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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466244

RESUMO

Although some studies showed that lifestyle was associated with oral health behavior, few studies investigated the association between household type and oral health behavior. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between household type, oral health behavior, and periodontal status among Japanese university students. Data were obtained from 377 students who received oral examinations and self-questionnaires in 2016 and 2019. We assessed periodontal status using the percentage of bleeding on probing (%BOP), probing pocket depth, oral hygiene status, oral health behaviors, and related factors. We used structural equation modeling to determine the association between household type, oral health behaviors, gingivitis, and periodontitis. At follow-up, 252 students did not live with their families. The mean ± standard deviation of %BOP was 35.5 ± 24.7 at baseline and 32.1 ± 25.3 at follow-up. In the final model, students living with their families were significantly more likely to receive regular dental checkup than those living alone. Regular checkup affected the decrease in calculus. The decrease in calculus affected the decrease in %BOP over 3 years. Living with family was directly associated with regular dental checkups and indirectly contributed to gingival status among Japanese university students.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estudantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD003864, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For people with physical, sensory and cognitive limitations due to stroke, the routine practice of oral health care (OHC) may become a challenge. Evidence-based supported oral care intervention is essential for this patient group. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of OHC interventions with usual care or other treatment options for ensuring oral health in people after a stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group and Cochrane Oral Health Group trials registers, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and six other databases in February 2019. We scanned reference lists from relevant papers and contacted authors and researchers in the field. We handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted other researchers. There were no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated one or more interventions designed to improve the cleanliness and health of the mouth, tongue and teeth in people with a stroke who received assisted OHC led by healthcare staff. We included trials with a mixed population provided we could extract the stroke-specific data. The primary outcomes were dental plaque or denture plaque. Secondary outcomes included presence of oral disease, presence of related infection and oral opportunistic pathogens related to OHC and pneumonia, stroke survivor and providers' knowledge and attitudes to OHC, and patient satisfaction and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened abstracts and full-text articles according to prespecified selection criteria, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We sought clarification from investigators when required. Where suitable statistical data were available, we combined the selected outcome data in pooled meta-analyses. We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen RCTs (22 randomised comparisons) involving 3631 participants with data for 1546 people with stroke met the selection criteria. OHC interventions compared with usual care Seven trials (2865 participants, with data for 903 participants with stroke, 1028 healthcare providers, 94 informal carers) investigated OHC interventions compared with usual care. Multi-component OHC interventions showed no evidence of a difference in the mean score (DMS) of dental plaque one month after the intervention was delivered (DMS -0.66, 95% CI -1.40 to 0.09; 2 trials, 83 participants; I2 = 83%; P = 0.08; very low-quality evidence). Stroke survivors had less plaque on their dentures when staff had access to the multi-component OHC intervention (DMS -1.31, 95% CI -1.96 to -0.66; 1 trial, 38 participants; P < 0.0001; low-quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in gingivitis (DMS -0.60, 95% CI -1.66 to 0.45; 2 trials, 83 participants; I2 = 93%; P = 0.26: very low-quality evidence) or denture-induced stomatitis (DMS -0.33, 95% CI -0.92 to 0.26; 1 trial, 38 participants; P = 0.69; low-quality evidence) among participants receiving the multi-component OHC protocol compared with usual care one month after the intervention. There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants receiving a multi-component OHC intervention (99 participants; 5 incidents of pneumonia) compared with those receiving usual care (105 participants; 1 incident of pneumonia) (OR 4.17, CI 95% 0.82 to 21.11; 1 trial, 204 participants; P = 0.08; low-quality evidence). OHC training for stroke survivors and healthcare providers significantly improved their OHC knowledge at one month after training (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.35; 3 trials, 728 participants; I2 = 94%; P = 0.03; very low-quality evidence). Pooled data one month after training also showed evidence of a difference between stroke survivor and providers' oral health attitudes (SMD 0.28, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.54; 3 trials, 728 participants; I2 = 65%; P = 0.06; very low-quality evidence). OHC interventions compared with placebo Three trials (394 participants, with data for 271 participants with stroke) compared an OHC intervention with placebo. There were no data for primary outcomes. There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants receiving an OHC intervention compared with placebo (OR 0.39, CI 95% 0.14 to 1.09; 2 trials, 242 participants; I2 = 42%; P = 0.07; low-quality evidence). However, decontamination gel reduced the incidence of pneumonia among the intervention group compared with placebo gel group (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; 1 trial, 203 participants; P = 0.028). There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants treated with povidone-iodine compared with a placebo (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.18 to 3.51; 1 trial, 39 participants; P = 0.77). One OHC intervention compared with another OHC intervention Twelve trials (372 participants with stroke) compared one OHC intervention with another OHC intervention. There was no difference in dental plaque scores between those participants that received an enhanced multi-component OHC intervention compared with conventional OHC interventions at three months (MD -0.04, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.25; 1 trial, 61 participants; P = 0.78; low-quality evidence). There were no data for denture plaque. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low- to very low-quality evidence suggesting that OHC interventions can improve the cleanliness of patient's dentures and stroke survivor and providers' knowledge and attitudes. There is limited low-quality evidence that selective decontamination gel may be more beneficial than placebo at reducing the incidence of pneumonia. Improvements in the cleanliness of a patient's own teeth was limited. We judged the quality of the evidence included within meta-analyses to be low or very low quality, and this limits our confidence in the results. We still lack high-quality evidence of the optimal approach to providing OHC to people after stroke.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Educação em Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estomatite sob Prótese/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810155

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent condition leading to a continuous destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. It increases the risk for various systemic diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, screening for periodontitis is important. Screening measures can range from self-reported symptoms to clinical full-mouth periodontal examination. The hypothesis of our study was that self-reported parameters and clinical definition perform equally well in identifying periodontitis patients. The aim of this study was to develop, validate its internal consistency, and evaluate a self-reported instrument against periodontal clinical evaluation for diagnosis of periodontitis in a group of postpartum women, as well as to describe their periodontal status and the risk factors associated with periodontal disease. A cross-sectional study on postpartum women was conducted in a tertiary university hospital, from April 2018 to March 2019. Sociodemographic and behavioral data, periodontal clinical parameters, and self-reported periodontal perception were collected. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to obtain information about perceived periodontal alterations and oral hygiene habits. The utility of the questionnaire was tested against a periodontal diagnosis based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. The questionnaire was applied in 215 postpartum women aged 29.16±5.54 years (mean age (y) ± standard deviation) having the following periodontal status: 16 individuals without periodontal disease (7.44%), 32 individuals with gingivitis (14.88%), 19 individuals with mild periodontitis (8.84%), 132 individuals with moderate periodontitis (61.39%), and 16 individuals with severe periodontitis (7.44%). A significant association was observed between oral hygiene score, smoking status, and periodontal conditions (p<0.05). A significant association between the self-reported items related to "gum swelling", "halitosis", "previous periodontal diagnosis" and "previous periodontal treatment" with clinical periodontitis have been identified (p<0.05). Using self-reported questionnaires for detection of periodontal disease was ineffective in our studied population, since self-reported parameters and clinical definition do not appear to perform equally in identifying periodontitis cases. Clinical periodontal examination remains the gold standard for screening. Periodontitis was frequent in our group and the severity was significantly associated with the oral hygiene score and smoking. These results underline the necessity for periodontal clinical examination during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/etiologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Halitose/epidemiologia , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/etiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Aust Dent J ; 65 Suppl 1: S52-S58, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583592

RESUMO

Periodontal diseases are some of the major oral diseases and conditions in adults. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to present the population patterns of periodontal diseases and trends of periodontitis in the Australian adult population. METHODS: Data collected in the recent National Study of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH) 2017-18 were used to present the current population patterns of periodontal diseases. Periodontal assessment was carried out at three sites per tooth for all present teeth, excluding third molars. Prevalence of gingivitis, periodontal pocket depth of 4+ mm, gingival recession of 2+ mm, and clinical attachment loss of 4+ mm were calculated and reported. The US CDC/AAP case definition was used to define cases of moderate to severe periodontitis. NSAOH 2017-18 data were combined with data collected in NSAOH 2004-06 using similar methods to describe age- and cohort-related trends of periodontitis. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontal diseases and conditions were relatively high in the Australian adult population. Some three in every ten Australian adults had moderate to severe periodontitis. There was a tendency of higher prevalence of periodontitis in NSAOH 2017-18 than in NSAOH 2004-06 among people of the same age. CONCLUSION: Periodontal diseases and conditions remain a significant problem in the Australian adult population.


Assuntos
Retração Gengival , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Prevalência
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is affected by different clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of gingivitis on OHRQoL in adolescents. METHODOLOGY: This cohort study consisted of a random sample of 1,134 schoolchildren enrolled during 2012, in Santa Maria, Brazil. After two years, 743 adolescents were follow-up (response rate: 65.5%). Clinical, socioeconomic and OHRQoL data were collected. OHRQoL was assessed by the short Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), and gingival bleeding through Community Periodontal Index. Gingivitis was considered with the presence of 15% or more bleeding sites. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between gingivitis and overall and domain-specific CPQ11-14 scores. Prevalence of gingivitis at baseline was considered the main predictor for the OHRQoL at follow-up. RESULTS: Gingivitis at baseline was associated with higher overall CPQ 11-14 score (RR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.14), and emotional well-being (RR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.31), independently of other oral conditions and socioeconomic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that gingivitis negatively impacts the adolescents' OHRQoL. Moreover, gender, maternal schooling and household income were also associated with OHRQoL.


Assuntos
Gengivite/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/psicologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traumatismos Dentários/psicologia
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 183-190, June 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090673

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to show the distribution of periodontal disease, risk factors, and importance of primary healthcare, for the improvement of clinical parameters. Two phases study transversal and nonrandomized trial (before - after), with educational intervention and conservative treatment, were carried out at Dental School of the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero México, in 161 subjects who met the inclusion criteria. Oral healthcare education was carried out as well as conservative periodontal treatment, with six months follow up. Clinical measurements were performed with a Williams probe, O'Leary plaque index, calculus index and dental mobility Miller method. Periodontal disease was found on 82 % of all participants. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed an odds ratio of 14.3 (95 % CI: 2.5, 82.1), 13.4 (95 % CI: 1.7, 103.5), 29.2 (95 % CI: 3.2, 260.9) and 68 (95 % CI: 6.6, 711.0) plaque in gingivitis, mild, moderate and severe chronic periodontitis, respectively. The longitudinal panel data analysis showed a significant effect (p <0.001) in the mean decrease of the clinical parameters after intervention, probing depth 0.4 mm (95 % CI: -0.5, -0.3), pockets depth 1.1 mm (95 % CI: -1.3, -0.9), amount of pockets 4.5 (95 % CI: -5.2, -3.7), bleeding 5.2 (95 % CI: -5.9, -4.5) and dental mobility 0.6 degrees (95 % CI: -0.7, -0.5). Primary healthcare is still the best option to improve the periodontal health in population who do not have access to specialty services. Dentists can achieve significant clinical improvement at very low cost, if they are aware of primary health care.


El objetivo del estudio fue mostrar la distribución de la enfermedad periodontal, los factores de riesgo y la importancia de la atención primaria de salud, para la mejora de los parámetros clínicos. Material y método: Estudio de dos fases transversal y no aleatorizado (antes - después), con intervención educativa y tratamiento conservador, realizado en la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero México, en 161 sujetos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se llevó a cabo una educación sanitaria oral, así como un tratamiento periodontal conservador, con un seguimiento de seis meses. Las mediciones clínicas se realizaron con una sonda Williams, el índice de placa O'Leary, el índice de cálculo y el método Miller de movilidad dental. Resultados: se encontró enfermedad periodontal en el 82 % de todos los participantes. El análisis de regresión logística multinomial mostró un odds ratio de 14.3 (IC 95 %: 2.5, 82.1), 13.4 (IC 95 %: 1.7, 103.5), 29.2 (IC 95 %: 3.2, 260.9) y 68 (IC 95 %: 6.6, 711.0) placa en gingivitis, periodontitis crónica leve, moderada y grave, respectivamente. El análisis de datos del panel longitudinal mostró un efecto significativo (p <0.001) en la disminución media de los parámetros clínicos después de la intervención, profundidad de sondeo 0.4 mm (IC 95 %: -0.5, -0.3), profundidad de bolsillos 1.1 mm (IC 95 %: -1.3, -0.9), cantidad de bolsillos 4.5 (IC 95 %: -5.2, -3.7), hemorragia 5.2 (IC 95 %: -5.9, -4.5) y movilidad dental 0.6 grados (IC 95 %: -0.7, - 0.5). Conclusiones: la atención primaria de salud sigue siendo la mejor opción para mejorar la salud periodontal en la población que no tiene acceso a servicios especializados. Relevancia clínica: los dentistas pueden lograr una mejora clínica significativa a un costo muy bajo, si conocen la atención primaria de salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Modelos Logísticos , Saúde Bucal , Educação em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Seguimentos , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Tratamento Conservador , Gengivite/epidemiologia , México
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294676

RESUMO

The epidemiological data on gingivitis and periodontitis in Latin America are scarce, as the majority of the Latin American studies have analyzed probing depth instead of clinical attachment loss. Reported data have shown high variations in results between different Latin American countries, with the main causes of these differences being the clinical case definition and methodological strategies used. In general, data have revealed that the prevalence of periodontal disease is higher in Latin Americans than in populations in the USA or Europe. Regarding its relations with other diseases and conditions, some Latin American studies have focused on the association between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes, or poor glycemic control in diabetic patients; however, these studies have reported controversial results. In Chile, reports have indicated that periodontal treatment significantly reduced the preterm birth rate; however, no association between periodontitis and perinatal outcome was found in Brazil. For diabetes mellitus, Brazilian studies have reported controversial findings; however, a Chilean interventional study reported significant reductions in the glycosylated hemoglobin levels after periodontal treatment. Although epidemiological data for Latin America are scarce, the information available at present is useful for establishing national policies on health promotion, prevention, and treatment of periodontal disease. Therefore, dental schools must play a key role in educating professionals who are highly trained in the promotion, prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, with an approach to risk, and strong biopsychosocial and ethical components. Thus, future Latin American dentists would be able to face the challenge of decreasing the prevalence of periodontal diseases by leading interdisciplinary health teamwork.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294680

RESUMO

Periodontal diseases are considered a worldwide public health problem, owing to their high prevalence in developed and developing countries. Periodontitis may lead to tooth loss, which can impact oral health-related quality of life. Gingivitis and periodontitis have been extensively studied regarding their etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention and treatment outcomes. However, most of these aspects are studied and discussed globally, which may hamper a clear interpretation of the findings and the design of effective plans of action for specific regions or populations. For example, in Latin America, epidemiological data about the distribution of periodontal diseases is still scarce, mainly when it comes to nationwide representative samples. This Consensus aimed to address the following topics related to periodontal diseases in Latin America: a) The impact of the global burden of periodontal diseases on health: a global reality; b) Periodontal diseases in Latin America; c) Strategies for the prevention of periodontal diseases in Latin America; d) Problems associated with diagnosis of periodontal conditions and possible solutions for Latin America; e) Treatment of Periodontitis. This consensus will help to increase awareness about diagnosis, prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases, in the context of Latin American countries.


Assuntos
Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Feminino , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/terapia , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
9.
APMIS ; 128(5): 401-405, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202674

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate oral health in randomly selected patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data obtained by structured interview (self-reported lifestyle, oral symptoms and regularity of dental visits) and oral examination of patients with CKD from the Copenhagen University Hospital. Fourteen patients with CKD were screened. Only half of the patients reported regular dental visits and poor dental status was registered in half of the patients. Oral mucosal changes were registered in thirteen patients (93%). Eleven patients (79%) had gingival inflammatory disease. Twelve patients (86%) were carriers of Candida, and three (21%) had oral candidosis. Six patients (43%) had low whole saliva flow rate. Twelve patients (86%) reported at least one oral symptom. Overall, there was no differences in oral symptoms or findings related to kidney transplanted or not transplanted patients. The small sample size most likely influences the results. However, the vast majority of patients with CKD reported oral symptoms and only half consulted a dentist regularly. Poor dental status, oral mucosal changes and gingival disease were prevalent findings. Patients with CKD need focus on daily oral healthcare and regular dental visits. Interdisciplinary cooperation could encourage patients with CKD to focus on oral health.


Assuntos
Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Saliva
10.
J Periodontal Res ; 55(4): 559-566, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between weight status and gingivitis in a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren from South Brazil. BACKGROUND: An association between obesity and gingivitis in children and adolescents has been observed; however, the present evidence has major limitations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Porto Alegre, South Brazil, from September 2009 to December 2010 and included a representative sample of 1528 12-year-old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Data collection included the application of a questionnaire, recording of anthropometric measures (weight and height), and clinical examination (gingival bleeding index, recorded in four sites per tooth). The outcome of the study was the prevalence of gingivitis, defined as the proportion of schoolchildren presenting ≥52% of bleeding sites (based on the median). Weight status was categorized according to body mass index into normal, overweight, or obese. The association between predictor variables and gingivitis prevalence was assessed using Poisson regression models. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. RESULTS: Gingivitis prevalence was 48.7% (95% IC = 33.8-63.6) and, on average, schoolchildren presented 51.8% (95% IC = 46.2-57.5) of bleeding sites. Obese individuals had 13% higher prevalence for presenting gingivitis than did normal-weight ones (PR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.09-1.18, P < .001). The stratified analysis showed that this association was sex-specific: Obese girls presented a greater chance of having gingivitis (adjusted PR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.09-1.34, P < .001), but such association was not observed among boys (PR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.95-1.20, P = .29). CONCLUSION: This study showed sex differences in the association between obesity and gingivitis among 12-year-old South Brazilian schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Obesidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gengivite/complicações , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(2): 172-177, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005468

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of being overweight or obese while wearing orthodontic fixed appliances on the prevalence of gingivitis in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 334 adolescents, aged between 12 and 18 years, were recruited from 3 public schools in Cuiabá, Brazil. Participants were divided in dichotomized categories of body mass index (BMI) (under and normal weight or overweight and obesity) and fixed orthodontic appliance usage (yes or no). Gingival inflammation was evaluated by Löe & Silness index. Socioeconomic status was determined by the criteria of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies, and sugar consumption was assessed by a questionnaire of dietary habits. The statistical analysis was performed with P <0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression model, gingivitis was directly related to BMI (%) variation and orthodontic appliance use. In addition, excess weight seemed to be 2 times more relevant in predicting gingivitis than orthodontic fixed appliance usage. A strong positive correlation was observed between BMI (%) variation and gingival index (ρ = 0.97, P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontic fixed appliance usage and excess weight were associated with increased gingivitis in adolescents; BMI (%) variation was the most significant predictor of gingival inflammation.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Gengiva , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos
12.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(1): 476-487, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402936

RESUMO

Introduction: Dental fluorosis is endemic in the Rift Valley in Africa, especially around volcanic areas, due to the high fluoride content in daily drinking water. Objective: This study evaluates the oral health status and types of occlusion in a school population, and to assess the possible association between dental fluorosis and other pathologies such as decay, gingivitis and periodontitis. Material and methods: An observational study of 581 individuals recruited from a public secondary school in Arusha, Northern Tanzania was undertaken. The indices used were: the Silness & Löe Plaque Index, the Community Periodontal Index and the Decayed/Missing/Filled index. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed and a chi-square test was used to assess the associations between independent variables. Results: Almost all the school children evaluated (96.73%) presented Angle class I dental occlusion, and 75.22% presented some degree of dental fluorosis. Most of the population (511, 87.95%) showed bleeding on probing. A moderate/high degree of some dental pathology (DMF score) was recorded in 14.46%. The association between dental fluorosis, gingival bleeding and tooth decay indicated a higher concentration of pathology in groups with more severe fluorosis (p<0.05). Conclusion: In this large population sample, both tooth decay and gingivitis were significantly associated with moderate or severe dental fluorosis.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluoretação/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos/análise , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Classe Social , Doenças Dentárias/prevenção & controle
13.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200051, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101588

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is affected by different clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of gingivitis on OHRQoL in adolescents. Methodology: This cohort study consisted of a random sample of 1,134 schoolchildren enrolled during 2012, in Santa Maria, Brazil. After two years, 743 adolescents were follow-up (response rate: 65.5%). Clinical, socioeconomic and OHRQoL data were collected. OHRQoL was assessed by the short Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), and gingival bleeding through Community Periodontal Index. Gingivitis was considered with the presence of 15% or more bleeding sites. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between gingivitis and overall and domain-specific CPQ11-14 scores. Prevalence of gingivitis at baseline was considered the main predictor for the OHRQoL at follow-up. Results: Gingivitis at baseline was associated with higher overall CPQ 11-14 score (RR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.14), and emotional well-being (RR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.31), independently of other oral conditions and socioeconomic variables. Conclusions: The findings indicate that gingivitis negatively impacts the adolescents' OHRQoL. Moreover, gender, maternal schooling and household income were also associated with OHRQoL.


RESUMO: Introdução: Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal (QVRSB) é afetada por diferentes condições clínicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto da gengivite na QVRSB de adolescentes. Metodologia: Este estudo de coorte consistiu em uma amostra aleatória de 1.134 escolares iniciado em 2012, na cidade de Santa Maria, Brasil. Após dois anos, 743 adolescentes foram acompanhados (taxa de resposta: 65,5%). Dados clínicos, socioeconômicos e de QVRSB foram coletados. A QVRSB foi avaliada pela versão brasileira curta do Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14) e o sangramento gengival foi coletado através do Índice Periodontal Comunitário. Gengivite foi considerada com o indivíduo apresentando 15% ou mais locais de sangramento. Os modelos de regressão de Poisson foram utilizados para avaliar a associação entre gengivite e os escores total e específico do domínio do CPQ11-14. A prevalência de gengivite na primeira avaliação foi considerada o preditor principal para a QVRSB no acompanhamento. Resultados: A gengivite no baseline foi associada à maior pontuação geral do CPQ 11-14 (RR = 1,07; IC95% 1,01 - 1,14) e ao domínio de bem-estar emocional (RR = 1,17; IC95% 1,04 - 1,31), independentemente das outras condições orais e variáveis socioeconômicas. Conclusão: Os achados indicam que a gengivite impacta negativamente a QVRSB de adolescentes. Além disso, sexo, escolaridade materna e renda familiar mensal também foram associados à QVRSB.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Qualidade de Vida , Gengivite/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/psicologia , Saúde Bucal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Longitudinais , Traumatismos Dentários/psicologia , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia
14.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 72-76, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687953

RESUMO

Dysbacteriosis of the oral cavity is known to complicate the course of chronic catarrhal gingivitis resulting from functional disorders of the macroorganism ecosystem, decreased amount of probiotic and increased amount of opportunistic and pathogenic microflora. And natural immune response is activated first in this case. It differentiates pathogens by TLR. The aim - to enhance the efficacy of treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus by means of improving the methods of pharmacological correction on the basis of investigation of the indices of local natural immune response and microbiological properties of the disease. We formed 2 group of the study. Children received basic insulin therapy. The treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children from the main group were suggested the antiseptic solution "Decasan"; pill of a probiotic action "BioGaia ProDentis" and the immune modulator "Imupret". Children from the comparative group were treated according to the common scheme. Oral microflora of children after treatment was decreased by 69,42% of general microbial number in children from the main group. Natural immunity state was also indicative of the improved protective mechanisms of the oral cavity in children from the main subgroup in the dynamics of treatment: twice as less level of mRNA TLR-2 expression was found in the main subgroup and mRNA TLR-4 - 45,44%. Therefore, the initiated course of treatment concerning chronic catarrhal gingivitis promoted a considerable improvement of the periodontal tissue state in children.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Gengivite/imunologia , Gengivite/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
15.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e49, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526409

RESUMO

AIM: Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia have a higher risk of periodontal disease, which can potentially reduce their life expectancy. However, evidence for the early development of periodontal disease in schizophrenia is scant. The current study investigated risk factors for periodontal disease in patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: We identified a population-based cohort of patients in Taiwan with newly diagnosed schizophrenia who developed periodontal disease within 1 year of their schizophrenia diagnosis. Treatment with antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to medication type and duration, and the association between medication use and the treated periodontal disease was assessed through logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2373 (65.7%) had an incidence of treated periodontal disease during the 1-year follow-up. Female sex (adjusted odds ratios [OR] 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.63); young age (adjusted OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-0.99); a 2-year history of periodontal disease (adjusted OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.84-3.26); high income level (adjusted OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.64-3.06) and exposure to first-generation (adjusted OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.54-2.32) and secondary-generation (adjusted OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11-1.58) antipsychotics, anticholinergics (adjusted OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.03-1.50) and antihypertensives (adjusted OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.64-2.23) were independent risk factors for periodontal disease. Hyposalivation - an adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) (adjusted OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.63-2.45), anticholinergics (adjusted OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05-1.53) and antihypertensives (adjusted OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.63-2.22) - was associated with increased risk of periodontal disease. Therefore, hypersalivation due to FGA use (adjusted OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.88) was considered a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: The current study highlights that early prevention of periodontal disease in individuals with schizophrenia is crucial. Along with paying more attention to the development of periodontal disease, assessing oral health regularly, helping with oral hygiene, and lowering consumption of sugary drinks and tobacco, emphasis should also be given by physicians to reduce the prescription of antipsychotics to the extent possible under efficacious pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
16.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e090, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531553

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on gingival inflammation in a representative sample of 1,650 adults from Santiago (Chile), Porto Alegre (Brazil), and Tucumán (Argentina). A questionnaire was administered to participants to gather demographic and behavioral characteristics, including smoking habits. The participants were clinically examined to obtain gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI), and calculus presence values. Gingival inflammation was defined as a mean GI > 0.5. Heavy smokers presented significantly lower levels of gingival inflammation, as reflected by both GI and GBI, than both light and moderate smokers, despite their having increased amounts of plaque and calculus. Being 50 years old or older [odds ratio (OR), 1.93], a VPI ≥ 30% (OR, 28.1), and self-reported diabetes (OR, 2.79) were positively associated with detection of gingival inflammation. In conclusion, the occurrence of clinically detectable gingival inflammation was lower in heavy smokers than light and moderate smokers. Older age, diabetes, and visible plaque emerged as risk indicators of gingivitis. Plaque and gingival indices are significantly associated regardless of the smoking status.


Assuntos
Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 207, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral flagellated protozoan Trichomonas tenax has been associated with patients with periodontal disease. However, no recent studies have been conducted on the prevalence of T. tenax in Chile. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. tenax in patients with periodontal disease, admitted to the Dental Clinic of the University of Antofagasta, Chile, through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of the beta-tubulin gene. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, 20 of them with gingivitis and 30 with periodontitis. T. tenax was identified by PCR amplification of the beta-tubulin gene. Associations between the protozoan and periodontal disease or the presence of risk factors to establish T. tenax infection were determined using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: T. tenax was present in 28 out of 50 (56%) of patients with periodontal disease, and was more prevalent when associated with periodontitis (21 out of 30; 70%) than dental plaque-induced gingivitis (7 out of 20; 35%). Non-statistically-significant associations were observed between the presence of T. tenax and age, gender, smoking habit or diabetes. Statistically significant associations were observed between the presence of T. tenax and periodontal disease, and between T. tenax and the Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) index. CONCLUSION: T. tenax showed a high presence in patients with progressive states of periodontal diseases. Consequently, T. tenax detection is strongly recommended in patients with periodontal disease diagnosis and with a PSR index greater than 3.


Assuntos
Gengivite/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Trichomonas/isolamento & purificação , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Clínicas Odontológicas , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Universidades
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1157-1162, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417061

RESUMO

Background: The aims of this study are to present sociodemographic and familial characteristics, clinical and systemic findings, dental treatment needs, and concomitant dental anomalies in patients with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) and to evaluate time-varying conditions in these long-term follow-up patients. Materials and Methods: Records of patients with AI who were examined in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry between 1999 and 2017 were reviewed. Information about sociodemographic characteristics, history of AI and consanguinity in family, systemic conditions, reasons for referral to the clinic, oral hygiene habits and gingival health, occlusion findings, and performed treatments were gathered. Dental anomalies in radiographs were also evaluated. Baseline and final situations of the patients were assessed. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: Of 75 patients aged 3-15 years with follow-ups up to 12 years, 34 had AI in their families and 15 were born from consanguineous marriages. Nephrocalcinosis has been observed in 5 patients. Main reasons for referral to the clinic were related to esthetic and hypersensitivity concerns. Twenty-two patients had gingivitis, and during follow-up process, gingival problems could not be completely prevented due to poor oral hygiene habits. Vertical dimension loss, open-bite, and cross-bite were seen in 16, 15, and 10 patients, respectively. Of the patients, 63% experienced restorative, 33% stainless steel crown, 17% endodontic, 8% prosthetic treatments, and 24% had retreatment needs. Concomitant dental anomalies were dens invaginatus, taurodontism, ectopic eruption, delayed eruption, hypodontia, and pulpal calcification. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and interventions considering the time-varying conditions with long-term follow-ups provide significant improvements in clinical maintenance of patients with AI.


Assuntos
Amelogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico por imagem , Amelogênese Imperfeita/terapia , Esmalte Dentário/anormalidades , Reabilitação Bucal/métodos , Radiografia Panorâmica , Adolescente , Amelogênese Imperfeita/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade da Dentina/terapia , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão , Nefrocalcinose/epidemiologia , Nefrocalcinose/terapia , Índice de Higiene Oral , Aço Inoxidável
19.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1795-1800, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149010

RESUMO

Background: Oral contraceptives pills (OCPs) are common and a convenient form of contraception. The use of hormonal contraceptives by women has been considered to influence gingival and periodontal disease progression. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pills on the periodontal health. Materials and method: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 200 females aged 18 years and above of Jaipur city. The study subjects were divided into two groups i.e. contraceptive users and non-contraceptive users, each group consisted 100 females. Data was collected using Modified WHO Performa (1997). Periodontal status was examined using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LOA). Chi-square test and one sample t-test was used for statistical analysis and P value was set (p< 0.05) as significant. Results: Mean CPI score in subjects and non-contraceptive users was 2.34+ 0.81 and 1.16+ 0.89 respectively. Mean LOA score in each group was 0.28+ 0.45 and 0.19+ 0.50 respectively. Conclusion: Oral Contraceptive pills had adverse effects on periodontal health.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Gengivite/induzido quimicamente , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Periodontais/induzido quimicamente , Periodontite/induzido quimicamente , Periodonto/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 5(3): 243-249, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249705

RESUMO

To evaluate periodontal health and oral health behaviors in a cohort of subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D), 50 persons with T1D (30 males and 20 females; mean age: 35.2 years) were recruited from the Diabetology Unit of the Geneva University Hospitals; 50 nondiabetic persons matched for gender, age, and smoking status comprised the control group. We assessed periodontal health using the gingival index (GI), plaque index, probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) and recorded self-reported attitudes and behaviors regarding dental care. The two groups were compared using conditional logistic regression. With respect to the mean PD, CAL, and the mean number of sites with PD >4 mm that bled upon probing, there were no significant differences between the groups. However, subjects with diabetes had significantly more plaque and gingival inflammation and presented more sites with BOP compared with control subjects. Further analysis of the subjects in younger (<40 years) and older (>40 years) cohorts revealed a marked difference in GI between younger healthy and controls, which was also present in older patients and controls but much reduced in magnitude and significance. This marked difference in the gingival health of young versus old diabetic patients to matched controls may provide diagnostic advantages and screening and prevention opportunities to exploit. In spite of similar self-reported oral hygiene habits and frequency of dental visits, patients with T1D presented more plaque and more inflammation than healthy controls, particularly in the younger subjects. Gingivitis in young T1D patients may be an early indicator for more complicated diabetes and periodontitis in the future. Thus, patients with T1D mellitus should be screened for signs of periodontal disease early and should be motivated and instructed in good oral hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Higiene Bucal , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Assistência Odontológica , Índice de Placa Dentária , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Retração Gengival , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Suíça/epidemiologia
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