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1.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 206-210, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742515

RESUMO

Nausea is a mental sensation of unease and discomfort before vomiting. Vomiting refers to the return of the contents of the upper gastrointestinal tract to the mouth caused by contractions of chest and abdomen muscles. Postoperative nausea and vomiting is an unpleasant experience with high treatment costs. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of haloperidol, metoclopramide, dexmedetomidine, and ginger on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopy. This double-blind clinical trial was performed on all laparoscopy candidates at Valiasr hospital, Arak, Iran. The patients were randomly divided into four groups (haloperidol, metoclopramide, dexmedetomidine and ginger), and all patients underwent general anesthesia using fentanyl, midazolam, atracurium, and propofol. After intubation, tube fixation, and stable hemodynamic conditions, the patients received four ginger capsules with a hint of lemon. A group of patients received 25 µg of dexmedetomidine. In the Plasil group, 10 mg of metoclopramide was given 30 minutes before the completion of surgery. In addition, 0.5 cc of haloperidol (5 mg) was administered to a group of patients. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded from the beginning of surgery, every 15 minutes until the end of the surgery. Furthermore, the occurrence of nausea and vomiting was recorded during recovery, 2 and 4 hours after surgery. Data were then analyzed using the SPSS software v.23. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. The youngest and the oldest were 30 years and 70 years old, respectively, and the mean age was 48.02 ± 9.31 years. Moreover, the number of women in the four groups was higher than that of men. Blood pressure in the dexmedetomidine group was lower than the other four groups (P <0.05). The lowest heart rate was observed in the haloperidol group, while the highest heart rate was seen in the plasil group (P <0.05). The occurrence of vomiting and nausea was not significantly different between the four groups (P <0.05). Our results showed no significant difference in postoperative nausea and vomiting between the four drugs. Due to the hemodynamic changes induced by each drug, it is best to use these drugs based on the patient's condition. Ginger is also a herbal remedy that has fewer side effects, and this drug can be a good option for patients when there is no contraindication.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Gengibre/química , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Metoclopramida/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Metoclopramida/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 333: 127490, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653682

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of encapsulant materials on the stability of bioactive compounds of red ginger extract powder during storage and determine the composition of the encapsulant materials which produced red ginger extract powder with best stability of bioactive compounds during storage. This study consisted of three compositions of encapsulant materials which are maltodextrin:gum arabic with ratio 10:0, 8:2, and 5:5. The results showed that several compositions of encapsulant materials produced different stability of bioactive compounds of red ginger extract powder. Based on the study result, increasing amount of gum arabic used had better protection to the stability of bioactive compounds of the powders during storage.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cápsulas , Goma Arábica/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Pós
3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127407, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645677

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the difference between ginger slices (vertically cut) and splits (horizontally cut) during microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) procedures. MVD ginger slices showed a higher shrinkage rate and a higher hardness value, with a more porous structure of the surface layer. MVD ginger splits had higher rehydration rates at the first 15 min of the rehydration. Nine optimal wavelengths were selected by regression coefficients (RC) from the partial least squares regression (PLSR) model based on the raw data. A simplified PLSR model based on optimal wavelengths showed a good performance with a coefficient of determination in prediction (Rp2) of 0.973 and a root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) of 4.63%. Texture features of grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of moisture prediction maps demonstrated a more uniform moisture distribution in MVD ginger slices than that in splits in the original geometry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Gengibre/fisiologia , Micro-Ondas , Gengibre/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Vácuo , Água/química
4.
J Nat Med ; 74(4): 722-731, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591979

RESUMO

Unprocessed dried tuberous root of Pinellia ternata (Pinellia Tuber) has been used as a component of traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, while this crude drug is usually used after processing with Ginger in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is known that the raphides contained in unprocessed Pinellia Tuber can induce severe acrid irritation of the oral and laryngopharynx mucosa when it is boiled insufficiently. However, the mechanism of the inducing irritation by the raphides nor that of the detoxification by heat or processing with Ginger have been left unclear, mainly because of the difficulties in the extraction and the purification of the raphides and in the assays of acridity. In this study, we developed an easy protocol that can be used to collect raphides from unprocessed Pinellia Tuber and an assay protocol that can be used to evaluate the acridity of the raphides in vitro. The raphides of Pinellia Tuber were discovered to have a lipophilic character and to be collected easily by the extraction using petroleum ether. It was also found that the denaturation of the raphides could be assayed by the dispersity of them in petroleum ether layer of the water/petroleum ether partition, and the acridity of the raphides was found to be in correlation with the assayed denaturation. The raphides were denatured by heat, methanol, or Ginger extract and the denaturing activity of Ginger on raphides was found to be attributable to its lipophilic and thermostable components, which may explain the meaning of the processing of Pinellia Tuber with Ginger in TCM, and may lead to the development of an easier and safer protocol to administer Pinellia Tuber. In addition, it was found that rinsing the mouth with salad oil can effectively relieve irritation of the oral mucosa caused by unprocessed Pinellia Tuber, probably due to the lipophilicity of the raphides.


Assuntos
Gengibre/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Pinellia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Humanos
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108731, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535525

RESUMO

This study aims to enhance the color and microbiological qualities of a raw beef using natural ingredients. Nitroso-hemoglobin (NO-Hb) integrated with vitamin C (VC), calcium lactate, and ginger complexation were used as natural inhibitors against the growth of aerobic and pathogenic bacteria, namely (Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Salmonella. NO-Hb inhibited E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella, and enhanced the color stability more than nitrite in the minced beef model. After the multiexponential analysis of relaxation decays, the water component (T2b) was analyzed using the low-field NMR. The results indicated that, at the 7th d of cold-storage the third component (T2) was detected. Significant correlations were observed between T21 and T22 relaxation times and water-holding capacity in minced beef, implying that the LF-NMR measurements could be an efficient method for the determination and prediction of beef freshness. NO-Hb- ginger mixture, as a novel ingredient, could be used instead of nitrite in terms of meat safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Gengibre/química , Hemoglobinas/farmacologia , Compostos Nitrosos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224390

RESUMO

Drought has become an increasingly serious ecological problem that limits crop production. However, little is known about the response of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) to drought and shading, especially with respect to photosynthetic electron transport. Here, differential proteomics was used to study the response of ginger to four experimental treatments: control, drought, 50% shading, and the combination of 50% shading and drought. Proteomic analysis suggested that ginger increased cyclic electron flow under drought stress by enhancing the expression of proteins related to photosystem I and cytochrome b6f. Shading significantly increased the expression of proteins related to the light harvesting complex, even under drought stress. In addition, shading increased the expression of proteins related to the oxygen evolution complex, plastocyanin, and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR), thereby enhancing the efficiency of photosynthetic electron utilization. The shading and drought combination treatment appeared to enhance ginger's drought tolerance by reducing the expression of FNR and enhancing cyclic electron flow. Photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters showed that drought stress caused non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in ginger leaves. Drought stress also significantly reduced the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), the non-cyclic electron transfer efficiency of photosystem II (ϕPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP), while simultaneously increasing nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). The addition of shading improved photosynthetic efficiency under drought. These results provide important baseline information on the photosynthetic mechanisms by which ginger responds to drought and shading. In addition, they provide a theoretical basis for the study of shade cultivation during the arid season.


Assuntos
Escuridão , Secas , Gengibre/química , Proteoma , Estresse Fisiológico , Gengibre/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Luz Solar
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4456, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157137

RESUMO

Edible nanoparticles (ENPs) are nano-sized vesicles derived from edible plants. These ENPs are loaded with plant derived microRNAs, protein, lipids and phytochemicals. Recently, ginger derived ENPs was shown to prevent inflammatory bowel diseases and colon cancer, in vivo, highlighting their therapeutic potential. Conventionally, differential centrifugation with an ultra-centrifugation step is employed to purify these ENPs which imposes limitation on the cost-effectiveness of their purification. Herein, we developed polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG6000) based ginger ENP purification (PEG-ENPs) method, which eliminates the need for expensive ultracentrifugation. Using different PEG6000 concentrations, we could recover between 60% to 90% of ENPs compared to ultracentrifugation method. PEG-ENPs exhibit near identical size and zeta potential similar to ultra-ENPs. The biochemical composition of PEG-ENPs, such as proteins, lipids, small RNAs and bioactive content is comparable to that of ultra-ENPs. In addition, similar to ultra-ENPs, PEG-ENPs are efficiently taken up by the murine macrophages and protects cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. Since PEG has been approved as food additive, the PEG method described here will provide a cost-effective alternative to purify ENPs, which can be directly used as a dietary supplement in therapeutic formulations.


Assuntos
Gengibre/química , Macrófagos/citologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/economia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Rizoma/química , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química
8.
Phytother Res ; 34(8): 2067-2073, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180294

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disease that can lead to chronic pain and severe disability. Curcumin-an effective ingredient in turmeric with anti inflammatory property-plays an important role in protecting the joints against destructive factors. Gingerols and piperine, are the effective ingredients of ginger and black pepper, which may potentially enhance and sustain the effect of curcumin in this direction. To determine the effect of cosupplementation with turmeric extract, black pepper, and ginger on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) in patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis, compared with Naproxen. Sixty patients with two different levels of knee osteoarthritis (Grade 2 and 3) were studied. Individuals were randomly assigned to receive daily turmeric extract, ginger, and black pepper together or Naproxen capsule for 4 weeks. PGE2 was evaluated by ELISA method. 24-hr recall was also assessed. All of participants completed the study. PGE2 decreased significantly in both groups (p < .001), but there was no significant differences between groups. The results of this study indicated that intake of the selected herbs twice a day for 4 weeks may improve the PGE2 levels in patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis similar to Naproxen drug.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/química , Gengibre/química , Naproxeno/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Piper nigrum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naproxeno/farmacologia
9.
Phytother Res ; 34(8): 1723-1733, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147845

RESUMO

The present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger supplementation on markers of inflammatory and oxidative stress. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were systematically searched to identify relevant clinical trials evaluating the effects of ginger on serum CRP (C-reactive protein), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), IL-6 (interleukin-6), PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), TAC (total antioxidant capacity), and MDA (malondialdehyde) from inception up to September 2019. Mean difference and 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effects model. Potential publication bias was assessed using visual inspection of funnel plot and Egger's weighted regression tests. After excluding irrelevant records, 20 full-text articles that included 25 separate studies were included to the meta-analysis. Pooled results of this study indicated a statistically significant effect of ginger on serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, TAC, and MDA levels following ginger supplementation in compared to the controls. Also, the effects of ginger on serum PGE2 was marginally significant. Moreover, the high heterogeneity was disappeared in subgroup analysis performed by age, duration, dosage, and quality. This current analysis indicates that ginger supplementation has a significant effects on serum inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gengibre/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019210

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical products of essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. are extensively being developed, while the research on their safety is seldom documented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile and the effect of cassumunar ginger oil on cell-based assay and the zebrafish model. The essential oil was isolated from fresh rhizomes of Z. cassumunar using simultaneous steam-distillation. Chemical composition was analyzed using gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Effect of cassumunar ginger oil on adult carp fish peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated using MTT assay. The embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of cassumunar ginger oil were studied in zebrafish embryos. GC-MS results showed that the essential oil was composed of sabinene (43.54%) and terpinen-4-ol (29.52%) as the major phytoconstituents. No fish PBMC cytotoxic effect was observed with the concentration less than 50 µg/mL of cassumunar ginger oil. Our results showed for the first time the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of cassumunar ginger oil in zebrafish embryos. The result indicated that the cassumunar ginger oil induced zebrafish embryotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. At 500 µg/mL of cassumunar ginger oil demonstrated significantly moderated embryotoxicity within 24 h (p < 0.05). The survival rate of 100 µg/mL of cassumunar ginger group was markedly declined to zero at 96-h post-fertilization (log-rank test, p = 0.001). However, survival rates of zebrafish embryo in the 1 and 10 µg/mL cassumunar ginger groups were more than 90% throughout the trial period. Moreover, very low teratogenicity to the zebrafish embryo was also observed in 1 and 10 µg/mL of cassumunar ginger groups. Our findings suggest that there is hardly any cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity and teratogenicity at concentrations less than 10 µg/mL of cassumunar ginger oil. However, the toxicity assessment of its pharmaceutical product should prove for further consumer protection.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengibre/química , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Carpas , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Exp Anim ; 69(3): 269-278, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051390

RESUMO

A combination of aged garlic, ginger, and chili peppers extracts (AGC) was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and ferric-reducing antioxidant assays, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed in Aß1-42-induced rats. The AGC was orally administered to Wistar rats at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight (AGC125, AGC250, AGC500, respectively) for 64 days. At day 56, Aß1-42 was injected via both sides of the lateral ventricles. The effects of the AGC on spatial and recognition memory were examined using a Morris water maze and novel object recognition tasks. Rats induced with Aß1-42 exhibited obvious cognitive deficits, as demonstrated by their increased escape latency time (ET) and decreased retention time (RT) and percentage of discriminative index (DI). When compared with the control group, all AGC-treated rats showed significantly shorter ETs and higher DIs during the 5-min delay testing phase. Rats treated with AGC250 also had significantly longer RTs. Administration of Aß1-42 significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in the rat brain homogenate. Pretreatment with the AGC caused significant increases in SOD, GPx, and CAT activities, as well as a significant decrease in MDA in the rat brain homogenates after Aß-induced neurotoxicity. Our results suggested that an AGC may ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in Aß-treated rats due to its role in the upregulation of SOD, GPx, and CAT.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/química , Gengibre/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 432-441, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968399

RESUMO

Infrared radiation (IR)-assisted peeling is one of the effulent free, environtment friendly emerging technique for tender fruit and vegetables. In this study standerdization and optimization of the infrared assisted dry-peeling method was carried out for ginger rhizome. During the investigation, the effects of selected independent parameters like infrared temperature (300-400 °C), heater to product surface spacing (10-30 mm), and treatment time (120-300 s) were studied on the peeling feasibility and quality as dependent variables. The experimental conditions were designed through CCRD statistical method. Multiple response optimization was done through RSM. The optimum conditions of selected independent variables were 300 °C IR temperature, 21 mm heater to product spacing, and 120 seconds treatment time resulted in the 90.40% of peeling efficiency, 35 °C of rhizome surface temperature, 8.67% of color change, 0.56% volatile oil loss, and 11.53 kg of firmness. The comparison of optimized infrared assisted peeling was carried out with conventional abrasion and lye peeling methods based on their quality attributes. IR assisted dry-peeling results in minimum quality losses, higher peeling efficiency and feasible over conventional peeling methods of ginger rhizome. There was zero effluent generated during infrared assisted peeling of ginger rhizome. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Peeling is one of the foremost mandatory unit operation for processing of all fruits, vegetables, and rhizomes like ginger. Presently, lye peeling is most widely used peeling method in industries followed by mechanical peeling. Both of these methods have serious issues like huge effluent generation (BOD) and water consumption which leads to the concern about environmental issues. Infrared dry peeling is the most prominent alternative for industries having the potential to deals with environmental issues. IR peeling method can be easily designed and scaled-up as per the specific requirment of industries. Therefore, understanding its feasibility for peeling of a most difficult commodity like ginger and understanding its insight into the quality of peeled product is need of the hour.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Gengibre/química , Rizoma/efeitos da radiação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Gengibre/efeitos da radiação , Raios Infravermelhos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rizoma/química
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973096

RESUMO

[6]-Gingerol from ginger has received considerable attention as a potential cancer therapeutic agent because of its chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects, as well as its safety. In the current study, we examined [6]-gingerol as a natural scavenger of nine ultimate chemical carcinogens to which we are frequently exposed: glycidamide, styrene oxide, aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide, ß-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, 2-cyanoethylene oxide, chloroethylene oxide, and vinyl carbamate epoxide. To evaluate [6]-gingerol efficacy, we expanded our research with the examination of glutathione-the strongest natural scavenger in human cells. The corresponding activation free energies were calculated using Hartree-Fock method with three flexible basis sets and two implicit solvation models. According to our results, [6]-gingerol proves to be an extremely effective scavenger of chemical carcinogens of the epoxy type. On the other hand, with the exception of aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide, glutathione represents a relatively poor scavenger, whose efficacy could be augmented by [6]-gingerol. Moreover, our quantum mechanical study of the alkylation reactions of chemical carcinogens with [6]-gingerol and glutathione provide valuable insights in the reaction mechanisms and the geometries of the corresponding transition states. Therefore, we strongly believe that our research forms a solid basis for further computational, experimental and clinical studies of anticarcinogenic properties of [6]-gingerol as well as for the development of novel chemoprophylactic dietary supplements. Finally, the obtained results also point to the applicability of quantum chemical methods to studies of alkylation reactions related to chemical carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/química , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/química , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/química , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Aflatoxina B1 , Alquilação , Linhagem Celular , Quimioprevenção , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Óxido de Etileno/análogos & derivados , Gengibre/química , Humanos , Propiolactona , Uretana/análogos & derivados
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 625, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953420

RESUMO

Chemotherapy often induces oral ulcerative mucositis (OUM) in patients with cancer, characterized by severe painful inflammation. Mouth-washing with the Japanese herbal medicine hangeshashinto (HST) ameliorates chemotherapy-induced OUM in patients with colorectal cancer. Previously, we demonstrated that HST decreased interleukin 1ß-induced prostaglandin E2 production in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and OUM-induced mechanical or spontaneous pain in rats. However, HST effects on tissue repair functions in HOKs remain unclear. Here, we examined the effects of HST on scratch-induced wound healing in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, HST enhanced wound healing mainly through scratch-induced HOK migration. Screening of the seven constituent medicinal herbs and their major components revealed that Scutellaria root, processed ginger, and Glycyrrhiza components mainly induced the scratch-induced HOK migration. Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that the active ingredient concentrations in rat plasma following oral HST administration were below the effective doses for HOK migration, suggesting direct effects of HST in OUM. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 inhibitors significantly suppressed HST-induced HOK migration. Moreover, HST enhanced tissue repair in our OUM rat model. Thus, HST likely enhanced OUM tissue repair through oral keratinocyte migration upon MAPK and CXCR4 activation and may be useful in patients with cancer-associated OUM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Queratinócitos/citologia , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Glycyrrhiza/química , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ratos , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/metabolismo
15.
Phytother Res ; 34(6): 1282-1290, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989713

RESUMO

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is one of the factors involved in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity induces low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The treatment for obesity involves changes in diet, physical activity, and even medication and surgery. Currently, the use of nutraceutical compounds is associated with health benefits. Ginger and avocado are used for many people all around the world; however, its effect as a nutraceutical compound is less known by the general population. For this reason, we searched information of the literature to point its effects on distinct mechanisms of defense against the obesity its comorbidities. The present review aimed showing that these nutraceuticals may be useful in obesity treatment. Reports have shown that ginger and avocado induce antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by improving enzymatic activity and modulating obesity-related impairments in the anti-inflammatory system in different tissues, without side effects. Furthermore, ginger and avocado were found to be effective in reversing the harmful effects of obesity on blood lipids. In conclusion, on the basis of the positive effects of ginger and avocado in in vitro, animal, and human studies, these nutraceuticals may be useful in obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gengibre/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Persea/química , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Humanos
16.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 131-137, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967911

RESUMO

Context: Carbonized ginger, a type of charry herb, has been used as a hemostatic medicine since ancient times. However, there are some serious problems such as inhomogeneous heating and emitting smoke during processing with traditional stir-frying method.Objective: To investigate the feasibility to obtain carbonized ginger by stir-frying with sand instead of stir-frying method.Materials and methods: Dried-ginger (100 g) was processed by stir-frying for 30 min at 270 ± 10 °C, or by stir-frying with sand (1:10, w/w) for 8 min at 240 ± 5 °C. The HPLC fingerprint was established for two samples. The adsorption capacity and major components including tannins, gingerols, shogaols and gingerone were quantitated by UV and HPLC, respectively. The hemostatic effect by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was evaluated in vitro.Results: The similarity of the two samples for HPLC fingerprints was >0.93. The sand-fried samples showed significantly higher adsorption capacity compared with the stir-fried samples (4.915 vs. 4.593 mg/g; p < 0.05) and higher contents of major components (4.698 vs. 3.930 mg/g, 1.352 vs. 1.144 mg/g, 2.419 vs. 2.095 mg/g, 0.666 vs. 0.568 mg/g and 1.083 vs. 0.911 mg/g for tannins, gingerone, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol, respectively; p < 0.05); while no significant differences were seen for 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol (p > 0.05). The PT and APTT values were similar between the stir-fried and sand-fried test groups and significantly lower compared to controls (p < 0.05).Conclusions: The carbonizing process by stir-frying with sand is superior to the stir-frying method for carbonized ginger.


Assuntos
Gengibre/química , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Animais , Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tempo de Protrombina , Coelhos , Rizoma , Areia/química
17.
Planta Med ; 86(2): 104-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777055

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains a significant public health problem in Thailand. New effective and safe drugs are urgently needed. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) is a widely used medicinal plant for the treatment of several ailments, and the animal study suggests a potential anti-CCA activity. The present study aimed to develop the oral formulation of standardized extract of ZO and investigate toxicological profiles (acute, repeated dose, and chronic toxicity), including anti-CCA activity of the ZO formulation. The oral pharmaceutical formulation of the standardized ZO extract was successfully developed with an acceptable level of contamination and physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. Acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity tests were conducted in healthy Sprague Dawley rats according to the OECD guidelines. The results showed no evidence of toxicity and death in the acute and subacute toxicity testing with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 5000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Chronic toxicity revealed MTD and No-Observed-Adverse-Effect level (NOAEL) of 1000 mg/kg body weight. The anti-CCA activity was evaluated in CCA-xenografted mouse model. The formulated ZO powder was fed to animals daily for 30 days. Significant anti-CCA activity on tumor growth inhibition and prolongation of survival time were demonstrated at the high (2000 mg/kg body weight) and moderate (1000 mg/kg body weight) dose levels. Further investigation to elucidate molecular targets of action of ZO against CCA cells is encouraged.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(2): L296-L303, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800263

RESUMO

Asthma, a common disorder associated with airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, remains a significant clinical burden in need of novel therapeutic strategies. Patients are increasingly seeking complementary and alternative medicine approaches to control their symptoms, including the use of natural products. Ginger, a natural product that we previously demonstrated acutely relaxes airway smooth muscle (ASM), has long been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, although a precise mechanistic understanding is lacking. In these studies, we demonstrate that chronic administration of whole ginger extract or 6-shogaol, a bioactive component of ginger, mitigates in vivo house dust mite antigen-mediated lung inflammation in mice. We further show that this decrease in inflammation is associated with reduced in vivo airway responsiveness. Utilizing in vitro studies, we demonstrate that 6-shogaol augments cAMP concentrations in CD4 cells, consistent with phosphodiesterase inhibition, and limits the induction of nuclear factor-κB signaling and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated CD4 cells. Sustained elevations in cAMP concentration are well known to inhibit effector T cell function. Interestingly, regulatory T cells (Tregs) utilize cAMP as a mediator of their immunosuppressive effects, and we demonstrate here that 6-shogaol augments the Treg polarization of naïve CD4 cells in vitro. Taken together with previous reports, these studies suggest that ginger and 6-shogaol have the potential to combat asthma via two mechanisms: acute ASM relaxation and chronic inhibition of inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Catecóis/uso terapêutico , Gengibre/química , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/imunologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/imunologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/complicações , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/imunologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/fisiopatologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Catecóis/administração & dosagem , Catecóis/farmacologia , Contagem de Células , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110936, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682933

RESUMO

Palygorskite (PGS) is a kind of clay minerals with the property of absorbent capacity, and ginger essential oil (GEO) is a kind of natural antibacterial substances. In the present study PGS was used as carrier of GEO, and thus, a kind of new anti-bacterial composite GEO-PGS has been obtained. Characterization, inhibitory effect of GEO-PGS on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and its function of improvement of intestinal health would be investigated. Results showed that characterization analysis of GEO-PGS (FTIR, TG-DSC, BET, Zeta potential, specific surface area, total pore volume and size, TEM observation) demonstrated combination of GEO and PGS, and GEO was absorbed on the surface of PGS, partially filled the micropores of PGS. GEO-PGS had obvious inhibitory effect on E.coli, in combination of the antibacterial activity of GEO and bacteria-absorbed capability of PGS. GEO-PGS also had ameliorating effect on enteritis and intestinal dysfunction in vivo, which might be related to the inhibition of gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TLR2, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8). In conclusion, the novel composite GEO-PGS has the potential usage as functional component having effect of improving intestinal health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengibre/química , Compostos de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Silício/uso terapêutico , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Enterite/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112820, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476432

RESUMO

Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe is of great importance in the traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. More than 400 constituents have been reported in the plant, the most important ones being the gingerol and shogaol derivatives. Positive effects of ginger extracts and isolated [6]-gingerol have been proved in animal models of anxiety, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. Taken in consideration these promising positive effects of ginger and its constituents in the central nervous system, the isolation of gingerol and shogaol derivatives ([6]-gingerol (1), [8]-gingerol (2), [10]-gingerol (3), [6]-shogaol (4), [10]-shogaol (5), 1-dehydro-[6]-gingerdione (6), 1-dehydro-[10]-gingerdione (7)) and investigation of their transcellular passive diffusion across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were carried out. For this purpose, a Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay for the Blood-Brain Barrier (PAMPA-BBB) was chosen that had previously been validated for natural compounds. Based on our results, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol were found to be able to penetrate the BBB via passive diffusion, suggesting them to contribute to the positive effects of ginger extracts in the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Catecóis/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacocinética , Álcoois Graxos/farmacocinética , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/química , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Difusão , Álcoois Graxos/química , Álcoois Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Permeabilidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Suínos
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