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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23092, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental biofilm accumulation and poor personal oral hygiene are known major risk factors for gingivitis and halitosis. However, it is not clear how studies compare the effectiveness of hygiene regimens, associated with outcomes centered on patients. METHODS: A randomized, blind, controlled clinical trial involving 58 participants aged from 12 to 17 years, who search the Department of Pediatric Dentistry of Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, will be conducted. Immediately, the volunteers will be inserted into Group 1 (commercially available hygiene regimen) or Group 2 (tooth brushing alone). In Group 1, participants will receive Colgate Total 12 toothpastes, Plax mouthwashes and Colgate Ultrasoft toothbrushes, while Group 2 will use Colgate Cavity Protection toothpastes and Colgate Ultrasoft toothbrushes. The interventions will be conducted in the periods of 1, 3, and 6 months after the baseline, when the evaluations will also be performed. Biofilm and halitosis indexes will be evaluated. Data regarding discomfort, satisfaction and the socioeconomic/individual characteristics will also be computed. DISCUSSION: Although toothbrushing has shown positive effects in decreasing biofilm and in gingival health, there is no comparison in the literature of different brushing regimens with halitosis measurement in adolescents. In addition, the effectiveness of these protocols would be confirmed from the acceptability of the volunteers.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/terapia , Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , Gengivite/terapia , Halitose/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Escovação Dentária , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Ácido Silícico/uso terapêutico , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 782, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis (PHGS) in children, though usually self-limited, might mimic bacterial and enteroviral pharyngitis clinically. We conducted a study to define the clinical features of PHGS in children. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2016, 282 inpatients aged less than 19 years with cell culture-confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in a medical center were identified from the virologic laboratory logbook. Clinical data were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Among the 282 inpatients, 185 cases were considered as PHGS and were included for analysis. Fever was present in 99.5%. The mean duration of fever was 5.11 days (±2.24) with the longest being 17 days. Common oral manifestations included oral ulcers (84.3%), which equally resided in the anterior and posterior part of the oral cavity (65.4% vs. 63.2%), gum swelling and/or bleeding (67.6%), and exudate coated tonsils (16.8%). Leukocytosis (WBC count > 15,000/uL3) was noted in 52 patients (28.1%) and a serum C-reactive protein level > 40 mg/L in 55 patients (29.7%). Fixty-five patients (35%) were diagnosed with PHGS on admission and were significantly more likely to have ulcers over the anterior oral cavity (76.1% vs. 26.7%) and gum swelling/bleeding (76.2% vs. 7.5%, p-value all < 0.001) on admission and were significantly less likely to receive antibiotic treatment (16.9 vs. 36.7%, p-value < 0.01) than others. Forty-six patients (25%) undiagnosed as PHGS on discharge were significantly more likely to have exudate coated on the tonsils, to receive antibiotic treatment and significantly less likely to have gum swelling/bleeding and oral ulcers (all p-values < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Meticulously identifying specific oral manifestations of gum swelling/bleeding and ulcers over the anterior oral cavity in children can help making the diagnosis of PHGS earlier and subsequently reduce unnecessary prescription of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Gengivite/diagnóstico , Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Úlceras Orais/diagnóstico , Faringite/diagnóstico , Estomatite Herpética/diagnóstico , Tonsilite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Febre , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Leucocitose , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estomatite Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite Herpética/virologia
3.
Am J Dent ; 33(5): 258-264, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness in reducing plaque and gingivitis of a fluoride toothpaste with 20% baking soda and a fluoride toothpaste control. METHODS: 159 subjects, who met the entry criteria, participated in this single-center, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical study. Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Plaque Index (PI) were assessed after 4, 8, and 12 weeks use of the assigned test or control toothpaste. After 12 weeks, participants resumed 4 weeks of their customary oral hygiene after which they were re-evaluated using the same measures. RESULTS: Both toothpastes statistically significantly reduced MGI, GBI, and PI versus baseline at all-time points. Brushing with the 20% baking soda toothpaste statistically significantly reduced MGI, PI, and GBI compared to the control toothpaste at all time points. After 12 weeks, the reductions in MGI, PI, and GBI were 12.6%, 9.6%, and 44.2%, respectively. After the 4-week customary oral hygiene period, the benefits of the study period had begun to diminish, but statistically significant reductions in MGI and GBI for the test versus control were still evident. This 3-month clinical study shows that brushing with fluoride toothpaste containing 20% baking soda reduces dental plaque and concurrently reduces gingival inflammation and bleeding compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Fluoride toothpaste with 20% baking soda has the potential to offer multiple oral health benefits when used as an adjunct to regular tooth brushing and, therefore, may be confidently recommended to patients.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico
4.
Am J Dent ; 33(5): 265-272, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness in reducing plaque and gingivitis of two fluoride toothpastes containing baking soda (35% and 20%) with a fluoride toothpaste control. METHODS: 319 subjects, who met entry criteria, participated in this single-center, three-cell, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical study. Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Plaque Index (PI) were assessed at baseline, and after 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: All three toothpastes significantly (P< 0.0001) reduced MGI, GBI, and PI versus baseline, and the two baking soda toothpastes significantly (P< 0.0001) reduced MGI, GBI, and PI compared to the fluoride control, at all three time points. After 6 months use, the 35% and 20% baking soda toothpastes had reduced MGI, GBI and PI by 15.0%, 46.9%, and 18.3%, and 9.4%, 25.9%, and 12.4%, respectively, compared to the control. In addition, the 35% baking soda toothpaste had reduced (P≤ 0.0005) MGI, GBI, and PI by 6.2%, 28.4%, and 6.8%, respectively, compared to the 20% baking soda toothpaste. This clinical study showed that brushing with fluoride toothpastes containing baking soda at 35% and 20% reduces plaque, gingival inflammation and bleeding more effectively than regular fluoride toothpaste. Further, it showed that 35% baking soda toothpaste was more effective in reducing these parameters than 20% baking soda toothpaste. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Fluoride toothpastes containing 20% or more baking soda can provide significant and meaningful gingival health benefits when used regularly as an adjunct to tooth brushing.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Bicarbonato de Sódio , Cremes Dentais
5.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 843-854, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Currently, there is no consensus on recommendations for manual toothbrushing techniques between dentists, oral health therapists and dental companies. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and assess the quality of evidence of the effectiveness of manual toothbrushing techniques in the existing literature. METHODS: A broad search was conducted on the electronic databases Medline via Ovid, PubMed and EBSCO Dentistry & Oral Sciences. Included studies examined manual toothbrushing technique efficiency. Articles were assessed utilising the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These included five randomised controlled trials (RCT), seven experimental non-randomised control studies and one in vitro study. RESULTS: Of the 3190 articles identified, 40 were relevant to manual toothbrushing and 13 were included in the final review. Studies indicating statistically significantly superior plaque removal for a given technique were Bass (one), modified Bass (one), Charter's (two), Fones (two), scrub (two), roll (one), modified Stillman (one), toothpick method (one). Four studies exhibited no statistically significant difference in effectiveness of plaque removal. Unfortunately, considerable variation was found between studies, making a definitive conclusion impossible in terms of an ideal manual toothbrushing technique that would promote plaque removal and reduce gingivitis. CONCLUSION: There is still insufficient evidence for suggesting that one toothbrushing method is more effective than another in plaque removal and reduction of gingivitis. Excessive variability in many aspects of the design and methodology of the selected studies hinder conclusions on an ideal manual toothbrushing technique. Experimental randomised controlled trials that follow the CONSORT guidelines are required to provide adequate-quality evidence and make any definitive conclusions on the relative effectiveness of manual toothbrushing techniques.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Assistência Odontológica , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Escovação Dentária
6.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 22(3): 166-173, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980829

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of a new mouth wash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine and chitosan on dental plaque and its reduction to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-blind randomized clinical trial with a parallel group design of 3 months duration. Patients (20-40 years) who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned equally to group 1: chlorhexidine (0.2%), group 2: chitosan (0.5%) or group 3: chlorhexidine - chitosan combination group. The clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, 6weeks and at 3months. All patients received thorough oral prophylaxis and were instructed to rinse with 10ml of mouthwash twice daily for 1 minute. RESULTS: The combination of chitosan and chlorhexidine showed a statistically significant reduction (p less than0.05) in plaque indices from baseline at all time intervals when compared to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that by unifying the properties of chitosan and chlorhexidine may result in a superior antiplaque effect than that of chlorhexidine alone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Quitosana , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Método Simples-Cego
7.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 30(5): 642-649, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: To investigate the association between the genetic polymorphisms FokI (rs2228570) and BglI (rs739837) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) with dental caries and gingivitis susceptibility. DESIGN: This study included 353 Brazilian children (8 to 11 years old). Dental caries was assessed using ICDAS (International System for Detection and Assessment of Carious Lesions) and gingival bleeding using Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The presence of visible biofilm was also evaluated. DNA was extracted from saliva, and real-time PCR was used to evaluate genetic polymorphisms in VDR: rs2228570 (FokI, A>G/Met>Thr) and rs739837 (BglI, G>T). Dental caries was evaluated as a continuous data (mean and standard deviation-SD) and was also categorized (ICDAS0 versus ICDAS1-6 or ICDAS1-2 versus ICDAS3-6). Gingivitis was categorized in with and without. One-way ANOVA was used for comparisons of caries among genotypes. Chi-square test, logistic regression, and haplotype analysis were performed (P < .05). RESULTS: Biofilm was associated with dental caries susceptibility and gingivitis (P < .05). The mean distribution of the caries lesions and cavitated caries lesions among FokI and BgII genotypes were not statistically significant (P > .05). Genotype distributions among caries groups (in the two different cut-offs) and among gingivitis and non-gingivitis groups were not statistically significant (P > .05). CONCLUSION: The polymorphisms FokI and BglI in VDR were not associated with dental caries or gingivitis.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Gengivite , Brasil , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22352, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has transformed the highly infectious virus to a stable chronic condition, with the advent of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The longterm effects of HAART on the oral health of children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on oral health indicators (dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children from the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2017 among children aged 5 to 7 years from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12174 randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00640263) implemented between 2009 and 2012 in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. The intervention was lopinavir-ritonavir or lamuvudine treatment to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission. One hundred thirty-seven and 139 children were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine treatment at day 7 postpartum to compare efficacy of prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission. At follow up, the children underwent oral examination using the World Health Organization methods for field conditions. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the early childhood oral health impact scale. Negative binomial and logistic regression were used for the analysis of data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries was 48% in the study sample: 49% in the lopinavir-ritonavir arm and 48% in the lamivudine treatment group. The corresponding mean decayed missing filled teeth and standard deviation was 1.7 (2.4) and 2.3 (3.7) The mean number (standard deviation) of erupted permanent teeth was 3.8 (3.7) and 4.6 (3.9) teeth in the lopinavir- and lamivudine group, respectively. The prevalence of reported impacts on oral health was 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 18% in the lamivudine group. Gingivitis had a prevalence of 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 14% lamivudine treatment group. The regression analysis revealed 70% less reported impacts on oral health in lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine treatment group with an incidence rate ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: HIV exposed uninfected infants in the lopinavir-ritonavir group reported less impacts on oral health than the lamivudine treatment group. Dental caries, gingivitis, and tooth eruption were not significantly affected by the treatment lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00640263.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(4): 280-287, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847667

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative plaque reduction efficacy of powered versus manual toothbrushes in children. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted based on a literature search that included Medline, Embase, FDA publications, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Dentistry and Oral Science, and Berman Medical Library, Hebrew University. Studies were chosen that were randomized controlled trials and published between 1980 to 2019 in English that compared plaque reduction with manual and powered toothbrushes in children. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of evidence. Results: From a search of 1,502 articles, nine articles were selected for meta-analysis. A statistically significant plaque reduction benefit for a powered toothbrush versus manual toothbrush (P<0.001): combined mean difference (MD) was 0.590 and the 95 percent confidence interval was 0.352 to 0.828 (random-effects model). Two tests revealed considerable heterogeneity (I² equals 96 percent; Cochran's Q, P<0.001). A low possibility of bias was indicated by Begg-Mazumdar and Egger tests (P>0.1 for both). Evidence quality was given a GRADE score of moderate. Conclusions: Powered toothbrushes were more effective than manual toothbrushes for plaque removal in children.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária , Universidades
10.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 61(3): 153-160, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801262

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and the body mass index (BMI) as obesity indicators and gingival inflammation as determined by bleeding on probing (BOP). The participants comprised employees of a milk products company based in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 159 non-diabetic men aged 40 to 59 yr and with a minimum of 28 teeth were included. Multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, smoking status, pocket depth, frequency of daily brushing, frequency of weekly interdental brushing, and regular dental attendance was performed to compare the relationships among the obesity indicators and BOP. Participants with good oral hygiene had significantly less BOP than those with poor oral hygiene (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed among the other items investigated. A significant association was observed between WHtR and BOP (odds ratio: 2.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-5.22); no such association was observed with the BMI, however. The present results showed that obesity, as determined according to a visceral fat index, was associated with BOP, but not with BMI. This suggests that the WHtR is a more accurate index of obesity than the BMI in studies on BOP.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Obesidade , Adulto , Humanos , Inflamação , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tóquio
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859022

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare two different techniques for the treatment of plaque-induced gingivitis, demonstrating whether the causal therapy supported by diode laser can allow a resolution of the edema caused by gingivitis in less time compared to the single traditional causal therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients between 20 and 60 years of age with a specific diagnosis of gingivitis were evaluated at the CLID-HSR oral hygiene department. Once the clinical parameters (bleeding index, plaque index, recession, and clinical attack level) were recorded, each of them was subjected to a professional oral hygiene session and instructed in correct home hygiene procedures. Through a split-mouth protocol for each individual patient, hemi-arches were treated by simple randomization to be treated with causal therapy supported by the action of the diode laser (experimental therapy) and which with traditional causal therapy (control therapy). A first intraoral scan was performed before therapy (T0), which was repeated 20 min after rinsing with CHX. The intraoral scans were repeated at a control 7 (T1) and 14 days (T2) after the session. For each intraoral scan, a volumetric value was calculated, proportional to the edema of the gingival tissues, using special digital software. The operator who carried out the volumetric measurements on the software was not aware of the therapy implemented on each half-arch. The operator who carried out the statistical analysis was not aware of the therapy applied to each group. The collected data were statistically compared in order to detect any differences between the volumetric variations between the two therapy groups and within the therapy groups over time. After evaluating the distribution of data by means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test, the appropriate nonparametric tests were chosen to carry out the statistical comparisons. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of the gingival-periodontal health parameters and the volumetric value of the treated areas, no statistically significant differences were detected between the areas treated with the adjuvant action of the diode laser compared to those treated with causal therapy alone. CONCLUSIONS: With the limitations of this study, in accordance with the statistical results obtained, diode laser therapy does not allow a faster resolution of gingival edema compared to traditional therapy; the two treatment techniques for plaque-induced gingivitis, therefore, have the same efficacy.


Assuntos
Edema/terapia , Gengivite/terapia , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengiva , Humanos , Lasers Semicondutores/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824705

RESUMO

Gingival bleeding (GB) is a common sign of gingival inflammation, which indicates the presence of periodontal diseases. This study aimed to describe the perception of French adults about their self-reported GB and answers of healthcare professionals regarding the GB reported by these interviewees. A questionnaire administered by one investigator in each of three public settings of four cities in France from September 2016 to November 2017. Among 794 adults interviewed, 502 (63.2%) reported a GB. Among them, 414 (82.5%) believed that GB is benign, and 309 (61.6%) declared one or more responses. The three main responses were to use mouthwash (29.3%), to change to a soft-bristle toothbrush (20.1%) and to modify the brushing technique (19.3%). Almost half (49.0%) questioned at least one healthcare professional concerning their GB: a dentist (43.0%), a physician (14.1%), and a pharmacist (8.0%). The main response of each healthcare professional was: for dentists: a "prescription of mouthwash", for physicians to say "gingival bleeding is not serious"; and for pharmacists: "to sell a mouthwash". Most of the participants considered their GB as benign and had inappropriate responses, which indicates their lack of knowledge regarding periodontal health. The same conclusions can be drawn for healthcare professionals, as reported by interviewees.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gengival/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Gengivite , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais , Escovação Dentária
13.
Georgian Med News ; (303): 63-66, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841183

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to determine the changes of local immunity indicators in persons with periodontal diseases and the influence of psychophysiological state on their activity. The study involved 130 patients 19-44-years old with periodontal diseases on a background of different psychophysiological reactions of maladaptation. Two study groups were formed: І group - 73 persons with gingivitis; ІІ group - 57 persons with chronic generalized periodontitis. For psychophysiological examination we used Raven's Progressive Matrices test. The average content of sIgA in persons of group I by 14.22% exceeded the corresponding data in persons of group II. The IgA concentration in group I was 0.191±0.004 g/l, which was 6.42% higher than in group II - 0.172±0.006 g/l, p>0.05. IgG content in group I exceeded by 15.54% the corresponding data in group II. Average data of lysozyme content in group I was 6.87% higher than in group II (427.0±5.20 µg/ml vs. 397.00±4.24 µg/ml, p<0, 01). The dynamics of immunoglobulins and lysozyme in the oral fluid of the study groups, depending on the psychophysiological state of the organism were determined and analyzed. Certain imbalance of local protection factors (lysozyme and sIgA) and the concentration of immunoglobulins A and G was characterized by a decrease in the values of the indices with deepening of psychophysiological reactions of maladaptation, and this tendency was more pronounced in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Gengivite , Doenças Periodontais , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Georgian Med News ; (303): 125-134, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841194

RESUMO

A side effect of treating children with fixed orthodontic equipment (FOE) is the deterioration of the oral microbiota and, as a typical consequence, a significant increase in the risk of chronic catarrhal gingivitis (CCG). The problem is to calculate the specified risk for each specific child, and its modern solution using models subjected to the machine learning procedure requires the identification of microbial and other markers of the process of formation of oral microbiota in the presence of FOE in healthy children and children with CCG. The identification of such markers was the main goal of this study. The experiment consisted in monitoring this process by four dental and nineteen microbial parameters at the third, sixth and twelfth month of orthodontic treatment of 30 non-sick and 32 patients with CCG having healthy periodontal tissues before the FOE. Markers were detected by correlation, principal component (PCA), factor and cluster analyzes of the obtained experimental data. As a result, a marker rating of the studied microbial and dental parameters was built, and most importantly, it was shown that the microorganisms Veillonella spp., Neisseria spp., Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp. and some others have pronounced properties of markers of the process of formation of oral microbiota in the presence of FOE in healthy children and children with CCG.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Microbiota , Criança , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Periodonto
15.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(8): e19433, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental visits are unpleasant; sometimes, patients only seek treatment when they are in intolerable pain. Recently, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need for remote communication when patients and dentists cannot meet in person. Gingivitis is very common and characterized by red, swollen, bleeding gums. Gingivitis heals within 10 days of professional care and with daily, thorough oral hygiene practices. If left untreated, however, its progress may lead to teeth becoming mobile or lost. Of the many medical apps currently available, none monitor gingivitis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present a characterization and development model of a mobile health (mHealth) app called iGAM, which focuses on periodontal health and improves the information flow between dentists and patients. METHODS: A focus group discussed the potential of an app to monitor gingivitis, and 3 semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted on the use of apps for monitoring gum infections. We used a qualitative design process based on the Agile approach, which incorporated the following 5 steps: (1) user story, (2) use cases, (3) functional requirements, (4) nonfunctional requirements, and (5) Agile software development cycles. In a pilot study with 18 participants aged 18-45 years and with different levels of health literacy, participants were given a toothbrush, toothpaste, mouthwash, toothpicks, and dental floss. After installing iGAM, they were asked to photograph their gums weekly for 4 weeks. RESULTS: All participants in the focus group believed in the potential of a mobile app to monitor gingivitis and reduce its severity. Concerns about security and privacy issues were discussed. From the interviews, 2 themes were derived: (1) "what's in it for me?" and (2) the need for a take-home message. The 5 cycles of development highlighted the importance of communication between dentists, app developers, and the pilot group. Qualitative analysis of the data from the pilot study showed difficulty with: (1) the camera, which was alleviated with the provision of mouth openers, and (2) the operation of the phone, which was alleviated by changing the app to be fully automated, with a weekly reminder and an instructions document. Final interviews showed satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: iGAM is the first mHealth app for monitoring gingivitis using self-photography. iGAM facilitates the information flow between dentists and patients between checkups and may be useful when face-to-face consultations are not possible (such as during the COVID-19 pandemic).


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/métodos , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Aplicativos Móveis , Fotografação , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
16.
Periodontol 2000 ; 84(1): 35-44, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844413

RESUMO

It is well established that dental plaque on teeth leads to gingivitis and periodontitis, and that several mechanical and chemical methods of plaque control can prevent gingivitis. The aim of the current review is to summarize and synthesize the available scientific evidence supporting practices for mechanical oral hygiene to prevent periodontal diseases. Evidence for contemporary practices of mechanical oral hygiene to prevent periodontal disease relies on studies of gingivitis patients. General recommendations concerning the ideal oral hygiene devices and procedures are still inconclusive. However, toothbrushing and interdental cleaning remain the mainstays of prevention of periodontal diseases. The primary approach requires individually tailored instruction for implementation of a systematic oral hygiene regimen.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Escovação Dentária
17.
Periodontol 2000 ; 84(1): 9-13, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844421

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that common diseases of the oral cavity, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are preventable. Based on a large body of scientific evidence, a number of preventive strategies are known to prevent these diseases, but only if routinely implemented. Unfortunately, while most preventive strategies are theoretically simple to understand, they are often difficult to employ in practice at individual and public health levels. This volume of Periodontology 2000 provides the most current information on the state of the science and the evidence base supporting a preventive perspective for the management of periodontal disease, including evidence for proven interventions as well as cutting-edge ideas for potential future interventions. In addition to well-established and scientifically proven approaches (tooth and implant cleansing, topical chemotherapeutics, reduction in risk factors such as tobacco smoking), a number of new ideas are now under investigation, including antioxidant agents, probiotics, vaccines, and slow-release alternative chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, there are new ideas to alter patient behaviors with the aim to improve adherence to preventive strategies. Finally, examples from implementation science and public health are provided that suggest novel approaches to bring new ideas into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Periodontite , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco
18.
Periodontol 2000 ; 84(1): 102-123, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844420

RESUMO

There is increasing public interest in natural or herbal-based healthcare products. This trend is not only visible in supermarkets and dental practices, but also in the scientific world. An improving number of clinical trials are being conducted to validate the claims made about these products in regards to periodontal health. Among single component preparations, Aloe vera and green tea are the most studied natural ingredients. Concerning polyherbal mixtures, triphala has garnered great interest. The effects of these natural products on periodontal health is encouraging, with almost all studies showing an inhibitory effect on plaque accumulation and an improvement in gingival health. However, more studies are needed to be able to design clinical guidelines to guide the use of these natural products in periodontal practice. For most of these products, few studies are available and, moreover, the available studies are limited in duration, the number of participants, and the specific composition of the natural product is often not described in detail.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Cremes Dentais
19.
J Dent Hyg ; 94(4): 29-38, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753522

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of using mobile text messages and a novel floss holder as compared to finger flossing or the novel floss holder alone, on the psychological, behavioral, and clinical parameters of patients with gingivitis.Methods: A total 165 adults were assessed for eligibility and 144 met the criteria for randomization into three groups: Finger Floss (FF, n=43), Novel Floss Holder (NFH, n= 40), and Novel Floss Holder plus Text Messages (NFH+TM, n= 61) following a dental hygiene consultation appointment. Gingival bleeding points were measured on probing (BOMP) at baseline and four months later by a calibrated dental hygienist, blinded to the experimental groups. Participants also self-reported their oral hygiene behaviors, and indicated psychological determinants of behavior change prior to the dental hygiene consultation and at four months. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare groups over time.Results: Two subjects dropped out of the study making the total number of participants 142. At the four month follow-up, the NFH group and the NFH+TM groups demonstrated significantly higher levels of self-reported flossing, action self-efficacy, intention, action planning, and action control. The NFH+TM group showed lower levels of bleeding and higher levels of oral hygiene and recovery self-efficacy than the other groups, in addition to higher levels of maintenance self-efficacy as compared to the FF group.Conclusions: The use of a novel floss holder, NFH, was shown to improve the behavioral and psychological determinants of periodontal health four months after introduction of the device. However the clinical measures of BOMP only improved significantly when used in conjunction with text messages (NFH+TM). The use of a consciousness awareness technique,TMs, in combination with a novel device, may help patients to reach therapeutic objectives and contribute to the management of periodontal pathologies such as gingivitis.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Higiene Bucal , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Escovação Dentária
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810155

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent condition leading to a continuous destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. It increases the risk for various systemic diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, screening for periodontitis is important. Screening measures can range from self-reported symptoms to clinical full-mouth periodontal examination. The hypothesis of our study was that self-reported parameters and clinical definition perform equally well in identifying periodontitis patients. The aim of this study was to develop, validate its internal consistency, and evaluate a self-reported instrument against periodontal clinical evaluation for diagnosis of periodontitis in a group of postpartum women, as well as to describe their periodontal status and the risk factors associated with periodontal disease. A cross-sectional study on postpartum women was conducted in a tertiary university hospital, from April 2018 to March 2019. Sociodemographic and behavioral data, periodontal clinical parameters, and self-reported periodontal perception were collected. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to obtain information about perceived periodontal alterations and oral hygiene habits. The utility of the questionnaire was tested against a periodontal diagnosis based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. The questionnaire was applied in 215 postpartum women aged 29.16±5.54 years (mean age (y) ± standard deviation) having the following periodontal status: 16 individuals without periodontal disease (7.44%), 32 individuals with gingivitis (14.88%), 19 individuals with mild periodontitis (8.84%), 132 individuals with moderate periodontitis (61.39%), and 16 individuals with severe periodontitis (7.44%). A significant association was observed between oral hygiene score, smoking status, and periodontal conditions (p<0.05). A significant association between the self-reported items related to "gum swelling", "halitosis", "previous periodontal diagnosis" and "previous periodontal treatment" with clinical periodontitis have been identified (p<0.05). Using self-reported questionnaires for detection of periodontal disease was ineffective in our studied population, since self-reported parameters and clinical definition do not appear to perform equally in identifying periodontitis cases. Clinical periodontal examination remains the gold standard for screening. Periodontitis was frequent in our group and the severity was significantly associated with the oral hygiene score and smoking. These results underline the necessity for periodontal clinical examination during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/etiologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Halitose/epidemiologia , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/etiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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