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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250296, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339385

RESUMO

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de Zingiber officinale como aditivo à base de plantas medicinais sobre o desempenho de crescimento, características da carcaça, bioquímica sérica, contagem bacteriana total (CBT), morfologia intestinal e parâmetros imunológicos de frangos de corte. Um total de 1.500 pintos de corte de um dia de idade (Hubbard) foram igualmente credenciados em cinco grupos de tratamento, cada um com seis repetições (50 aves/repetição). Cinco dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando dieta basal, ou seja, com controle positivo de antibióticos (PC), 3 g/kg de gengibre (grupo A), 6 g/kg de gengibre (grupo B), 9 g/kg de gengibre (grupo C) e sem controle negativo de antibióticos (NC). Os grupos A e C apresentaram consumo de ração (FI) significativamente (p < 0,05) maior do que os outros grupos. O grupo C apresentou contagem bacteriana total (CBT) significativamente menor (p < 0,05) seguido pelo grupo B em comparação com o NC. As características da carcaça apresentaram efeitos não significativos entre os diferentes tratamentos. O comprimento e largura médios das vilosidades foram significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores em todos os grupos suplementados com gengibre em comparação com os grupos de controle. Os parâmetros séricos do sangue, incluindo colesterol, triglicerídeos e lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL), foram significativamente (p < 0,05) menores nos grupos B e C em comparação com os grupos controle. Enquanto as lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) foram significativamente maiores no grupo B em comparação com os outros. Em conclusão, a suplementação de gengibre a 0,6% na dieta basal melhorou significativamente o desempenho de crescimento e a morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte. Ele também mostrou um impacto positivo sobre o colesterol, triglicerídeos e micróbios intestinais. Portanto, o gengibre pode ser um substituto melhor para os promotores de crescimento com antibióticos.


Assuntos
Animais , Gengibre , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 73-82, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginger oleoresin is prone to destruction from air, light and high temperatures and has a limited shelf life if kept improperly. Its viscous and sticky characteristics also make it difficult to handle and utilize. These issues can be solved via microencapsulation. The goal of this research was to evaluate how different wall materials affect the properties of microencapsulated ginger oleoresin powder. RESULTS: Ginger oleoresin microcapsules were developed through spray drying technique using gum acacia (GA) and whey protein isolate (WPI) as wall materials. The characteristics of the obtained powder, including water activity, wettability and encapsulation efficiency, were evaluated, corresponded to values of 0.20, 90.54 s and 84.15% for whey protein isolate-based ginger oleoresin powder. Whey protein isolate microcapsules also exhibited higher phenolic content (27.26 mg gallic acid equivalents g-1 ), total flavonoid (2.94 mg quercetin equivalents g-1 ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (68.71%) than GA microcapsules. Both WPI- and GA-based oleoresin microcapsules displayed poor flowability, but possessed a metastable amorphous state as indicated by X-ray diffraction. GA-encapsulated oleoresin microcapsules showed a significant increase in particle size (1983 nm) compared to WPI oleoresin microcapsules. Fourier transform infrared analysis of the developed oleoresin microcapsules indicated no change in molecular structure except for a variation in peak intensity. CONCLUSION: Whey protein isolate proved to be more efficient in maintaining the physicochemical and antioxidant activity of spray-dried ginger oleoresin powder. The present study revealed whey protein-based oleoresin powder could be used as a therapeutic agent in various nutraceutical applications. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Gengibre , Cápsulas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Excipientes , Pós/química , Goma Arábica/química
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159582, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272485

RESUMO

Ginger is a common spice in everyday diet. However, over time, it may absorb and accumulate heavy metal(loid)s (HMs) from the soil, posing a potential health risk to humans. In this study, we evaluated the pollution level, bioavailability, mobility evaluation, and health risk of Cr, Pb, Cd, and As in the soil-ginger system of five major ginger-producing cities in Shandong Province, China. Research indicated the concentrations of the Cr, Pb, Cd, and As in the soil were close to or even higher than background value, except Weifang. With the concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cd, and As in ginger being 0.08-0.47, 0.03-0.16, 0.002-0.03, and 0.006-0.028 mg/kg, the four HMs concentrations were within the limits of 0.1-0.5 mg/kg based on the Chinese health standard (GB2762-2017) of HMs in food. The bioavailability of HMs in soils was evaluated using diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and nitric acid (HNO3) extraction and the results showed that Pb and Cd have high bioavailability. Mobility evaluation of HMs from soil to ginger based on Pearson's correlation and the partial least squares-path method (PLS-PM) model showed that the soil's physicochemical properties influence the HMs migration process (especially Cd and Pb) in the soil-ginger system, and the PLS-PM model has good adaptability to Cd and Pb (gof > 0.5). The mean total carcinogenic risk (TCR) of bioaccessible gastric and intestinal HMs were 4.64 × 10-6 and 3.13 × 10-6, which were much lower than that of total HMs (2.60 × 10-5), indicating that existing models based on total HMs may overestimate the health risk of HMs. The bioaccessible concentrations should be considered to improve the accuracy of assessment results.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cádmio , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química , Medição de Risco , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
4.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 291, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic kidney disease affects approximately 40% of diabetic patients and is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. As a result, preventing renal complications in diabetic patients is critical. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Rosco) is a popular spice and natral medicine. The present study was a systematic review focused on the existing evidence of the renoprotective effect of ginger extract on some features of diabetic kidney disease. METHODS: The literature was searched in online databases such as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, ProQuest databases, and Google Scholar from inception to July 2022. RESULTS: This review included 41 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Ginger supplementation was found to be associated with a significant decrease in blood glucose in 28 studies. Nine studies showed a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) after supplementation. Also, seventeen studies showed decreased serum levels of creatinine. Fifteen studies reported a decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and fourteen studies showed a lowered triglycerides (TG) concentrations. In twenty-six studies, ginger reduced renal injuries due to diabetes. CONCLUSION: Ginger may improve blood sugar indices, lipid profile, some inflammatory markers, oxidative stress, and pathologic injuries in diabetic kidney disease. However, future well-designed clinical trials and meta-analyses are required for a solid consensus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Gengibre , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Glicemia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364048

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and lupus erythematosus are some of common inflammatory diseases. These affections are highly disabling and share signals such as inflammatory sequences and immune dysregulation. The use of foods with anti-inflammatory properties such as ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) could improve the quality of life of these patients. Ginger is a plant widely used and known by its bioactive compounds. There is enough evidence to prove that ginger possesses multiple biological activities, especially antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the bioactive compounds of ginger and their role in the inflammatory process and its signaling pathways. We can conclude that the compounds 6-shoagol, zingerone, and 8-shoagol display promising results in human and animal models, reducing some of the main symptoms of some inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. For lupus, 6-gingerol demonstrated a protective attenuating neutrophil extracellular trap release in response to phosphodiesterase inhibition. Ginger decreases NF-kß in psoriasis, and its short-term administration may be an alternative coadjuvant treatment. Ginger may exert a function of supplementation and protection against cancer. Furthermore, when receiving chemotherapy, ginger may reduce some symptoms of treatment (e.g., nausea).


Assuntos
Gengibre , Psoríase , Animais , Humanos , Gengibre/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364222

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to optimize the grinding process parameters (mesh size of grinder sieve (X1), the peripheral velocity of the grinding wheels (X2)), and the storage time (X3) of ground ginger rhizome and nutmeg to obtain ethanol and ethanol-water extracts with improved antioxidant properties. The optimal conditions were estimated using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD) in order to maximize the antioxidant capacity (AC) determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) methods, and the total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) method in spice extracts. Additionally, the phenolic acid profiles in extracts from optimized conditions were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). It was found that the optimal preparation conditions for antioxidant extraction were dependent on the spice source and solvent type. The best antioxidant properties in nutmeg extracts were achieved for X1 = 1.0 mm, X2 = 40-41 Hz and X3 = 7 days, whereas the optimized parameters for ginger extracts were more varied (1.0-2.0 mm, 43-50 Hz and 1-9 days, respectively). The ginger extracts contained 1.5-1.8 times more phenolic acids, and vanillic, ferulic, gallic, and p-OH-benzoic acids were dominant. In contrast, the nutmeg extracts were rich in protocatechuic, vanillic, and ferulic acids.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Myristica , Antioxidantes/química , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fenóis/química , Etanol/química
7.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364288

RESUMO

Chemotherapeutic agent-induced nausea and vomiting are the severe adverse effects that are induced by their stimulations on the peripheral and/or central emetic nerve pathways. Even though ginger has been widely used as an herbal medicine to treat emesis, mechanisms underlying its neuronal actions are still less clear. The present study aimed to determine the chemotherapeutic agent vincristine-induced effect on gastroesophageal vagal afferent nerve endings and the potential inhibitory role of ginger constituent 6-shogaol on such response. Two-photon neuron imaging studies were performed in ex vivo gastroesophageal-vagal preparations from Pirt-GCaMP6 transgenic mice. Vincristine was applied to the gastroesophageal vagal afferent nerve endings, and the evoked calcium influxes in their intact nodose ganglion neuron somas were recorded. The responsive nodose neuron population was first characterized, and the inhibitory effects of 5-HT3 antagonist palonosetron, TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, and ginger constituent 6-shogaol were then determined. Vincristine application at gastroesophageal vagal afferent nerve endings elicited intensive calcium influxes in a sub-population of vagal ganglion neurons. These neurons were characterized by their positive responses to P2X2/3 receptor agonist α,ß-methylene ATP and TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde, suggesting their nociceptive placodal nodose C-fiber neuron lineages. Pretreatment with TRPA1 selective blocker HC-030031 inhibited vincristine-induced calcium influxes in gastroesophageal nodose C-fiber neurons, indicating that TRPA1 played a functional role in mediating vincristine-induced activation response. Such inhibitory effect was comparable to that from 5-HT3 receptor antagonist palonosetron. Alternatively, pretreatment with ginger constituent 6-shogaol significantly attenuated vincristine-induced activation response. The present study provides new evidence that chemotherapeutic agent vincristine directly activates vagal nodose nociceptive C-fiber neurons at their peripheral nerve endings in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This activation response requires both TRPA1 and 5-HT3 receptors and can be attenuated by ginger constituent 6-shogaol.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Camundongos , Animais , Vincristina/farmacologia , Cálcio/farmacologia , Palonossetrom/farmacologia , Esôfago/inervação , Potenciais de Ação , Camundongos Transgênicos
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20092, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418392

RESUMO

Current study signifies the use of nanoparticles as alternative in plant disease management to avoid harmful effect of pesticide and fungicide residue. Synthesis of nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) by hydrothermal method and studied their X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectra, and UV spectra and further successfully evaluated for antifungal activity against a soil and seed borne pathogenic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum).Among various pests, fungal pathogens are the main cause of crop destruction and we developed nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) which is successfully evaluated for antimycotic activity against dry rot (F. oxysporum) of ginger which causes 50-70% losses in the ginger plant. In vitro and in vivo analysis designated that the nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) has shown an excellent antifungal activity against F. oxysporum at 0.5 mg/ml concentration. Similarly, no disease incidence was recorded when Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles used at 0.5 mg/ml concentration under in vivo conditions. In plants various environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) leads to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately leads to cell death. The role of ROS in nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) represents by reduction in the growth inhibition of F. oxysporum. We speculated in light of these results that the cytotoxic effect of Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles on F. oxysporum may be mediated through ROS. We can suggest the role of nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) gives a promising result as a fungicidal activity and could be a novel family of future new generation fungicide.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Gengibre , Nanopartículas , Gengibre/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7164, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418895

RESUMO

Nanotechnology enlightens promising antibacterial strategies while the complex in vivo infection environment poses a great challenge to the rational design of nanoplatforms for safe and effective anti-infective therapy. Herein, a biomimetic nanoplatform (EV-Pd-Pt) integrating electrodynamic Pd-Pt nanosheets and natural ginger-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) is proposed. The introduction of ginger-derived EVs greatly endows EV-Pd-Pt with prolonged blood circulation without immune clearance, as well as accumulation at infection sites. More interestingly, EV-Pd-Pt can enter the interior of bacteria in an EV lipid-dependent manner. At the same time, reactive oxygen species are sustainably generated in situ to overcome the limitations of their short lifetime and diffusion distance. Notably, EV-Pd-Pt nanoparticle-mediated electrodynamic and photothermal therapy exhibit synergistic effects. Furthermore, the desirable biocompatibility and biosafety of the proposed nanoplatform guarantee the feasibility of in vivo applications. This proof-of-concept work holds significant promise for developing biomimetic nanoparticles by exploiting their intrinsic properties for synergistic anti-infective therapy.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Gengibre , Nanopartículas , Biomimética
10.
Food Funct ; 13(22): 11825-11839, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314362

RESUMO

The imbalance of intestinal flora would induce immune inflammation. Cedrol (CE), found from ginger by our group earlier, has been proven to play an excellent role in ameliorating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via acting on JAK3, MAPK, and NF-κB. However, there have been no studies on CE ameliorating RA through the regulation of the micro-environment. In this study, the adjuvant arthritis model (AIA) is established to evaluate the weight, arthritis score, paw swelling, bone destruction, immune organ index, inflammatory cell infiltration, cartilage erosion, and metabolic enzymes of kidneys in AIA rats after CE intervention. The results indicated CE could alleviate paw swelling, reduce arthritis score, decrease the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß in serum in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibit the immune organ index of the spleen while having no significant effect on metabolic enzymes of the kidney. In addition, pathological sections of ankle and knee joints suggested CE might significantly prevent inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, and joint degeneration and protect articular cartilage. Then, for the first time, 16S rRNA gene was applied to analyze the regulatory effect of CE on intestinal flora. CE could effectively improve the uniformity, diversity, and richness of intestinal flora, reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria, and increase the proportion of beneficial bacteria, and it significantly inhibited the abundance of Prevotella in RA rats, which was 12.43 times smaller than that in methotrexate. The distribution and excretion of CE in vivo were detected by GC-MS. It was found that CE would massively accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration, which is then mainly excreted through feces. Interestingly, the research suggested that CE, which plays a role in the dynamic regulation of the intestinal micro-environment, could be used as a potential component to prevent RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Cartilagem Articular , Gengibre , Ratos , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Edema , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo
11.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 29(3): e94-e103, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196943

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to prepare a polyherbal mouthwash and evaluate its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory efficacy against commercially available herbal mouthwash. The objective was to signify whether the novel herbal combination (extracts of Zingiber officinale [ginger], Curcuma longa [turmeric], and Syzygium aromaticum [clove] 5% v/w) could be a better alternative to commercially available herbal mouthwashes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vitro study was undertaken in which extracts of Z. officinale (ginger), C. longa (turmeric), and S. aromaticum (clove) 5% v/w were used. Seven different concentrations were prepared and tested against Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus in Mueller-Hinton agar medium. Plates were incubated aerobically at 37° C for 48 h, and the zone of inhibition was measured using a vernier caliper. Commercially available herbal mouthwash (Hiora) was used as a control group. The data were analyzed by descriptive analytics. RESULTS: Results showed that the efficacy of novel polyherbal mouthwash had comparatively less significant antimicrobial properties against the microorganisms as compared to the commercially available herbal mouthwash. The minimum inhibitory concentration was also found to be very high, that is, 100 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: There was no significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects for the polyherbal mouthwash as compared to commercially available herbal mouthwash (Hiora). Because this combination is readily available, it can be a cost-effective alternative to commercially available herbal mouthwashes.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gengibre , Ágar , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia
12.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 441, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being a promising strategy, current chemotherapy for gastric cancer (GC) is limited due to adverse side effects and poor survival rates. Therefore, new drug-delivery platforms with good biocompatibility are needed. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticle-based drug delivery can be safe, eco-friendly, and nontoxic making them attractive candidates. Here, we develop a novel selenium-nanoparticle based drug-delivery agent for cancer treatment from plant extracts and selenium salts. RESULTS: Selenium cations were reduced to selenium nanoparticles using Kaempferia parviflora (black ginger) root extract and named KP-SeNP. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrum were utilized to confirm the physicochemical features of the nanoparticles. The KP-SeNPs showed significant cytotoxicity in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell (AGS cells) but not in normal cells. We determined that the intracellular signaling pathway mechanisms associated with the anticancer effects of KP-SeNPs involve the upregulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling markers, such as B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-associated X protein, and caspase 3 in AGS cells. KP-SeNPs also caused autophagy of AGS by increasing the autophagic flux-marker protein, LC3B-II, whilst inhibiting autophagic cargo protein, p62. Additionally, phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway markers and downstream targets was decreased in KP-SeNP-treated AGS cells. AGS-cell xenograft model results further validated our in vitro findings, showing that KP-SeNPs are biologically safe and exert anticancer effects via autophagy and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that KP-SeNPs treatment of AGS cells induces apoptosis and autophagic cell death through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, suppressing GC progression. Thus, our research strongly suggests that KP-SeNPs could act as a novel potential therapeutic agent for GC.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Nanopartículas , Selênio , Neoplasias Gástricas , Apoptose , Autofagia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Gengibre/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Piruvatos , Sais/farmacologia , Sais/uso terapêutico , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(18): 6512-6522, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accumulating studies have demonstrated the potential activity of ginger in treating and managing several diseases but little is known about its protective effects against teratogenicity of chemical toxins. Thus, in this study, we have evaluated the protective effect of gingerol fraction (GF) against methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) induced teratogenic effects in newborns of mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 mature females and fifteen male mice (Mus musculus) weighing 25-30 g were included in this study. The pregnant mice were divided into three groups (10 mice each); control group (GI, mice received normal drinking water; NDW), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) treated group (GII, received MEK at a dose of 350 mg/kg body weight in NDW), and GF treated group (GIII; mice received GF at a dose of 25 mg/kg in NDR). Histological analysis, cellular oxidative, and antioxidant enzymes, fibrosis, and apoptosis of brain, liver, and kidney tissues were estimated by histological and immunoassay techniques. RESULTS: In this study, the treatment of pregnant female mice with gingerol fractions (GF) at a dose of 25 mg/kg significantly protected all tissues organs of mothers and their offspring against the teratogenic effects induced by MEK at a dose of 350 mg/kg. A significant improvement in cellular antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD, and peroxidase activities along with a reduction in the initiation of cellular oxidative free radicals (TBARS) was reported in GF treated mice compared to mice intoxicated with MEK (350 mg/kg). In addition, a significant reduction in cellular fibrosis and apoptosis was reported in all tissues of mothers and their offspring's following treatment with GF. HPLC analysis of ginger extracts estimated a set of polyphenolic compounds such [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol which are responsible for the antioxidant, anti-fibrotic, and anti-apoptotic protective effects against teratogenic effects of MEK. CONCLUSIONS: Gingerol fractions (GF) at a dose of 25 mg/kg significantly protected all tissues organs of mothers and their offspring against the teratogenic effects induced by MEK at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The beneficial effects of ginger phenolic compounds; [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol against teratogenic effects of MEK proceeded through their antioxidant, anti-fibrotic, and anti-apoptotic properties.


Assuntos
Catecóis , Álcoois Graxos , Gengibre , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Butanonas/toxicidade , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/farmacologia , Catecóis/uso terapêutico , Álcoois Graxos/química , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrose , Gengibre/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno , Peroxidases , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 155: 113788, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271566

RESUMO

Botanicals with remarkable pharmacological properties include Zingiber officinale Roscoe [Zingiberaceae] (ginger) and Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delie) Sch. Bip [Asteraceae] (bitterleaf). The plants are frequently used as teas and decoctions, and have been studied in the treatment of various illnesses. Thus, this study investigated the in vitro antioxidant activities and chemical fingerprints of ginger and bitter leaf infusions separately and as a combination. In addition, we assessed the effects of the tea infusions on rat liver and kidney indices. The findings from this study showed that the bitterleaf infusion had the highest phenolic content (21.77 ± 3.140 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg) in comparison with that of ginger (15.17 ± 1.50 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg) and their combination (8.81 ± 0.48 µg gallic acid equivalent/mg). The ginger infusion had the highest flavonoid content (547.15 ± 1.17 µg quercetin equivalent/mg), which was preceded by bitterleaf (473.02 ± 10.48 µg quercetin equivalent/mg) and the ginger and bitterleaf infusion (415.08 ± 4.15 µg quercetin equivalent/mg). Furthermore, our results showed that the tea infusions had no significant effect on the liver function indices (ALT and AST) compared to the control. In contrast, the rat plasma urea significantly increased in the groups given bitterleaf and a combination of ginger and bitterleaf infusions, while creatinine significantly decreased in the group that received the combined form of the infusion. The GC-MS analysis of ginger and bitterleaf infusions revealed that n-hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, and ergosterol were most abundant in the bitterleaf infusion. At the same time, gingerol, 2-butanone, and 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) were the most abundant in the ginger infusion. Together, the findings are not only evidence in support of the medicinal value of these plants but also reinforce their prospects as nutriceuticals.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Animais , Ratos , Gengibre/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Quercetina , Ácido Oleico , Ácido Palmítico , Creatinina , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Gálico , Ergosterol , Ureia , Chá
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232567

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world, with breast cancer being the most prevalent cancer. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most serious side effects of chemotherapy. Because the current CINV treatment option has several flaws, alternative treatment options are required. Ginger has traditionally been used to treat nausea and vomiting, and it also has anticancer properties in breast cancer cells. Based on these findings, researchers investigated whether using ginger to treat CINV in breast cancer patients is both effective and safe. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wanfang from inception to June 2022. Outcomes included Rhodes Index Scores of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching, severity and frequency of CINV. Five RCTs were included. We pooled all included data and performed subgroup analysis by types of CINV. Overall, authors found that ginger was associated with a reduction in CINV. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis revealed that managing severity of acute CINV in breast cancer patients with ginger was efficient. In terms of managing delayed CINV in breast cancer patients, ginger was also statistically significant. The authors concluded that ginger may be helpful in lowering both acute and delayed CINV in breast cancer patients. Since there were no serious side effects, ginger is thought to be safe.


Assuntos
Antieméticos , Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Gengibre , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/etiologia , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(11): e202200757, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36226702

RESUMO

Dried ginger is a commonly used stomachic. Dried ginger is often used as a gastric protector to treat stomach-related diseases. However, the effect of dried ginger on energy metabolism in stomach tissue of rats under physiological condition has not been studied. In this study, different doses of water extract of dried ginger were given to rats for 4 weeks. The activity of Na+ -K+ -ATPase, Ca2+ -Mg2+ -ATPase, SDH (succinate dehydrogenase) enzyme, ATP content, mitochondrial metabolic rate and mitochondrial number in stomach tissue of rats were measured. Analysis of potential biomarkers related to the effect of dried ginger on energy metabolism in stomach tissue of rats by metabonomics, and their metabolic pathways were also analyzed. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in Na+ -K+ -ATPase in high-dose group (GJH), medium-dose group (GJM) and low-dose group (GJL) compared to the Control group. The Ca2+ -Mg2+ -ATPase activity was significantly increased in stomach tissue of GJH group and GJM group, but there were no significant changes in stomach tissue of GJL group. The SDH activity and the ATP levels were significantly increased in stomach tissue of GJH group, GJM group and GJL group. The mitochondrial metabolic rate was significantly increased in GJL group, but there was no significant change in GJM group and was inhibited in GJH group. These effects might be mediated by arginine biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, purine metabolism pathway.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Ratos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Estômago , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo
17.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 11236-11248, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222424

RESUMO

Ginger (Rhizoma zingiberis, RZ) has been used as a food, spice, supplement, flavoring agent, and as an edible herbal medicine. It is characterized by its pungency and aroma, and is rich in nutrients with remarkable pharmacological effects. It is used in traditional medicine clinics to treat diseases and symptoms, such as colds, headache, and primary dysmenorrhea (PD). In China, a variety of processed products of RZ are used as herbal medicines, such as baked ginger (BG) or ginger charcoal (GC) to treat different diseases and symptoms. However, the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic effect of RZ and its processed products (RZPPs, including BG or GC) against PD has not been well characterized. Moreover, whether the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are involved in this process is not clear. In the present study, UHPLC-Q-TOF MS was adopted to analyse the differential quality markers (DQMs) between RZ and RZPPs. In addition, differential metabolomics (DMs) was acquired between RZ- and RZPPs-treated estradiol valerate coupled with an oxytocin-induced PD mouse uterus using untargeted metabolomics (UM). A correlation analysis between DQMs and DMs was also conducted. Benzenoids, lipids, and lipid-like molecules were the main DQMs between RZ and RZPPs. RZ and RZPPs were found to improve the pathological status of the uterus of a PD mouse, with significantly decreased serum levels of E2, PGF2α, TXB2 and remarkably increased levels of PROG and 6-keto-PGF1α. Moreover, RZ and RZPPs alleviated PD in mice via regulating the TRP ion channel-mediated ERK1/2/NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the therapeutic effect of RZ and RZPPs against PD may be mediated by regulating the TRP ion channel-mediated ERK1/2/NF-κB signaling pathway, and provide a reference for the development of new dietary supplements or medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Gengibre , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Dismenorreia/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Estradiol , Transdução de Sinais , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/uso terapêutico , Prostaglandinas F/uso terapêutico
18.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297069

RESUMO

Background Emerging research suggests hyperglycemia can increase intestinal permeability. Ginger and its bioactive compounds have been reported to benefit diabetic animals due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we revealed the beneficial effect of gingerol-enriched ginger (GEG) on intestinal health (i.e., barrier function, mitochondrial function, and anti-inflammation) in diabetic rats. Methods Thirty-three male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: low-fat diet (control group), high-fat-diet (HFD) + streptozotocin (single low dose 35 mg/kg body weight (BW) after 2 weeks of HFD feeding) (DM group), and HFD + streptozotocin + 0.75% GEG in diet (GEG group) for 42 days. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were conducted at baseline and prior to sample collection. Total pancreatic insulin content was determined by ELISA. Total RNA of intestinal tissues was extracted for mRNA expression using qRT-PCR. Results Compared to the DM group, the GEG group had improved glucose tolerance and increased pancreatic insulin content. Compared to those without GEG (DM group), GEG supplementation (GEG group) increased the gene expression of tight junction (Claudin-3) and antioxidant capacity (SOD1), while it decreased the gene expression for mitochondrial fusion (MFN1), fission (FIS1), biogenesis (PGC-1α, TFAM), mitophagy (LC3B, P62, PINK1), and inflammation (NF-κB). Conclusions Ginger root extract improved glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats, in part, via improving intestinal integrity and mitochondrial dysfunction of GI health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Gengibre , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Estreptozocina , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Claudina-3 , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Insulina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo
19.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 72-82, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and chronic inflammation contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Zingiber officinale has been suggested to reduce these CVD risk factors; however, the clinical evidence remains unclear. This systematic review aims to analyse the effect of Z. officinale as a sole intervention on these risk factors. METHODS: In this PRISMA-based systematic review, we included randomised clinical trials from PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (July 2020) analysing triglycerides, low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), total cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1, 6, 10, systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure as outcomes. Quality of studies was evaluated by JADAD and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tools. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies were included, mostly (79.2%) showing low risk of bias. These were based on obesity and cardio-metabolic derangements (33.3%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (37.5%), and miscellaneous conditions (29.2%). While total cholesterol and triglycerides levels mostly improved after Z. officinale, results were inconsistent for other blood lipids markers. Inflammatory markers (CRP, TNF-α) were more consistently reduced by Z. officinale, while only 3 studies reported a non-significant reduction of blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Although there remains a paucity of studies, Z. officinale may be beneficial for improving dyslipidaemia and inflammation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Gengibre , Pressão Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1 , Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas HDL , Triglicerídeos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
20.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234956

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is rich in natural polyphenols and may potentially complement oral iron therapy in treating and preventing iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). This narrative review explores the benefits of ginger for IDA and other clinical entities associated with altered iron metabolism. Through in vivo, in vitro, and limited human studies, ginger supplementation was shown to enhance iron absorption and thus increase oral iron therapy's efficacy. It also reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and thus protects against excess free iron. Ginger's bioactive polyphenols are prebiotics to the gut microbiota, promoting gut health and reducing the unwanted side effects of iron tablets. Moreover, ginger polyphenols can enhance the effectiveness of erythropoiesis. In the case of iron overload due to comorbidities from chronic inflammatory disorders, ginger can potentially reverse the adverse impacts and restore iron balance. Ginger can also be used to synthesise nanoparticles sustainably to develop newer and more effective oral iron products and functional ingredients for IDA treatment and prevention. Further research is still needed to explore the applications of ginger polyphenols in iron balance and anaemic conditions. Specifically, long-term, well-designed, controlled trials are required to validate the effectiveness of ginger as an adjuvant treatment for IDA.


Assuntos
Anemia , Gengibre , Deficiências de Ferro , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Humanos , Ferro , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
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