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1.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 20(5): 639-646, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313079

RESUMO

Psoriasis involving the genital skin occurs in up to two-thirds of psoriasis patients but is often overlooked by physicians. Furthermore, psoriasis objective and subjective severity indexes for common plaque psoriasis often neglect the impact this small area of psoriasis can have on a patient. It can have a significant impact on patients' psychosocial function due to intrusive physical symptoms such as genital itch and pain, and a detrimental impact on sexual health and impaired relationships. The mainstay of treatment is topical therapy. In patients with genital psoriasis refractory to traditional topical treatment, biologic treatments may greatly improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/terapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Psoríase/terapia , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/psicologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/psicologia , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Psoríase/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Saúde Sexual , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 74: 105719, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272065

RESUMO

Recently cancer/testis antigens (CTA) have gained lots of attention as targets of immune therapy. However, the therapeutic efficacy of the CTAs single-antigen vaccines is not satisfying due to tumor heterogenicity. Therefore, many studies have focused on the enhancement of their efficacy by utilizing rich sources of tumor-associated antigens for anti-cancer vaccination. In the present study, the testicular germ cells and sperm cells as well-known sources of cancer/testis antigens were investigated for anti-4T1 breast cancer vaccination in BALB/c mice. The testicular germ cells (TGCs) and sperm cells were isolated from male BALB/c mice. The definite number of cells were homogenized and mixed with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for vaccination of female BALB/c mice. The treatment groups underwent 3 times of immunizations with one-week intervals and one week after the last injection, all groups were injected with 4T1 cancer cells. The TGCs + BCG (259.7 ±â€¯39 mm3) and Sperm + BCG (426 ±â€¯52 mm3) groups exhibited a significant decrease in the tumors' volume in comparison with BCG (641.3 ±â€¯102 mm3) and no-treatment (788.1 ±â€¯117 mm3) groups. Therefore, the TGCs + BCG immunized mice had the smallest tumors in comparison with all groups (P < 0.05). Also, the vital organs of TGCs + BCG (lungs: 6.8 ±â€¯2, liver: 10.1 ±â€¯2) immunized mice exhibited lowest metastatic burden in comparison with the Sperm + BCG (lungs: 13.5 ±â€¯3, liver: 21.1 ±â€¯4), BCG (lungs: 24.3 ±â€¯4, liver: 33 ±â€¯4), and no-treatment (lungs: 26.5 ±â€¯6, liver: 37.3 ±â€¯3) groups. These observations were inconsistent with the tumor-bearing mice survival evaluations as the TGCs + BCG group had longer mean survival time (79.6 ±â€¯12 days) in comparison with other groups (no-treatment: 49.8 ±â€¯8, BCG: 50.5 ±â€¯10, BCG + Sperm: 64.6 ±â€¯7 days). Therefore, TGCs can be a potential source of antigens for the anti-breast cancer immunization and more investigations are necessary.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Células Germinativas/imunologia , Inibidores do Crescimento/imunologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Testiculares/imunologia , Carga Tumoral , Vacinação
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(7): e1007950, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356622

RESUMO

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the unique ability to establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and be sexually transmitted. Previous studies showed that long-term persistent infection is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene (CXCL16S) and that persistence is maintained despite the presence of local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. Here, we performed transcriptomic analysis of the ampullae, the primary site of EAV persistence in long-term EAV carrier stallions, to understand the molecular signatures of viral persistence. We demonstrated that the local CD8+ T lymphocyte response is predominantly orchestrated by the transcription factors eomesodermin (EOMES) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 2 (NFATC2), which is likely modulated by the upregulation of inhibitory receptors. Most importantly, EAV persistence is associated with an enhanced expression of CXCL16 and CXCR6 by infiltrating lymphocytes, providing evidence of the implication of this chemokine axis in the pathogenesis of persistent EAV infection in the stallion reproductive tract. Furthermore, we have established a link between the CXCL16 genotype and the gene expression profile in the ampullae of the stallion reproductive tract. Specifically, CXCL16 acts as a "hub" gene likely driving a specific transcriptional network. The findings herein are novel and strongly suggest that RNA viruses such as EAV could exploit the CXCL16/CXCR6 axis in order to modulate local inflammatory and immune responses in the male reproductive tract by inducing a dysfunctional CD8+ T lymphocyte response and unique lymphocyte homing in the reproductive tract.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Equartevirus/imunologia , Equartevirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Infecções por Arterivirus/genética , Infecções por Arterivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Arterivirus/veterinária , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Portador Sadio/virologia , Quimiocina CXCL16/genética , Quimiocina CXCL16/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genitália Masculina/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Masculino , Receptores CXCR6/genética , Receptores CXCR6/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 115: 108897, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102913

RESUMO

Diabetes-induced male sexual dysfunction is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to improve endothelial function in diabetes. Therefore, we hypothesized that sEH inhibitor (sEHI), [trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]cyclohexyloxy}benzoic acid] / t-TUCB can restore the male sexual function in diabetic rat. After one week of administration of diabetogenic agent STZ (52 mg/kg i.p) injection, diabetic rats were treated with t-TUCB (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, p.o) or vehicle for 8 weeks. The sexual behaviour parameters of the animals were evaluated at the end of dosing period. The levels of testosterone and glucose in serum, and sperm were quantified. Effect of treatment on weight of reproductive organs and histopathology of penile tissue was evaluated. Diabetes had a negative effect on male sexual function, weight of sexual organs and production of sperm with a parallel decrease in the level of testosterone. The sEHI, t-TUCB, significantly preserved the sexual function and minimized an increase in the level of blood glucose in diabetic rats. It also prevented a decrease in the level of testosterone and sperm in diabetic rats, in comparison to diabetic control rats. Further, diabetes induced distortion of corpus cavernosum was attenuated by t-TUCB. Based on our findings, sEHI may delay the development of sexual dysfunction in diabetes.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/enzimologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Estreptozocina , Testosterona/sangue
6.
Int J Dev Biol ; 63(1-2): 17-27, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919912

RESUMO

Prior to completion, apoptosis causes the secretion of different signals, including proliferative signals. Signaling associated with death was discovered in Drosophila and mostly characterized by the induction of experimental death. Thus, less is known about physiological death. Here, we analyzed physiological death in the genital disc, a structure with bilateral symmetry, in different growth scenarios. To this end, we prevented or promoted death in regions or in genetic mosaics. We observed that physiological death in the genital disc was associated with proliferative signals and that both processes were JNK-dependent. The proliferative signals promoted growth in the genitalia primordia but not in the analia. Due to the proliferative signaling, the prevention of death that produced undead cells provoked asymmetric growth, high variability in proliferation, and size reduction. Death can occur in the absence of JNK but without signaling. JNK is fundamental for growth and death associated with signaling.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genitália Feminina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genitália Masculina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/metabolismo , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Diferenciação Sexual , Transdução de Sinais
7.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(5): 1427-1437, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791091

RESUMO

The literature on child sexual abuse (CSA) perpetrated by female sexual offenders (FSOs) is exiguous, and many studies have focused on judicial databases. The present retrospective study, instead, analyzed clinical and judicial data of a group of both victims and alleged FSOs, to additionally include women who have not been convicted by the criminal justice system, but who hold strong clinical suspicions of being perpetrators of CSA. The medical records and the Court files of 11 children and their eight suspected FSOs have been collected and critically reviewed in light of the literature to date. This approach allowed for a deeper understanding of the relationship between child and FSO. The authors hypothesize that the victims' severe psychopathological outcomes were a result of a failure to develop appropriate attachments with their prospective caregivers, which could have been damaged by the pathological relationship with FSOs, who were the victims' caregivers.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Canal Anal/patologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/psicologia , Eritema/patologia , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Virology ; 526: 180-188, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412859

RESUMO

Most analyses of genital immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) have been performed in females, consequently immune protection of the male genital epithelium is incompletely understood. We developed a model of male genital HSV-2 infection resulting from intrarectal inoculation of guinea pigs. Vesicular lesions developed transiently on the perineum and foreskin concurrent with acute virus shedding. Virus shedding and recurrent genital lesions were also detected after establishment of a latent infection. Analysis of perineum and foreskin RNA detected transcripts for IFNγ, proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, and for genes involved in migration and regulation of leukocytes. HSV-specific T cells were detected in lymphoid and genital tissues after resolution of the primary infection whereas virus-specific antibody secreting cells were detected only in lymphoid tissue. Taken together, the ability to quantify pathogenesis and local immunity in this guinea pig model represent an important advance towards understanding immunity to HSV-2 in males.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Herpes Genital/imunologia , Herpes Genital/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Prepúcio do Pênis/imunologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/patologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Genitália Masculina/virologia , Cobaias , Herpes Genital/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Masculino , Períneo/patologia , Períneo/virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
9.
Theriogenology ; 124: 32-38, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336301

RESUMO

Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used as a broad spectrum antiparasitic agent against nematodes and arthropods. It is mainly used in the control of parasitic infections of domestic animals, and recently has been used in humans to treat onchocerciasis, scabies, and pediculosis. In mammals, evidence has indicated that macrocyclic lactones interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. The GABAergic system is known to be involved in the manifestation of sexual behavior, and previous studies have shown that IVM impaired sexual behavior in both male and female rats. Thus, considering that IVM may interfere with the sexual sphere, this study evaluated the temporal (1 up 60 days) effects of exposure to IVM (0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously) on seminal and hormonal parameters of male rabbits. In male rabbits, the spermatozoa concentration, motility and morphology, the integrity of the plasmatic, acrosomal and mitochondrial membranes of the spermatozoa, the organ weights, gonadosomatic index, serum testosterone concentrations, histopathological findings were evaluated and hematological and serum biochemical analysis was conducted. No changes were observed in male seminal parameters evaluated by spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology, nor the potential for fertilization evaluated by the integrity of the plasmatic, acrosomal, and mitochondrial membranes of the spermatozoa; there was also no interference in serum testosterone concentration, serum biochemistry and hematological parameters. The findings of this study using the artificial vagina for collection of semen and computer-assisted semen analysis showed that IVM at doses of 0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg of SC did not alter any of the semen parameters of rabbits evaluated for up to 60 days after administration.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Coelhos , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Animais , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Contagem de Espermatozoides/veterinária , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
10.
Vet Pathol ; 56(2): 300-306, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381016

RESUMO

Chlamydiosis is the most documented and serious disease of koalas, characterized by ocular, urinary, and reproductive lesions. Since little attention has been paid to the pathological effects of this infection in the male reproductive system, we aimed to determine the incidence and severity of reproductive pathology associated with chlamydial infection in male koalas submitted to koala hospitals in southeast Queensland. The entire reproductive tract from 62 sexually mature male koalas not suitable for rehabilitation was evaluated and 677 tissue samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was observed in 178 of 677 (26.3%) tissue samples from the upper and lower reproductive tract, mainly in the prostatic, penile, and membranous urethra. IHC was positive for the chlamydial antigen in 19 of 451 normal samples (4.2%) and 46 of 178 samples with inflammation (25.8%), located within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and the prostatic membranous and penile urethra. Chlamydia pecorum was detected via qPCR in 319 of 451 normal samples (70.7%) and 159 of 178 samples with inflammation (89.3%), with the highest incidence in the penile urethra, prostate, membranous urethra, and bulbourethral glands. This study suggests that Chlamydia infection in the male reproductive tract is more widespread than originally thought. Furthermore, the male reproductive tract might be a reservoir for persistent chlamydial infections in koalas, with important implications for prophylactic strategies and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia , Phascolarctidae/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/veterinária , Animais , Glândulas Bulbouretrais/microbiologia , Glândulas Bulbouretrais/patologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/patologia , Epididimo/microbiologia , Epididimo/patologia , Genitália Masculina/microbiologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Próstata/microbiologia , Próstata/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/patologia , Uretra/microbiologia , Uretra/patologia
11.
Biol Reprod ; 100(1): 281-291, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084935

RESUMO

CBLB502, a Toll-like receptor (TLR)5 agonist derived from Salmonella flagellin, was shown to protect mammalian hematopoietic and gastrointestinal systems from acute irradiation syndrome and to stimulate regeneration. To explore whether CBLB502 can improve testicular injuries caused by irradiation, mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 mg/kg CBLB502 or vehicle control 30 min prior to applying 5.0 Gy ionizing radiation (IR). We observed these mice for the following 120 days and determined that CBLB502 pretreatment alleviated IR-induced oxidative stress, alleviated the distorted architecture of seminiferous tubules, reversed the decline of sperm quantity and quality, and helped recover male mouse fertility. Additionally, CBLB502 efficiently reduced DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in IR-treated mice and their offspring. Due to the suppression of p53-dependent apoptosis, in IR-treated mice, CBLB502 was shown to significantly activate the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway and reduce the apoptotic rate in association with an increase in anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 levels and a decrease in the levels of DNA repair protein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Moreover, an IR-induced reduction in serum testosterone and superoxide dismutase levels and an increase in malondialdehyde levels were considerably reversed in CBLB502-pretreated mice. No significant reverse effects were found in Tlr5 knockout mice, suggesting that protection of the testis against IR by CBLB502 is primarily dependent on the TLR5 signaling pathway. Our results may help further investigations into potential CBLB502 applications for the protection of the male reproductive system during radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/prevenção & controle , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/etiologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/efeitos da radiação , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Radiação Ionizante , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética
12.
Pathologe ; 40(Suppl 1): 1-8, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446779

RESUMO

The most frequent anomaly of the urogenital tract is a simple renal ectopia with one organ lying in the pelvis. Crossed renal ectopia is a less common condition in which the ectopic kidney is located on the opposite side of the midline from the ureteral insertion in the urinary bladder. The cause of both types of renal ectopia is the arrest or failure of the kidney ascent from the pelvic to the lumbar position. Whereas an accelerated ascent leads to a subdiaphragmal or intrathoracic ectopic position, an ectopic ureter can be defined as one that does not drain into the trigonum vesicae. The ectopic orificium can be located situated in the bladder neck and urethra as well as somewhere in the genital area.Exstrophy of the urinary bladder is not a complete ectopia. Because the abdominal wall and the anterior part of the bladder wall are lacking, the bladder mucosa grows directly into the skin. The complex exstrophy of the bladder and intestine corresponds to a cloacal exstrophy, in which the bladder is split in two halves on either side of the gut portion. Testicular ectopia refers to the location of the testis in a position outside of its normal course of descent.Prostatic ectopia does not refer to the wrong location of the entire organ, but to a scattered group of prostate glands, which are mostly found in the submucosal part of the urinary bladder or proximal urethra. Other described locations are the intestinal wall, anus, pericolic fat tissue, spleen, seminal vesicle, testis, and cervix uteri.The associated ectopic penis, scrotum, and penoscrotal transposition are the least common and probably the absolutely most unknown malformations of the male genitalia. The ectopic penis and scrotum are located in the perineum, whereas in the transposition the penis lies above the scrotum.


Assuntos
Coristoma/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Rim/patologia , Sistema Urinário/patologia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Sex Med Rev ; 7(1): 71-83, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The dermatologic conditions affecting the male genitalia are diverse and range from normal variants and benign growths to overt malignancy. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of urologic dermatology training in most residency programs, and many dermatologic lesions with a classic appearance on other areas of the body may have atypical presentations on the genitalia. Patients may present to a variety of physicians without receiving a definitive diagnosis, which can be highly distressing to the afflicted individual. AIM: To provide sexual medicine physicians tools to aid in the evaluation and diagnosis of urologic dermatology lesions, whether they are limited to the genitalia or part of a widespread systemic disease. METHODS: Comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to genital dermatology in men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We stratify each condition into 1 of 5 groups (normal variants and benign lesions, inflammatory lesions, transmissible lesions, premalignant lesions, and malignant lesions) and focus on presentation and prevalence of these conditions. RESULTS: Sexual medicine physicians should emphasize the non-pathologic nature of normal variants of genital anatomy (ie, penile hyperpigmentation, pearly penile papules) and stress that removal of these lesions is only appropriate for cosmetic purposes. Benign genital growths (ie, sebaceous cysts, seborrheic keratoses) may not require intervention, but they should be monitored for atypical features and infection. In contrast, transmissible (ie, herpes, syphilis) and inflammatory (ie, psoriasis) lesions may necessitate prompt intervention to reduce transmission and complications of late-stage disease. Premalignant and malignant lesions may mimic many of the aforementioned conditions; it is important that patients receive routine follow-up after treatment. All suspicious non-healing or ulcerating lesions should undergo pathologic evaluation to rule out malignancy. CONCLUSION: Urologic dermatology can be a diagnostic challenge for sexual medicine physicians. This review simplifies the diagnostic approach and emphasizes pathologic features of each condition to guide management. Gabrielson AT, Le TV, Fontenot C, et al. Male genital dermatology: A primer for the sexual medicine physician. Sex Med Rev 2019;7:71-83.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Saúde Sexual , Dermatopatias/patologia , Urologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Dermatopatias/terapia
16.
Can J Urol ; 25(3): 9328-9333, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900821

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Given the poor understanding of the pathophysiology of genital lichen sclerosus (GLS) and a lack of accepted definitive diagnostic criteria, we proposed to survey pathologists regarding their understanding of GLS. We hypothesized that significant disagreement about GLS will exist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All urologists participating in the Trauma and Urologic Reconstruction Network of Surgeons identified genitourinary (GUP) and dermatopathologists (DP) at their respective institutions who were then invited to participate in an online survey regarding their experience with diagnosing GLS, GLS pathophysiology and its relationship to urethral stricture disease. RESULTS: There were 23 (12 DP, 11 GUP) pathologists that completed the survey. The most agreed upon criteria for diagnosis were dermal collagen homogenization (85.7%), loss of the normal rete pattern (33.3%) and atrophic epidermis (28.5%). No pathologists believed GLS had an infectious etiology (19% maybe, 42% unknown) and 19% believed GLS to be an autoimmune disorder (42% maybe, 38% unknown); 19% believed LS to be premalignant, but 52% believed it was associated with cancer; 80% believed that LS could involve the urethra (DP (92%) versus GUP (67%); p = 0.272). Of those diagnosing urethral GLS, 80% of DUP believed that GLS must first involve the glans/prepuce before involving the urethra, while all GUP believed that urethral disease could exist in isolation (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: There was significant disagreement in this specialized cohort of pathologists when diagnosing GLS. A logical first step appears to be improving agreement on how to best describe and classify the disease. This may lead to improve treatments.


Assuntos
Líquen Escleroso e Atrófico/patologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/patologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estreitamento Uretral/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Biópsia por Agulha , Competência Clínica , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Líquen Escleroso e Atrófico/cirurgia , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/diagnóstico , Patologistas/normas , Patologistas/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos , Estreitamento Uretral/patologia , Estreitamento Uretral/cirurgia
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 1861984, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887939

RESUMO

Objective: This study evaluated the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and obesity on male reproductive organ function in male mice and the potential mechanism of male secondary hypogonadism (SH) in such mice. Methods: 140 mice were assigned to six groups for 12 weeks: normal, DEHP, DIO, DIO + DEHP low, DIO + DEHP middle, and DIO + DEHP high. The effects of DEHP and obesity upon the reproductive organs were determined by measuring sperm count and motility, relative testis and epididymis weight, hormone level, and pathological changes. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining malondialdehyde, T-AOC, SOD, GSH, H2O2, CAT, and GSH-PX in testicular tissues. Nrf2 and Keap1 protein were measured by Western blotting. Results: DEHP and obesity reduced sperm count and motility, relative testis and epididymis weight, and testosterone level but increased the levels of MDA, H2O2, leptin, and estradiol. Pathological injury was observed in the testicular Leydig cells. Moreover, the activity of CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px enzymes was inhibited. Nrf2 protein expression was reduced but that of Keap1 was increased. Conclusions: DEHP and obesity jointly caused damage to male productive function. Oxidative stress in testicular tissue, and a high level of leptin, may provide some evidence to clarify the mechanisms of male SH with DEHP and obesity.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácidos Ftálicos/farmacologia
18.
Andrologia ; 50(11): e13034, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740839

RESUMO

Ageing is usually characterised by a mild chronic proinflammatory state. Despite the tight association between both processes, the phenomenon has recently been termed inflammageing. Inflammation in the male reproductive tract is frequently linked with bacterial or virus infections but also with a broad range of noninfectious processes. Prostatitis, epididymitis and orchitis, among others, can lead to infertility. However, in spite of the inflammation theory of disease, chronic inflammation in male urogenital system does not always cause symptoms. With advancing age, inflammatory processes are commonly observed in the male reproductive tract. Nevertheless, the incidence of inflammation in reproductive organs and ducts varies greatly among elderly men. Inflammageing is considered a predictor of pathogenesis and the development of age-related diseases. This article briefly summarises the current state of knowledge on inflammageing in the male reproductive tract. Yet, the precise aetiology of inflammageing in the male urogenital system, and its potential contribution not only to infertility but most importantly to adverse health outcomes remains almost unknown. Thus, further investigations are required to elucidate the precise cross-links between inflammation and male reproductive senescence, and to establish the impact of anti-inflammatory drug treatments on elder men's general health status.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/patologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 102: 739-748, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604593

RESUMO

Ebselen (EBS) is a versatile compound that can protect the cellular components from oxidative and free radical-mediated damage. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of EBS against manganese (Mn) toxicity on male reproductive organs. Thirty-two male rats were assigned into four groups, namely, negative control, EBS (15 mg/kg body weight (bw), as a single protective IP injection), MnCl2 (50 mg/kg bw, orally for 30 consecutive days), and EBS + MnCl2 (as mentioned before). The results showed that EBS ameliorated the alterations caused by MnCl2 in the testicular, epididymal, and seminal vesicle tissues. MnCl2 increased the sperm abnormalities, decreased gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm motility, and sperm count. Further, it reduced the serum levels of testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and 8-OH-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) upon exposure to MnCl2 indicated a disturbance in the activities of the testicular antioxidant enzymes and indices. Histologically, MnCl2 decreased the diameter of seminiferous tubules (ST), the height of germinal epithelium, number of spermatogonia/ST, spermatocytes/ST, spermatids/ST, and Leydig cells/intertubular area (IA). Chemoprotection with EBS successfully mitigated most of the above-mentioned parameters concluding that EBS could be used as a useful prophylactic therapy whenever Mn toxicity is involved.


Assuntos
Azóis/química , Azóis/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Manganês/toxicidade , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/ultraestrutura , Hormônios/sangue , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Glândulas Seminais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Seminais/patologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/patologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/ultraestrutura
20.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 109: 109-116, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559114

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that mainly affects the lungs. Along the course of pulmonary TB there are remarkable changes in the production of cytokines that cause endocrine changes. So far, it is not known the physiological and histological changes in the male reproductive system during pulmonary TB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pulmonary TB produces histological alterations of the BALB/c mice reproductive organs, as well as abnormalities in spermatogenesis, serum testosterone concentrations and expression of testicular cytokines. METHODS: BALB/c mice were infected intratracheally with high dose Mtb strain H37Rv. Groups of six non infected and infected animals were euthanized on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 post-infection. Bacillary loads were determined by counting colony forming units (CFUs) in lungs, testes, prostate and seminal vesicles. Histological sections were obtained from the same organs. Spermatozoids number and quality were assessed by spermatobioscopy. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoanalysis (RIA) in control and infected mice in each time of sacrifice. RESULTS: Mtb only grew in lung tissue. Serum androgens showed a trend to decrease in the infected mice compared to the healthy animals, the difference turn into statistically significance at post infection day 120. The weight of the testis was not modified throughout the study, and no histopathological changes were found. However, we detected a significant decrease in the weight of the seminal vesicles and prostate starting at 28 days post-infection. Atrophy of the seminal vesicles and prostate epithelia were significant, beginning after 60 days of infection. Spermatobioscopy revealed hypospermia in the later stages of the disease. We have observed in the testes a local significant disbalance on the cytokine profile (increase of IL-6 and decrease of IL-10 and TGF-b levels) together with a very significant reduction of the body weight during late pulmonary TB. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary TB affects the histophysiology of the male reproductive system due to hormonal changes, an imbalance of pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and a wasting syndrome during late disease.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Testosterona/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genitália Masculina/imunologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espermatogênese , Espermatozoides/imunologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
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