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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2540: 1-34, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980571

RESUMO

Since 1992, FlyBase has provided a freely available online database of information about the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Data in FlyBase is curated manually from research papers as well as computationally from a variety of relevant sources, to serve as an information hub that enables and accelerates research discovery. This chapter aims to give users new to the database an overview of the layout and types of data available, as well as introducing some tools with which to access the data. More experienced users will find useful information about recent improvements and descriptions to enable more efficient navigation of the database.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genes de Insetos , Genoma de Inseto
2.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270840, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797274

RESUMO

Bombyx mori is an important economic insect, its economic value mainly reflected in the silk yield. The major functional genes affecting the silk yield of B. mori have not been determined yet. Bombyx mori vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13d (BmVps13d) has been identified, but its function is not reported. In this study, BmVps13d protein shared 30.84% and 34.35% identity with that of in Drosophila melanogaster and Homo. sapiens, respectively. The expressions of BmVps13d were significantly higher in the midgut and silk gland of JS (high silk yield) than in that of L10 (low silk yield). An insertion of 9 bp nucleotides and two deficiencies of adenine ribonucleotides in the putative promoter region of BmVps13d gene in L10 resulted in the decline of promoter activity was confirmed using dual luciferase assay. Finally, the functions of BmVps13d in B. mori were studied using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the mutation of BmVps13d resulted in a 24.7% decline in weight of larvae, as well as a 27.1% (female) decline and a 11.8% (male) decline in the silk yield. This study provides a foundation for studying the molecular mechanism of silk yield and breeding the silkworm with high silk yield.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos , Seda , Animais , Bombyx/química , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster/química , Feminino , Genes de Insetos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas , Seda/biossíntese
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682551

RESUMO

The flour beetle Tribolium freemani is a sibling species of the model organism and important pest Tribolium castaneum. The two species are so closely related that they can produce hybrid progeny, but the genetic basis of their differences has not been revealed. In this work, we sequenced the T. freemani genome by applying PacBio HiFi technology. Using the well-assembled T. castaneum genome as a reference, we assembled 262 Mb of the T. freemani genomic sequence and anchored it in 10 linkage groups corresponding to nine autosomes and sex chromosome X. The assembly showed 99.8% completeness of conserved insect genes, indicating a high-quality reference genome. Comparison with the T. castaneum assembly revealed that the main differences in genomic sequence between the two sibling species come from repetitive DNA, including interspersed and tandem repeats. In this work, we also provided the complete assembled mitochondrial genome of T. freemani. Although the genome assembly needs to be ameliorated in tandemly repeated regions, the first version of the T. freemani reference genome and the complete mitogenome presented here represent useful resources for comparative evolutionary studies of related species and for further basic and applied research on different biological aspects of economically important pests.


Assuntos
Besouros , Genoma Mitocondrial , Tribolium , Animais , Besouros/genética , Genes de Insetos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tribolium/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2205850119, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733268

RESUMO

The regulatory process for assessing the risks of pesticides to bees relies heavily on the use of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, as a model for other bee species. However, the validity of using A. mellifera as a surrogate for other Apis and non-Apis bees in pesticide risk assessment has been questioned. Related to this line of research, recent work on A. mellifera has shown that specific P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP9Q subfamily act as critically important determinants of insecticide sensitivity in this species by efficiently detoxifying certain insecticide chemotypes. However, the extent to which the presence of functional orthologs of these enzymes is conserved across the diversity of bees is unclear. Here we used a phylogenomic approach to identify > 100 putative CYP9Q functional orthologs across 75 bee species encompassing all major bee families. Functional analysis of 26 P450s from 20 representative bee species revealed that P450-mediated detoxification of certain systemic insecticides, including the neonicotinoid thiacloprid and the butenolide flupyradifurone, is conserved across all major bee pollinator families. However, our analyses also reveal that CYP9Q-related genes are not universal to all bee species, with some Megachilidae species lacking such genes. Thus, our results reveal an evolutionary conserved capacity to metabolize certain insecticides across all major bee families while identifying a small number of bee species where this function may have been lost. Furthermore, they illustrate the potential of a toxicogenomic approach to inform pesticide risk assessment for nonmanaged bee species by predicting the capability of bee pollinator species to break down synthetic insecticides.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Insetos , Inativação Metabólica , Proteínas de Insetos , Inseticidas , Animais , Abelhas/enzimologia , Abelhas/genética , Sequência Conservada , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/classificação , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/classificação , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Filogenia
5.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1856): 20210192, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694757

RESUMO

Supergenes are tightly linked sets of loci that are inherited together and control complex phenotypes. While classical supergenes-governing traits such as wing patterns in Heliconius butterflies or heterostyly in Primula-have been studied since the Modern Synthesis, we still understand very little about how they evolve and persist in nature. The genetic architecture of supergenes is a critical factor affecting their evolutionary fate, as it can change key parameters such as recombination rate and effective population size, potentially redirecting molecular evolution of the supergene in addition to the surrounding genomic region. To understand supergene evolution, we must link genomic architecture with evolutionary patterns and processes. This is now becoming possible with recent advances in sequencing technology and powerful forward computer simulations. The present theme issue brings together theoretical and empirical papers, as well as opinion and synthesis papers, which showcase the architectural diversity of supergenes and connect this to critical processes in supergene evolution, such as polymorphism maintenance and mutation accumulation. Here, we summarize those insights to highlight new ideas and methods that illuminate the path forward for the study of supergenes in nature. This article is part of the theme issue 'Genomic architecture of supergenes: causes and evolutionary consequences'.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Insetos , Genômica , Asas de Animais
6.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 129(2): 113-122, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581477

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic phenotypes are thought to arise primarily from sex-biased gene expression during development. Major changes in developmental strategies, such as the shift from hemimetabolous to holometabolous development, are therefore expected to have profound consequences for the dynamics of sex-biased gene expression. However, no studies have previously examined sex-biased gene expression during development in hemimetabolous insects, precluding comparisons between developmental strategies. Here we characterized sex-biased gene expression at three developmental stages in a hemimetabolous stick insect (Timema californicum): hatchlings, juveniles, and adults. As expected, the proportion of sex-biased genes gradually increased during development, mirroring the gradual increase of phenotypic sexual dimorphism. Sex-biased genes identified at early developmental stages were generally consistently male- or female-biased at later stages, suggesting their importance in sexual differentiation. Additionally, we compared the dynamics of sex-biased gene expression during development in T. californicum to those of the holometabolous fly Drosophila melanogaster by reanalyzing publicly available RNA-seq data from third instar larval, pupal and adult stages. In D. melanogaster, 84% of genes were sex-biased at the adult stage (compared to only 20% in T. californicum), and sex-biased gene expression increased abruptly at the adult stage when morphological sexual dimorphism is manifested. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that the dynamics of sex-biased gene expression during development differ extensively between holometabolous and hemimetabolous insect species.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Insetos , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Insetos/genética , Larva/genética , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
J Insect Physiol ; 139: 104394, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413337

RESUMO

Diapause is a pre-programmed arrest of development allowing insects to survive in unfavorable environments. In adult insects, diapause termination is often followed by a reallocation of macronutrients and a transition to reproduction, and in some insects, this transition can be achieved using narcosis with CO2. However, whether CO2narcosis and diapause act in concert to affect reproduction remains unknown. Here, we investigated the separated and combined effects of diapause and CO2on female reproduction in queens of the common eastern bumble bee Bombus impatiens. Queens were treated with CO2 following a cold storage period (zero days, two weeks, two and four months) and were compared with untreated queens at the same timepoints for survival, colony initiation, egg-laying latency, and offspring production. We found that both CO2 and a period of at least two months in cold storage induced a transition to egg laying in gynes, and as expected, survival decreased with cold storage length. When CO2 and cold storage were combined, CO2narcosis positively affected egg laying in the earlier timepoints but its impact diminished following a longer cold storage. These data suggest that the impacts of CO2narcosis and cold storage are partially additive, and application of CO2 is effective only after a short cold storage. It further demonstrates that CO2 has complex effects on insect reproduction that are independent from diapause.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Estupor , Animais , Abelhas , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Feminino , Genes de Insetos , Oviposição , Reprodução
8.
Science ; 375(6584): eabk2432, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239393

RESUMO

For more than 100 years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been one of the most studied model organisms. Here, we present a single-cell atlas of the adult fly, Tabula Drosophilae, that includes 580,000 nuclei from 15 individually dissected sexed tissues as well as the entire head and body, annotated to >250 distinct cell types. We provide an in-depth analysis of cell type-related gene signatures and transcription factor markers, as well as sexual dimorphism, across the whole animal. Analysis of common cell types between tissues, such as blood and muscle cells, reveals rare cell types and tissue-specific subtypes. This atlas provides a valuable resource for the Drosophila community and serves as a reference to study genetic perturbations and disease models at single-cell resolution.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes de Insetos , Masculino , RNA-Seq , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 29(2): 130-142, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173350

RESUMO

Nuclear Argonaute proteins, guided by small RNAs, mediate sequence-specific heterochromatin formation. The molecular principles that link Argonaute-small RNA complexes to cellular heterochromatin effectors on binding to nascent target RNAs are poorly understood. Here, we explain the mechanism by which the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway connects to the heterochromatin machinery in Drosophila. We find that Panoramix, a corepressor required for piRNA-guided heterochromatin formation, is SUMOylated on chromatin in a Piwi-dependent manner. SUMOylation, together with an amphipathic LxxLL motif in Panoramix's intrinsically disordered repressor domain, are necessary and sufficient to recruit Small ovary (Sov), a multi-zinc-finger protein essential for general heterochromatin formation and viability. Structure-guided mutations that eliminate the Panoramix-Sov interaction or that prevent SUMOylation of Panoramix uncouple Sov from the piRNA pathway, resulting in viable but sterile flies in which Piwi-targeted transposons are derepressed. Thus, Piwi engages the heterochromatin machinery specifically at transposon loci by coupling recruitment of a corepressor to nascent transcripts with its SUMOylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/genética , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Células-Tronco de Oogônios/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Sumoilação/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193982

RESUMO

Access to hitherto unexploited ecological opportunities is associated with phenotypic evolution and often results in significant lineage diversification. Yet our understanding of the mechanisms underlying such adaptive traits remains limited. Water striders have been able to exploit the water-air interface, primarily facilitated by changes in the density of hydrophobic bristles and a significant increase in leg length. These two traits are functionally correlated and are both necessary for generating efficient locomotion on the water surface. Whether bristle density and leg length have any cellular or developmental genetic mechanisms in common is unknown. Here, we combine comparative genomics and transcriptomics with functional RNA interference assays to examine the developmental genetic and cellular mechanisms underlying the patterning of the bristles and the legs in Gerris buenoi and Mesovelia mulsanti, two species of water striders. We found that two duplication events in the genes beadex and taxi led to a functional expansion of the paralogs, which affected bristle density and leg length. We also identified genes for which no function in bristle development has been previously described in other insects. Interestingly, most of these genes play a dual role in regulating bristle development and leg length. In addition, these genes play a role in regulating cell division. This result suggests that cell division may be a common mechanism through which these genes can simultaneously regulate leg length and bristle density. We propose that pleiotropy, through which gene function affects the development of multiple traits, may play a prominent role in facilitating access to unexploited ecological opportunities and species diversification.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/fisiologia , Locomoção , Água , Animais , Genes de Insetos , Heterópteros/anatomia & histologia , Heterópteros/embriologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Transcriptoma
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217609

RESUMO

Insects comprise over half of the described species, and the acquisition of metamorphosis must have contributed to their diversity and prosperity. The order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is among the most-ancestral insects with drastic morphological changes upon metamorphosis, in which understanding of the molecular mechanisms will provide insight into the evolution of incomplete and complete metamorphosis in insects. In order to identify metamorphosis-related genes in Odonata, we performed comprehensive RNA-sequencing of the blue-tailed damselfly Ischnura senegalensis at different developmental stages. Comparative RNA-sequencing analyses between nymphs and adults identified eight nymph-specific and seven adult-specific transcripts. RNA interference (RNAi) of these candidate genes demonstrated that three transcription factors, Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), broad, and E93 play important roles in metamorphosis of both I. senegalensis and a phylogenetically distant dragonfly, Pseudothemis zonata E93 is essential for adult morphogenesis, and RNAi of Kr-h1 induced precocious metamorphosis in epidermis via up-regulation of E93 Precocious metamorphosis was also induced by RNAi of the juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), confirming that the regulation of metamorphosis by the MEKRE93 (Met-Kr-h1-E93) pathway is conserved across diverse insects including the basal insect lineage Odonata. Notably, RNAi of broad produced unique grayish pigmentation on the nymphal abdominal epidermis. Survey of downstream genes for Kr-h1, broad, and E93 uncovered that unlike other insects, broad regulates a substantial number of nymph-specific and adult-specific genes independently of Kr-h1 and E93 These findings highlight the importance of functional changes and rewiring of the transcription factors Kr-h1, broad, and E93 in the evolution of insect metamorphosis.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Odonatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asas de Animais , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Masculino , Odonatos/genética , Interferência de RNA
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 979, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190538

RESUMO

The origin and evolution of the novel insect wing remain enigmatic after a century-long discussion. The mechanism of wing development in hemimetabolous insects, in which the first functional wings evolved, is key to understand where and how insect wings evolutionarily originate. This study explored the developmental origin and the postembryonic dramatic growth of wings in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. We find that the lateral tergal margin, which is homologous between apterygote and pterygote insects, comprises a growth organizer to expand the body wall to form adult wing blades in Gryllus. We also find that Wnt, Fat-Dachsous, and Hippo pathways are involved in the disproportional growth of Gryllus wings. These data provide insights into where and how insect wings originate. Wings evolved from the pre-existing lateral terga of a wingless insect ancestor, and the reactivation or redeployment of Wnt/Fat-Dachsous/Hippo-mediated feed-forward circuit might have expanded the lateral terga.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Asas de Animais , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263462, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143545

RESUMO

Detoxification enzymes play significant roles in the interactions between insects and host plants, wherein detoxification-related genes make great contributions. As herbivorous pests, aphids reproduce rapidly due to parthenogenesis. They are good biological materials for studying the mechanisms that allow insect adaptation to host plants. Insect detoxification gene families are associated with insect adaptation to host plants. The Aphidinae is the largest subfamily in the Aphididae with at least 2483 species in 256 genera in 2 tribes: the Macrosiphini (with 3/4 of the species) and the Aphidini. Most aphid pests on crops and ornamental plants are Aphidinae. Members of the Aphidinae occur in nearly every region of the world. The body shape and colour vary significantly. To research the role that detoxification gene families played in the process of aphid adaptation to host evolution, we analyzed the phylogeny and evolution of these detoxification gene families in Aphidinae. In general, the P450/GST/CCE gene families contract, whereas the ABC/UGT families are conserved in Aphidinae species compared to these families in other herbivorous insects. Genus-specific expansions of P450 CYP4, and GST Delta have occurred in the genus Acyrthosiphon. In addition, the evolutionary rates of five detoxification gene families in the evolution process of Aphidinae are different. The comparison of five detoxification gene families among nine Aphidinae species and the estimated relative evolutionary rates provided herein support an understanding of the interaction between and the co-evolution of Aphidinae and plants.


Assuntos
Afídeos/genética , Coevolução Biológica , Genes de Insetos , Plantas/parasitologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Plantas/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 755, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136048

RESUMO

Seasonal plasticity is accomplished via tightly regulated developmental cascades that translate environmental cues into trait changes. Little is known about how alternative splicing and other posttranscriptional molecular mechanisms contribute to plasticity or how these mechanisms impact how plasticity evolves. Here, we use transcriptomic and genomic data from the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a model system for seasonal plasticity, to compare the extent of differential expression and splicing and test how these axes of transcriptional plasticity differ in their potential for evolutionary change. Between seasonal morphs, we find that differential splicing affects a smaller but functionally unique set of genes compared to differential expression. Further, we find strong support for the novel hypothesis that spliced genes are more susceptible than differentially expressed genes to erosion of genetic variation due to selection on seasonal plasticity. Our results suggest that splicing plasticity is especially likely to experience genetic constraints that could affect the potential of wild populations to respond to rapidly changing environments.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Borboletas/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Variação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Estações do Ano , Transcrição Genética
15.
Science ; 375(6580): 566-570, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113722

RESUMO

Past studies offer contradictory claims for the role of genome organization in the regulation of gene activity. Here, we show through high-resolution chromosome conformation analysis that the Drosophila genome is organized by two independent classes of regulatory sequences, tethering elements and insulators. Quantitative live imaging and targeted genome editing demonstrate that this two-tiered organization is critical for the precise temporal dynamics of Hox gene transcription during development. Tethering elements mediate long-range enhancer-promoter interactions and foster fast activation kinetics. Conversely, the boundaries of topologically associating domains (TADs) prevent spurious interactions with enhancers and silencers located in neighboring TADs. These two levels of genome organization operate independently of one another to ensure precision of transcriptional dynamics and the reliability of complex patterning processes.


Assuntos
Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Homeobox , Genoma de Inseto , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/genética , Cromossomos de Insetos/química , Cromossomos de Insetos/genética , Drosophila/embriologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Genes de Insetos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Célula Única
16.
PLoS Biol ; 20(1): e3001494, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990456

RESUMO

The infiltration of immune cells into tissues underlies the establishment of tissue-resident macrophages and responses to infections and tumors. Yet the mechanisms immune cells utilize to negotiate tissue barriers in living organisms are not well understood, and a role for cortical actin has not been examined. Here, we find that the tissue invasion of Drosophila macrophages, also known as plasmatocytes or hemocytes, utilizes enhanced cortical F-actin levels stimulated by the Drosophila member of the fos proto oncogene transcription factor family (Dfos, Kayak). RNA sequencing analysis and live imaging show that Dfos enhances F-actin levels around the entire macrophage surface by increasing mRNA levels of the membrane spanning molecular scaffold tetraspanin TM4SF, and the actin cross-linking filamin Cheerio, which are themselves required for invasion. Both the filamin and the tetraspanin enhance the cortical activity of Rho1 and the formin Diaphanous and thus the assembly of cortical actin, which is a critical function since expressing a dominant active form of Diaphanous can rescue the Dfos macrophage invasion defect. In vivo imaging shows that Dfos enhances the efficiency of the initial phases of macrophage tissue entry. Genetic evidence argues that this Dfos-induced program in macrophages counteracts the constraint produced by the tension of surrounding tissues and buffers the properties of the macrophage nucleus from affecting tissue entry. We thus identify strengthening the cortical actin cytoskeleton through Dfos as a key process allowing efficient forward movement of an immune cell into surrounding tissues.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/imunologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/embriologia , Genes de Insetos , Genes fos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Tetraspaninas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(3)2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012980

RESUMO

Mating cues evolve rapidly and can contribute to species formation and maintenance. However, little is known about how sexual signals diverge and how this variation integrates with other barrier loci to shape the genomic landscape of reproductive isolation. Here, we elucidate the genetic basis of ultraviolet (UV) iridescence, a courtship signal that differentiates the males of Colias eurytheme butterflies from a sister species, allowing females to avoid costly heterospecific matings. Anthropogenic range expansion of the two incipient species established a large zone of secondary contact across the eastern United States with strong signatures of genomic admixtures spanning all autosomes. In contrast, Z chromosomes are highly differentiated between the two species, supporting a disproportionate role of sex chromosomes in speciation known as the large-X (or large-Z) effect. Within this chromosome-wide reproductive barrier, linkage mapping indicates that cis-regulatory variation of bric a brac (bab) underlies the male UV-iridescence polymorphism between the two species. Bab is expressed in all non-UV scales, and butterflies of either species or sex acquire widespread ectopic iridescence following its CRISPR knockout, demonstrating that Bab functions as a suppressor of UV-scale differentiation that potentiates mating cue divergence. These results highlight how a genetic switch can regulate a premating signal and integrate with other reproductive barriers during intermediate phases of speciation.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Borboletas/efeitos da radiação , Genes de Troca , Iridescência/genética , Enxofre/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Genes de Insetos , Loci Gênicos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Iridescência/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria/genética , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262817, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045135

RESUMO

Olfaction, one of the most important sensory systems governing insect behavior, is a possible target for pest management. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the antennal transcriptome of the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), which is a major pest of stored pulses and legumes. The de novo antennal RNA-seq assembly results identified 17 odorant, 2 gustatory, and 10 ionotropic receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein, and 12 odorant-binding and 7 chemosensory proteins. Moreover, differential gene expression analysis of virgin male and female antennal samples followed by qRT-PCR revealed 1 upregulated and 4 downregulated odorant receptors in males. We also performed homology searches using the coding sequences built from previously proposed amino acid sequences derived from genomic data and identified additional chemosensory-related genes.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Besouros/genética , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Olfato/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Besouros/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
19.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 140: 103680, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808354

RESUMO

Eurasian spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, is a destructive pest in spruce forests. The ability of I. typographus to colonise host trees depends on its massive aggregation behaviour mediated by aggregation pheromones, consisting of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and cis-verbenol. Other biologically active compounds such as ipsdienol and verbenone have also been detected in the beetle. Biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and ipsdienol de novo from mevalonate and that of cis-verbenol from α-pinene sequestrated from the host have been reported in preliminary studies. However, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone biosynthesis in this pest is currently limited. In this study, we performed metabolomic and differential gene expression (DGE) analysis for the pheromone-producing life stages of I. typographus. The highest amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (238 ng/gut) and cis-verbenol (23 ng/gut) were found in the fed male gut (colonisation stage) and the immature male gut (early stage), respectively. We also determined the amount of verbenyl oleate (the possible storage form of cis-verbenol), a monoterpenyl fatty acid ester, to be approximately 1604 ng/mg in the immature stage in the beetle body. DGE analysis revealed possible candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of the quantified pheromones and related compounds. A novel hemiterpene-synthesising candidate isoprenyl-di-phosphate synthase Ityp09271 gene proposed for 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol synthesis was found to be highly expressed only in the fed male beetle gut. Putative cytochrome P450 genes involved in cis/trans-verbenol synthesis and an esterase gene Ityp11977, which could regulate verbenyl oleate synthesis, were identified in the immature male gut. Our findings from the molecular analysis of pheromone-producing gene families are the first such results reported for I. typographus. With further characterisation of the identified genes, we can develop novel strategies to disrupt the aggregation behaviour of I. typographus and thereby prevent vegetation loss.


Assuntos
Feromônios , Gorgulhos , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Esterases/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Florestas , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Metabolômica , Controle de Pragas , Feromônios/biossíntese , Feromônios/química , Feromônios/genética , Picea , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Transcriptoma , Gorgulhos/genética , Gorgulhos/metabolismo , Gorgulhos/fisiologia
20.
J Med Entomol ; 59(1): 314-319, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536077

RESUMO

Mass-trapping has been used to control outbreaks of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Puerto Rico since 2011. We investigated the effect of multi-year, insecticide-free mass trapping had on the insecticide susceptibility profile of Ae. aegypti. Eggs collected in southern Puerto Rico were used to generate F1 populations that were tested for susceptibility to permethrin, sumethrin, bifenthrin, deltamethrin, and malathion according to CDC bottle bioassays protocols. All populations of Ae. aegypti were resistant to the synthetic pyrethroids and mosquitoes from two locations were partially resistant to malathion. Population genetic analysis, using a double digest restriction sites associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) approach, indicated a large amount of migration between study sites effectively homogenizing the mosquito populations. Mass-trapping using noninsecticidal autocidal gravid ovitraps did not restore susceptibility to five active ingredients that are found in commercial insecticides. Migration between communities was high and would have brought outside alleles, including resistant alleles to the treatment communities. Further investigation suggests that household use of commercially available insecticide products may continue to select for resistance in absence of public health space spraying of insecticides.


Assuntos
Aedes , Genética Populacional , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genes de Insetos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malation/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Permetrina/farmacologia , Porto Rico , Piretrinas/farmacologia
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