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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500664

RESUMO

This study aims to identify and isolate the secondary metabolites of Zingiber officinale using GC-MS, preparative TLC, and LC-MS/MS methods, to evaluate the inhibitory potency on SARS-CoV-2 3 chymotrypsin-like protease enzyme, as well as to study the molecular interaction and stability by using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. GC-MS analysis suggested for the isolation of terpenoids compounds as major compounds on methanol extract of pseudostems and rhizomes. Isolation and LC-MS/MS analysis identified 5-hydro-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavanone (9), (E)-hexadecyl-ferulate (1), isocyperol (2), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-octadecadienamide (3), and nootkatone (4) from the rhizome extract, as well as from the leaves extract with the absence of 9. Three known steroid compounds, i.e., spinasterone (7), spinasterol (8), and 24-methylcholesta-7-en-3ß-on (6), were further identified from the pseudostem extract. Molecular docking showed that steroids compounds 7, 8, and 6 have lower predictive binding energies (MMGBSA) than other metabolites with binding energy of -87.91, -78.11, and -68.80 kcal/mole, respectively. Further characterization on the single isolated compound by NMR showed that 6 was identified and possessed 75% inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme that was slightly different with the positive control GC376 (77%). MD simulations showed the complex stability with compound 6 during 100 ns simulation time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/química , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/uso terapêutico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1283-1288, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531338

RESUMO

Background: In recent literatures, much attention has been given to natural products for their health benefits. Aims: In this study, the objective was to measure the efficacy of the ginger-honey-chocolate mixture as the remineralization effect has been shown in the literature previously and to evaluate the individual contributions of this mixture; ginger, natural honey, bitter chocolate separately on remineralization of initial enamel caries lesion. Materials and Methods: All specimens were divided into eight groups as: Ginger (Arifoglu®, Turkey) in powder form, (n = 8); Ginger-Honey-Chocolate (n = 8); Natural honey (Balparmak Plateau Blossom Honey®, Turkey) (n = 9); Bitter chocolate (Nestlé®, Switzerland) (n = 8); MI Paste (GC, Japan) (n = 8); Paradontax (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Pronamel (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Control (n = 9) groups. Samples were carried out five pH cycles along 7 days at 37°C for each group. During pH cycling, blocks were put in a demineralization (6 h) and a remineralization solution (18 h). The treatment consisted of 1 min. interaction of enamel surfaces with agent/deionized slurries (1:3 w/w) on a daily basis. The surface microhardness (SMH) was determined before and after pH cycling with a Digital Micro-Vickers Hardness Tester (Wilson Wolpert; Europe BV, 401 MVD, Netherlands). Mineral changes were determined by using FluoreCam® and recovery values were calculated as SMHR% and FΔ%, respectively. Results: All groups showed an enhanced remineralization. There was no significant difference in terms of FΔ% (F = 1.223, P = 0.304) and SMHR% (F = 0.709, P = 0.664) between all groups. Conclusion: The herbals (ginger, honey, and bitter chocolate) examined in this study gave promising results with a high remineralization potential.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Cárie Dentária , Gengibre , Mel , Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445514

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin, a well-known chemotherapeutic agent, can induce severe neuropathic pain, which can seriously decrease the quality of life of patients. JI017 is an herb mixture composed of Aconitum carmichaelii, Angelica gigas, and Zingiber officinale. Its anti-tumor effect has been reported; however, the efficacy of JI017 against oxaliplatin-induced allodynia has never been explored. Single oxaliplatin injection [6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, (i.p.)] induced both cold and mechanical allodynia, and oral administration of JI017 (500 mg/kg) alleviated cold but not mechanical allodynia in mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated that the upregulation of mRNA of spinal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and astrocytes following oxaliplatin injection was downregulated after JI017 treatment. Moreover, TRPV1 expression and the activation of astrocytes were intensely increased in the superficial area of the spinal dorsal horn after oxaliplatin treatment, whereas JI017 suppressed both. The administration of TRPV1 antagonist [capsazepine, intrathecal (i.t.), 10 µg] attenuated the activation of astrocytes in the dorsal horn, demonstrating that the functions of spinal TRPV1 and astrocytes are closely related in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. Altogether, these results suggest that JI017 may be a potent candidate for the management of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy as it decreases pain, spinal TRPV1, and astrocyte activation.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Aconitum/química , Administração Oral , Angelica/química , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Gengibre/química , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/genética , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
6.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104764, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426164

RESUMO

Ginger is a well-known product in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Ginger is one of the spices which are adulterated for economic gain. The lack of marketability of grade 3 chickpeas (small and broken chickpeas) and their very low price have made them a good choice to be mixed with ginger in powder form and sold in the market. Demand for non-destructive methods of measuring food quality, such as machine vision and the growing need for food and spices, were the main motives to conduct this study. This study classified ginger powder images to detect fraud by improving convolutional neural networks (CNN) through a gated pooling function. The main approach to improving CNN is to use a pooling function that combines average pooling and max pooling. The Batch normalization (BN) technique is used in CNN to improve classification results. We show empirically that the combining operation used increases the accuracy of ginger powder classification compared to the baseline pooling method. For this purpose, 3360 image samples of ginger powder were prepared in 7 categories (pure ginger powder, chickpea powder, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% fraud in ginger powder). Moreover, MLP, Fuzzy, SVM, GBT, and EDT algorithms were used to compare the proposed CNN results with other classifiers. The results showed that using batch normalization based on gated pooling, the proposed CNN was able to grade the images of ginger powder with 99.70% accuracy compared to other classifiers. Therefore, it can be said that the CNN method and image processing technique effectively increase marketability, prevent ginger powder fraud, and promote traditional methods of ginger powder fraud detection.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Gengibre , Algoritmos , Fraude , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pós
7.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112843, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311278

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is consumed for health-promoting effects and as a food condiment. Comprehensive phytochemical analysis, other than gingerols and shogaols, has not yet been deeply investigated. Hence, the current research aimed to establish a non-targeted metabolomics approach for the discrimination between fresh ginger rhizome samples collected from four different producing countries, i.e., China, India, Pakistan, and Peru. In addition, lab-dried samples were analyzed to trace drying-induced metabolites. A comprehensive extraction procedure was carried out resulting in production of polar and non-polar fractions. The polar fraction was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-C18-FT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) post derivatization. UPLC-C8-FT-MS/MS was used for analysis of non-polar fraction. Results revealed for identification of a total of 253 metabolites. In addition, multivariate data analysis (MVDA), including principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated clustering of Asian specimens. Several metabolites with a characteristic pattern for the origin revealing the highest contents of bioactive metabolites in the Peruvian product. Moreover, chemical markers identified, including [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol discriminating between fresh and dried samples. Furthermore, abundances of some primary metabolites, including amino acids and cinnamic acid, have confirmed the biosynthetic pathway of gingerols and their transformation upon drying to shogaols. The proposed approach can be applied as a potential candidate for quality assessment of ginger and other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Catecóis , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Dados , Álcoois Graxos , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(6): 206, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297224

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles have been widely used in drug delivery systems and clinical studies as a new natural nanoscale drug carrier. Most of these studies focused on the extracellular vesicles from animals, but few involved in the extracellular vesicles from edible plants. This study was the first to explore the potential and value of ginger-derived extracellular vesicles (GDEVs) as drug carrier by using the content ratio method and to further study their intestinal absorption in rats. In this experiment, GDEVs were extracted and purified by ultrahigh-speed centrifugation. GDEVs were saucer-like with a particle size of 70.09±19.24 nm and a zeta potential of -27.70±12.20 mV. In this experiment, high-performance liquid chromatography was used to explore the difference in gingerol content between GDEVs and ginger slices. Under the same mass, the contents of 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), and 10-gingerol (10G) in GDEVs were 10.21-fold, 22.69-fold, and 32.36-fold of those in ginger slices, respectively. In this experiment, the absorption kinetics and absorption site of GDEVs were investigated using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion method in rats. GDEVs could be absorbed by the small intestine in the concentration range of 15-60 mg/mL, and the absorption trend of different intestinal segments was duodenum > jejunum > ileum. These results indicated that GDEVs had good loading capacity and significant prospects as a carrier of the drug delivery system. At the same time, combining the oil-water partition coefficient (6G < 8G < 10G) of three gingerol compounds, we speculated that the loading capacity of GDEVs increased with the increase of the lipid solubility of the compounds. This study fully demonstrated the potential and value of ginger-derived extracellular vesicles as natural nanocarrier and provided an important reference for the further application of plant-derived extracellular vesicles in the drug delivery system.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares , Gengibre , Animais , Álcoois Graxos , Absorção Intestinal , Ratos , Solubilidade
9.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202405

RESUMO

The bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious rice diseases, causing huge yield losses worldwide. Several technologies and approaches have been opted to reduce the damage; however, these have had limited success. Recently, scientists have been focusing their efforts on developing efficient and environmentally friendly nanobactericides for controlling bacterial diseases in rice fields. In the present study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) were utilized to investigate the mode of actions of ginger EOs on the cell structure of Xoo. The ginger EOs caused the cells to grow abnormally, resulting in an irregular form with hollow layers, whereas the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment showed a typical rod shape for the Xoo cell. Ginger EOs restricted the growth and production of biofilms by reducing the number of biofilms generated as indicated by CLSM. Due to the instability, poor solubility, and durability of ginger EOs, a nanoemulsions approach was used, and a glasshouse trial was performed to assess their efficacy on BLB disease control. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the developed nanobactericides was promising at different concentration (50-125 µL/mL) tested. The efficacy was concentration-dependent. There was significant antibacterial activity recorded at higher concentrations. A glasshouse trial revealed that developed nanobactericides managed to suppress BLB disease severity effectively. Treatment at a concentration of 125 µL/mL was the best based on the suppression of disease severity index, AUDPC value, disease reduction (DR), and protection index (PI). Furthermore, findings on plant growth, physiological features, and yield parameters were significantly enhanced compared to the positive control treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that ginger essential oils loaded-nanoemulsions are a promising alternative to synthetic antibiotics in suppressing Xoo growth, regulating the BLB disease, and enhancing rice yield under a glasshouse trial.


Assuntos
Gengibre/química , Óleos Voláteis , Oryza , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Xanthomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Oryza/ultraestrutura , Xanthomonas/ultraestrutura
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299361

RESUMO

Zingiber officinale is one of the most frequently used medicinal herbs in Asia. Using rodent seizure models, it was previously shown that Zingiber officinale hydroethanolic extract exerts antiseizure activity, but the active constituents responsible for this effect have not been determined. In this paper, we demonstrated that Zingiber officinale methanolic extract exerts anticonvulsant activity in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced hyperlocomotion assay in larval zebrafish. Next, we isolated 6-gingerol (6-GIN)-a major constituent of Zingiber officinale rhizoma. We observed that 6-GIN exerted potent dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ-induced hyperlocomotion seizure assay in zebrafish, which was confirmed electroencephalographically. To obtain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of 6-GIN antiseizure activity, we assessed the concentration of two neurotransmitters in zebrafish, i.e., inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory glutamic acid (GLU), and their ratio after exposure to acute PTZ dose. Here, 6-GIN decreased GLU level and reduced the GLU/GABA ratio in PTZ-treated fish compared with only PTZ-bathed fish. This activity was associated with the decrease in grin2b, but not gabra1a, grin1a, gria1a, gria2a, and gria3b expression in PTZ-treated fish. Molecular docking to the human NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor suggests that 6-GIN might act as an inhibitor and interact with the amino terminal domain, the glutamate-binding site, as well as within the ion channel of the NR2B-containing NMDA receptor. In summary, our study reveals, for the first time, the anticonvulsant activity of 6-GIN. We suggest that this effect might at least be partially mediated by restoring the balance between GABA and GLU in the epileptic brain; however, more studies are needed to prove our hypothesis.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Pentilenotetrazol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Convulsões/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202966

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, family: Zingiberaceae), originating in South-East Asia, is one of the most used spices and condiments for foods and beverages. It is also used in traditional medicine for many human disorders including fever, gastrointestinal complications, arthritis, rheumatism, hypertension, and various infectious diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiemetic properties. Intriguingly, many recent studies evidenced the potent chemopreventive characteristics of ginger extracts against different types of cancer. The aim of this work is to review the literature related to the use of ginger extracts as a chemotherapeutic agent and to structure the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which ginger acts in different cancer types. Data summarized from experiments (in vitro or in vivo) and clinical studies, evidenced in this review, show that ginger derivatives perpetrate its anti-tumor action through important mediators, involved in crucial cell processes, such as cell cycle arrest, induction of cancer cell death, misbalance of redox homeostasis, inhibition of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and dissemination of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Quimioprevenção , Gengibre/química , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201609

RESUMO

This study investigated the characteristics and sources of heavy metals in a soil-ginger system and assessed their health risks. To this end, 321 topsoil samples and eight soil samples from a soil profile, and 18 ginger samples with root-soil were collected from a ginger-planting area in the Jing River Basin. The average concentration of heavy metals in the topsoil followed the order: Cr > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > As > Cd > Hg. In the soil profile, at depths greater than 80 cm, the contents of Cr, Ni, and Zn tended to increase with depth, which may be related to the parent materials, whereas As and Cu contents showed little change. In contrast, Pb content decreased sharply from top to bottom, which may be attributable to external environmental and anthropogenic factors. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd contents in soil are affected by natural sources, Pb and As contents are significantly affected by human activities, and Hg content is affected by farmland irrigation. Combined results of the single pollution index (Pi), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and potential ecological risk assessment (Ei and RI) suggest that soil in the study area is generally not polluted by heavy metals. In ginger, Zn content was the highest (2.36 mg/kg) and Hg content was the lowest (0.0015 mg/kg). Based on the bioconcentration factor, Cd and Zn have high potential for enrichment in ginger. With reference to the limit of heavy metals in tubers, Cr content in ginger exceeds the standard in the study area. Although Cr does not accumulate in ginger, Cr enrichment in soil significantly increases the risk of excessive Cr content in ginger.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Rios , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(8): 3202-3215, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254779

RESUMO

In this study, ginger residue from juice production was evaluated as a raw material resource for preparation of nanofiber hydrogels with multifunctional properties for advanced wound dressing applications. Alkali treatment was applied to adjust the chemical composition of ginger fibers followed by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation prior to nanofiber isolation. The effect of alkali treatment on hydrogel properties assembled through vacuum filtration without addition of any chemical cross-linker was evaluated. An outstanding absorption ability of 6200% combined with excellent mechanical properties, tensile strength of 2.1 ± 0.2 MPa, elastic modulus of 15.3 ± 0.3 MPa, and elongation at break of 25.1%, was achieved without alkali treatment. Furthermore, the absorption capacity was tunable by applying alkali treatment at different concentrations and by adjusting the hydrogel grammage. Cytocompatibility evaluation of the hydrogels showed no significant effect on human fibroblast proliferation in vitro. Ginger essential oil was used to functionalize the hydrogels by providing antimicrobial activity, furthering their potential as a multifunctional wound dressing.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Nanofibras , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bandagens , Humanos , Hidrogéis
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 355, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial wilt is the most devastating disease in ginger caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Even though ginger (Zingiber officinale) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada) are from the same family Zingiberaceae, the latter is resistant to R. solanacearum infection. MicroRNAs have been identified in many crops which regulates plant-pathogen interaction, either through silencing genes or by blocking mRNA translation. However, miRNA's vital role and its targets in mango ginger in protecting bacterial wilt is not yet studied extensively. In the present study, using the "psRNATarget" server, we analyzed available ginger (susceptible) and mango ginger (resistant) transcriptome to delineate and compare the microRNAs (miRNA) and their target genes (miRTGs). RESULTS: A total of 4736 and 4485 differential expressed miRTGs (DEmiRTGs) were identified in ginger and mango ginger, respectively, in response to R. solanacearum. Functional annotation results showed that mango ginger had higher enrichment than ginger in top enriched GO terms. Among the DEmiRTGs, 2105 were common in ginger and mango ginger. However, 2337 miRTGs were expressed only in mango ginger which includes 62 defence related and upregulated miRTGs. We also identified 213 miRTGs upregulated in mango ginger but downregulated in ginger, out of which 23 DEmiRTGS were defence response related. We selected nine miRNA/miRTGs pairs from the data set of common miRTGs of ginger and mango ginger and validated using qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: Our data covered the expression information of 9221 miRTGs. We identified nine miRNA/miRTGs key candidate pairs in response to R. solanacearum infection in ginger. This is the first report of the integrated analysis of miRTGs and miRNAs in response to R. solanacearum infection among ginger species. This study is expected to deliver several insights in understanding the miRNA regulatory network in ginger and mango ginger response to bacterial wilt.


Assuntos
Curcuma/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Gengibre/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , MicroRNAs , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Ralstonia solanacearum/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Curcuma/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Gengibre/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 2130-2143, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087308

RESUMO

For centuries, dietary ginger has been known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. In the current study, we examined the link between antibacterial properties of 7 dietary ginger phenolics (DGPs)-gingerenone A, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, paradol, 6-shogaol, and zingerone-and inhibition of bacterial ATP synthase. DGPs caused complete (100%) inhibition of wild-type Escherichia coli membrane-bound F1Fo ATP synthase, but partial and variable (0%-87%) inhibition of phytochemical binding site mutant enzymes αR283D, αE284R, ßV265Q, and γT273A. The mutant enzyme ATPase activity was 16-fold to 100-fold lower than that of the wild-type enzyme. The growth of wild-type, null, and mutant strains in the presence of the 7 DGPs were abrogated to variable degrees on limiting glucose and succinate media. DGPs-caused variable inhibitory profiles of wild-type and mutant ATP synthase confirm that residues of α-, ß-, and γ-subunits are involved in the formation of phytochemical binding site. The variable degree of growth in the presence of DGPs also indicates the possibility of molecular targets other than ATP synthase. Our results establish that antibacterial properties of DGPs can be linked to the binding and inhibition of bacterial ATP synthase. Therefore, bacterial ATP synthase is a valuable molecular target for DGPs.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Dieta , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Gengibre/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucose/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067240

RESUMO

Recreational running (RR) is becoming a popular way to increase physical activity for improving health, together with a higher incidence of knee injuries. The aim was to analyze the effect of a four-week supplementation with a mixture of Harpagophytum procumbens, Zingiber officinale and Bixa orellana on males, middle-aged, RR with an undiagnosed knee discomfort. A randomized triple-blind placebo-control trial was conducted among male RR aged 40-60 years suffering from self-declared knee discomfort after training. Participants were assigned to supplementation (2 g/day in 6 doses; n = 13; intervention group (IG)) or matched placebo (n = 15; control group (CG)) for 4 weeks. At pre- and post-intervention, assessment of routine blood biomarkers, body composition, running biomechanics and body temperature was performed using standardized procedures. Machine learning (ML) techniques were used to classify whether subjects belonged to IG or CG. ML model was able to correctly classify individuals as IG or CG with a median accuracy of 0.857. Leg fat mass decreased significantly (p = 0.037) and a deeper reduction in knee thermograms was observed in IG (p < 0.05). Safety evaluation revealed no significant differences in the rest of parameters studied. Subjects belonging to IG or CG are clearly differentiated, pointing into an effect of the supplement of ameliorating inflammation.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Harpagophytum , Bixaceae , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Autorrelato
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063414

RESUMO

Intestinal iron transport requires an iron importer (Dmt1) and an iron exporter (Fpn1). The hormone hepcidin regulates iron absorption by modulating Fpn1 protein levels on the basolateral surface of duodenal enterocytes. In the genetic, iron-loading disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), hepcidin production is low and Fpn1 protein expression is elevated. High Fpn1-mediated iron export depletes intracellular iron, causing a paradoxical increase in Dmt1-mediated iron import. Increased activity of both transporters causes excessive iron absorption, thus initiating body iron loading. Logically then, silencing of intestinal Dmt1 or Fpn1 could be an effective therapeutic intervention in HH. It was previously established that Dmt1 knock down prevented iron-loading in weanling Hamp (encoding hepcidin) KO mice (modeling type 2B HH). Here, we tested the hypothesis that Dmt1 silencing combined with dietary iron restriction (which may be recommended for HH patients) will mitigate iron loading once already established. Accordingly, adult Hamp KO mice were switched to a low-iron (LFe) diet and (non-toxic) folic acid-coupled, ginger nanoparticle-derived lipid vectors (FA-GDLVs) were used to deliver negative-control (NC) or Dmt1 siRNA by oral, intragastric gavage daily for 21 days. The LFe diet reduced body iron burden, and experimental interventions potentiated iron losses. For example, Dmt1 siRNA treatment suppressed duodenal Dmt1 mRNA expression (by ~50%) and reduced serum and liver non-heme iron levels (by ~60% and >85%, respectively). Interestingly, some iron-related parameters were repressed similarly by FA-GDLVs carrying either siRNA, including 59Fe (as FeCl3) absorption (~20% lower), pancreatic non-heme iron (reduced by ~65%), and serum ferritin (decreased 40-50%). Ginger may thus contain bioactive lipids that also influence iron homeostasis. In conclusion, the combinatorial approach of FA-GDLV and Dmt1 siRNA treatment, with dietary iron restriction, mitigated pre-existing iron overload in a murine model of HH.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Gengibre/química , Hepcidinas/genética , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Sobrecarga de Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro na Dieta/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Duodeno/metabolismo , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico , Expressão Gênica , Hemocromatose/genética , Homeostase , Ferro/metabolismo , Sobrecarga de Ferro/genética , Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(5): 1121-1134, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181071

RESUMO

Codon usage bias influences the genetic features prevalent in genomes of all the organisms. It also plays a crucial role in establishing the host-pathogen relationship. The present study elucidates the role of codon usage pattern regarding the predilection of fungal pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides towards host plant Zingiber officinale. We found a similar trend of codon usage pattern operative in plant and fungal pathogens. This concurrence might be attributed for the colonization of fungal pathogens in Z. officinale. The transcriptome of both plant and pathogens showed bias towards GC-ending codons. Natural selection and mutational pressure seem to be accountable for shaping the codon usage pattern of host and pathogen. We also identified some distinctive preferred codons in A. flavus, F. oxysporum and Z. officinale that could be regarded as signature codons for the identification of these organisms. Knowledge of favored, avoided and unique codons will help to devise strategies for reducing spice losses due to fungal pathogens.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon , Gengibre/genética , Gengibre/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Aminoácidos/análise , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/patogenicidade , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/patogenicidade , Colletotrichum/genética , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Mutação , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Seleção Genética
20.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 26(4): e408-e413, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginger and aloe vera are two medicinal herbs mostly used to produce mouthwash. This study aimed to compare the effects of ginger and aloe vera mouthwashes on the xerostomia in patients referred to Bandar Abbas diabetes clinic (Iran). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this triple-blind clinical trial, three groups (n=35 patients in each group) were studied. One group was given aloe vera mouthwash, the other group used ginger mouthwash, and the control group was only given normal saline. All the mouthwashes were used 20 ccs three times daily for 14 consecutive days. The symptoms and severity of xerostomia were measured before and after the intervention by the questionnaire proposed by Fox et al. as well as VAS scale, respectively. Statistical analysis, including the Shapiro-Wilk test used to measure the normality of variables, and Chi-square and McNemar used to compare the scores questionnaire proposed by Fox et al., were also applied. Scores of VAS were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant in all these tests. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants included in the normal saline group was 58.13±14.75 years old, 54.14±9.35 years old in the ginger group, and 53.37±11.57 years old in the aloe vera group. The difference between the scores of xerostomia before and after performing the intervention (The amount of reduction in xerostomia) in the ginger group was 6.12±2.004 cm, in the aloe vera group it was 4.08±2.09 cm, and in the normal saline group it was 2.45±2.09 cm. Finally, the ginger and aloe vera mouthwashes significantly reduced all symptoms and severity related to xerostomia, respectively(p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of mouthwash is an effective measure to reduce xerostomia under chronic conditions. Aloe vera, ginger, and normal saline are known as effective mouthwashes on controlling this complication. According to the results of this study, ginger and aloe vera mouthwashes could significantly decrease xerostomia and promote oral health in patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Aloe , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gengibre , Xerostomia , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Xerostomia/tratamento farmacológico , Xerostomia/etiologia
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