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1.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(2): 172-177, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005468

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of being overweight or obese while wearing orthodontic fixed appliances on the prevalence of gingivitis in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 334 adolescents, aged between 12 and 18 years, were recruited from 3 public schools in Cuiabá, Brazil. Participants were divided in dichotomized categories of body mass index (BMI) (under and normal weight or overweight and obesity) and fixed orthodontic appliance usage (yes or no). Gingival inflammation was evaluated by Löe & Silness index. Socioeconomic status was determined by the criteria of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies, and sugar consumption was assessed by a questionnaire of dietary habits. The statistical analysis was performed with P <0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression model, gingivitis was directly related to BMI (%) variation and orthodontic appliance use. In addition, excess weight seemed to be 2 times more relevant in predicting gingivitis than orthodontic fixed appliance usage. A strong positive correlation was observed between BMI (%) variation and gingival index (ρ = 0.97, P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontic fixed appliance usage and excess weight were associated with increased gingivitis in adolescents; BMI (%) variation was the most significant predictor of gingival inflammation.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Gengiva , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos
2.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 72-76, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687953

RESUMO

Dysbacteriosis of the oral cavity is known to complicate the course of chronic catarrhal gingivitis resulting from functional disorders of the macroorganism ecosystem, decreased amount of probiotic and increased amount of opportunistic and pathogenic microflora. And natural immune response is activated first in this case. It differentiates pathogens by TLR. The aim - to enhance the efficacy of treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus by means of improving the methods of pharmacological correction on the basis of investigation of the indices of local natural immune response and microbiological properties of the disease. We formed 2 group of the study. Children received basic insulin therapy. The treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children from the main group were suggested the antiseptic solution "Decasan"; pill of a probiotic action "BioGaia ProDentis" and the immune modulator "Imupret". Children from the comparative group were treated according to the common scheme. Oral microflora of children after treatment was decreased by 69,42% of general microbial number in children from the main group. Natural immunity state was also indicative of the improved protective mechanisms of the oral cavity in children from the main subgroup in the dynamics of treatment: twice as less level of mRNA TLR-2 expression was found in the main subgroup and mRNA TLR-4 - 45,44%. Therefore, the initiated course of treatment concerning chronic catarrhal gingivitis promoted a considerable improvement of the periodontal tissue state in children.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Gengivite/imunologia , Gengivite/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e090, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531553

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on gingival inflammation in a representative sample of 1,650 adults from Santiago (Chile), Porto Alegre (Brazil), and Tucumán (Argentina). A questionnaire was administered to participants to gather demographic and behavioral characteristics, including smoking habits. The participants were clinically examined to obtain gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI), and calculus presence values. Gingival inflammation was defined as a mean GI > 0.5. Heavy smokers presented significantly lower levels of gingival inflammation, as reflected by both GI and GBI, than both light and moderate smokers, despite their having increased amounts of plaque and calculus. Being 50 years old or older [odds ratio (OR), 1.93], a VPI ≥ 30% (OR, 28.1), and self-reported diabetes (OR, 2.79) were positively associated with detection of gingival inflammation. In conclusion, the occurrence of clinically detectable gingival inflammation was lower in heavy smokers than light and moderate smokers. Older age, diabetes, and visible plaque emerged as risk indicators of gingivitis. Plaque and gingival indices are significantly associated regardless of the smoking status.


Assuntos
Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 207, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral flagellated protozoan Trichomonas tenax has been associated with patients with periodontal disease. However, no recent studies have been conducted on the prevalence of T. tenax in Chile. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. tenax in patients with periodontal disease, admitted to the Dental Clinic of the University of Antofagasta, Chile, through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of the beta-tubulin gene. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, 20 of them with gingivitis and 30 with periodontitis. T. tenax was identified by PCR amplification of the beta-tubulin gene. Associations between the protozoan and periodontal disease or the presence of risk factors to establish T. tenax infection were determined using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: T. tenax was present in 28 out of 50 (56%) of patients with periodontal disease, and was more prevalent when associated with periodontitis (21 out of 30; 70%) than dental plaque-induced gingivitis (7 out of 20; 35%). Non-statistically-significant associations were observed between the presence of T. tenax and age, gender, smoking habit or diabetes. Statistically significant associations were observed between the presence of T. tenax and periodontal disease, and between T. tenax and the Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) index. CONCLUSION: T. tenax showed a high presence in patients with progressive states of periodontal diseases. Consequently, T. tenax detection is strongly recommended in patients with periodontal disease diagnosis and with a PSR index greater than 3.


Assuntos
Gengivite/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Trichomonas/isolamento & purificação , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Clínicas Odontológicas , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Universidades
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1157-1162, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417061

RESUMO

Background: The aims of this study are to present sociodemographic and familial characteristics, clinical and systemic findings, dental treatment needs, and concomitant dental anomalies in patients with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) and to evaluate time-varying conditions in these long-term follow-up patients. Materials and Methods: Records of patients with AI who were examined in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry between 1999 and 2017 were reviewed. Information about sociodemographic characteristics, history of AI and consanguinity in family, systemic conditions, reasons for referral to the clinic, oral hygiene habits and gingival health, occlusion findings, and performed treatments were gathered. Dental anomalies in radiographs were also evaluated. Baseline and final situations of the patients were assessed. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: Of 75 patients aged 3-15 years with follow-ups up to 12 years, 34 had AI in their families and 15 were born from consanguineous marriages. Nephrocalcinosis has been observed in 5 patients. Main reasons for referral to the clinic were related to esthetic and hypersensitivity concerns. Twenty-two patients had gingivitis, and during follow-up process, gingival problems could not be completely prevented due to poor oral hygiene habits. Vertical dimension loss, open-bite, and cross-bite were seen in 16, 15, and 10 patients, respectively. Of the patients, 63% experienced restorative, 33% stainless steel crown, 17% endodontic, 8% prosthetic treatments, and 24% had retreatment needs. Concomitant dental anomalies were dens invaginatus, taurodontism, ectopic eruption, delayed eruption, hypodontia, and pulpal calcification. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and interventions considering the time-varying conditions with long-term follow-ups provide significant improvements in clinical maintenance of patients with AI.


Assuntos
Amelogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico por imagem , Amelogênese Imperfeita/terapia , Esmalte Dentário/anormalidades , Reabilitação Bucal/métodos , Radiografia Panorâmica , Adolescente , Amelogênese Imperfeita/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade da Dentina/terapia , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão , Nefrocalcinose/epidemiologia , Nefrocalcinose/terapia , Índice de Higiene Oral , Aço Inoxidável
6.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1795-1800, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149010

RESUMO

Background: Oral contraceptives pills (OCPs) are common and a convenient form of contraception. The use of hormonal contraceptives by women has been considered to influence gingival and periodontal disease progression. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pills on the periodontal health. Materials and method: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 200 females aged 18 years and above of Jaipur city. The study subjects were divided into two groups i.e. contraceptive users and non-contraceptive users, each group consisted 100 females. Data was collected using Modified WHO Performa (1997). Periodontal status was examined using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LOA). Chi-square test and one sample t-test was used for statistical analysis and P value was set (p< 0.05) as significant. Results: Mean CPI score in subjects and non-contraceptive users was 2.34+ 0.81 and 1.16+ 0.89 respectively. Mean LOA score in each group was 0.28+ 0.45 and 0.19+ 0.50 respectively. Conclusion: Oral Contraceptive pills had adverse effects on periodontal health.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Gengivite/induzido quimicamente , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Periodontais/induzido quimicamente , Periodontite/induzido quimicamente , Periodonto/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 32(1): 17-21, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206570

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of Chronic Periodontitis (CP) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and to ascertain its relationship with several factors or indicators of micro inflammation. One hundred and thirty-jive CKD patients on dialysis treatment were included. Biochemical parameters, clinical attachment level and pocket depth were recorded according of the American Academy of Periodontology and the CDC (CDC-AAP). Gingivitis and CP were recorded based on the biofilm-gingival interface (BGI) periodontal diseases classification. The rate of non-response to the survey was 10 percent. A total 2,636 teeth in 135 patients were examined, of whom 52.5% were males. Average age was 55.7 years (SD ± 1.32); 41.4% had a smoking history; 78/135 patients were on hemodialysis and 57/135 on peritoneal dialysis; 55.5% had been on dialysis for more than three years. Prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was 14.8%, 95% CI (9.7-21.9) and 82.2%, 95% CI (74.7 - 87.8), respectively; according to the BGI Index. Severity of CP was: No periodontitis, 14.0% 95% CI (9.1 - 21.1); mild, 11.1% 95% CI (6.7 -17.7); moderate, 28.8% 95% CI (21.7- 37.1); and severe, 45.9% 95% CI (31.6-54.47). Peritoneal dialysis and time on dialysis > 3 years increase the chance of having periodontitis, OR 11.0 95% CI (2.2-53.8) and OR 7.6 95% CI (1.1-50.2), respectively. In view of the high prevalence of CP in this population, programs designed to ensure better periodontal and gingival care in the population on dialysis need to be established.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Periodontite Crônica/patologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/patologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Periodonto/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Periodontite Crônica/etiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/etiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Índice Periodontal , Prevalência , Diálise Renal , Fumar
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 207, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease of dogs and has been associated with systemic disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of periodontal disease in a population of Yorkshire terrier dogs with and without a tooth brushing regimen. Each dog was assessed under general anaesthesia two to five times between 37 and 78 weeks of age. The extent of gingivitis and periodontitis was ascertained for every tooth in the mouth. Gingivitis was measured using time to bleeding on probing, and periodontitis was based on extent of clinical attachment loss (probing depth, gingival recession and furcation exposure). RESULTS: Of the 49 dogs assessed at 37 weeks of age, 98% had at least one tooth or aspect with early periodontitis (PD2, < 25% attachment loss). The average percentage of teeth with periodontitis in the mouth was 29.6% with 95% confidence interval (23.6, 36.4). The odds of early periodontitis was 2.74 (2.23, 3.37) times higher at 78 weeks of age compared to 37 weeks of age. The canine teeth had a significantly higher probability of periodontitis compared to all other tooth types at both 37 and 78 weeks of age (p < 0.001). In addition, at the same time points, the incisors had a significantly higher probability of periodontitis compared to the molars and premolars (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Breeds of dog that are susceptible to developing periodontitis, such as Yorkshire terriers, require effective treatments for the prevention of periodontal disease from a young age. Although tooth brushing is one of the most effective methods when it comes to preventative homecare, this is not always realistic, as was found in this study. Therefore alternative ways to retard or prevent plaque accumulation that are practical for both dogs and their owners are required.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Gengivite/veterinária , Periodontite/veterinária , Escovação Dentária/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e036, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141035

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of gingivitis and calculus and their predictors in a population of adults in Brazil. A representative sample of 758 adults from 35 to 59 years of age from Porto Alegre city was examined. A structured questionnaire was applied. The Gingival Bleeding Index and the presence of calculus were measured at 4 sites/tooth. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to determine the predictors for gingival bleeding at >20% of sites. Overall, 96.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]=95.1-98.0) of individuals had ≥ 1 bleeding site. The mean percentages of sites with gingivitis and calculus were 26.1% and 44.6%, respectively. The odds of gingivitis decreased by ∼45% for individuals ≥40 years old compared to younger adults. Individuals that never performed interproximal cleaning and non-whites had an approximately two times higher chance of gingivitis. Smokers had lower chances of gingivitis than never-smokers (odds ratio=0.40; 95% CI=0.24-0.68). Higher numbers of missing teeth were associated with higher chances of gingivitis. The percentage of calculus was significantly associated with skin color, education, proximal cleaning, smoking exposure, dental visits, and tooth loss. It can be concluded that the occurrence of gingivitis and calculus was high in this Brazilian population, and it was associated with age, skin color, education, self-reported proximal cleaning, smoking, dental care, and tooth loss.


Assuntos
Cálculos Dentários/epidemiologia , Cálculos Dentários/etiologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 188: 166-171, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738820

RESUMO

Phosphates are associated with numerous disorders, ranging from vascular calcification to premature aging, possibly because of an increased inflammatory response. We therefore investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with gingivitis. We analyzed consumption of both phosphorus and sugar and related it to the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva samples collected from 8314 children (mean age, 9.99 ± 0.68 years). About 64% of the children consumed more than 1250 mg phosphorus daily, and 34% consumed more than 82 g of sugar daily. Gingivitis was prevalent, with an average of 74% of possible gingival sites considered red. Quantile regression analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between the occurrence of gingivitis and calorie-adjusted phosphorus intake and between gingivitis and calorie-adjusted sugar intake (both significant either as a linear trend or a categorical variable). In a subset (n = 744) investigation of nutrient consumption related to salivary biomarkers, we found that elevated calorie-adjusted phosphorus intake was directly associated with salivary IL-1ß concentration (OR1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.89), and inversely associated with salivary IL-4 concentration (OR0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.84). Sugar intake was not significantly associated with either biomarker. Thus, elevated dietary phosphorus consumption may influence inflammatory disease by altering cytokine levels.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/imunologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Gengivite/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Saliva/imunologia
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(1): 78-89, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991327

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Para la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la enfermedad periodontal representa un problema de salud pública en países industrializados y en los que están en vías de desarrollo. Afecta la calidad de vida de quienes las sufren. Este término agrupa una serie de entidades que afectan los tejidos de protección e inserción del diente, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la periodontitis, proceso inmunoinflamatoria crónico. Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de la enfermedad periodontal inmunoinflamatoria crónica en el municipio de Jovellanos, provincia de Matanzas. Materiales y métodos: con el objetivo de estimar la prevalencia de la enfermedad periodontal inmunoinflamatoria crónica, en el municipio de Jovellanos, provincia de Matanzas se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo transversal, en el período comprendido entre el mes junio del 2009 a junio del 2010. Resultados: el 54,5 % de la población no presentó la enfermedad estudiada. El grupo de 5 a 11 años fue el que más aportó a este resultado. La enfermedad fue diagnosticada en el 45,5 % de la población examinada, la cual comenzó a manifestarse a partir del grupo de edad de 15 a 18 años. El 92,9 % de los individuos de 60 a 74 años fueron los más afectados. Conclusiones: en cuanto a la enfermedad periodontal inmuno inflamatoria la cantidad de pacientes sanos, desde el punto de vista periodontal, estuvo entre un 49,4 % y un 59,6 % del total de la población. La incidencia de la enfermedad aumenta con la edad. La presencia de bolsas resultó mayor a partir de los 35 años y causó gran afectación en los individuos de 60 a 74 años.


ABSTRACT Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, periodontal disease represents a public health problem in the developed countries and in the developing ones. It affects the life quality of people suffering it. This term groups together several entities affecting the tooth´s insertion and protection tissues; periodontitis, a chronic immunoinflammatory process, is found among them. Objective: estimate the prevalence of periodontal disease inmunoinflamatoria chronic in the municipality of Jovellanos, province of Matanzas. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive, observational study was carried out in the municipality of Jovellanos, province of Matanzas from June 2009 to June 2010 for the sake of estimating the prevalence of the chronic immunoinflammatory periodontal disease. Results: 54.5 % of the population did not present the studied disease. The 5-11-years-old group was the one contributing more to these results. The disease was diagnosed in 45.5 % of the studied population, and started to manifest beginning from the 15-18-years-old age group. 92.9 % of the individuals aged 60 to 74 years were the most affected ones. Conclusions: from the periodontal point of view, the quantity of healthy patients oscillated between 49.4 % and 59.6 % of the total population. The disease incidence increases with age. The presence of pockets was higher from the age of 35 years on, and caused great affectation in individuals aged 60-74 years.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Periodontite Crônica/imunologia , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Gengivite/imunologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/imunologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudo Observacional
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 2, 2019 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral health status of pregnant women in low-resource communities such as Nepal has not been well characterized. This sub-population is also of specific interest given associations between poor oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes previously documented in other settings. We explored relationships between gingivitis and risk factors among pregnant women in rural Nepal. METHODS: The design was a community-based, cross-sectional study in a sub-area of Sarlahi District, Nepal. Pregnant women < 26 weeks gestation underwent clinical periodontal exams conducted by community-based oral health workers. Exams included a full mouth assessment measuring bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) (six sites per tooth), and gingival recession, the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the free gingival margin (two direct sites per tooth). Data on participant risk factors were collected through household surveys, including demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, care seeking, and health attitudes. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess relationships between gingivitis and risk factors. RESULTS: We enrolled 1452 participants, of which 40% (n = 582) had signs of clinical gingivitis and 60% (n = 870) clinical health. Average participant age was 23. Most participants (88%) had never received oral health care. Participants averaged 10% of sites with BOP with most (79%) having ≥1 site with BOP. Nine percent of participants had ≥1 site with PD ≥4 mm, although very few participants (0.7%) had sites with PD ≥5 mm. Few participants (13%) had any recession (≥1 mm). In the final adjusted model, odds of gingivitis increased by 3% for each year of age (aOR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00, 1.06) and were higher for women of short maternal stature (< 150 cm) (aOR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.79) and among women reporting cost to be a barrier to seeking dental care (aOR 2.13, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.15). CONCLUSIONS: Gingivitis was common and associated with age, maternal stature, self-reported high cost of dental care, and other risk factors among pregnant women in rural Nepal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177111 (Nepal Oil Massage Study) and NCT02788786 (Pilot Trial).


Assuntos
Gengivite/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene Bucal , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Gengivite/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(2): 651-659, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The identification of predictors of supragingival biofilm accumulation may improve the results of therapeutic strategies for dental caries and periodontal diseases in general clinical practice. This study aimed to determine predictors of changes in visible plaque (VP) and gingival bleeding (GB) during integrated dental care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted by a census of patients receiving integrated dental care in a general clinical practice ambulatory at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). The sample comprised 91 charts of patients attended over a 6-months period. Gender, age, patient's main complaint, oral hygiene pattern, and clinical data were recorded from charts for the last two dental visits in the ambulatory. Changes in VP and GB were modeled by multiple linear regression and beta coefficients (b) were reported. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 13 months. Significant reductions in VP (32.8 ± 27.9 to 17.4 ± 19.4%; p < 0.001) and GB (27.1 ± 23.8 to 18.5 ± 17.3%; p < 0.001) were observed. Higher plaque reductions were predicted by higher baseline VP levels (p = 0.02), shorter time (< 12 months) elapsed between VP recordings (b = 14.1%, p = 0.02), interproximal cleansing (b = 11.9%, p = 0.03), lower number of sessions for oral hygiene instruction (b = 13.7%, p = 0.02), and presence of pockets ≥ 6 mm (b = - 12.4%, p = 0.02). GB was predicted by time of follow-up > 12 months and baseline VP. CONCLUSIONS: Plaque and gingivitis improved in patients under integrated dental care. Factors related to motivation, oral hygiene practices, and baseline periodontal status might be used as predictors of VP and GB changes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Visible plaque and gingivitis reduced in a sample of patients treated under integrated dental care. Some predictors may determine for which patients the treatment may be maximize and those who will need greater efforts to achieve the therapeutic goal for oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/métodos , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Brasil/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 21(4): 693-698, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406328

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the oral health status of refugee children in comparison with that of Canadian children. In addition, we investigated the extent to which demographic factors are associated with caries experience in this population. Children with a confirmed refugee status and Canadian children (control group) matched for age and sex composed the study population. A comprehensive review of dental charts was completed to assess children's demographic data, caries experience, oral hygiene and gingival health status. The majority of refugee children had never seen a dentist before their arrival to Canada. Refugee children had significant higher dmft/DMFT scores than Canadian children (7.29 ± 5.1 and 4.47 ± 5, respectively; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, individual factors, such as refugee status (OR = 5.08; 95% CI = 2.31-11.1) and child age (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.04-4.51) were significantly associated with caries experience. Access to appropriate dental care to refugee children should be a key priority for health care providers and policy makers.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Refugiados , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Oral Dis ; 25(3): 710-719, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878487

RESUMO

Chronic oral infections (gingivitis/periodontitis) have been associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, and acute ischemic stroke. In addition, imaging surrogates of cerebrovascular ischemia beyond acute ischemic stroke (i.e., silent strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities) may also be associated with chronic oral infections. The pathology underlying lacunar strokes and brain white matter hyperintensities (WMH) relates to small vessel disease in the brain. In this review, we highlight recent progress in exploring potential associations of oral infections with cerebral small vessel disease and its surrogates (silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities) and clinical sequelae (i.e., vascular dementia). Recent evidence suggests that periodontitis aggravates cerebral small vessel disease and increases lacunar stroke risk. Moreover, periodontitis interacts with Alzheimer's disease to increase the severity of clinical dementia and to accelerate its manifestations. The results suggest that periodontitis may be an emerging risk factor of small vessel disease-associated cerebrovascular disorders and that the risk increase may be mediated by the systemic inflammation resulting from chronic oral infections. Large cohort studies employing state-of-the-art magnetic resonance techniques to identify specific cerebral pathologies as a function of time, oral health status, and systemic inflammation are needed to further substantiate the hypothesis.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/epidemiologia , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/epidemiologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Crônica , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/etiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 32(1): 17-21, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010178

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of Chronic Periodontitis (CP) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and to ascertain its relationship with several factors or indicators of micro inflammation. One hundred and thirtyfive CKD patients on dialysis treatment were included. Biochemical parameters, clinical attachment level and pocket depth were recorded according of the American Academy of Periodontology and the CDC (CDCAAP). Gingivitis and CP were recorded based on the biofilmgingival interface (BGI) periodontal diseases classification. The rate of nonresponse to the survey was 10 percent. A total 2,636 teeth in 135 patients were examined, of whom 52.5% were males. Average age was 55.7 years (SD ± 1.32); 41.4% had a smoking history; 78/135 patients were on hemodialysis and 57/135 on peritoneal dialysis; 55.5% had been on dialysis for more than three years. Prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was 14.8%, 95% CI (9.721.9) and 82.2%, 95% CI (74.7 ­ 87.8), respectively; according to the BGI Index. Severity of CP was: No periodontitis, 14.0% 95% CI (9.1 21.1) ; mild, 11.1% 95% CI (6.7 17.7) ; moderate, 28.8% 95% CI (21.7 37.1) ; and severe, 45.9% 95% CI (31.654.47). Peritoneal dialysis and time on dialysis > 3 years increase the chance of having periodontitis, OR 11.0 95% CI (2.253.8) and OR 7.6 95% CI (1.150.2), respectively. In view of the high prevalence of CP in this population, programs designed to ensure better periodontal and gingival care in the population on dialysis need to be established (AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la prevalencia de Periodontitis Crónica (PC) en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) en diálisis y determinar la relación de su presencia con algunos indicadores de micro inflamación. Un total de 135 pacientes con ERC en terapia dialítica fueron incluidos en este estudio. Se evaluaron parámetros bioquímicos, nivel de inserción clínica (NIC) y profundidad de sondaje (PS), de acuerdo con la Asociación Americana de Periodoncia y el CDC de Atlanta (CDCAAP). También fue evaluada, la gingivitis y la PC de acuerdo con la clasificación interface biopeliculaencia (BGI). La tasa de no respuesta a la encuesta fue del 10%. Un total de 2636 dientes en 135 pacientes fueron evaluados, (52.5% hombres, edad promedio 55.7 ± 1.32), 56% con antecedente de tabaquismo. 78/135 en hemodiálisis y 57/135 en diálisis peritoneal, el 55.5 % con un tiempo en diálisis mayor a tres años. La prevalencia de gingivitis por la clasificación BGI fue del 14.8% IC 95% (9.7 21.9) y de periodontitis 82.2% IC 95% (74.7 ­ 87.8). La severidad de la PC fue: sin periodontitis 14.0% 95% IC (9.1 21.1) ; leve 11.1% 95% IC (6.7 17.7) ; moderada 28.8% 95% IC (21.7 37.1) y severa 45.9% 95% IC (31.654.47) La diálisis peritoneal y el tiempo en diálisis aumentaron la chance de tener PC: OR 11.0 95% IC (2.253.8) y OR 7.6 95% CI (1.150.2) respectiva mente. Por la alta prevalencia de PC en esta población, es necesario establecer programas para asegurar el cuidado de la salud periodontal en esta población en diálisis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Peritoneal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Análise Estatística , Colômbia , Gengivite/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208886, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gingivitis and poor oral hygiene status are the most prevalent oral diseases among primary school students. Poor oral hygiene status, gingivitis and socio-demographic determinants have been shown to be associated with periodontal diseases. There is limited information on the gingivitis and oral hygiene status among Iranian children. In the present study, the status of gingivitis, oral hygiene status, and their association with socio-demographic determinants among schoolchildren aged 7-12 years old in Hamadan were investigated. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 988 primary school students aged 7-12 years old were selected. The oral hygiene status was measured through Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to evaluate gingival bleeding and calculus. CPI was measured using a standardized protocol to investigate gum bleeding and calculus. The oral hygiene was classified as good, fair or poor based on calculus and debris measurements. Age, gender, educational level, occupation and residence district of parents, dental pain experience in the last year and whether parents supervised their children while brushing were assessed by the questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The oral hygiene status was good in 644 students (65.20%), fair in 341 (34.50%) and poor in three (0.30%). Moreover, the results of CPI depicted that 639 students (64.07%) had healthy periodontium, 320 (32.40%) had periodontal bleeding and 29 (2.9%) were with calculus. Higher percentage of the boys in the age group of 12 years old had periodontal bleeding and fewer good oral hygiene. The results of CPI and OHI-S scores depicted that more than half of the primary school students had healthy gums and periodontium (64.1%) and good oral hygiene status (65.2%). There were significant statistical associations between age and residence district with calculus measured by the CPI, also between gender, age, residence district, and mother's occupation with the gingival bleeding measured by the CPI. Furthermore, age and mother's occupation were significantly associated with OHI-S index. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the periodontal health status is poorer in students attending suburban schools compared to those in urban schools in Hamadan. Since there are significant associations between gender, school districts and mother's occupation with oral hygiene index among schoolchildren in primary schools, considering them in schools' oral health program design might be useful.


Assuntos
Gengivite/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 25(4): 656-658, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586973

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Entamoeba gingivalis, as the name implies. typically lives around the gumline of the teeth in the tartar and gingival pockets of the oral cavity. Pathogenicity of protozoa in the oral cavity is not completely understood. The occurrence in patients with a good state of the immune system usually does not cause any pathological changes. In the presentede survey, an increased incidence of Entamoeba gingivalis in conjunction with pathological changes in the oral cavity was found. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis in children treated in Department of Paediatric Dentistry of the Medical University in Lublin and its correlation with dental caries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diagnostic materials in the form of swabs were obtained from 154 children in the age 2-18 years old, treated in the Department of Paediatric Dentistry of the Medical University in Lublin. The main index for epidemiological surveys in oral health - DMFT (decayed, missed, and filled teeth) for permanent teeth and DMFT for deciduous teeth was calculated. RESULTS: The average number of Entamoeba gingivalis in urban children was 12.84. The DMFT number in the deciduous teeth was lower in urban patients (5.0) than from rural patients (5.4). The DMFT number in the permanent teeth was lower in urban patients (3.155) than rural patients (3.98). There was no statistically significant correlation between the DMFT value and the number of Entamoeba gingivalis. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Entamoeba gingivalis occurs in the oral cavity of children. 2) In the presented survey, both DMFT and dmft indexes were high which proves high activity of dental carious. 3) There was no significant statistical correlation observed between dental caries and the presence of Entamoeba gingivalis.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Entamoeba/fisiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Gengivite/parasitologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 29(3): 1-11, set.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-978394

RESUMO

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 favorece la aparición de enfermedades bucales en el adulto mayor. Objetivos: Identificar las alteraciones bucales y factores de riesgo más frecuentes en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. El universo lo conformaron 52 pacientes pertenecientes al consultorio # 13 del Policlínico Héroes del Corynthia, atendidos desde 2016 a 2017 en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente H y 21, municipio Plaza de la Revolución. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, estado de salud bucal, factores de riesgo y manifestaciones bucales. Resultados: 55,7 por ciento de los adultos mayores pertenecieron al grupo de 60-69 años y el 59,4 por ciento del total de los pacientes involucrados en el estudio fueron mujeres. El 44,2 por ciento presentó un estado de salud bucal medianamente favorable. Por caries dental fueron afectados 34 pacientes, 31 por periodontitis y 25 por gingivitis. La obesidad se evidenció en el 59,6 por ciento de los pacientes. Conclusiones: El factor de riesgo predominante fue la obesidad. Las alteraciones bucales más observadas fueron la caries dental, la periodontitis y la gingivitis(AU)


Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus fosters the appearance of oral diseases in the elderly. Objectives: Identify the most common oral alterations and risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted. The study universe was 52 patients from Consultation Office No. 13 of Héroes del Corynthia polyclinic cared for from 2016 to 2017 at H and 21st University Dental Clinic in the municipality of Plaza de la Revolución. The variables analyzed were age, sex, oral health status, risk factors and oral manifestations. Results: 55.7 percent of the elderly patients were in the 60-69 age group, and 59.4 percent of the total patients involved in the study were women. 44.2 percent had a fairly favorable oral health status. 34 had dental caries, 31 periodontitis and 25 gingivitis. 59.6 percent were obese. Conclusions: Obesity was the prevailing risk factor. The oral alterations most commonly found were dental caries, periodontitis and gingivitis(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudo Observacional , Gengivite/epidemiologia
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