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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3133-3142, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595134

RESUMO

PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched to identify studies published up to December 2020 on the involvement of urinary and male genital systems in COVID-19. Sixteen studies involving a total of 575 patients (538 males and 37 females) were included in this systematic review. The COVID-19 phase was available for 479 patients: 426 in the acute and 53 in the recovery phase. De novo lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were observed in 43 patients and deterioration of pre-existing LUTS in 7. Bladder hemorrhage was observed in three patients and acute urinary retention in one. Regarding the male genital system, scrotal discomfort was observed in 8 patients, swelling in 14, pain in 16, and erythema in 1; low flow priapism was observed in 2 patients. Ultrasound examination identified acute orchitis in 10 patients, acute epididymitis in 7, and acute epididymo-orchitis in 16. A case-control study reported that patients with moderate COVID-19 show a significant reduction in sperm concertation, the total number of sperms per ejaculate, progressive motility, and complete motility. In contrast to what is known from the first studies on the subject, this review also includes subsequent studies that give evidence of the involvement of the lower urinary tract and male genital system in COVID-19.


Assuntos
/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Sistema Urinário/patologia , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110083, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679425

RESUMO

The outbreak of CoronaVirus Disease19 (COVID19) in December 2019 posed a serious threat to public safety, and its rapid spread caused a global health emergency. Clinical data show that in addition to respiratory system damage, some male patients with COVID-19 are also accompanied by abnormal renal function and even renal damage. As the main receptor of syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is also found to be highly expressed not only in respiratory mucosa and alveolar epithelial cells, but also in renal tubule cells, testicular Leydig cells and seminiferous tubule cells. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 has the possibility of infecting the male reproductive system, and the recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the patient's semen further confirms this theory. In previous studies, it has been found that ACE2 has the ability to regulate autophagy. Not only that, recent studies have also found that SARS-CoV-2 infection can also lead to a reduction in autophagy. All of these associate SARS-CoV-2 with autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy has been shown to have an effect on male reproduction in many studies. Based on these, we propose the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 affects male reproductive function by regulating autophagy. This hypothesis may provide a new idea for future treatment of COVID-19 male patients with reproductive function injury, and it can also prompt medical staff and patients to consciously check their reproductive function.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Genitália Masculina/virologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Espermatozoides/patologia , Espermatozoides/virologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2257-2262, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458115

RESUMO

Bulls chronically affected by bovine besnoitiosis can suffer from sterility. There is limited information about the distribution of Besnoitia cysts and their associated lesions within the male genital organs. This work describes the gross and histological abnormalities in the genital organs of 6 bulls chronically infected with Besnoitia besnoiti, including both clinically (n = 4) and subclinically (n = 2) affected cases. Parasitic cysts were observed in the genital organs of all the clinically affected bulls. The tissue cysts were most commonly found within the pampiniform plexus (4/4), where they were often seen within venous vascular walls and associated with vasculitis, followed by epididymis (3/4), tunica albuginea (2/4), and penis (1/4). In decreasing order of their frequency, observed abnormalities included seminiferous tubule degeneration, testicular fibrosis, testicular necrosis, lack of/or diminished numbers of spermatozoa, testicular atrophy, and Leydig cell hyperplasia. Only one of the subclinically infected bulls had few Besnoitia cysts within the pampinoform plexus, which was associated to small areas of necrosis and mineralization in the ipsilateral testicle. Results indicate that Besnoitia cysts and genital abnormalities are frequent in bulls chronically affected by bovine besnoitiosis, while they are mild and scarce in subclinically affected ones. Moreover, present data show that Besnotia-associated testicular lesions can occur without the presence of cysts within the testicular parenchyma. B. besnoiti cysts seem to have a tropism for the vascular structures of the spermatic chord, which may cause testicular abnormalities via vascular damage, reduced blood flow, and/or impaired thermoregulation and subsequently lead to the observed testicular lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Sarcocystidae/patogenicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doença Crônica , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Genitália Masculina/parasitologia , Masculino , Encistamento de Parasitas
4.
Toxicology ; 438: 152460, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278050

RESUMO

Synthetic pyrethroids are used as insecticides in agriculture and a variety of household applications worldwide. Pyrethroids are widely distributed in all environmental compartments and the general populations are exposed to pyrethroids through various routes. Pyrethroids have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are responsible for the male reproductive impairments. The data confirm pyrethroids cause male reproductive damages. The insecticides exert the toxic effects on male reproductive system through various complex mechanisms including antagonizing androgen receptor (AR), inhibiting steroid synthesis, affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, acting as estrogen receptor (ER) modulators and inducing oxidative stress. The mechanisms of male reproductive toxicity of pyrethroids involve multiple targets and pathways. The review will provide further insight into pyrethroid-induced male reproductive toxicity and mechanisms, which is crucial to preserve male reproductive health.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Animais , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Fertil Steril ; 113(1): 16-20, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033717

RESUMO

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a serious psychiatric condition that affects approximately 2.5% of the U.S. adult population. BDD occurs when a person develops a debilitating focus and sense of distress about a minor or imagined physical flaw. There is growing awareness that in some men with BDD, the physical preoccupation centers on the appearance of their genitals. This review explores existing research on genital manifestations of BDD in men. PubMed and PsychInfo searches with the key word's genital manifestations of BDD were conducted, which yielded a list of 48 unique articles. Articles that were included in the present review were published in English and focused on men with a formal diagnosis of BDD from a psychiatrist, psychologist, or structured clinical interview. Only five articles met these criteria, and all were conducted by the same research group. The articles are reviewed here, along with thoughts about directions for future research and implications for treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Masculino
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(7): e1007950, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356622

RESUMO

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the unique ability to establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and be sexually transmitted. Previous studies showed that long-term persistent infection is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene (CXCL16S) and that persistence is maintained despite the presence of local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. Here, we performed transcriptomic analysis of the ampullae, the primary site of EAV persistence in long-term EAV carrier stallions, to understand the molecular signatures of viral persistence. We demonstrated that the local CD8+ T lymphocyte response is predominantly orchestrated by the transcription factors eomesodermin (EOMES) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 2 (NFATC2), which is likely modulated by the upregulation of inhibitory receptors. Most importantly, EAV persistence is associated with an enhanced expression of CXCL16 and CXCR6 by infiltrating lymphocytes, providing evidence of the implication of this chemokine axis in the pathogenesis of persistent EAV infection in the stallion reproductive tract. Furthermore, we have established a link between the CXCL16 genotype and the gene expression profile in the ampullae of the stallion reproductive tract. Specifically, CXCL16 acts as a "hub" gene likely driving a specific transcriptional network. The findings herein are novel and strongly suggest that RNA viruses such as EAV could exploit the CXCL16/CXCR6 axis in order to modulate local inflammatory and immune responses in the male reproductive tract by inducing a dysfunctional CD8+ T lymphocyte response and unique lymphocyte homing in the reproductive tract.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Equartevirus/imunologia , Equartevirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Infecções por Arterivirus/genética , Infecções por Arterivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Arterivirus/veterinária , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Portador Sadio/virologia , Quimiocina CXCL16/genética , Quimiocina CXCL16/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genitália Masculina/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Masculino , Receptores CXCR6/genética , Receptores CXCR6/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia
10.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 20(5): 639-646, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313079

RESUMO

Psoriasis involving the genital skin occurs in up to two-thirds of psoriasis patients but is often overlooked by physicians. Furthermore, psoriasis objective and subjective severity indexes for common plaque psoriasis often neglect the impact this small area of psoriasis can have on a patient. It can have a significant impact on patients' psychosocial function due to intrusive physical symptoms such as genital itch and pain, and a detrimental impact on sexual health and impaired relationships. The mainstay of treatment is topical therapy. In patients with genital psoriasis refractory to traditional topical treatment, biologic treatments may greatly improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/terapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Psoríase/terapia , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/psicologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/psicologia , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Psoríase/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Saúde Sexual , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 74: 105719, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272065

RESUMO

Recently cancer/testis antigens (CTA) have gained lots of attention as targets of immune therapy. However, the therapeutic efficacy of the CTAs single-antigen vaccines is not satisfying due to tumor heterogenicity. Therefore, many studies have focused on the enhancement of their efficacy by utilizing rich sources of tumor-associated antigens for anti-cancer vaccination. In the present study, the testicular germ cells and sperm cells as well-known sources of cancer/testis antigens were investigated for anti-4T1 breast cancer vaccination in BALB/c mice. The testicular germ cells (TGCs) and sperm cells were isolated from male BALB/c mice. The definite number of cells were homogenized and mixed with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for vaccination of female BALB/c mice. The treatment groups underwent 3 times of immunizations with one-week intervals and one week after the last injection, all groups were injected with 4T1 cancer cells. The TGCs + BCG (259.7 ±â€¯39 mm3) and Sperm + BCG (426 ±â€¯52 mm3) groups exhibited a significant decrease in the tumors' volume in comparison with BCG (641.3 ±â€¯102 mm3) and no-treatment (788.1 ±â€¯117 mm3) groups. Therefore, the TGCs + BCG immunized mice had the smallest tumors in comparison with all groups (P < 0.05). Also, the vital organs of TGCs + BCG (lungs: 6.8 ±â€¯2, liver: 10.1 ±â€¯2) immunized mice exhibited lowest metastatic burden in comparison with the Sperm + BCG (lungs: 13.5 ±â€¯3, liver: 21.1 ±â€¯4), BCG (lungs: 24.3 ±â€¯4, liver: 33 ±â€¯4), and no-treatment (lungs: 26.5 ±â€¯6, liver: 37.3 ±â€¯3) groups. These observations were inconsistent with the tumor-bearing mice survival evaluations as the TGCs + BCG group had longer mean survival time (79.6 ±â€¯12 days) in comparison with other groups (no-treatment: 49.8 ±â€¯8, BCG: 50.5 ±â€¯10, BCG + Sperm: 64.6 ±â€¯7 days). Therefore, TGCs can be a potential source of antigens for the anti-breast cancer immunization and more investigations are necessary.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Células Germinativas/imunologia , Inibidores do Crescimento/imunologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Testiculares/imunologia , Carga Tumoral , Vacinação
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 115: 108897, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102913

RESUMO

Diabetes-induced male sexual dysfunction is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to improve endothelial function in diabetes. Therefore, we hypothesized that sEH inhibitor (sEHI), [trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]cyclohexyloxy}benzoic acid] / t-TUCB can restore the male sexual function in diabetic rat. After one week of administration of diabetogenic agent STZ (52 mg/kg i.p) injection, diabetic rats were treated with t-TUCB (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, p.o) or vehicle for 8 weeks. The sexual behaviour parameters of the animals were evaluated at the end of dosing period. The levels of testosterone and glucose in serum, and sperm were quantified. Effect of treatment on weight of reproductive organs and histopathology of penile tissue was evaluated. Diabetes had a negative effect on male sexual function, weight of sexual organs and production of sperm with a parallel decrease in the level of testosterone. The sEHI, t-TUCB, significantly preserved the sexual function and minimized an increase in the level of blood glucose in diabetic rats. It also prevented a decrease in the level of testosterone and sperm in diabetic rats, in comparison to diabetic control rats. Further, diabetes induced distortion of corpus cavernosum was attenuated by t-TUCB. Based on our findings, sEHI may delay the development of sexual dysfunction in diabetes.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/enzimologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Estreptozocina , Testosterona/sangue
14.
Int J Urol ; 26(9): 860-867, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083787

RESUMO

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a promising medical technology that delivers oxygen to targeted tissues at high pressure to increase the amount of dissolved oxygen in the blood. Over the past three decades, hyperbaric oxygen has been used in a variety of conditions, including radiation-induced tissue injuries, non-healing states with ischemia and malignant neoplasms. In the field of urology, hyperbaric oxygen has also been applied to some pathological conditions (e.g. radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis, Fournier gangrene, interstitial cystitis, male infertility, acute kidney injury and urological cancers). In normal and injured tissues, hyperoxia from hyperbaric oxygen therapy contributes to anti-inflammation, angiogenesis through endothelial proliferation, enhanced fibroblastic activity, increased lymphocyte and macrophage activity, and bactericidal effects with the aim of wound repair. In cancerous tissues, the enhanced supply of oxygen into the hypoxic cancer cells can exert inhibitory effects on factors that contribute to their aggressiveness (e.g. cell survival, escape from apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor immunotolerance), and sensitize the tumor to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, further research, including multicenter clinical studies, is essential for determining the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in refractory urological diseases that are resistant to conventional therapies.


Assuntos
Gangrena de Fournier/terapia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Nefropatias/terapia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Doenças Urológicas/terapia , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gangrena de Fournier/patologia , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Doenças Urológicas/patologia
15.
BJU Int ; 124(5): 801-810, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present long-term oncological outcomes of patients with paratesticular sarcoma treated by a multidisciplinary team. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients managed at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, between 1990 and 2012, were analysed. A sarcoma expert performed central pathology review. Kaplan-Meier graphs compared local recurrence (LR), metastasis, and overall survival (OS) of patients treated with hemiscrotectomy vs those who did not. Univariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to delineate predictors of LR, metastasis, and OS. RESULTS: Overall, 51 patients with a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 132 (51.6-226.8) months were analysed. At presentation, 92.2% (47 patients) had localised disease. Only five patients (9.8%) had undergone initially planned hemiscrotectomy. Completion and salvage hemiscrotectomy was performed in 25 (54.3%) and seven (15.2%) patients, respectively. Recurrence and metastasis occurred in 12 (25.5%) and 10 patients (19.6%), respectively. At the last follow-up, 21.6% (11 patients) had died, with eight dying from their disease. Kaplan-Meyer graphs demonstrated that hemiscrotectomy improved LR (median not reached vs 62.4 months, log-rank P = 0.008) and OS (median not reached vs 168 months, log-rank P = 0.081). Univariable analysis found hemiscrotectomy to be associated with a lower LR rate (hazard ratio [HR] 0.21, P = 0.02), whilst positive margins at initial surgery were associated with increased LR (HR 4.81, P = 0.047). No metastasis predictors were found, but age (HR 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.08; P = 0.02) and non-localised disease at presentation (HR5.17, 95% CI 1.33-20.06; P = 0.017) were associated with worse OS. CONCLUSION: Paratesticular sarcoma is a rare tumour, predominantly manifesting as localised disease. Most patients receive an initial suboptimal oncological surgery. Improved long-term outcomes are demonstrated following early hemiscrotectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/mortalidade , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/cirurgia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 10(5): 578-586, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898182

RESUMO

Prenatal sex steroid exposure plays an important role in determining child development. Yet, measurement of prenatal hormonal exposure has been limited by the paucity of newborn/infant data and the invasiveness of fetal hormonal sampling. Here we provide descriptive data from the MIREC-ID study (n=173 girls; 162 boys) on a range of minimally invasive physical indices thought to reflect prenatal exposure to androgens [anogenital distances (AGDs); penile length/width, scrotal/vulvar pigmentation], to estrogens [vaginal maturation index (VMI) - the degree of maturation of vaginal wall cells] or to both androgens/estrogens [2nd-to-4th digit ratio (2D:4D); areolar pigmentation, triceps/sub-scapular skinfold thickness, arm circumference]. VMI was found to be associated with triceps skinfold thickness (ß=0.265, P=0.005), suggesting that this marker may be sensitive to estrogen levels produced by adipose tissue in girls. Both estrogenic and androgenic markers (VMI: ß=0.338, P=0.031; 2D:4D - right: ß=-0.207, P=0.040; left: ß=-0.276, P=0.006; AGD-fourchette - ß=0.253, P=0.036) were associated with areolar pigmentation in girls, supporting a role for the latter as an index of both androgen and estrogen exposure. We also found AGD-penis (distance from the anus to the penis) to be associated with scrotal pigmentation (ß=0.290, P=0.048), as well as right arm circumference (ß=0.462, P<0.0001), supporting the notion that these indices may be used together as markers of androgen exposure in boys. In sum, these findings support the use of several physical indices at birth to convey a more comprehensive picture of prenatal exposure to sex hormones.


Assuntos
Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
17.
Int J Dev Biol ; 63(1-2): 17-27, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919912

RESUMO

Prior to completion, apoptosis causes the secretion of different signals, including proliferative signals. Signaling associated with death was discovered in Drosophila and mostly characterized by the induction of experimental death. Thus, less is known about physiological death. Here, we analyzed physiological death in the genital disc, a structure with bilateral symmetry, in different growth scenarios. To this end, we prevented or promoted death in regions or in genetic mosaics. We observed that physiological death in the genital disc was associated with proliferative signals and that both processes were JNK-dependent. The proliferative signals promoted growth in the genitalia primordia but not in the analia. Due to the proliferative signaling, the prevention of death that produced undead cells provoked asymmetric growth, high variability in proliferation, and size reduction. Death can occur in the absence of JNK but without signaling. JNK is fundamental for growth and death associated with signaling.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genitália Feminina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genitália Masculina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/metabolismo , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Diferenciação Sexual , Transdução de Sinais
18.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(5): 1427-1437, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791091

RESUMO

The literature on child sexual abuse (CSA) perpetrated by female sexual offenders (FSOs) is exiguous, and many studies have focused on judicial databases. The present retrospective study, instead, analyzed clinical and judicial data of a group of both victims and alleged FSOs, to additionally include women who have not been convicted by the criminal justice system, but who hold strong clinical suspicions of being perpetrators of CSA. The medical records and the Court files of 11 children and their eight suspected FSOs have been collected and critically reviewed in light of the literature to date. This approach allowed for a deeper understanding of the relationship between child and FSO. The authors hypothesize that the victims' severe psychopathological outcomes were a result of a failure to develop appropriate attachments with their prospective caregivers, which could have been damaged by the pathological relationship with FSOs, who were the victims' caregivers.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Canal Anal/patologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/psicologia , Eritema/patologia , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(Suppl 1): S77-S90, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518674

RESUMO

Our aim was to define seminal plasma proteome signatures of infertile patients categorized according to their seminal parameters using TMT-LC-MS/MS. To that extent, quantitative proteomic data was analyzed following two complementary strategies: (1) the conventional approach based on standard statistical analyses of relative protein quantification values; and (2) a novel strategy focused on establishing stable-protein pairs. By conventional analyses, the abundance of some seminal plasma proteins was found to be positively correlated with sperm concentration. However, this correlation was not found for all the peptides within a specific protein, bringing to light the high heterogeneity existing in the seminal plasma proteome because of both the proteolytic fragments and/or the post-translational modifications. This issue was overcome by conducting the novel stable-protein pairs analysis proposed herein. A total of 182 correlations comprising 24 different proteins were identified in the normozoospermic-control population, whereas this proportion was drastically reduced in infertile patients with altered seminal parameters (18 in patients with reduced sperm motility, 0 in patients with low sperm concentration and 3 in patients with no sperm in the ejaculate). These results suggest the existence of multiple etiologies causing the same alteration in seminal parameters. Additionally, the repetition of the stable-protein pair analysis in the control group by adding the data from a single patient at a time enabled to identify alterations in the stable-protein pairs profile of individual patients with altered seminal parameters. These results suggest potential underlying pathogenic mechanisms in individual infertile patients, and might open up a window to its application in the personalized diagnostic of male infertility.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sêmen/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Virology ; 526: 180-188, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412859

RESUMO

Most analyses of genital immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) have been performed in females, consequently immune protection of the male genital epithelium is incompletely understood. We developed a model of male genital HSV-2 infection resulting from intrarectal inoculation of guinea pigs. Vesicular lesions developed transiently on the perineum and foreskin concurrent with acute virus shedding. Virus shedding and recurrent genital lesions were also detected after establishment of a latent infection. Analysis of perineum and foreskin RNA detected transcripts for IFNγ, proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, and for genes involved in migration and regulation of leukocytes. HSV-specific T cells were detected in lymphoid and genital tissues after resolution of the primary infection whereas virus-specific antibody secreting cells were detected only in lymphoid tissue. Taken together, the ability to quantify pathogenesis and local immunity in this guinea pig model represent an important advance towards understanding immunity to HSV-2 in males.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Herpes Genital/imunologia , Herpes Genital/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Prepúcio do Pênis/imunologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/patologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Genitália Masculina/virologia , Cobaias , Herpes Genital/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Masculino , Períneo/patologia , Períneo/virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
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