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1.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126292, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421719

RESUMO

Azotobacter chroococcum (Az) and Trichoderma viride (Tv) represent agriculturally important and beneficial plant growth promoting options which contribute towards nutrient management and biocontrol, respectively. When Az and Tv are co-cultured, they form a biofilm, which has proved promising as an inoculant in several crops; however, the basic aspects related to regulation of biofilm formation were not investigated. Therefore, whole transcriptome sequencing (Illumina NextSeq500) and gene expression analyses were undertaken, related to biofilm formation vis a vis Tv and Az growing individually. Significant changes in the transcriptome profiles of biofilm were recorded and validated through qPCR analyses. In-depth evaluation also identified several genes (phoA, phoB, glgP, alg8, sipW, purB, pssA, fadD) specifically involved in biofilm formation in Az, Tv and Tv-Az. Genes coding for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, ABC transporters, translation elongation factor EF-1, molecular chaperones and double homeobox 4 were either up-regulated or down-regulated during biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the modulation of gene expression in an agriculturally beneficial association, as a biofilm. Our results provide insights into the regulatory factors involved during biofilm formation, which can help to improve the beneficial effects and develop more effective and promising plant- microbe associations.


Assuntos
Azotobacter/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Microbianas/genética , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/microbiologia , Regulação para Cima
2.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 34-40, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284942

RESUMO

Carotenoid composition has been studied in mesophilic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 grown photoautotrophically, under diazotrophic conditions at four different temperatures (15 °C, 23 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C). The relative accumulation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and proteins was the highest at temperature of 23 °C. At a suboptimal temperature (15 °C) ß-carotene was the dominant carotenoid compound, whereas the increase in temperature caused ketocarotenoids (echinenone, canthaxanthin, keto-myxoxanthophyll) to accumulate. A significant increase in the accumulation of phytoene synthase (CrtB) transcript was observed at both extreme growth temperatures (15 °C and 37 °C). The relative amount of ß-carotene ketolase (CrtW) transcript directly corresponded to the accumulation of its product (keto-myxoxanthophyll) with a maximum at 30 °C and a profound decrease at 37 °C, whereas the transcription level of ß-carotene ketolase (CrtO) was significantly decreased only at a suboptimal temperature (15 °C). These results show that temperature affects the functioning of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Anabaena cells under photoautotrophic growth. Specifically, the balance between ß-carotene and ketocarotenoids is altered according to temperature conditions. The transcriptional regulation of genes encoding enzymes active both at the early (CrtB) and the final steps (CrtO, CrtW) of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway may participate in the acclimation mechanism of cyanobacteria to low and high temperatures.


Assuntos
Anabaena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anabaena/metabolismo , Carotenoides/biossíntese , Temperatura Ambiente , Anabaena/enzimologia , Anabaena/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/fisiologia , Cantaxantina , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , beta Caroteno/biossíntese
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1367-1372, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329093

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis (MRSL) is increasingly recognized in healthcare and community settings. To obtain a better understanding of the emergence of MRSL, this study characterized the structure and content of the SCCmec elements harboured by 36 MRSL isolates obtained from diverse sources in Hong Kong from 2008 to 2017. The isolates were investigated by whole-genome sequencing. SCCmec types and subtypes were assigned according to the guidelines from the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The sequence type (ST)-SCCmec combinations in the 36 MRSL isolates were as follows: ST3-SCCmec IV (n=2), ST3-SCCmec V (n=28), ST27-SCCmec V (n=5) and ST42-SCCmec V (n=1). The two SCCmec IV elements were highly similar to the SCCmec IV element harboured by the community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain, JCSC6668. The J3-mec complex-J2 regions in the SCCmec V elements were highly similar to the corresponding regions in the CA-MRSA strains PM1 (n=13) or WIS (n=21). Based on the J1 to J3 sequences, the SCCmec V elements can be categorized into nine different subtypes. Our findings highlight the diversified structures of SCCmec elements among MRSL strains and their close relationship with SCCmec elements harboured by CA-MRSA.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina
4.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(7): 251-260, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166029

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic bacterium that localizes in the oral cavity. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) is a major component of licorice extract. GRA and several derivatives, including disodium succinoyl glycyrrhetinate (GR-SU), are known to have anti-inflammatory effects in humans. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of GRA and its derivatives against the S. mutans UA159 strain were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of GRA and GR-SU showed antibacterial activity against the S. mutans strain, whereas other tested derivatives did not. Because GR-SU is more soluble than GRA, GR-SU was used for further experiments. The antibacterial activity of GR-SU against 100 S. mutans strains was evaluated and it was found that all strains are susceptible to GR-SU, with MIC values below 256 µg/mL. A cell viability assay showed that GR-SU has a bacteriostatic effect on S. mutans cells. As to growth kinetics, sub-MICs of GR-SU inhibited growth. The effect of GR-SU on S. mutans virulence was then investigated. GR-SU at sub-MICs suppresses biofilm formation. Additionally, GR-SU greatly suppresses the pH drop caused by the addition of glucose and glucose-induced expression of the genes responsible for acid production (ldh and pykF) and tolerance (aguD and atpD). Additionally, expression of enolase, which is responsible for the carbohydrate phosphotransferase system, was not increased in the presence of GR-SU, indicating that GR-SU suppresses incorporation of sugars into S. mutans. In conclusion, GR-SU has antibacterial activity against S. mutans and also decreases S. mutans virulence.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Glycyrrhiza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirretínico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
5.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 22-32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178048

RESUMO

The Deinococcus radiodurans multipartite genome consists of 2 chromosomes and 2 plasmids Its genome encodes 4 ParA and 4 ParB proteins on different replicons. Multiple sequence alignments of ParBs encoded on these genome elements showed that ParB of primary chromosome (ParB1) is close to chromosomal type ParB and is found to be different from ParBs encoded on chromosome II (ParB2) and megaplasmid (ParB3) elements. We observed that ParB1, ParB2 and ParB3 exist as dimer in solution and these proteins interact to self but not to its homologs in D. radiodurans, suggesting the specificity in ParBs dimerization. The parB1 deletion mutant showed slow growth under normal condition and relatively reduced resistance to γ-radiation as compared to wild type. The parB2 and parB3 mutants maintained without selection pressure showed loss of radioresistance, which was not observed when maintained with selection pressure. Nearly half of the populations of these mutants showed resistance to antibiotics marked to respective genome elements. Interestingly, all the parB mutants showed increased copy numbers of cognate genome element in cells maintained with antibiotics possibly due to arrest in genome segregation. These results suggested that ParB proteins encoded on multipartite genome system in D. radiodurans form homodimer and not heterodimer with other ParB homologs, and they independently regulate the segregation of respective genome elements. The roles of ParB1 proteins in normal as well as radiation stressed growth of this bacterium have also been ascertained.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Deinococcus/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Deinococcus/efeitos da radiação , Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Plasmídeos , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência , Deleção de Sequência
6.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 72-78, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178054

RESUMO

Pseudomonas syringae pathovars are known to produce N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) as quorum-sensing molecules. However, many isolates, including P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoDC3000), do not produce them. In P. syringae, psyI, which encodes an AHL synthase, and psyR, which encodes the transcription factor PsyR required for activation of psyI, are convergently transcribed. In P. amygdali pv. tabaci 6605 (Pta6605), there is one nucleotide between the stop codons of both psyI and psyR. However, the canonical stop codon for psyI in PtoDC3000 was converted to the cysteine codon by one nucleotide deletion, and 23 additional amino acids extended it to a C-terminal end. This resulted in overlapping of the open reading frame (ORF) for psyI and psyR. On the other hand, stop codons in the psyR ORF of P. syringae 7 isolates, including pv. phaseolicola and pv. glycinea, were found. These results indicate that many pathovars of P. syringae have genetically lost AHL production ability by the mutation of their responsible genes. To examine whether PtoDC3000 modulates the gene expression profile in a population-dependent manner, we carried out microarray analysis using RNAs prepared from low- and high-density cells. We found the expressions of rsmX and rsmY remarkably activated in high-density cells. The activated expressions of rsmX and rsmY were confirmed by Northern blot hybridization, but these expressions were abolished in a ΔgacA mutant of Pta6605. These results indicate that regardless of the ability to produce AHL, P. syringae regulates expression of the small noncoding RNAs rsmX/Y by currently unknown quorum-sensing molecules.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Acil-Butirolactonas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/enzimologia , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Percepção de Quorum/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Virulência/genética
7.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 42(4): 488-494, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204142

RESUMO

Four endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from root, stem and leaf of maize planted in different regions of northern China. The four strains possessed almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, REP-PCR fingerprint patterns discriminated that they were not from one clonal origin. Furthermore, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) values among them were higher than 95%, suggesting they all belong to one species. Based on 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, the four strains were clustered together with Pantoea rodasii LMG 26273T and Pantoea rwandensis LMG 26275T, but on a separate branch. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) indicated that the four strains form a novel Pantoea species. Authenticity of the novel species was confirmed by ANI comparisons between strain 596T and its closest relatives, since obtained values were considerably below the proposed thresholds for the species delineation. The genome size of 596T was 5.1Mbp, comprising 4896 predicted genes with DNA G+C content of 57.8mol%. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) and the polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamin, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified aminophospholipid and unidentified phospholipid. The major fatty acids of strain 596T were C16:0, summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde), summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c). Based on phylogenetic, genomic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, the four isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pantoea, for which the name Pantoea endophytica sp. nov., is proposed, with 596T (=DSM 100,785T=CGMCC 1.15280T) as type strain.


Assuntos
Pantoea/classificação , Pantoea/fisiologia , Filogenia , Zea mays/microbiologia , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endófitos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genes Essenciais/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pantoea/química , Pantoea/genética , Fenótipo , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Ubiquinona/química
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2643, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201324

RESUMO

Land-use change is predicted to act as a driver of zoonotic disease emergence through human exposure to novel microbial diversity, but evidence for the effects of environmental change on microbial communities in vertebrates is lacking. We sample wild birds at 99 wildlife-livestock-human interfaces across Nairobi, Kenya, and use whole genome sequencing to characterise bacterial genes known to be carried on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) within avian-borne Escherichia coli (n = 241). By modelling the diversity of bacterial genes encoding virulence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) against ecological and anthropogenic forms of urban environmental change, we demonstrate that communities of avian-borne bacterial genes are shaped by the assemblage of co-existing avian, livestock and human communities, and the habitat within which they exist. In showing that non-random processes structure bacterial genetic communities in urban wildlife, these findings suggest that it should be possible to forecast the effects of urban land-use change on microbial diversity.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Microbiota/genética , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Aves/microbiologia , Humanos , Quênia , Gado/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Saúde da População Urbana , Urbanização , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
9.
Plant Dis ; 103(8): 1954-1960, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169085

RESUMO

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, a Gammaproteobacterium belonging to genomospecies 2 within the P. syringae complex, is distributed worldwide, and it is responsible for bacterial canker on >100 different hosts, including the grapevine. P. syringae pv. syringae induces necrotic lesions in the leaf blades, veins, petioles, shoots, rachis, and tendrils on grapevine cultivars in different areas. P. syringae pv. syringae has been associated with severe economic losses in different grape cultivars in Australia, where it causes inflorescence rot. In midsummer to late summer 2017, symptoms of berry rots differing from those caused by the common berry rots agents were observed in different cultivar Red Globe vineyards of Apulia (southern Italy). As proven by fulfillment of Koch's postulates, these symptoms were caused by a bacterium that, according to the results of biochemical, physiological, nutritional, antimicrobial activity, and pathogenicity tests and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD genes, was identified as P. syringae pv. syringae. This is the first report of Pseudomonas grapevine bunch rot.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Pseudomonas syringae , Vitis , Austrália , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Itália , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Virulência , Vitis/microbiologia
10.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(8): 853-857, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250936

RESUMO

The identification of the ubiquitous spore-forming bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus, whose interest in pharma, agriculture, and other industrial sectors is raising, mostly relies on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. However, due to bacterial gene homology, this method appears insufficient for a proper discrimination of this species, so that the availability of other target genes is necessary. Leveraging the morphological and genetic feature uniqueness of B. laterosporus, a sensitive and reliable detection and quantification method based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR assays, respectively, was developed. Targeting a highly conserved spore surface protein-related gene, B. laterosporus could be easily found in different matrices including soil, food, and insect body. Primer set selectivity was confirmed to be very specific and no false positives or negatives were observed using DNA of different bacterial species as a template. The method developed is also suitable for the rapid identification of newly isolated B. laterosporus strains.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Brevibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Animais , Brevibacillus/genética , Brevibacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Microbiologia Ambiental , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Insetos/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 2): 300, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254080

RESUMO

Infections from antibiotic resistant microorganisms are considered to be one of the greatest global public health challenges that result in huge annual economic losses. While genes that impart resistance to antibiotics (AbR) existed long before the discovery and use of antibiotics, anthropogenic uses of antibiotics in agriculture, domesticated animals, and humans are known to influence the prevalence of these genes in pathogenic microorganisms. It is critical to understand the role that natural and anthropogenic processes have on the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance in microbial populations to minimize health risks associated with exposures. As part of this research, 15 antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed in coastal sediments and soils along the eastern seaboard of the USA using presence/absence quantitative and digital polymerase chain reaction assays. Samples (53 soil and 192 sediment samples including 54 replicates) were collected from a variety of coastal settings where human and wildlife exposure is likely. At least one of the antibiotic resistance genes was detected in 76.4% of the samples. Samples that contained at least five or more antibiotic resistance genes (5.7%) where typically hydrologically down gradient of watersheds influenced by combined sewer outfalls (CSO). The most frequently detected antibiotic resistance target genes were found in 33.2%, 34.4%, and 42.2% of samples (target genes blaSHV, tetO, and aadA2, respectively). These data provide unique insight into potential exposure of AbR genes over a large geographical region of the eastern seaboard of the USA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Humanos , Solo
12.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e26, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161744

RESUMO

Enterococcus spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause lameness in broiler chickens, resulting in serious economic losses worldwide. Virulence of Enterococcus spp. is associated with several putative virulence genes including fsr, efm, esp, cylA, cad1, ace, gelE, and asa1. In this study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of these virulence genes in Enterococcus spp. was developed, and detection limits for E. faecium, E. faecalis, and E. hirae were 64.0 pg/µL, 320.0 pg/µL, and 1.6 ng/µL DNA, respectively. Among 80 Enterococcus isolates tested, efm and cad1 were detected in all 26 E. faecium samples, and only cad1 was observed in E. hirae. Additionally, the presence of virulence genes in 25 E. faecalis isolates were 100% for cad1, 88.0% for gelE, 64.0% for fsr, 44.0% for asa1, 16.0% for cylA, and 4.0% for esp. No virulence genes were found in E. gallinarum isolates. A total of 49 isolates were resistant to tigecycline and to at least 2 different classes of antibiotics. The most prevalent resistance was to ciprofloxacin (73.5%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (55.1%), and tetracycline (49.0%). No strains were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. This is the first multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect eight virulence genes in Enterococcus spp., and the method provides diagnostic value for accurate, rapid, and convenient detection of virulence genes. Additionally, we report the prevalence of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus isolates from commercial broiler chickens suffering lameness.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Virulência/genética , Animais , Galinhas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Limite de Detecção , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 87, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134386

RESUMO

Biofilms enable Cronobacter spp. to contaminate food, infect infants and resist different environmental stresses, especially desiccation, which is the main reason why Cronobacter can survive in powdered infant formula (PIF) for a long time. Considering the high lethality of Cronobacter infection in infants, it is important to find efficient and safe inhibitors of Cronobacter biofilms. In this study, we found that chitooligosaccharides (COS) with a molecular weight of 2000 Da efficiently inhibited Cronobacter biofilms, especially in skim milk broth. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC77) of COS was as low as 20 µg/mL, which is lower than that reported in most previous studies. Besides, the elimination rate of COS for Cronobacter mature biofilms was 50% when the concentration was 10 mg/mL. COS could significantly inhibit soluble polysaccharide secretion and biofilm cell growth, as well as change the cell membrane permeability of Cronobacter. These might be the possible reasons for COS's efficient inhibition of Cronobacter biofilms. However, during the inhibition, five important genes-related to biofilm formation-flhD, flgJ, luxR, ompA, and wcaJ-were all up-regulated after COS treatment, except the gene bcsA. In summary, our findings showed that COS could be used as an efficient and safe inhibitor against Cronobacter biofilms for better control of Cronobacter contamination and infection.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitina/análogos & derivados , Cronobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitina/química , Quitina/farmacologia , Cronobacter/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite , Peso Molecular
14.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(2): 134-143, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130118

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of multi-drug-resistant (MDR), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing carbapenem-resistant members of Enterobacteriaceae family has become a worldwide health problem. Carbapenem resistance caused by blaKPC, blaNDM gene regions are sporadic and blaOXA-48 gene region is endemic in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of blaOXA-232, blaOXA-181, blaOXA-162, blaOXA-204, blaOXA-244, blaOXA-163, blaOXA-245 genes in OXA-48 like carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. The isolates used in this study were provided from the Medical Microbiology Laboratory collection of Sakarya University Sakarya Training and Research Hospital. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were determined by the VITEK 2® automated system (biomerieux, France) and the carbapenemase production of isolates was determined by the modified Hodge test. Minimal inhibitor concentration (MIC) values were determined with broth microdilution method. The isolates containing the blaOXA-48-like gene region were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) method using consensus primers. In "High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA)" method carried out by using "Type-it HRM PCR" (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) kit, isolates which showed a deviation in melting temperatures (Tm) were selected with the suspicion of OXA-48 variant. The sequence analysis (ABI 3500, Applied Biosystems, USA) was carried out to determine which variants were present in these isolates. Compatibility of MIC values was determined between VITEK 2® and the microdilution method with the rate of 82% for imipenem, 77% for meropenem and 90% for ertapenem in carbapenemase-producing K.pneumoniae isolates. In 45 of 100 K.pneumoniae isolates, the blaOXA-48-like gene region was found to be positive by the Rt-PCR method. For the determination of OXA-48 variants, these 45 isolates were evaluated by HRMA method. The sequence analysis revealed that 41 (91.2%) isolates contained blaOXA-48/blaOXA-245 gene regions, while 2 (4.4%) isolates were found to contain blaOXA-181 gene regions and 2 (4.4%) isolates were found to contain blaOXA-244 gene regions. This is the first study to determine OXA-48 and OXA-244 positivity in blaOXA-48-like gene regions in Turkey. As a result of this study, the OXA-48-like gene region was found to be 45%, of which 4.4% had blaOXA-181 and 4.4% had blaOXA-244 gene regions. The detection of blaOXA-48-like gene regions will guide for the selection of antibiotics in critical patient groups.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos/genética , Klebsiella , beta-Lactamases , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/enzimologia , Klebsiella/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
15.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(2): 224-232, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130126

RESUMO

Rickettsia species are gram negative, small pleomorphic coccobacilli, obligate intracellular bacteria. The majority of these bacteria are transported by the ticks. Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii are among the Rickettsia species in the spotted fever group and carried by Dermacentor species ticks, that cause tick-borne lymphadenopathy (Tickborne Lymphadenopathy-TIBOLA or Dermacentor-borne necrotic erythema and lymphadenopathy- DEBONEL). Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular bacteria and they can be cultivated in cell cultures. The chance of isolation of Rickettsia species from clinical and tick specimens has been increased by the shell-vial centrifugation cell culture method. The aim of this study was to isolate R.slovaca from two Dermacentor marginatus species ticks which were detected in humans by the use of shell-vial centrifugation cell culture method using VERO cell. Before proceeding to the culture stage, an algorithm including description, disinfection, dissection of ticks and methods of hemolymph, homogenization, DNA extraction and real-time PCR was performed. Iodine-alcohol disinfection was performed following identification of the ticks with the use of a stereo microscope. Ticks hemolymph were obtained with extremity dissection of ticks and indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test was performed with Rickettsia positive sera. Ticks identified as containing Rickettsia like bacteria in hemolymph were homogenized and DNA extraction was performed from homogenate of ticks. By real-time PCR, using Rickettsia genus-specific PanR8 primers and probes, PCR positive Rickettsia spp. were determined among the ticks. Vero cells that have formed monolayer in vials were used for Rickettsia culture. Homogenized tick samples which were positive for Rickettsia in hemolymph and real-time PCR methods were inoculated to cell culture vials. Suspended bacteria in the inoculum were allowed to approach the cells by the shell-vial centrifugation method. Cells were scraped after five days of incubation in 5% CO2 at 36°C. An aliquot of the determined cell suspension was fixed to the slides and then IFA was performed using Rickettsia positive sera. In fluorescence microscopy examination, adhered and proliferated bacteria were observed on Vero cells. This cell suspension was again inoculated into the Vero cell cultures to increase bacterial replication and taken for 5-7 days of incubation. DNA was extracted from the suspension of the cultivated bacteria. Conventional PCR of citrate synthase (gltA) and outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene regions were used to identify Rickettsia species. DNA sequence analysis of PCR amplification products were determined. DNA sequence results were compared to Genbank data and found that the gltA sequence was 100%, similar to R.slovaca with accession number AY129301.1 and the ompA sequence was 100%, similar to R.slovaca with accession number KF791242.1.  In addition, the two strains isolated in phylogenetic analysis were found to be R.slovaca. As a result, R.slovaca isolation from of D.marginatus type ticks has been reported for the first time in our country by the cell culture method.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Dermacentor , Rickettsia , Animais , Cercopithecus aethiops , Dermacentor/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Células Vero
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(5): 77, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069553

RESUMO

Ethylene is a volatile alkene which is used in large commercial scale as a precursor in plastic industry, and is currently derived from petroleum refinement. As an alternative production strategy, photoautotrophic cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 have been previously evaluated as potential biotechnological hosts for producing ethylene directly from CO2, by the over-expression of ethylene forming enzyme (efe) from Pseudomonas syringae. This work addresses various open questions related to the use of Synechococcus as the engineering target, and demonstrates long-term ethylene production at rates reaching 140 µL L-1 h-1 OD750-1 without loss of host vitality or capacity to produce ethylene. The results imply that the genetic instability observed earlier may be associated with the expression strategies, rather than efe over-expression, ethylene toxicity or the depletion of 2-oxoglutarate-derived cellular precursors in Synechococcus. In context with literature, this study underlines the critical differences in expression system design in the alternative hosts, and confirms Synechococcus as a suitable parallel host for further engineering.


Assuntos
Etilenos/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Biotecnologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/genética , Etilenos/toxicidade , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo , Synechococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Synechococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transformação Genética
17.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 124-128, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054368

RESUMO

Pathogenic Aeromonas veronii results in great healthy and economic losses in fishes and human. The multiple drug tolerance of bacterial persister is the major cause for recurrent infections. Ubiquitous RNA-binding protein Hfq is liable for antibiotic tolerance and persisiter production. We showed that the hfq deletion in A. veronii retarded the growth, reduced the tolerances to diverse antibiotics, and lowered the persistence. Such effects might be mediated by the downregulations of RelE, CspD, ClpB, RpoS, OxyR, and upregulation of OppB. Our study supports the role of Hfq in persister formation and provides clues for the avoidance of recalcitrant infections.


Assuntos
Aeromonas veronii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aeromonas veronii/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/genética , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Aeromonas veronii/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , RNA , Transcriptoma , Virulência/genética
18.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 533-552, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066586

RESUMO

Two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) are a major mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to changes in their environment. TCSs typically consist of two proteins that bring about major regulation of the cell genome through coordinated action mediated by phosphorylation. Environmental conditions that activate TCSs are numerous and diverse and include exposure to antibiotics as well as conditions inside a host. The resulting regulatory action often involves activation of antibiotic defenses and changes to cell physiology that increase antibiotic resistance. Examples of resistance mechanisms enacted by TCSs contained in this review span those found in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species and include cell surface modifications, changes in cell permeability, increased biofilm formation, and upregulation of antibiotic-degrading enzymes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Histidina Quinase , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Regulação para Cima
19.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(7): 280-284, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087695

RESUMO

In 2018, a patient was diagnosed with Shimokoshi type scrub typhus in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The causative pathogen was likely a variant type because 43 (8.3%) of 521 deduced amino acid sequences of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) were different from those of the Shimokoshi prototype strain. The patient's paired sera showed low antibody titers against the Shimokoshi prototype strain. Two cases of scrub typhus reported in the Tohoku region during 2011-2012 also involved the same 56-kDa TSA gene sequence. These findings suggest the presence of diversity in Shimokoshi type Orientia tsutsugamushi, which may impede the laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Orientia tsutsugamushi/patogenicidade , Tifo por Ácaros/imunologia , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Japão , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Peso Molecular , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico
20.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(7): 1504-1513, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038682

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria possess a sophisticated photosynthesis-based metabolism with admirable plasticity. This plasticity is possible via the deep regulation network, the thiol-redox regulations operated by thioredoxin (hereafter, Trx). In this context, we characterized the Trx-m1-deficient mutant strain of Anabaena sp., PCC 7120 (shortly named A.7120), cultivated under nitrogen limitation. Trx-m1 appears to coordinate the nitrogen response and its absence induces large changes in the proteome. Our data clearly indicate that Trx-m1 is crucial for the diazotrophic growth of A.7120. The lack of Trx-m1 resulted in a large differentiation of heterocysts (>20% of total cells), which were barely functional probably due to a weak expression of nitrogenase. In addition, heterocysts of the mutant strain did not display the usual cellular structure of nitrogen-fixative cells. This unveiled why the mutant strain was not able to grow under nitrogen starvation.


Assuntos
Anabaena/genética , Tiorredoxinas de Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Genes Bacterianos/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Anabaena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anabaena/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas de Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Fotossíntese , Proteoma
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