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1.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126296, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421712

RESUMO

Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are important factors in the response of organisms to oscillations in environmental conditions. Although Hsp have been studied for a long time, little is known about this protein class in Trichoderma species. Here we studied the expression of Hsp genes during T. asperellum growth, and mycoparasitism against two phytopathogens: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Fusarium oxysporum, as well as during thermal stress. The expression levels of these genes were observed by real-time PCR and they showed to be differentially expressed under these conditions. We verified that the TaHsp26c, TaHsp70b and TaHsp70c genes were differentially expressed over time, indicating that these genes can be developmentally regulated in T. asperellum. Except for TaHsp26a, all other genes analyzed were induced in the post-contact condition when T. asperellum was cultured in a confrontation plate assay against itself. Additionally, TaHsp26b, TaHsp26c, TaHsp90, TaHsp104a and TaHsp104b were induced during initial contact between T. asperellum hyphae, suggesting that these proteins must play a role in the organism´s self-recognition mechanism. When we examined gene expression during mycoparasitism, we observed that some genes were induced both by S. sclerotiorum and F. oxysporum, while others were not induced during interaction with either of the phytopathogens. Furthermore, we observed some genes induced only during confrontation against S. sclerotiorum, indicating that the expression of Hsp genes during mycoparasitism seems to be modulated by the phytopathogen. To assess whether such genes are expressed during temperature oscillations, we analyzed their transcription levels during thermal and cold shock. We observed that except for the TaHsp70c gene, all others presented high transcript levels when T. asperellum was submitted to high temperature (38 °C), indicating their importance in the response to heat stress. The TaHsp70c gene was significantly induced only in cold shock at 4 °C. Our results show the importance of Hsp proteins during self-recognition, mycoparasitism and thermal stress in T. asperellum.


Assuntos
Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Trichoderma/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ascomicetos/genética , Fusarium/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Hifas/genética , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Microbianas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126294, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421718

RESUMO

After exposure to with Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis, the expression of genes in Trichoderma asperellum were compared in four transcriptomes. The top 20 high expression genes included six heat shock proteins and three hydrophobins, indicating that Trichoderma can rapidly adapt to environment stresses and elicit a plant defense response. The genes, involved in the interaction between Trichoderma and plant, showed an increasing expression level, for example sugar transporters, EPL1s, endoxylanases, pectin lyases, and nitrilases. Interestingly, sugar transporters also showed high expression when T. asperellum was cultured on medium lacking a carbon substrate, which would contribute to T. asperellum's survival and domination in ecological niche competition. And the genes related to mycoparasitism were expressed abundantly following T. asperellum's interaction with PdPap, indicating the PdPap induction could enhance the mycoparasitic ability of T. asperellum. Twelve chitinases and five glucanases showed higher expression in transcriptome Cs, indicating that T. asperellum secretes both types of enzyme before interacting with pathogens, allowing T. asperellum to implement mycoparasitism and obtain more energy. Many novel transcripts were obtained in each transcriptome, which may play important roles in the biocontrol process of T. asperellum. Interestingly, T. asperellum undergo constitutive alternative splicing in the biocontrol process: Seven biocontrol genes were alternative spliced via intron retention. qRT-PCR analysis proved that intron retention is negatively associated with the expression of chitinase, oligopeptide transporters, and beta-lactamase. However, the percentage of MAPK intron retention was quite low, suggesting that intron retention has little effect on the function of MAPK.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Populus/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
3.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126292, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421719

RESUMO

Azotobacter chroococcum (Az) and Trichoderma viride (Tv) represent agriculturally important and beneficial plant growth promoting options which contribute towards nutrient management and biocontrol, respectively. When Az and Tv are co-cultured, they form a biofilm, which has proved promising as an inoculant in several crops; however, the basic aspects related to regulation of biofilm formation were not investigated. Therefore, whole transcriptome sequencing (Illumina NextSeq500) and gene expression analyses were undertaken, related to biofilm formation vis a vis Tv and Az growing individually. Significant changes in the transcriptome profiles of biofilm were recorded and validated through qPCR analyses. In-depth evaluation also identified several genes (phoA, phoB, glgP, alg8, sipW, purB, pssA, fadD) specifically involved in biofilm formation in Az, Tv and Tv-Az. Genes coding for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, ABC transporters, translation elongation factor EF-1, molecular chaperones and double homeobox 4 were either up-regulated or down-regulated during biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the modulation of gene expression in an agriculturally beneficial association, as a biofilm. Our results provide insights into the regulatory factors involved during biofilm formation, which can help to improve the beneficial effects and develop more effective and promising plant- microbe associations.


Assuntos
Azotobacter/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Microbianas/genética , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/microbiologia , Regulação para Cima
4.
Gene ; 718: 144073, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446096

RESUMO

Cell morphology of the oleaginous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae BCC7051, was genetically engineered by disruption of non-essential genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis. Comparative phenotypic analysis of two disruptant strains defective either in α-1,3-glucan synthase 1 (ΔAoAgs1) or chitin synthase B (ΔAoChsB), and the wild type showed that the ΔAoAgs1 strain had no alterations in colonial growth and sporulation when grown on agar medium whereas the ΔAoChsB disruptant showed growth retardation and lower sporulation. However, tiny and loose pellets were found in the ΔAoAgs1 culture grown in liquid medium, where fungal pellet size was decreased by 35-50% of the wild type size. Further investigation of the ΔAoAgs1 mutant grown under stress-induced conditions, including high salt concentration, ionic strength and osmolarity, showed that its growth and development remained similar to that of the wild type. When cultivating the ΔAoAgs1 strain in a stirred-tank bioreactor, lipid production in terms of titer and productivity was significantly improved. As compared to the wild type, an increase of triacylglycerol and ergosterol contents with a proportional decrease in steryl ester content was observed in the ΔAoAgs1 strain. These results suggest that the morphologically engineered strain of A. oryzae is a robust cell chassis useful for exploitation in further production development of functional lipids with industrial significance.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Ergosterol/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Quitina Sintase/genética , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Ergosterol/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Genes Fúngicos , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 105, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267317

RESUMO

Pseudocercospora fijiensis causes black Sigatoka disease, the most important threat to banana. The cell wall is crucial for fungal biological processes, including pathogenesis. Here, we performed cell wall proteomics analyses of two P. fijiensis strains, the highly virulent Oz2b, and the less virulent C1233 strains. Strains were starved from nitrogen to mimic the host environment. Interestingly, in vitro cultures of the C1233 strain grew faster than Oz2b in PDB medium, suggesting that C1233 survives outside the host better than the highly virulent Oz2b strain. Both strains were submitted to nitrogen starvation and the cell wall proteins were isolated and subjected to nano-HPLC-MS/MS. A total of 2686 proteins were obtained from which only 240 had a known function and thus, bioinformatics analyses were performed on this group. We found that 90 cell wall proteins were shared by both strains, 21 were unique for Oz2b and 39 for C1233. Shared proteins comprised 24 pathogenicity factors, including Avr4 and Ecp6, two effectors from P. fijiensis, while the unique proteins comprised 16 virulence factors in C1233 and 11 in Oz2b. The P. fijiensis cell wall proteome comprised canonical proteins, but thirty percent were atypical, a feature which in other phytopathogens has been interpreted as contamination. However, a comparison with the identities of atypical proteins in other reports suggests that the P. fijiensis proteins we detected were not contaminants. This is the first proteomics analysis of the P. fijiensis cell wall and our results expands the understanding of the fundamental biology of fungal phytopathogens and will help to decipher the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and virulence in P. fijiensis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteoma , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Musa/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Virulência
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 109, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280382

RESUMO

Echinocandin B (ECB) is an important lipohexapeptide used for chemical manufacture of the antifungal agent anidulafungin. Sterigmatocystin (ST) is a polyketide mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus such as Aspergillus delacroxii SIPIW15, which could produce both ECB and ST. However, the presence of the potent carcinogen ST will greatly affect the quality and safety of ECB production. Therefore, it is essential to eliminate the ST biosynthesis and increase ECB titers in Asp. delacroxii SIPIW15. In this study, the polyketide synthase gene (stcA) required for biosynthesis of ST and its flanking region in Asp. delacroxii SIPIW15 were cloned, sequenced and analyzed firstly. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the ΔstcA mutant AMT-1 was obtained and its yield of ECB was increased by 40% without ST detected at the same time as compared to the original strain. The results of the fed-batch experiments showed that the ECB yield of the ΔstcA strain AMT-1 was increased to 2163 ± 31 mg/l and no ST was detected in the 50 l bioreactor. This work suggested that the ΔstcA strain AMT-1 has the potential for application in ECB production improvement, and more importantly, to eliminate ST-related environmental pollution in ECB fermentation industry.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Equinocandinas/biossíntese , Equinocandinas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Esterigmatocistina/biossíntese , Agrobacterium/genética , Anidulafungina , Antifúngicos , Sequência de Bases , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Reatores Biológicos , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Transformação Genética
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4801-4816, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308659

RESUMO

Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inhibit the proliferation of various fungi; however, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. To better understand the inhibitory mechanisms, we focused on the early events elicited by 5 nm AgNPs in pathogenic Candida albicans and non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods: The effect of 5 nm and 100 nm AgNPs on fungus cell proliferation was analyzed by growth kinetics monitoring and spot assay. We examined cell cycle progression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell death using flow cytometry. Glucose uptake was assessed using tritium-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. Results: The growth of both C. albicans and S. cerevisiae was suppressed by treatment with 5 nm AgNPs but not with 100 nm AgNPs. In addition, 5 nm AgNPs induced cell cycle arrest and a reduction in glucose uptake in both fungi after 30 minutes of culture in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). However, in C. albicans only, an increase in ROS production was detected after exposure to 5 nm AgNPs. Concordantly, an ROS scavenger blocked the effect of 5 nm AgNPs on the cell cycle and glucose uptake in C. albicans only. Furthermore, the growth-inhibition effect of 5 nm AgNPs was not greater in S. cerevisiae mutant strains deficient in oxidative stress response genes than it was in wild type. Finally, 5 nm AgNPs together with a glycolysis inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate, synergistically enhanced cell death in C. albicans (P<0.05) but not in S. cerevisiae. Conclusion: AgNPs exhibit antifungal activity in a manner that may or may not be ROS dependent, according to the fungal species. The combination of AgNPs with 3-bromopyruvate may be more useful against infection with C. albicans.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/citologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Piruvatos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Prata/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Fúngicos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2353-2358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313640

RESUMO

Blackleg, caused by the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, is a widespread disease of winter canola (Brassica napus) in Oklahoma and Kansas. Deployment of genetic resistance is the primary strategy for managing blackleg. Resistance genes (Rlm) in canola interact with avirulence genes in the fungus (AvrLm) in a gene-for-gene manner. Little is known about the diversity and frequency of avirulence genes and the race structure in the region. Isolates of Leptosphaeria spp. were collected from diseased leaves in nine counties in Oklahoma and one county in Kansas from 2009 to 2013. Based on pathogenicity and PCR amplification of mating type and species-specific internal transcribed spacer loci, most isolates (n = 90) were L. maculans. The presence of avirulence genes was evaluated using phenotypic interactions on cotyledons of differential cultivars with Rlm1, Rlm2, Rlm3, and Rlm4 and amplification of AvrLm1, AvrLm4-7, and AvrLm6 by PCR. The avirulence alleles AvrLm6 and AvrLm7 were present in the entire L. maculans population. AvrLm1 was found in 34% of the population, AvrLm2 in 4%, and AvrLm4 in only 1%. A total of five races, defined as combinations of avirulence alleles, were identified that included AvrLm1-2-6-7, AvrLm2-6-7, AvrLm4-6-7, AvrLm1-6-7, and AvrLm6-7. Races virulent on the most Rlm genes, AvrLm1-6-7 at 32% and AvrLm6-7 at 62%, were predominant. Defining the avirulence allele frequency and race structure of L. maculans should be useful for the identification and development of resistant cultivars and hybrids for blackleg management in the region. The results suggest that Rlm6 and Rlm7 would be effective, although their deployment should be integrated with quantitative resistance and cultural practices, such as crop rotation, that limit selection pressure on Rlm genes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Brassica napus , Doenças das Plantas , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Frequência do Gene , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Kansas , Oklahoma , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
9.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 44-50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178050

RESUMO

Classic genome editing tools including ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 rely on DNA double-strand breaks for genome editing. To prevent the potential hazard caused by double-strand breaks (DSBs), a series of single base editing tools that convert cytidine (C) to thymine (T) without DSBs have been developed extensively in multiple species. Herein, we report for the first time that C was converted to T with a high frequency in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger by fusing cytidine deaminase and Cas9 nickase. Using the CRISPR/Cas9-dependent base editor and inducing nonsense mutations via single base editing, we inactivated the uridine auxotroph gene pyrG and the pigment gene fwnA with an efficiency of 47.36%-100% in A.niger. At the same time, the single-base editing results of the non-phenotypic gene prtT showed an efficiency of 60%. The editable window reached 8 bases (from C2 to C9 in the protospacer) in A. niger. Overall, we successfully constructed a single base editing system in A. niger. This system provides a more convenient tool for investigating gene function in A. niger, and provides a new tool for genetic modification in filamentous fungi.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Sequência de Bases , Desoxirribonuclease I/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Mutagênese
10.
Plant Dis ; 103(8): 2076-2082, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194616

RESUMO

Stem-end rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is a destructive disease of mango. B. theobromae field isolates resistant to carbendazim (MBC) were collected in Hainan Province, China. In this study, the characteristics of these field isolates with resistance to MBC were investigated. The resistance of B. theobromae isolates to MBC was stably inherited. Both the MBC-resistant and MBC-sensitive isolates had similar mycelial growth rates, pathogenicity, sensitivity to high glucose, glycerol content, and peroxidase activity. Compared with MBC-sensitive isolates, MBC-resistant isolates were more sensitive to low temperature and had a significant decrease in sensitivity to high NaCl and a significant increase in catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. After MBC treatment, the cell membrane permeability of the sensitive isolates was markedly increased compared with that of the resistant isolates. Analysis of the ß-tubulin gene sequence revealed point mutations resulting in substitutions at codon 198 from glutamic acid (GAG) to alanine (GCG) in moderately resistant isolates, and at codon 200 from phenylalanine (TTC) to tyrosine (TAC) in highly resistant isolates. These ß-tubulin gene mutations were consistently associated with MBC resistance. Overall, we infer that the altered cell membrane permeability and the increase in CAT and GST activities of the resistant isolates are linked to MBC resistance.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Benzimidazóis , Carbamatos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fungicidas Industriais , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , China , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Genes Fúngicos/genética
11.
Plant Dis ; 103(8): 2041-2050, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242130

RESUMO

Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are largely cultivated in China because of their nutritional benefits and economic value. Blueberry stem blight caused by members of the Botryosphaeriaceae has become one of the most severe diseases affecting blueberry cultivation in China. In this study, we examined the causal agent of blueberry stem blight at commercial greenhouse farms in the suburban area of Beijing, China. In total, 37 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained from 100 stem blight samples of blueberry. Twelve of 37 strains were morphologically consistent with the genus Lasiodiplodia, showing ellipsoid to ovoid, one-celled, hyaline conidia that sometimes turned brown, with median septa and longitudinal striations when mature. These 12 strains were identified as belonging to a novel fungal species, Lasiodiplodia vaccinii, based on phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated internal transcribed spacer, RNA polymerase II gene, ß-tubulin gene, and translation elongation factor-1α gene sequences as well as morphological characteristics. Pathogenicity tests indicated that L. vaccinii can cause twig blight on blueberry seedlings in the greenhouse. Mycelial growth of L. vaccinii occurred at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 10.0, with an optimum at 6.2, and at temperatures from 15 to 40°C, with an optimum at 30.3°C. Of the seven carbon sources tested, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were all highly efficient in supporting the mycelial growth of L. vaccinii, and xylose was the least effective. Of six nitrogen sources tested, yeast extract and tryptone best promoted mycelial growth of L. vaccinii. The ability of L. vaccinii to grow at high temperatures may help to explain its occurrence in Beijing greenhouses in this study.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Filogenia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/microbiologia , China , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 12): 318, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of motifs-recurrent and statistically significant patterns-in biological networks is the key to understand the design principles, and to infer governing mechanisms of biological systems. This, however, is a computationally challenging task. This task is further complicated as biological interactions depend on limited resources, i.e., a reaction takes place if the reactant molecule concentrations are above a certain threshold level. This biochemical property implies that network edges can participate in a limited number of motifs simultaneously. Existing motif counting methods ignore this problem. This simplification often leads to inaccurate motif counts (over- or under-estimates), and thus, wrong biological interpretations. RESULTS: In this paper, we develop a novel motif counting algorithm, Partially Overlapping MOtif Counting (POMOC), that considers capacity levels for all interactions in counting motifs. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments on real and synthetic networks demonstrate that motif count using the POMOC method significantly differs from the existing motif counting approaches, and our method extends to large-scale biological networks in practical time. Our results also show that our method makes it possible to characterize the impact of different stress factors on cell's organization of network. In this regard, analysis of a S. cerevisiae transcriptional regulatory network using our method shows that oxidative stress is more disruptive to organization and abundance of motifs in this network than mutations of individual genes. Our analysis also suggests that by focusing on the edges that lead to variation in motif counts, our method can be used to find important genes, and to reveal subtle topological and functional differences of the biological networks under different cell states.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes Fúngicos , Modelos Biológicos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 204, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice blast disease is one of the most destructive fungal disease of rice worldwide. The avirulence (AVR) genes of Magnaporthe oryzae are recognized by the cognate resistance (R) genes of rice and trigger race-specific resistance. The variation in AVR is one of the major drivers of new races. Detecting the variation in the AVR gene in isolates from a population of Magnaporthe oryzae collected from rice production fields will aid in evaluating the effectiveness of R genes in rice production areas. The Pik gene contains 5 R alleles (Pik, Pikh, Pikp, Pikm and Piks) corresponding to the AVR alleles (AVR-Pik/kh/kp/km/ks) of M. oryzae. The Pik gene specifically recognizes and prevents infections by isolates of M. oryzae that contain AVR-Pik. The molecular variation in AVR-Pik alleles of M. oryzae and Pik alleles of rice remains unclear. RESULTS: We studied the possible evolutionary pathways of AVR-Pik alleles by analyzing their DNA sequence variation and assaying their avirulence to the cognate Pik alleles of resistance genes under field conditions in China. The results of PCR products from genomic DNA showed that 278 of the 366 isolates of M. oryzae collected from Yunnan Province, China, carried AVR-Pik alleles. Among the isolates from six regions of Yunnan, 66.7-90.3% carried AVR-Pik alleles. Moreover, 10 AVR-Pik haplotypes encoding five novel AVR-Pik variants were identified among 201 isolates. The AVR-Pik alleles evolved to virulent from avirulent forms via stepwise base substitution. These findings demonstrate that AVR-Pik alleles are under positive selection and that mutations are responsible for defeating race-specific resistant Pik alleles in nature. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the polymorphism and distribution of AVR-Pik alleles in Yunnan Province, China. By pathogenicity assays used to detect the function of the different haplotypes of AVR-Pik, for the first time, we showed the avoidance and stepwise evolution of AVR-Pik alleles in rice production areas of Yunnan. The functional AVR-Pik possesses diversified sequence structures and is under positive selection in nature.


Assuntos
Genes Fúngicos/genética , Magnaporthe/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Alelos , Evolução Biológica , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Magnaporthe/patogenicidade
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 225, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterizing the modular structure of cellular network is an important way to identify novel genes for targeted therapeutics. This is made possible by the rising of high-throughput technology. Unfortunately, computational methods to identify functional modules were limited by the data quality issues of high-throughput techniques. This study aims to integrate knowledge extracted from literature to further improve the accuracy of functional module identification. RESULTS: Our new model and algorithm were applied to both yeast and human interactomes. Predicted functional modules have covered over 90% of the proteins in both organisms, while maintaining a comparable overall accuracy. We found that the combination of both mRNA expression information and biomedical knowledge greatly improved the performance of functional module identification, which is better than those only using protein interaction network weighted with transcriptomic data, literature knowledge, or simply unweighted protein interaction network. Our new algorithm also achieved better performance when comparing with some other well-known methods, especially in terms of the positive predictive value (PPV), which indicated the confidence of novel discovery. CONCLUSION: Higher PPV with the multiplex approach suggested that information from both sources has been effectively integrated to reduce false positive. With protein coverage higher than 90%, our algorithm is able to generate more novel biological hypothesis with higher confidence.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Humanos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
16.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 15-22, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078147

RESUMO

Candida species are considered as one of the important cause of nosocomial and community infections. Candidacies are fourth caused by septicemia in some countries and possess extra cost to the health care system. The aim of this study was survey the presence of virulence factors associated with various candida geniuses in samples which have been collected from the intensive care unit. In this cross-sectional study, various clinical specimens have been collected from patients which hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Milad hospital, Tehran, Iran. The species of candida has been determined by CHROM agar. Finally, adherence factors genes and proteinase gene have been detected by PCR. In this research, 100 samples have been collected from patients that colonized with candida. C. albicans (63%) and C.glabrata (19.4%) are the most identified species, respectively. The species of four specimens have been not detected according to the color of CHROM agar candida medium and two different genus of candida has been isolated from 7 patients. The frequency of Als1, Als3, HWP1 and SAP1 genes among C. albicans was (92%), (94%), (95%) and (88%), respectively. The most detected virulence factor was HWP1 and SAP4 was the lowest one. At least two virulence factors have been detected in 95% of different Candida species that can cause invasive fungal properties. These results are important for infection control committee in the hospital because invasive fungal diseases can make a serious problem for patients that hospitalized in ICU.


Assuntos
Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Genes Fúngicos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida/patogenicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(9): 1717-1720, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042107

RESUMO

Temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants provide powerful tools for investigation of cellular functions of essential genes. We report here asimple procedure to generate ts mutations using error-prone PCR within pcp1 that encodes aspindle pole body (SPB) component in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This manipulation is not restricted to pcp1, and can be suited to any essential genes involved in other processes.


Assuntos
Genes Fúngicos , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Corpos Polares do Fuso/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 677: 47-56, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051382

RESUMO

Invasive plant species may alter soil nutrient availability to facilitate their growth and competitiveness. However, the roles and functional mechanisms of plant-associated microbes that mediate these soil biogeochemical cycles remain elusive. Here, we studied how soil microorganisms and their functional processes differed between soils invaded by Ageratina adenophora and adjacent non-invaded soils in a region of China with heavy invasion. Our results indicated that soil nitrogen contents were over 4.32 mg/kg higher (p < 0.05) in both rhizosphere soils and bulk soils dominated by A. adenophora as compared with those in soils dominated by non-invaded plants. Concurrently, soil microbial-mediated functional processes, i.e. nitrogen fixation rate, nitrification rate and ammonification rate, were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in either rhizosphere soils or bulk soils of invasive A. adenophora. Using a functional gene microarray, we found higher relative abundances of soil microbial genes involved in N cycling processes in A. adenophora soils, e.g. nifH, required for nitrogen fixation, which significantly correlated with ammonia contents (r = 0.35 in bulk soils, r = 0.37 in rhizosphere soils, p < 0.05) and the nitrogen fixation rate (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). We also found that the relative abundances of labile carbon decomposition genes were higher in invasive A. adenophora soils, implying a potential higher availability of carbon. These results suggest that the soil surrounding the invasive plant A. adenophora is a self-reinforcing environment. The plant litter and rhizosphere environment of the invasive may influence soil microbial communities, promoting self-supporting soil processes. Alternatively, the regions invaded by A. adenophora may have already had properties that facilitated these beneficial microbial community traits, allowing easier invasion by the exotics. Both scenarios offer important insights for the mitigation of plant invasion and provide an ecosystem-level understanding of the invasive mechanisms utilized by alien plants.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Espécies Introduzidas , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Ageratina , China , Genes Bacterianos , Genes Fúngicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Rizosfera
19.
Plant Dis ; 103(7): 1721-1727, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094656

RESUMO

Paris polyphylla is an important perennial medicinal plant in China. A disease similar to gray mold on P. polyphylla occurred at the seedling stage in March 2016 and 2017 in Tengchong city, Yunnan Province of China. The disease resulted in up to 50% mortality in serious cases. Isolates from diseased plants grew 10.6 mm/day at 20°C on PDA. After 21 days, sclerotia were spherical to elliptical (0.4-2.5 × 0.3-1.8 mm). Conidia from diseased tissues were hyaline to pale brown, long, ovoid, unicellular, and measured 15.1-24.5 × 8.8-13.4 µm; conidiophores were 526-1,064 ×12-15 µm. Isolates did not form conidiophores or conidia on PDA or MYA. A phylogenetic analysis based on G3PDH, RPB2, and HSP60 sequence data supported assignment of three representative isolates as a new species of Botrytis. Based on morphological, phylogenetic characteristics and Koch's Postulates, the causal agent of gray mold on P. polyphylla was identified as a novel species, Botrytis polyphyllae.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Melanthiaceae , Botrytis/classificação , Botrytis/citologia , Botrytis/genética , Botrytis/fisiologia , China , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Melanthiaceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Plant Dis ; 103(7): 1450-1457, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107641

RESUMO

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) caused by Exserohilum turcicum is the most common and economically significant fungal leaf disease of corn in Ontario, Canada. During the past 10 years in Ontario, severity and incidence of NCLB have increased, possibly owing to the appearance of new races. Several races have been identified in various parts of the world; however, information on occurrence and distribution of races in Ontario is lacking. In the current study, 677 single conidial isolates of E. turcicum were isolated from 687 symptomatic leaf samples collected between 2012 and 2016. These isolates were evaluated for pathogenicity on six corn differential inbreds (A619, A619Ht1, A619Ht2, A619Ht3, A632Htn1, and H102Htm1) under controlled environmental conditions and then grouped into 17 physiological races (0, 1, 2, 3, M, N, 12, 1M, 1N, 3M, 13M, 12N, 13N, 1MN, 12MN, 13MN, 123MN) based on the reaction of the inbreds to infection (resistant or susceptible). Four races (0, 1M, 1N, and 1MN) were most frequent, with an isolation frequency of 13, 10, 12, and 41%, respectively. Seventy-six percent of the isolates were virulent on more than one Ht resistance gene, with 2.4% (16 isolates) virulent on all five Ht resistance genes used in this study. Further analysis of the distribution of races in four regions over the years revealed that the occurrence and distribution of the races changed with time in Ontario. Overall, the frequency of virulence of the 677 isolates screened on the differentials with resistance genes Ht1, Ht2, Ht3, Htm1, and Htn1 varied from 6 to 81% (Ht1 81%, Ht2 6%, Ht3 12%, Htm1 64%, and Htn1 64%). Virulent isolates produced fewer lesions on the Htm1 differential, and smaller lesions that were slower and having less sporulation on the Htn1 differential, compared with infection of the differentials with Ht1, Ht2, and Ht3 resistance genes. Virulence frequency also changed within the four geographical regions of Ontario, with fewer isolates virulent on all resistance genes in eastern Ontario compared with southern and western Ontario. Isolates from southern Ontario had greater virulence frequency against Ht1 and Htm1, whereas isolates from western Ontario were more frequently virulent on Ht1 and Htn1. The information generated in this study on the distribution of E. turcicum races in Ontario corn will help growers to select appropriate hybrids with required resistance genes and will assist seed companies in deploying resistance genes in corn hybrids across the province or within a particular region.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Zea mays/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Ontário , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência/genética
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