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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22595, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleep deprivation on semen analyses, hormone levels and testicular histopathology in men. METHODS: this review will be included in a qualified case-control study. The search strategy will be implemented in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, Cochrane library, China National knowledge Infrastructure database, Wanfang Database, and the Cochrane library. We will solicit both English and Chinese case-control studies published from its beginning to July 31, 2020. The 2 examiners will independently screen, select research, extract data and evaluate quality. We use Revman5.3 software to generate funnel map, heterogeneity assessment, data analysis, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: in the current meta-analysis, we will provide some more practical and targeted results for the study of the effects of sleep on the male reproductive system, and sum up the main limitations of previous studies. CONCLUSION: this study will provide new evidence for the effect of sleep on male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Análise do Sêmen/estatística & dados numéricos , Privação do Sono/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/psicologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia
3.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110083, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679425

RESUMO

The outbreak of CoronaVirus Disease19 (COVID19) in December 2019 posed a serious threat to public safety, and its rapid spread caused a global health emergency. Clinical data show that in addition to respiratory system damage, some male patients with COVID-19 are also accompanied by abnormal renal function and even renal damage. As the main receptor of syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is also found to be highly expressed not only in respiratory mucosa and alveolar epithelial cells, but also in renal tubule cells, testicular Leydig cells and seminiferous tubule cells. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 has the possibility of infecting the male reproductive system, and the recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the patient's semen further confirms this theory. In previous studies, it has been found that ACE2 has the ability to regulate autophagy. Not only that, recent studies have also found that SARS-CoV-2 infection can also lead to a reduction in autophagy. All of these associate SARS-CoV-2 with autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy has been shown to have an effect on male reproduction in many studies. Based on these, we propose the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 affects male reproductive function by regulating autophagy. This hypothesis may provide a new idea for future treatment of COVID-19 male patients with reproductive function injury, and it can also prompt medical staff and patients to consciously check their reproductive function.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Genitália Masculina/virologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Espermatozoides/patologia , Espermatozoides/virologia
4.
Toxicology ; 438: 152460, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278050

RESUMO

Synthetic pyrethroids are used as insecticides in agriculture and a variety of household applications worldwide. Pyrethroids are widely distributed in all environmental compartments and the general populations are exposed to pyrethroids through various routes. Pyrethroids have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are responsible for the male reproductive impairments. The data confirm pyrethroids cause male reproductive damages. The insecticides exert the toxic effects on male reproductive system through various complex mechanisms including antagonizing androgen receptor (AR), inhibiting steroid synthesis, affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, acting as estrogen receptor (ER) modulators and inducing oxidative stress. The mechanisms of male reproductive toxicity of pyrethroids involve multiple targets and pathways. The review will provide further insight into pyrethroid-induced male reproductive toxicity and mechanisms, which is crucial to preserve male reproductive health.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Animais , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591291

RESUMO

(1) Background: In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity has grown rapidly worldwide, thus causing many diseases, including male hypogonadism. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate compound, has been reported to protect the reproductive system. This research investigated the protective effect of SFN against obesity-induced impairment in the male reproductive system and explored the potential mechanism involved in mice. (2) Methods: One hundred thirty mice were divided into 5 groups (Control, DIO (diet-induced obesity), DIO + SFN 5 mg/kg, DIO + SFN 10 mg/kg, and DIO + SFN 20 mg/kg). The effects of SFN on the male reproductive system were determined based on the sperm count and motility, relative testes and epididymis weights, hormone levels, and pathological analyses. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), H2O2, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels. Protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin1, and P62 were determined by western blotting. (3) Results: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity significantly decreased relative testes and epididymis weights, sperm count and motility, and testosterone levels but increased leptin and estradiol levels. SFN supplementation ameliorated these effects. Additionally, SFN administration inhibited the obesity-induced MDA accumulation and increased the SOD level. Western blot indicated that SFN had an important role in the downregulation of Keap1. Moreover, SFN treatment attenuated obesity-induced autophagy, as detected by LC3 and Beclin1. (4) Conclusions: SFN ameliorated the reproductive toxicity associated with obesity by inhibiting oxidative stress mediated by the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/ antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathway and recovery of normal autophagy.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(7): 1339-1349, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147867

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is mainly transmitted through Aedes mosquito bites, but sexual and post-transfusion transmissions have been reported. During acute infection, ZIKV is detectable in most organs and body fluids including human semen. Although it is not currently epidemic, there is a concern that the virus can still reemerge since the male genital tract might harbor persistent reservoirs that could facilitate viral transmission over extended periods, raising concerns among public health and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) experts and professionals. So far, the consensus is that ZIKV infection in the testes or epididymis might affect sperm development and, consequently, male fertility. Still, diagnostic tests have not yet been adapted to resource-restricted countries. This manuscript provides an updated overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection and reviews data on ZIKV persistence in semen and associated risks to the male reproductive system described in human and animal models studies. We provide an updated summary of the impact of the recent ZIKV outbreak on human-ART, weighing on current recommendations and diagnostic approaches, both available and prospective, with special emphasis on mass spectrometry-based biomarker discovery. In the light of the identified gaps in our accumulated knowledge on the subject, we highlight the importance for couples seeking ART to follow the constantly revised guidelines and the need of specific ZIKV diagnosis tools for semen screening to contain ZIKV virus spread and make ART safer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Infecção por Zika virus/fisiopatologia , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Masculina/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Animais , Sêmen/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315922

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) and Cadmium (Cd) are two common contaminants that can be detected in aquatic environments. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of NP and Cd at environmentally relevant concentrations in aquatic organisms has not been thoroughly characterized to date. In the present study, the interactions between NP and Cd on male Sebastiscus marmoratus were studied. After 21 days of exposure, the brain aromatase activity was observed to be significantly induced by 100 ng/L NP and 40 µg/L Cd, whereas all of the concentrations of co-treatment resulted in an increase in brain aromatase activity. Additionally, NP could also reduce plasma testosterone concentration, while NP, Cd and their mixture could induce plasma 17ß-estradiol (E2) concentration and VTG concentration. The interactions between NP and Cd on the reproductive physiology were antagonism. Our results also support the notion of using these indicators as biomarkers for exposure to EDCs and further extend the boundary of biomonitoring to environmental levels.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Infertilidade Masculina/veterinária , Perciformes/fisiologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Aromatase/química , Aromatase/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/agonistas , Estradiol/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Peixes/agonistas , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/agonistas , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/enzimologia , Concentração Osmolar , Perciformes/sangue , Testosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Testosterona/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Vitelogeninas/química
8.
Poult Sci ; 98(4): 1872-1882, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307577

RESUMO

Yellow semen syndrome (YSS) is the most widely recognized problem among male turkeys. Yellow semen is of low quality and, when used for insemination, results in reduction of fertility and hatchability. Elevated level of serum albumin-like protein accession no. XP_003205725 is a characteristic feature of yellow seminal plasma suggesting albumin role in YSS pathology. However, knowledge regarding the expression of albumin in the reproductive tract in relation to YSS is very limited. The aim of this study was to identify albumin secretion and localization sites in the turkey reproductive tract in relation to YSS. Reproductive tract tissues and liver originating from turkeys producing white semen (WS) and YSS were used for analysis of albumin mRNA expression and its localization using immunohistochemistry. Moreover, albumin abundance in tissues, blood and seminal plasma was analyzed using two dimensional electrophoresis and western blot analysis. Albumin mRNA expression was found in all parts of the reproductive tract. Apart from the liver, the highest expression of albumin was found in the ductus deferens in YSS turkeys. The testicular spermatids, Leydig, and myoid cells and the epithelium of the epididymis and ductus deferens were the main secretion sites of albumin in the reproductive tract in turkeys. Higher albumin abundance was found in the reproductive tract and seminal plasma of YSS toms compared to WS toms. Our results demonstrated that germ cells from spermatocytes to spermatids, Leydig cells, and myoid cells synthesized and secreted albumin in turkey testis, and epithelial cells are the main secretion sites in epididymis and ductus deferens. Ductus deferens secretion of albumin seems to be mostly responsible for YSS. Over-secretion by the ductus deferens may be the main origin of albumin abundance in YSS semen. Knowledge regarding disturbances of albumin secretion in relation to YSS may be useful for future work on studies related to better understanding the molecular basis of YSS.


Assuntos
Albuminas/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Expressão Gênica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Sêmen/metabolismo , Perus , Albuminas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317806

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of long-term deep slow-wave sleep deprivation on the gonad axis, sperm abnormality rate, and structure of the testis in male rats and possible mechanisms. Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats aged 5 weeks were randomly divided into slow-wave sleep deprivation group 1 (SD1 group) , slow-wave sleep and sleep time deprivation group 2 (SD2 group) , and control group, with 10 rats in each group. The flower pot method was used to establish a model of sleep deprivation. In addition to 12-hour sleep deprivation at night, the rats in the SD1 group were given interference once every 24 minutes, and those in the SD2 group were deprived of sleep for 8 minutes every 24 minutes; the rats in the control group were given 12-hour light illumination and then placed in dark environment for 12 hours. All rats were sacrificed by exsanguination from the femoral artery, and the testis, the epididymis, and blood were collected for analysis. Sperm abnormality rate and sperm motility rate were measured, and cauda epididymal sperm counting was performed. ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of testosterone (T) , follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) , and luteinizing hormone (LH) . Results: Compared with the control group, the SD2 group had a significant increase in organ coefficient of the epididymis (P<0.05) and a significant reduction in sperm motility rate (P<0.05) . There were significant differences between the SD1 group and the SD2 group in the increase in sperm abnormality rate (P<0.05) and the reduction in cauda epididymal sperm count (P<0.05) . The levels of FSH and T tended to increase, and the level of LH tended to decrease. Pathological examination showed degeneration and vacuolization of a small amount of spermatogenic cells in the SD1 group; in the SD2 group, there were significant degeneration, edema, and vacuolization of most spermatogenic cells, some spermatogenic cells were observed in the lumen, and there were no sperms in the lumen. Conclusion: Long-term deep slow-wave sleep deprivation impairs the structure of the testis, affects sperm motility rate and sex hormones, and increases the risk of sperm abnormality.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono de Ondas Lentas , Animais , Epididimo , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Hormônio Luteinizante , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Testículo , Testosterona , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 106: 714-723, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990863

RESUMO

Oxidative stress (OS) is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body that can cause tissue damage. Oxidative stress has a significant involvement in the pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and male infertility. CP/CPPS is a major risk factor for male infertility due to generation of excessive ROS that damage sperm DNA, lipids, and proteins, resulting in compromised vitality and decreased sperm motility. Here we present a comprehensive review of oxidative stress relevance in CP/CPPS and male infertility, and embody the protective effects of antioxidants against ROS. An online literature was searched using the following keywords/terms: oxidative stress, ROS, Oxidative stress and chronic prostatitis, oxidative stress and male infertility and antioxidants. Original and review articles, clinical trials, and case reports of human and animal studies published till 2017 were searched using the PubMed and MEDLINE.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Prostatite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Genitália Masculina/enzimologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Dor Pélvica/metabolismo , Dor Pélvica/fisiopatologia , Prostatite/metabolismo , Prostatite/fisiopatologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 28(1): 42-46, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: With the increase in sphincter preserving rate of rectal cancer (RC) cancer, postoperative quality-of-life, such as genital dysfunction, has become a major issue in the patient management. In this study, we proposed a measurement, namely, the sphincter preserving length (SPL), and investigated the relationship between SPL and postoperative genital function and survival in RC patients. METHODS: A total of 536 male patients who had a diagnosis of RC and underwent sphincter preserving rectal resection in the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between October 1997 and December 2013 were included in our study. SPL was defined as the distance between the lowest edge of the tumor to dentate line. Postoperative genital function was evaluated by erection function and ejaculation function. Five-year survival status was extracted from the hospital database. RESULTS: Larger SPL was significantly associated with poorer postoperative erection and ejaculation function. For a SPL of 7.25 cm, the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of erection dysfunction was 68.6% and 68.8%, respectively. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of ejaculation dysfunction was 70.9% and 75.7%, respectively. SPL was also negatively associated with survival rate. Compared with lower anterior resection, patients with lower RC who underwent local resection or draw-out colon-anal anastomosis had better postoperative genital function. CONCLUSIONS: SPL might be a useful measurement to assess the risk of postoperative genital dysfunction and survival status and an indicator for initiation of early preventative treatment in patients with RC.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/prevenção & controle , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Proctoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canal Anal/patologia , Canal Anal/cirurgia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proctoscopia/efeitos adversos , Curva ROC , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Sex Marital Ther ; 44(3): 238-248, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144855

RESUMO

The comorbidity between male genital pain and sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent. Previous studies have indicated that men with genital pain share some cognitive characteristics with men experiencing other sexual dysfunctions. However, there is little information on the role of these cognitive factors in understanding the relationship between pain intensity and sexual functioning. This study aims to test if negative sexually related thoughts mediate the relationship between pain intensity and sexual functioning in men with genital pain. A total of 50 men with self-reported genital pain completed an online survey assessing pain intensity, thoughts during sexual activity, and sexual functioning. Results showed a significant effect of negative sexually related thoughts on sexual functioning, ß = -.71, t(50) = -4.2, p <.001. Additionally, the Sobel test found a partial mediation effect (z = 2.23, p =.025) and a medium to large indirect effect size was observed (abcs =.474). Findings suggest that negative sexually related thoughts play an important role in explaining the impact of pain intensity on sexual functioning. Overall, the study emphasizes the relevance of cognitions in predicting sexual function/dysfunction in men with genital pain and suggests the use of cognitive techniques in the treatment of this clinical condition.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/fisiopatologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Semin Perinatol ; 41(4): 218-226, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28478087

RESUMO

The majority of patients with DSD will be found to carry an XY karyotype and be assigned male gender. From a phenotypical standpoint, most will present with proximal hypospadias ± cryptorchidism. In this review article, the authors present the current status of reconstruction of the male genitalia in this setting. The report addresses the following topics: surgical input in the evaluation of the newborn with an undervirilized external genitalia, including gender assignment considerations; controversies surrounding timing and indication for hypospadias surgery in proximal cases as well as use of testosterone; surgical techniques and decision-making process for one- vs. two-stage repairs; complications of hypospadias surgery based on technique used for repair; and long-term follow-up. The high complication rates observed in the treatment of proximal hypospadias attest to its challenging nature. Concentration of experience, tracking carefully identified patient-centered outcomes and long-term follow-up of this patient population are recommended.


Assuntos
Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/cirurgia , Genitália Masculina/cirurgia , Hipospadia/cirurgia , Pais/educação , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos , Tomada de Decisões , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Hipospadia/fisiopatologia , Hipospadia/psicologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos
14.
Physiol Rev ; 97(3): 995-1043, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539434

RESUMO

Estrogens have historically been associated with female reproduction, but work over the last two decades established that estrogens and their main nuclear receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) also regulate male reproductive and nonreproductive organs. 17ß-Estradiol (E2) is measureable in blood of men and males of other species, but in rete testis fluids, E2 reaches concentrations normally found only in females and in some species nanomolar concentrations of estrone sulfate are found in semen. Aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens, is expressed in Leydig cells, seminiferous epithelium, and other male organs. Early studies showed E2 binding in numerous male tissues, and ESR1 and ESR2 each show unique distributions and actions in males. Exogenous estrogen treatment produced male reproductive pathologies in laboratory animals and men, especially during development, and studies with transgenic mice with compromised estrogen signaling demonstrated an E2 role in normal male physiology. Efferent ductules and epididymal functions are dependent on estrogen signaling through ESR1, whose loss impaired ion transport and water reabsorption, resulting in abnormal sperm. Loss of ESR1 or aromatase also produces effects on nonreproductive targets such as brain, adipose, skeletal muscle, bone, cardiovascular, and immune tissues. Expression of GPER is extensive in male tracts, suggesting a possible role for E2 signaling through this receptor in male reproduction. Recent evidence also indicates that membrane ESR1 has critical roles in male reproduction. Thus estrogens are important physiological regulators in males, and future studies may reveal additional roles for estrogen signaling in various target tissues.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodução , Animais , Aromatase/genética , Aromatase/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Fenótipo , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/fisiopatologia , Doenças Prostáticas/metabolismo , Doenças Prostáticas/patologia , Doenças Prostáticas/fisiopatologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/deficiência , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 33(7): 601-609, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464759

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that can cause disturbances in the endocrine system and have multiple harmful effects on health by targeting different organs and systems in the human body. Mass industrial production and widespread use of EDCs have resulted in worldwide contamination. Accumulating evidence suggest that human exposure to EDCs is related to the impairment of male reproductive function and can interrupt other hormonally regulated metabolic processes, particularly if exposure occurs during early development. Investigation of studies absent in previous reviews and meta-analysis of adverse effects of EDCs on functioning of the male reproductive system is the core of this work. Four main modes of action of EDCs on male fertility have been summarized in this review. First, studies describing estrogen- pathway disturbing chemicals are investigated. Second, androgen-signaling pathway alterations and influence on androgen sensitive tissues are examined. Third, evaluation of steroidogenesis dysfunction is discussed by focusing on the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway, which is targeted by EDCs. Last, the reportedly destructive role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on sperm function is discussed. Spermatogenesis is a remarkably complex process, hence multiple studies point out various dysfunctions depending on the development state at which the exposure occurred. Collected data show the need to account for critical windows of exposure such as fetal, perinatal and pubertal periods as well as effects of mixtures of several compounds in future research.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 90: 562-574, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407577

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem that affects patients' quality of life quality throughout the world due to its many complications. Reproductive dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications in both diabetic animals and human beings. Furthermore, DM has recently broken the age barrier and has been heavily diagnosed in children and young persons of reproductive age. In the past few years, many studies on DM in male reproductive functions in both diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals have been published. It is recognized that sustained hyperglycemia, which impairs reproductive function in diabetic men, is at risk of developing. DM harmfully affects male reproductive functions in multiple areas; these may include spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, fertility capability, penile erection, and ejaculation. Traditional medicine and folklore worldwide have used numerous medicinal plants to manage the diabetic reproductive dysfunction because bioactive phyto-constituents are affluent in many places. Unfortunately, the exact reasons for diabetic male reproductive dysfunction are not completely understood and currently there are no treatments in reproductive medicine specifically for such lesions. The aim of this review is to summarize current research findings of DM on reproductive functions, to elaborate the underlying mechanisms related to these diseases via in vivo and in vitro studies, and to describe the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products. The review findings provide a systematic understanding of DM on the reproductive functions and lay the theoretical foundation for developing the direction of reproductive medicine.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Biol Reprod ; 96(5): 1007-1018, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339861

RESUMO

The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) is necessary for fertility, and genetic mutations cause defects in reproductive development and function. Activating mutations in LHCGR cause familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP). We have previously characterized a mouse model (KiLHRD582G) for FMPP that exhibits the same phenotype of precocious puberty, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and elevated testosterone as boys with the disorder. We observed that KiLHRD582G male mice became infertile by 6 months of age, although sperm count and motility were normal. In this study, we sought to determine the reason for the progressive infertility and the long-term consequences of constant LHCGR signaling. Mating with superovulated females showed that infertile KiLHRD582G mice had functional sperm and normal accessory gland function. Sexual behavior studies revealed that KiLHRD582G mice mounted females, but intromission was brief and ejaculation was not achieved. Histological analysis of the reproductive tract showed unique metaplastic changes resulting in pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells with cilia in the ampulla and chondrocytes in the penile body of the KiLHRD582G mice. The infertile KiLHRD582G exhibited enlarged sinusoids and a decrease in smooth muscle content in the corpora cavernosa of the penile body. However, collagen content was unchanged. Leydig cell adenomas and degenerating seminiferous tubules were seen in 1-year-old KiLHRD582G mice. We conclude that progressive infertility in KiLHRD582G mice is due to sexual dysfunction likely due to functional defects in the penis.


Assuntos
Adenoma/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Tumor de Células de Leydig/fisiopatologia , Receptores do LH/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ejaculação , Estradiol/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Tumor de Células de Leydig/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pênis/patologia , Puberdade Precoce/genética , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
18.
Theriogenology ; 89: 201-205, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28043353

RESUMO

This study aimed to clarify the phenomenon of erectile dysfunction (ED) in male camels and monitor the associated changes in nitric oxide metabolite (NOM), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and testosterone concentrations. A total 18 camels with ED and 10 controls were included in this study. The breeding history was recorded and a thorough breeding soundness examination was performed. Total nitrates and nitrites were determined in sera using the Griess assay. Serum cTnI and testosterone were assessed using ELISA. A complete blood count was also carried out. The results showed that 13/18 male camels with ED had no detectable pathologic lesions in the genital tract (ED-N), while 5/18 males showed pathology in the penis, prepuce, and testicles (ED-P). The ED-P group exhibited higher concentrations of NOMs (P = 0.003), white blood cells (P = 0.0001), and neutrophils (P = 0.001) than the ED-N and control groups. The ED-P and ED-N groups had higher concentrations of cTnI than the control group (P = 0.0001). Testosterone concentration did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the ED in the camels was associated with a rise in cTnI, probably due to myositic damage. Most of the ED cases in the camels had apparently normal genital organs. In the cases of ED in male camels with detectable pathologic lesions on their genital organs, a rise in NOMs, white blood cells, and neutrophils was observed.


Assuntos
Camelus/fisiologia , Disfunção Erétil/veterinária , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Troponina/metabolismo , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino
19.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 119 Suppl 3: 63-74, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27541930

RESUMO

The currently recommended first-line treatments of erectile dysfunction (ED), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), for example sildenafil, are efficacious in many patients with ED of vascular origin, but this therapy is insufficient in approximately 30-40% of men with ED where there is also a neuronal affection. There is a demand of novel approaches to treat the condition. We review the possibility of modulating the dopaminergic pathways to improve erectile function. Dopamine D1 (D1 , D5 )- and D2 (D2 -D4 )-like receptors in the paraventricular area, the medial pre-optic area, the spinal cord, and in the erectile tissue are involved in erection, and several agonists developed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease are associated with increased libido. A therapeutic window for the treatment of ED was found by sublingual administration of the general dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine, but it failed mainly due to less efficacy on erectile function compared with PDE5i. To avoid the dose-limiting side effects mediated by D2 receptors, nausea and emesis, dopamine D4 receptor agonists were developed, and they induce erection in rodents, but these drugs were never introduced clinically. The ß-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid increases dopamine and serotonin and was found to increase sexual arousal and erections, but the dose-response curve is bell-shaped. Bupropion has selectivity for inhibition of the dopamine reuptake transporter and can be used to alleviate sexual symptoms caused by other antidepressant medication, hence providing an interesting approach to treat ED. In summary, modulation of the dopaminergic pathways provides a possibility to improve the treatment of ED.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Agonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Disfunção Erétil/metabolismo , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Genitália Masculina/inervação , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/fisiopatologia
20.
Pomeranian J Life Sci ; 62(1): 44-52, 2016.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533587

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play in the male reproductive system important physiological functions in cell signaling, spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in epididymis. The influence of various factors, e.g. environmental, could be the reason for oxidative stress. This can lead to the exposure of cells to the toxic effects of many oxidants such as O•⁻2, O3, H2O2, •OH. The source of ROS may be spermatozoa, which also, due to the composition of the cytoplasmic membrane lipids and great amount of mitochondria are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. Oxidative stress can damage their membranes, DNA, inhibit sperm motility and reduce their fertilization ability. This dual effect of ROS confirms the unique role of antioxidant enzymes (such as SOD, CAT and GPX) and non-enzymatic (e.g. GSH, vitamins A, E, C, transferrin) responsible for maintaining adequate levels of ROS in the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes , Catalase , Genitália Masculina/enzimologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Glutationa Peroxidase , Humanos , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais , Espermatogênese , Superóxido Dismutase
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