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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802618

RESUMO

Determination and comparisons of complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are important to understand the origin and evolution of mitochondria. Mitogenomes of unicellular protists are particularly informative in this regard because they are gene-rich and display high structural diversity. Ciliates are a highly diverse assemblage of protists and their mitogenomes (linear structure with high A+T content in general) were amongst the first from protists to be characterized and have provided important insights into mitogenome evolution. Here, we report novel mitogenome sequences from three representatives (Strombidium sp., Strombidium cf. sulcatum, and Halteria grandinella) in two dominant ciliate lineages. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of newly sequenced and previously published ciliate mitogenomes were performed and revealed a number of important insights. We found that the mitogenomes of these three species are linear molecules capped with telomeric repeats that differ greatly among known species. The genomes studied here are highly syntenic, but larger in size and more gene-rich than those of other groups. They also all share an AT-rich tandem repeat region which may serve as the replication origin and modulate initiation of bidirectional transcription. More generally we identified a split version of ccmf, a cytochrome c maturation-related gene that might be a derived character uniting taxa in the subclasses Hypotrichia and Euplotia. Finally, our mitogenome comparisons and phylogenetic analyses support to reclassify Halteria grandinella from the subclass Oligotrichia to the subclass Hypotrichia. These results add to the growing literature on the unique features of ciliate mitogenomes, shedding light on the diversity and evolution of their linear molecular architecture.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Células Cultivadas , Células Eucarióticas/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Mitógenos/genética , Filogenia , Plâncton/genética , Origem de Replicação/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803567

RESUMO

The effectiveness of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mammals seems to be still characterized by the disappointingly low rates of cloned embryos, fetuses, and progeny generated. These rates are measured in relation to the numbers of nuclear-transferred oocytes and can vary depending on the technique applied to the reconstruction of enucleated oocytes. The SCNT efficiency is also largely affected by the capability of donor nuclei to be epigenetically reprogrammed in a cytoplasm of reconstructed oocytes. The epigenetic reprogrammability of donor nuclei in SCNT-derived embryos appears to be biased, to a great extent, by the extranuclear (cytoplasmic) inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fractions originating from donor cells. A high frequency of mtDNA heteroplasmy occurrence can lead to disturbances in the intergenomic crosstalk between mitochondrial and nuclear compartments during the early embryogenesis of SCNT-derived embryos. These disturbances can give rise to incorrect and incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei in mammalian cloned embryos. The dwindling reprogrammability of donor nuclei in the blastomeres of SCNT-derived embryos can also be impacted by impaired epigenetic rearrangements within terminal ends of donor cell-descended chromosomes (i.e., telomeres). Therefore, dysfunctions in epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei can contribute to the enhanced attrition of telomeres. This accelerates the processes of epigenomic aging and replicative senescence in the cells forming various tissues and organs of cloned fetuses and progeny. For all the above-mentioned reasons, the current paper aims to overview the state of the art in not only molecular mechanisms underlying intergenomic communication between nuclear and mtDNA molecules in cloned embryos but also intrinsic determinants affecting unfaithful epigenetic reprogrammability of telomeres. The latter is related to their abrasion within somatic cell-inherited chromosomes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Herança Extracromossômica/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mamíferos/genética , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Telômero/genética , Animais
3.
Gene ; 786: 145624, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798681

RESUMO

The genus Synalpheus is a cosmopolitan clade of marine shrimps found in most tropical regions. Species in this genus exhibit a range of social organizations, including pair-forming, communal breeding, and eusociality, the latter only known to have evolved within this genus in the marine realm. This study examines the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven species of Synalpheus and explores differences between eusocial and non-eusocial species considering that eusociality has been shown before to affect the strength of purifying selection in mitochondrial protein coding genes. The AT-rich mitochondrial genomes of Synalpheus range from 15,421 bp to 15,782 bp in length and comprise, invariably, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. A 648 bp to 994 bp long intergenic space is assumed to be the D-loop. Mitochondrial gene synteny is identical among the studied shrimps. No major differences occur between eusocial and non-eusocial species in nucleotide composition and codon usage profiles of PCGs and in the secondary structure of tRNA genes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the complete concatenated PCG complement of 90 species supports the monophyly of the genus Synalpheus and its family Alpheidae. Moreover, the monophyletic status of the caridean families Alvinocaridae, Atyidae, Thoridae, Lysmatidae, Palaemonidae, and Pandalidae within caridean shrimps are fully or highly supported by the analysis. We therefore conclude that mitochondrial genomes contain sufficient phylogenetic information to resolve relationships at high taxonomic levels within the Caridea. Our analysis of mitochondrial genomes in the genus Synalpheus contributes to the understanding of the coevolution between genomic architecture and sociality in caridean shrimps and other marine organisms.


Assuntos
Decápodes/classificação , Genômica/métodos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Animais , Uso do Códon , Decápodes/genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética , Seleção Genética
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672964

RESUMO

Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are an excellent source of information for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, but their application in marine invertebrates is limited. In the present study, we utilized mitogenomes to elucidate the phylogeny and environmental adaptation in deep-sea mussels (Mytilidae: Bathymodiolinae). We sequenced and assembled seven bathymodioline mitogenomes. A phylogenetic analysis integrating the seven newly assembled and six previously reported bathymodioline mitogenomes revealed that these bathymodiolines are divided into three well-supported clades represented by five Gigantidas species, six Bathymodiolus species, and two "Bathymodiolus" species, respectively. A Common interval Rearrangement Explorer (CREx) analysis revealed a gene order rearrangement in bathymodiolines that is distinct from that in other shallow-water mytilids. The CREx analysis also suggested that reversal, transposition, and tandem duplications with subsequent random gene loss (TDRL) may have been responsible for the evolution of mitochondrial gene orders in bathymodiolines. Moreover, a comparison of the mitogenomes of shallow-water and deep-sea mussels revealed that the latter lineage has experienced relaxed purifying selection, but 16 residues of the atp6, nad4, nad2, cob, nad5, and cox2 genes have underwent positive selection. Overall, this study provides new insights into the phylogenetic relationships and mitogenomic adaptations of deep-sea mussels.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Bivalves/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Bivalves/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ordem dos Genes , Rearranjo Gênico , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Variação Genética , Taxa de Mutação , Água do Mar , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670420

RESUMO

Long non-coding, tandem-repetitive regions in mitochondrial (mt) genomes of many metazoans have been notoriously difficult to characterise accurately using conventional sequencing methods. Here, we show how the use of a third-generation (long-read) sequencing and informatic approach can overcome this problem. We employed Oxford Nanopore technology to sequence genomic DNAs from a pool of adult worms of the carcinogenic parasite, Schistosoma haematobium, and used an informatic workflow to define the complete mt non-coding region(s). Using long-read data of high coverage, we defined six dominant mt genomes of 33.4 kb to 22.6 kb. Although no variation was detected in the order or lengths of the protein-coding genes, there was marked length (18.5 kb to 7.6 kb) and structural variation in the non-coding region, raising questions about the evolution and function of what might be a control region that regulates mt transcription and/or replication. The discovery here of the largest tandem-repetitive, non-coding region (18.5 kb) in a metazoan organism also raises a question about the completeness of some of the mt genomes of animals reported to date, and stimulates further explorations using a Nanopore-informatic workflow.


Assuntos
Genoma Helmíntico , Genoma Mitocondrial , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem , Animais
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672640

RESUMO

Eleven published articles (4 reviews, 7 research papers) are collected in the Special Issue entitled "Organelle Genetics in Plants." This selection of papers covers a wide range of topics related to chloroplasts and plant mitochondria research: (i) organellar gene expression (OGE) and, more specifically, chloroplast RNA editing in soybean, mitochondria RNA editing, and intron splicing in soybean during nodulation, as well as the study of the roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of OGE in plant adaptation to environmental stress; (ii) analysis of the nuclear integrants of mitochondrial DNA (NUMTs) or plastid DNA (NUPTs); (iii) sequencing and characterization of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes; (iv) recent advances in plastid genome engineering. Here we summarize the main findings of these works, which represent the latest research on the genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of chloroplasts and mitochondria.


Assuntos
Plantas/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Edição de RNA/genética
7.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 21-25, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780180

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To study the heteroplasmy of the whole mitochondrial genome genotyping result of hair shaft samples using HID Ion GeneStudioTM S5 Sequencing System. Methods The buccal swabs and blood of 8 unrelated individuals, and hair shaft samples from different parts of the same individual were collected. Amplification of whole mitochondrial genome was performed using Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel. Analysis and detection of whole mitochondrial genome were carried out using the HID Ion GeneStudioTM S5 Sequencing System. Results The mitochondrial DNA sequences in temporal hair shaft samples from 2 individuals showed heteroplasmy, while whole mitochondrial genome genotyping results of buccal swabs, blood, and hair samples from the other 6 unrelated individuals were consistent. A total of 119 base variations were observed from the 8 unrelated individuals. The numbers of variable sites of the individuals were 29, 40, 38, 35, 13, 36, 40 and 35, respectively. Conclusion Sequence polymorphism can be fully understood using HID Ion GeneStudioTM S5 Sequencing system.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Genoma Mitocondrial , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Gene ; 783: 145564, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711408

RESUMO

The family Mycetophilidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea) consists of more than 4,500 described species distributed worldwide. Among them, dozens of species have been reported to be economically important to cultivated mushrooms and crops. Relationships among subfamilies in Mycetophilidae have been controversial by using morphological characters or gene markers. In this study, five mycetophilid mitogenomes representing four subfamilies were sequenced and analyzed with 15 published sciaroid mitogenomes as ingroup, while another two species representing two closely related families were chosen as outgroup. All of the sequenced mitogenomes contain 37 genes arranged in the ancestral order, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region (CR). Among mycetophilid mitogenomes, Leu, Ile, Phe, and Met are the most frequently encoded amino acids (AA), with TTA (Leu), ATT (Ile), TTT (Phe) and ATA (Met) being the most frequent codons. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic results reconstructed based on PCGs, PCGs + rRNAs and AA sequences respectively show that the clade of Sciaroidea was well separated from outgroup, further confirming its monophyly. The phylogenetic relationships within Mycetophilidae were recovered as (Manotinae + Sciophilinae) + (Mycomyinae + Mycetophilinae). Mapped to the phylogram, the gene rearrangements occur frequently in the crown group, implying extremely rapid evolutionary rates in Sciaridae and Cecidomyiidae, which might be the reason why the two families have such high species diversity.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Composição de Bases , Uso do Códon , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4941(4): zootaxa.4941.4.2, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756920

RESUMO

Scaphidium is a rove beetle genus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of remarkable and diverse colouration. Although most of Scaphidium species are easily distinguished by the colour patterns, there exist some confusing variants, which may introduce bias into rapid identification. Molecular identification using the mitochondrial genome is a reliable approach that overcomes the shortcoming of morphological recognition for those who have limited experience in species-level identification. Here we described the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of Scaphidium formosanum Pic, 1915, a species with variant colour types, and tested the reliability of identification based on mitochondrial genes by both gene-wise metrics and phylogenetic analyses. In this study, the 17,455 bp mitochondrial genome of S. formosanum is composed of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. All PCGs start with typical ATN codons, except Nad4l which began with the TTG codon. The gene order is consistent with the typical linear arrangement of the published rove beetle mitochondrial genomes. The nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased (76.42%): A - 39.99%, T - 36.44%, C - 15.08%, and G - 8.49%. Multiple metrics support that our sample has a higher similarity to S. quadrimaculatum than to other species. Maximum likelihood trees confirm the placement of our sample as the closest related entity to S. quadrimaculatum. We conclude that the mitochondrial genome has a reliable performance in molecular identification in this case.


Assuntos
Besouros , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Besouros/genética , Ordem dos Genes , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Neurology ; 96(13): e1755-e1760, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether stable polymorphisms that define mitochondrial haplogroups in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with Pick disease risk, we genotyped 52 pathologically confirmed cases of Pick disease and 910 neurologically healthy controls and performed case-control association analysis. METHODS: Fifty-two pathologically confirmed cases of Pick disease from Mayo Clinic Florida (n = 38) and the University of Pennsylvania (n = 14) and 910 neurologically healthy controls collected from Mayo Clinic Florida were genotyped for unique mtDNA haplogroup-defining variants. Mitochondrial haplogroups were determined, and in a case-control analysis, associations of mtDNA haplogroups with risk of Pick disease were evaluated with logistic regression models that were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: No individual mtDNA haplogroups or superhaplogroups were significantly associated with risk of Pick disease after adjustment for multiple testing (p < 0.0021, considered significant). However, nominally significant (p < 0.05) associations toward an increased risk of Pick disease were observed for mtDNA haplogroup W (5.8% cases vs 1.6% controls, odds ratio [OR] 4.78, p = 0.020) and subhaplogroup H4 (5.8% cases vs 1.2% controls, OR 4.82, p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that mtDNA variation is not a disease driver but may influence disease susceptibility. Ongoing genetic assessments in larger cohorts of Pick disease are currently underway.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Doença de Pick/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 19, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rearrangement is an important topic in the research of amphibian mitochondrial genomes ("mitogenomes" hereafter), whose causes and mechanisms remain enigmatic. Globally examining mitogenome rearrangements and uncovering their characteristics can contribute to a better understanding of mitogenome evolution. RESULTS: Here we systematically investigated mitogenome arrangements of 232 amphibians including four newly sequenced Dicroglossidae mitogenomes. The results showed that our new sequenced mitogenomes all possessed a trnM tandem duplication, which was not exclusive to Dicroglossidae. By merging the same arrangements, the mitogenomes of ~ 80% species belonged to the four major patterns, the major two of which were typical vertebrate arrangement and typical neobatrachian arrangement. Using qMGR for calculating rearrangement frequency (RF) (%), we found that the control region (CR) (RF = 45.04) and trnL2 (RF = 38.79) were the two most frequently rearranged components. Forty-seven point eight percentage of amphibians possessed rearranged mitogenomes including all neobatrachians and their distribution was significantly clustered in the phylogenetic trees (p < 0.001). In addition, we argued that the typical neobatrachian arrangement may have appeared in the Late Jurassic according to possible occurrence time estimation. CONCLUSION: It was the first global census of amphibian mitogenome arrangements from the perspective of quantity statistics, which helped us to systematically understand the type, distribution, frequency and phylogenetic characteristics of these rearrangements.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Anuros/genética , Sequência de Bases , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia
12.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(1): 60-66, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639719

RESUMO

The taxonomic status of extinct Japanese or Honshu wolves (Canis lupus hodophilax) has been disputed since the name hodophilax was first proposed by Temminck in 1839 on the basis of specimens stored in Leiden, the Netherlands. Points of controversy include whether the type specimen of hodophilax (Jentink c: RMNH.MAM.39181) and the other two specimens from Leiden (Jentink a: RMNH.MAM.39182 and Jentink b: RMNH.MAM.39183) represent different varieties or subspecies of Japanese wolves or not. Two Japanese names, ookami and jamainu, used to describe wild Canis species, further complicate the issue. In this study, the taxonomic status of Japanese wolves was clarified using mitochondrial DNA of the three specimens stored at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden, in addition to three Japanese wolf specimens stored at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin and five new samples from Japan. The mitochondrial genomes of the type specimen of hodophilax (Jentink c) and another sample from Leiden (Jentink b) as well as Berlin specimens were included in the cluster of Japanese wolves distinct from other grey wolves. However, the other sample from Leiden (Jentink a) was identified as a domestic dog. A mitochondrial genome analysis suggested that Japanese wolves could be categorized into two distinct clusters. Studies of nuclear genomes are needed to further clarify the taxonomic status, divergence time, and population genetic structure of Japanese wolves.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Lobos/classificação , Lobos/genética , Animais , Cães/genética , Japão , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(1-2): 109-122, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638768

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Recombinations between the parental genomes produced a novel mitochondrial genome in the cytoplasmic male sterile Brassica juncea cybrid Og1. A mitochondrial stoichiometric shift greatly reduced the molecule containing male-sterility-inducing orf138 gene leading to reversion to male fertility. An improved, chlorosis-corrected, cytoplasmic male sterile Brassica juncea cybrid Og1 derived from Ogura cytoplasm shows frequent reversion to male fertility. To determine the nature of mitochondrial recombination in the cybrid and to uncover the molecular mechanism of male fertility reversion, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Og1, its isonuclear parental lines (OgRLM and Brassica juncea RLM198) and the revertant line (Og1-rt). Assembly of Og1 mitochondrial genome gave two circular molecules, Og1a (250.999 kbp) and Og1b (96.185 kbp) sharing two large direct repeat regions capable of recombining to form a single circular molecule. Og1a contains all essential mitochondrial genes, but the male-sterility-causing orf138 was uniquely present in Og1b along with 16 other complete or partial genes already represented in Og1a. Eleven and four recombinations between the parental mitochondrial genomes produced the Og1a and the Og1b molecules, respectively. Five genes were duplicated within Og1a, of which trnfM was inherited from both the parents while the other four genes, atp4, cox1 nad4L and trnM, were inherited from RLM198. RFLP analysis revealed that orf138-containing molecules were less abundant than Og1a in the male-sterile plants while og1b bearing molecules were undetectable in the revertant line. However, orf138 transcripts were amplified in RT-PCR and were also detected in northern blots revealing that Og1b molecules are not completely lost in the revertant plants. This is the first report where the mitochondrial genome of a cybrid is compared with its actual parents. The findings are discussed in the light of previous reports on mitochondrial genome recombination in cybrids.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/fisiologia , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Recombinação Genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Mitocondriais , Genoma Mitocondrial , Genoma de Planta , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
14.
Nature ; 591(7849): 265-269, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597750

RESUMO

Temporal genomic data hold great potential for studying evolutionary processes such as speciation. However, sampling across speciation events would, in many cases, require genomic time series that stretch well back into the Early Pleistocene subepoch. Although theoretical models suggest that DNA should survive on this timescale1, the oldest genomic data recovered so far are from a horse specimen dated to 780-560 thousand years ago2. Here we report the recovery of genome-wide data from three mammoth specimens dating to the Early and Middle Pleistocene subepochs, two of which are more than one million years old. We find that two distinct mammoth lineages were present in eastern Siberia during the Early Pleistocene. One of these lineages gave rise to the woolly mammoth and the other represents a previously unrecognized lineage that was ancestral to the first mammoths to colonize North America. Our analyses reveal that the Columbian mammoth of North America traces its ancestry to a Middle Pleistocene hybridization between these two lineages, with roughly equal admixture proportions. Finally, we show that the majority of protein-coding changes associated with cold adaptation in woolly mammoths were already present one million years ago. These findings highlight the potential of deep-time palaeogenomics to expand our understanding of speciation and long-term adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genômica , Mamutes/genética , Filogenia , Aclimatação/genética , Alelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação , Elefantes/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fósseis , Variação Genética/genética , Cadeias de Markov , Dente Molar , América do Norte , Datação Radiométrica , Sibéria , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Gene ; 777: 145467, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524519

RESUMO

The current research on Ephemeroptera is mainly based on its morphology, since only small numbers of mitogenomes have been reported. In this study, the mitogenomes of Epeorus carinatus (15,338 bp) and E. dayongensis (15,609 bp) were sequenced, annotated and compared to genome data from congeners. Both mitogenomes had 23 tRNA genes including standard 22 and one extra tRNAMet. The duplicated tRNAMet gene had been found in other heptageniid species except Paegniodes cupulatus, suggesting it could be used as a molecular synapomorphy for partial Heptageniidae. The phylogenetic analyses based on Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) showed that Heptageniidae was monophyletic and the relationships among known Epeorus species were ((E. carinatus + E. herklotsi) + (E. dayongensis + E. sp. 1)), which implied the focal species E. carinatus and E. dayongensis should be grouped into different subgenera.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Animais , Composição de Bases/genética , Sequência de Bases/genética , Ephemeroptera/classificação , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética
16.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590866

RESUMO

The family-level relationships within Plecoptera have been a focused area of research for a long time. Its higher classification remains unstable, and the phylogenetic relationships within Plecoptera should be re-examined. Here, we sequenced and analyzed two complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Paraleuctra cercia and Perlomyia isobeae of the family Leuctridae. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Plecoptera based on 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) from published stoneflies. Our results showed that the Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood tree had similar topological structures except for the positions of two families, Peltoperlidae and Scopuridae. The Plecoptera is divided into two clades, the suborder Antarctoperlaria and the suborder Arctoperlaria. The two suborders subsequently formed two groups, Eusthenioidea and Gripopterygoidea, and Euholognatha and Systellognatha, which is consistent with the results of morphological studies. In addition, the Leuctridae is the earliest branch within the superfamily Nemouroidea. But the monophyly of Perloidea and Pteronarcyoidea are still not well supported.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Animais , Classificação , Filogenia
17.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560360

RESUMO

In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of a white tussock moth, Laelia suffusa (Walker, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Lymantriinae), was sequenced and annotated. The genome sequence was 15,502 bp in length and comprised 13 PCGs, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and a single noncoding control region (CR). The nucleotide composition of the genome was highly A + T biased, accounting for 79.04% of the whole genome and with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.015). Comparing the gene order with the basal species of Lepidoptera, a typical trnM rearrangement was detected in the mitogenome of L. suffusa. Besides, the trnM rearrangement was found at the head of trnI and trnQ, rather than at the back. The 13 PCGs used ATN as their start codons, except for the cox1 which used CGA. Out of the 22 tRNAs, only 1 tRNA (trnS1) failed to fold in a typical cloverleaf secondary structure. The conserved motif 'ATAGA + poly-T' was detected at the start of the control region which was similar to other Lepidoptera species. In total, 10 overlapping regions and 19 intergenic spacers were identified, ranging from 1 to 41 and 2 to 73 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Lymantriinae was a monophyletic group with a high support value and L. suffusa was closely related to tribe Orgyiini (Erebidae, Lymantriinae). Moreover, the phylogenetic relationship of Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) species was reconstructed using two datasets (13 PCGs and 37 genes) and these supported the topology of (Notodontidae + (Erebidae + (Nolidae + (Euteliidae + Noctuidae)))).


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Filogenia
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 157: 107069, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421615

RESUMO

The tribe Arvicanthini (Muridae: Murinae) is a highly diversified group of rodents (ca. 100 species) and with 18 African genera (plus one Asiatic) represents probably the most successful adaptive radiation of extant mammals in Africa. They colonized a broad spectrum of habitats (from rainforests to semi-deserts) in whole sub-Saharan Africa and their members often belong to most abundant parts of mammal communities. Despite intensive efforts, the phylogenetic relationships among major lineages (i.e. genera) remained obscured, which was likely caused by the intensive radiation of the group, dated to the Late Miocene. Here we used genomic scale data (377 nuclear loci; 581,030 bp) and produced the first fully resolved species tree containing all currently delimited genera of the tribe. Mitogenomes were also extracted, and while the results were largely congruent, there was less resolution at basal nodes of the mitochondrial phylogeny. Results of a fossil-based divergence dating analysis suggest that the African radiation started early after the colonization of Africa by a single arvicanthine ancestor from Asia during the Messinian stage (ca. 7 Ma), and was likely linked with a fragmentation of the pan-African Miocene forest. Some lineages remained in the rain forest, while many others successfully colonized broad spectrum of new open habitats (e.g. savannas, wetlands or montane moorlands) that appeared at the beginning of Pliocene. One lineage even evolved partially arboricolous life style in savanna woodlands, which allowed them to re-colonize equatorial forests. We also discuss delimitation of genera in Arvicanthini and propose corresponding taxonomic changes.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Murinae/classificação , Murinae/genética , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Loci Gênicos , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507977

RESUMO

The Central Siberian Plateau was the last geographic area in Eurasia to become habitable by modern humans after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Through a comprehensive dataset of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes retained in the remnats of earlier ("Old") Siberians, primarily the Ket, Tofalar, and Todzhi, we explored genetic links between the Yenisei-Sayan region and Northeast Eurasia (best represented by the Yukaghir) over the last 10,000 years. We generated 218 new complete mtDNA sequences and placed them into compound phylogenies with 7 newly obtained and 70 published ancient mitochondrial genomes. We have considerably extended the mtDNA sequence diversity (at the entire mtDNA genome level) of autochthonous Siberians, which remain poorly sampled, and these new data may have a broad impact on the study of human migration. We compared present-day mtDNA diversity in these groups with complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient samples from the region and placed the samples into combined genealogical trees. The resulting components were used to clarify the origins and expansion history of mtDNA lineages that evolved in the refugia of south-central Siberia and beyond, as well as multiple phases of connection between this region and distant parts of Eurasia.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/história , Ligação Genética , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , História Antiga , Migração Humana , Humanos , Filogenia , Sibéria
20.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 6, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterobranchia is a diverse clade of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial gastropod molluscs. It includes such disparate taxa as nudibranchs, sea hares, bubble snails, pulmonate land snails and slugs, and a number of (mostly small-bodied) poorly known snails and slugs collectively referred to as the "lower heterobranchs". Evolutionary relationships within Heterobranchia have been challenging to resolve and the group has been subject to frequent and significant taxonomic revision. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes can be a useful molecular marker for phylogenetics but, to date, sequences have been available for only a relatively small subset of Heterobranchia. RESULTS: To assess the utility of mitochondrial genomes for resolving evolutionary relationships within this clade, eleven new mt genomes were sequenced including representatives of several groups of "lower heterobranchs". Maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated matrices of the thirteen protein coding genes found weak support for most higher-level relationships even after several taxa with extremely high rates of evolution were excluded. Bayesian inference with the CAT + GTR model resulted in a reconstruction that is much more consistent with the current understanding of heterobranch phylogeny. Notably, this analysis recovered Valvatoidea and Orbitestelloidea in a polytomy with a clade including all other heterobranchs, highlighting these taxa as important to understanding early heterobranch evolution. Also, dramatic gene rearrangements were detected within and between multiple clades. However, a single gene order is conserved across the majority of heterobranch clades. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of mitochondrial genomes in a Bayesian framework with the site heterogeneous CAT + GTR model resulted in a topology largely consistent with the current understanding of heterobranch phylogeny. However, mitochondrial genomes appear to be too variable to serve as good phylogenetic markers for robustly resolving a number of deeper splits within this clade.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Ordem dos Genes , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia
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