. At a suboptimal temperature (15 °C) ß-carotene was the dominant carotenoid compound, whereas the increase in temperature caused ketocarotenoids (echinenone, canthaxanthin, keto-myxoxanthophyll) to accumulate. A significant increase in the accumulation of phytoene synthase (CrtB) transcript was observed at both extreme growth temperatures (15 °C and 37 °C). The relative amount of ß-carotene ketolase (CrtW) transcript directly corresponded to the accumulation of its product (keto-myxoxanthophyll) with a maximum at 30 °C and a profound decrease at 37 °C, whereas the transcription level of ß-carotene ketolase (CrtO) was significantly decreased only at a suboptimal temperature (15 °C). These results show that temperature affects the functioning of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Anabaena cells under photoautotrophic growth. Specifically, the balance between ß-carotene and ketocarotenoids is altered according to temperature conditions. The transcriptional regulation of genes encoding enzymes active both at the early (CrtB) and the final steps (CrtO, CrtW) of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway may participate in the acclimation mechanism of cyanobacteria to low and high temperatures.


Assuntos
Anabaena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anabaena/metabolismo , Carotenoides/biossíntese , Temperatura Ambiente , Anabaena/enzimologia , Anabaena/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/fisiologia , Cantaxantina , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , beta Caroteno/biossíntese
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2870-2876, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259683

RESUMO

Paenibacillus durusand Paenibacillus azotofixans, both Gram-stain-positive and endospore-forming bacilli, have been considered to be a single species. However, a preliminary computation of their average nucleotide identity (ANI) values suggested that these species are not synonyms. Given this, the taxonomic attributions of these species were evaluated through genomic and phylogenomic approaches. Although the identity of 16S rRNA gene sequences of P. durus DSM 1735T and P. azotofixans ATCC 35681T are above the circumscription species threshold, genomic metrics analyses indicate otherwise. ANI, gANI and OrthoANI values computed from their genome sequences were around 92 %, below the species limits. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization and MUMi estimations also corroborated these observations. In fact, in all metrics, Paenibacillus zanthoxyli JH29T seemed to be more similar to Paenibacillus azotofixans. ATCC 35681T than P. durus DSM 1735T. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated core-proteome and concatenated gyrB, recA, recN and rpoB genes confirmed that P. zanthoxyli is the closest Paenibacillus species to P. azotofixans. A review of the phenotypic profiles from these three species revealed that their biochemical repertoires are very similar, although P. azotofixans ATCC 35681T can be differentiated from P. durus DSM1735T in 13 among more than 90 phenotypic traits. Considering phylogenetic and genomic analyses, Paenibacillus azotofixans should be considered as an independent species, and not as a later synonym of Paenibacillus durus.


Assuntos
Paenibacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Genômica , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fenótipo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 122, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346836

RESUMO

To promote enzymatic unhairing for leather production, a new unhairing enzyme is developed. The Keratinase (kerT) gene, which is amplified from B. amyloliquefaciens TCCC11319 by PCR, is expressed in B. subtilis WB600. The recombinant KerT reduces the collagenolytic protease content as well as improving the keratinase content effectively. Therefore, the improved keratinase leads to the obviously unhairing effect, whereas the low collagenolytic protease ensures the integrity of collagen fibers in hide. It represents, the leather grain surface isn't destroyed thereby the value of finished leather can be maintained. In addition, by analyzing the properties of KerT, tits activity isn't inhibited with Na+, K+ and Ca2+ which are commonly used in leather production. The freeze-dried fermentation broth can be used directly as unhairing enzyme without addition of traditional sulfide chemicals. By evaluating the properties of unhaired hide, the results show that the collagen degradation ability of this new unhairing enzyme is slightly and it does not cause any adverse effects on the leather quality. Besides, this unhairing enzyme doesn't further degrade collagen in the time range of 8 h to 24 h, thus it is safely and easy-control in actual production. In conclusion, the enzymatic unhairing method with recombinant KerT has the potential to be more sustainable and efficient alternative than current sulphur-lime method, and it does not require the further purification thereby saving the cost.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Bacillus subtilis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Fragmentação do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fermentação , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3009-3013, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287393

RESUMO

Strain 28462T, which had Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative coccus-shaped cells, was isolated from a routine tracheal sample from a 3 year old thoroughbred horse. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed it to be most closely related to, but distinct from, Streptococcus henryi (95.7 % identity), Streptococcusplurextorum (95.8 %), Streptococcusporci (96.4 %) and Streptococcus caprae (95.1 %). Similarity values derived from sequences from sodA and rpoB genes were consistent with strain 28462T belonging to a species distinct from these four streptococci. At the whole genome level, strain 28462T had an average nucleotide identity value <95 % and an inferred DNA-DNA hybridization value <70 % when compared to S. henryi, Streptococcus. plurextorum and S. porci with no S. caprae genome sequence being available. Finally, various phenotypic characteristics distinguish strain 28462T from each of these species. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic results, it is proposed that strain 28462T is a novel species, with the name Streptococcus hillyeri sp. nov. The type strain is 28462T (=DSM 107591T=CCUG 72762T).


Assuntos
Cavalos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Streptococcus/classificação , Traqueia/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Inglaterra , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3031-3040, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310190

RESUMO

Three novel actinobacterial strains, designated as TPS16T, TPS81 and TPS83, were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from Tioman Island, Malaysia. The strains formed abundant branched substrate mycelia without fragmentation along with production of blue spores and blue diffusible pigment on soybean meal agar. The strains could grow at pH ranging from pH 6 to 12 and in 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl. Cell-wall hydrolysis showed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The strains were closely related to Marinactinospora thermotolerans SCSIO 00652T (97.60 %) and Marinactinospora endophytica YIM 690053T (96.87 %) based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Multilocus sequence analysis including gyrB, recA and rpoB genes further confirmed that strain TPS16T represented a distinct branch within the family Nocardiopsaceae. The predominant menaquinones were MK-11(H2), MK-10(H2), MK-11(H4) and MK-10(H4), while the major fatty acids were found to be iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. Genome sequencing revealed genome sizes of approximately 6 Mb and G+C contents of 73.8 mol%. A new genus, Marinitenerispora gen. nov., is proposed within the family Nocardiopsaceae based on polyphasic data and the type species is Marinitenerispora sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is TPS16T (=DSM 46825T=TBRC 5138T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetales/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Ilhas , Malásia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3141-3147, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334698

RESUMO

During a study on biodiversity of bacteria inhabiting rhizospheric soil of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer L.), we isolated a strain coded RD25T in a soil from Northern Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed 99.5 % identity with respect to the closest related species Pseudomonas brenneri DSM15294T, and 99.4 % with respect to P. paralactis WS4672T. The following related Pseudomonas species showed 99.3 % or less identity, and therefore RD25T was classified within genus Pseudomonas. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB suggested that this strain could be a novel species. The strain RD25T has several polar-subpolar flagella. It can grow at 36 °C, at 0-6 % NaCl concentration and a range of pH 5-9. Positive for arginine dihydrolase and urease production, and negative for reduction of nitrate. The strain is catalase and oxidase positive. Major fatty acids are C16 : 1 ω7c / C16 : 1 ω6c in summed feature 3, C16 : 0, and C18 : 1 ω7c / C18 : 1 ω6c in summed feature 8. The respiratory ubiquinone is Q9. The DNA G+C content was 59.9 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridisation average values (dDDH) ranged between 30-61.2 % relatedness and the ANIb values ranged between 93.9-80.5 % with respect to the type strains of the closely related species. Therefore, the genotypic, genomic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strain RD25 as a novel species of genus Pseudomonas, for which the name P. edaphica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RD25T (=LMG 30152T=CECT 9373T).


Assuntos
Cistus/microbiologia , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha , Ubiquinona/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 313-320, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299566

RESUMO

The Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an aquatic pathogen which causes furunculosis to salmonids, especially in fish farms. The emergence of strains of this bacterium exhibiting antibiotic resistance is increasing, limiting the effectiveness of antibiotherapy as a treatment against this worldwide disease. In the present study, we discovered an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida that harbors two novel plasmids variants carrying antibiotic resistance genes. The use of long-read sequencing (PacBio) allowed us to fully characterize those variants, named pAsa5-3432 and pRAS3-3432, which both differ from their classic counterpart through their content in mobile genetic elements. The plasmid pAsa5-3432 carries a new multidrug region composed of multiple mobile genetic elements, including a Class 1 integron similar to an integrated element of Salmonella enterica. With this new region, probably acquired through plasmid recombination, pAsa5-3432 is the first reported plasmid of this bacterium that bears both an essential virulence factor (the type three secretion system) and multiple antibiotic resistance genes. As for pRAS3-3432, compared to the classic pRAS3, it carries a new mobile element that has only been identified in Chlamydia suis. Hence, with the identification of those two novel plasmids harboring mobile genetic elements that are normally encountered in other bacterial species, the present study puts emphasis on the important impact of mobile genetic elements in the genomic plasticity of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and suggests that this aquatic bacterium could be an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes that can be exchanged with other bacteria, including human and animal pathogens.


Assuntos
Aeromonas salmonicida/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Animais , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Suínos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
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