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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000636, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991578

RESUMO

The Myriapoda, composed of millipedes and centipedes, is a fascinating but poorly understood branch of life, including species with a highly unusual body plan and a range of unique adaptations to their environment. Here, we sequenced and assembled 2 chromosomal-level genomes of the millipedes Helicorthomorpha holstii (assembly size = 182 Mb; shortest scaffold/contig length needed to cover 50% of the genome [N50] = 18.11 Mb mainly on 8 pseudomolecules) and Trigoniulus corallinus (assembly size = 449 Mb, N50 = 26.78 Mb mainly on 17 pseudomolecules). Unique genomic features, patterns of gene regulation, and defence systems in millipedes, not observed in other arthropods, are revealed. Both repeat content and intron size are major contributors to the observed differences in millipede genome size. Tight Hox and the first loose ecdysozoan ParaHox homeobox clusters are identified, and a myriapod-specific genomic rearrangement including Hox3 is also observed. The Argonaute (AGO) proteins for loading small RNAs are duplicated in both millipedes, but unlike in insects, an AGO duplicate has become a pseudogene. Evidence of post-transcriptional modification in small RNAs-including species-specific microRNA arm switching-providing differential gene regulation is also obtained. Millipedes possesses a unique ozadene defensive gland unlike the venomous forcipules found in centipedes. We identify sets of genes associated with the ozadene that play roles in chemical defence as well as antimicrobial activity. Macro-synteny analyses revealed highly conserved genomic blocks between the 2 millipedes and deuterostomes. Collectively, our analyses of millipede genomes reveal that a series of unique adaptations have occurred in this major lineage of arthropod diversity. The 2 high-quality millipede genomes provided here shed new light on the conserved and lineage-specific features of millipedes and centipedes. These findings demonstrate the importance of the consideration of both centipede and millipede genomes-and in particular the reconstruction of the myriapod ancestral situation-for future research to improve understanding of arthropod evolution, and animal evolutionary genomics more widely.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Artrópodes , Evolução Molecular , Genoma/genética , Animais , Artrópodes/classificação , Artrópodes/genética , Sequência de Bases , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genes Homeobox , Genoma de Inseto , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Filogenia , Sintenia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4763, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958765

RESUMO

Many animal species remain separate not because their individuals fail to produce viable hybrids but because they "choose" not to mate. However, we still know very little of the genetic mechanisms underlying changes in these mate preference behaviours. Heliconius butterflies display bright warning patterns, which they also use to recognize conspecifics. Here, we couple QTL for divergence in visual preference behaviours with population genomic and gene expression analyses of neural tissue (central brain, optic lobes and ommatidia) across development in two sympatric Heliconius species. Within a region containing 200 genes, we identify five genes that are strongly associated with divergent visual preferences. Three of these have previously been implicated in key components of neural signalling (specifically an ionotropic glutamate receptor and two regucalcins), and overall our candidates suggest shifts in behaviour involve changes in visual integration or processing. This would allow preference evolution without altering perception of the wider environment.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos , Especiação Genética , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Percepção Visual/genética , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fluxo Gênico , Genes de Insetos/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria , Asas de Animais
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20201512, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811314

RESUMO

While much of the focus of sociobiology concerns identifying genomic changes that influence social behaviour, we know little about the consequences of social behaviour on genome evolution. It has been hypothesized that social evolution can influence the strength of negative selection via two mechanisms. First, division of labour can influence the efficiency of negative selection in a caste-specific manner; indirect negative selection on worker traits is theoretically expected to be weaker than direct selection on queen traits. Second, increasing social complexity is expected to lead to relaxed negative selection because of its influence on effective population size. We tested these two hypotheses by estimating the strength of negative selection in honeybees, bumblebees, paper wasps, fire ants and six other insects that span the range of social complexity. We found no consistent evidence that negative selection was significantly stronger on queen-biased genes relative to worker-biased genes. However, we found strong evidence that increased social complexity reduced the efficiency of negative selection. Our study clearly illustrates how changes in behaviour can influence patterns of genome evolution by modulating the strength of natural selection.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Genoma de Inseto , Comportamento Social , Animais , Formigas/genética , Abelhas/genética , Insetos/genética , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Vespas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760102

RESUMO

Ants (Formicidae) present considerable diversity in chromosome numbers, which vary from n = 1 to n = 60, although this variation is not proportional to that in genome size, for which estimates range from 0.18 pg to 0.77 pg. Intraspecific variation in the chromosome number and karyotype structure has been reported among species, although the variation among populations of the same species has received much less attention, and there are few data on genome size. Here, we studied the karyotype length and genome size of different populations of the fungus-farming ants Mycetophylax conformis (Mayr, 1884) and Mycetophylax morschi (Emery, 1888). We also provide remarks on procedure for the estimation of ant genome size by Flow Cytometry (FCM) analysis. Chromosome number and morphology did not vary among the populations of M. conformis or the cytotypes of M. morschi, but karyotype length and genome size were significantly distinct among the populations of these ants. Our results on the variation in karyotype length and genome size among M. morschi and M. conformis populations reveal considerable diversity that would be largely overlooked by more traditional descriptions of karyotypes, which were also supported by the estimates of genome size obtained using flow cytometry. Changes in the amount of DNA reflect variation in the fine structure of the chromosomes, which may represent the first steps of karyotype evolution and may occur previously to any changes in the chromosome number.


Assuntos
Formigas/genética , Cromossomos de Insetos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Inseto , Cariótipo , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Cariotipagem/métodos
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008463, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678817

RESUMO

The arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) and Ae. albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) are both common throughout the Indo-Pacific region, where 70% of global dengue transmission occurs. For Ae. aegypti all Indo-Pacific populations are invasive, having spread from an initial native range of Africa, while for Ae. albopictus the Indo-Pacific includes invasive populations and those from the native range: putatively, India to Japan to Southeast Asia. This study analyses the population genomics of 480 of these mosquitoes sampled from 27 locations in the Indo-Pacific. We investigated patterns of genome-wide genetic differentiation to compare pathways of invasion and ongoing gene flow in both species, and to compare invasive and native-range populations of Ae. albopictus. We also tested landscape genomic hypotheses that genetic differentiation would increase with geographical distance and be lower between locations with high connectivity to human transportation routes, the primary means of dispersal at these scales. We found that genetic distances were generally higher in Ae. aegypti, with Pacific populations the most highly differentiated. The most differentiated Ae. albopictus populations were in Vanuatu, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, the latter two representing potential native-range populations and potential cryptic subspeciation respectively. Genetic distances in Ae. aegypti increased with geographical distance, while in Ae. albopictus they decreased with higher connectivity to human transportation routes. Contrary to the situation in Ae. aegypti, we found evidence of long-distance Ae. albopictus colonisation events, including colonisation of Mauritius from East Asia and of Fiji from Southeast Asia. These direct genomic comparisons indicate likely differences in dispersal ecology in these species, despite their broadly sympatric distributions and similar use of human transport to disperse. Our findings will assist biosecurity operations to trace the source of invasive material and for biocontrol operations that benefit from matching genetic backgrounds of released and local populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Distribuição Animal , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica , Animais , Ásia
6.
Gene ; 757: 144919, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603771

RESUMO

Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) represent an important source of genetic variation that provides a basis for adaptation to different environments in organisms. In this study, we examined the distribution patterns of SSRs in twenty-nine beetle genomes and carried out Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of CDSs embedded with perfect SSRs (P-SSRs). The results demonstrated that imperfect SSRs (I-SSRs) represented the most abundant SSR category in beetle genomes and in different genomic regions (CDS, exon, and intron regions). The numbers of P-SSRs, I-SSRs, compound SSRs, and variable number tandem repeats were positively correlated with beetle genome size, whereas neither the frequency nor the density of the SSRs was correlated with genome size. Moreover, our results demonstrated that common genomic features of P-SSRs within the same suborder or family of Coleoptera were rare. Mono-, di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide SSRs were the most abundant P-SSR categories in beetle genomes. The preferred predominant repeat motif among the mononucleotide P-SSRs was (A)n, but the most frequent repeat motifs for other length classes varied differentially among these genomes. Furthermore, the P-SSR type with the highest GC content differed in the beetle genomes and in different genomic regions. CV (coefficient of variability) analysis demonstrated that the repeat copy numbers of P-SSRs presented relatively higher variation in introns than in CDSs and exons. The GO terms of CDSs containing P-SSRs for molecular functions were mainly enriched in "binding" and "transcription". Our findings will be useful for studying the functional roles of microsatellite heterogeneity in beetle adaptation.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Composição de Bases
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17135-17141, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631983

RESUMO

For social animals, the genotypes of group members affect the social environment, and thus individual behavior, often indirectly. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to determine the influence of individual vs. group genotypes on aggression in honey bees. Aggression in honey bees arises from the coordinated actions of colony members, primarily nonreproductive "soldier" bees, and thus, experiences evolutionary selection at the colony level. Here, we show that individual behavior is influenced by colony environment, which in turn, is shaped by allele frequency within colonies. Using a population with a range of aggression, we sequenced individual whole genomes and looked for genotype-behavior associations within colonies in a common environment. There were no significant correlations between individual aggression and specific alleles. By contrast, we found strong correlations between colony aggression and the frequencies of specific alleles within colonies, despite a small number of colonies. Associations at the colony level were highly significant and were very similar among both soldiers and foragers, but they covaried with one another. One strongly significant association peak, containing an ortholog of the Drosophila sensory gene dpr4 on linkage group (chromosome) 7, showed strong signals of both selection and admixture during the evolution of gentleness in a honey bee population. We thus found links between colony genetics and group behavior and also, molecular evidence for group-level selection, acting at the colony level. We conclude that group genetics dominates individual genetics in determining the fatal decision of honey bees to sting.


Assuntos
Agressão , Abelhas/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Comportamento Social
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008633, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511266

RESUMO

DNA viruses can hijack and manipulate the host chromatin state to facilitate their infection. Multiple lines of evidences reveal that DNA virus infection results in the host chromatin relocation, yet there is little known about the effects of viral infection on the architecture of host chromatin. Here, a combination of epigenomic, transcriptomic and biochemical assays were conducted to investigate the temporal dynamics of chromatin accessibility in response to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection. The high-quality ATAC-seq data indicated that progressive chromatin remodeling took place following BmNPV infection. Viral infection resulted in a more open chromatin architecture, along with the marginalization of host genome and nucleosome disassembly. Moreover, our results revealed that chromatin accessibility in uninfected cells was regulated by euchromatic modifications, whereas the viral-induced highly accessible chromatin regions were originally associated with facultative heterochromatic modification. Overall, our findings illustrate for the first time the organization and accessibility of host chromatin in BmNPV-infected cells, which lay the foundation for future studies on epigenomic regulation mediated by DNA viruses.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae/fisiologia , Bombyx , Eucromatina , Genoma de Inseto , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/metabolismo , Bombyx/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Eucromatina/genética , Eucromatina/metabolismo , Eucromatina/virologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008341, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589659

RESUMO

Tsetse fly exhibit species-specific olfactory uniqueness potentially underpinned by differences in their chemosensory protein repertoire. We assessed 1) expansions of chemosensory protein orthologs in Glossina morsitans morsitans, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina austeni, Glossina palpalis gambiensis, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina brevipalpis tsetse fly species using Café analysis (to identify species-specific expansions) and 2) differential expressions of the orthologs and associated proteins in male G. m. morsitans antennae and head tissues using RNA-Seq approaches (to establish associated functional molecular pathways). We established accelerated and significant (P<0.05, λ = 2.60452e-7) expansions of gene families in G. m. morsitans Odorant receptor (Or)71a, Or46a, Ir75a,d, Ionotropic receptor (Ir) 31a, Ir84a, Ir64a and Odorant binding protein (Obp) 83a-b), G. pallidipes Or67a,c, Or49a, Or92a, Or85b-c,f and Obp73a, G. f. fuscipes Ir21a, Gustatory receptor (Gr) 21a and Gr63a), G. p. gambiensis clumsy, Ir25a and Ir8a, and G. brevipalpis Ir68a and missing orthologs in each tsetse fly species. Most abundantly expressed transcripts in male G. m. morsitans included specific Or (Orco, Or56a, 65a-c, Or47b, Or67b, GMOY012254, GMOY009475, and GMOY006265), Gr (Gr21a, Gr63a, GMOY013297 and GMOY013298), Ir (Ir8a, Ir25a and Ir41a) and Obp (Obp19a, lush, Obp28a, Obp83a-b Obp44a, GMOY012275 and GMOY013254) orthologs. Most enriched biological processes in the head were associated with vision, muscle activity and neuropeptide regulations, amino acid/nucleotide metabolism and circulatory system processes. Antennal enrichments (>90% of chemosensory transcripts) included cilium-associated mechanoreceptors, chemo-sensation, neuronal controlled growth/differentiation and regeneration/responses to stress. The expanded and tsetse fly species specific orthologs includes those associated with known tsetse fly responsive ligands (4-methyl phenol, 4-propyl phenol, acetic acid, butanol and carbon dioxide) and potential tsetse fly species-specific responsive ligands (2-oxopentanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-heptanone, caffeine, geosmin, DEET and (cVA) pheromone). Some of the orthologs can potentially modulate several tsetse fly species-specific behavioral (male-male courtship, hunger/host seeking, cool avoidance, hygrosensory and feeding) phenotypes. The putative tsetse fly specific chemosensory gene orthologs and their respective ligands provide candidate gene targets and kairomones for respective downstream functional genomic and field evaluations that can effectively expand toolbox of species-specific tsetse fly attractants, repellents and other tsetse fly behavioral modulators.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Transcriptoma , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Tripanossomíase , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/classificação , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/fisiologia
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): e75, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491177

RESUMO

A high quality genome assembly is a vital first step for the study of an organism. Recent advances in technology have made the creation of high quality chromosome scale assemblies feasible and low cost. However, the amount of input DNA needed for an assembly project can be a limiting factor for small organisms or precious samples. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of creating a chromosome scale assembly using a hybrid method for a low input sample, a single outbred Drosophila melanogaster. Our approach combines an Illumina shotgun library, Oxford nanopore long reads, and chromosome conformation capture for long range scaffolding. This single fly genome assembly has a N50 of 26 Mb, a length that encompasses entire chromosome arms, contains 95% of expected single copy orthologs, and a nearly complete assembly of this individual's Wolbachia endosymbiont. The methods described here enable the accurate and complete assembly of genomes from small, field collected organisms as well as precious clinical samples.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Cromossomos de Insetos/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Wolbachia/genética , Animais , Genômica/métodos
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008822, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497040

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors threatens to reverse recent gains in malaria control. Deciphering patterns of gene flow and resistance evolution in malaria vectors is crucial to improving control strategies and preventing malaria resurgence. A genome-wide survey of Anopheles funestus genetic diversity Africa-wide revealed evidences of a major division between southern Africa and elsewhere, associated with different population histories. Three genomic regions exhibited strong signatures of selective sweeps, each spanning major resistance loci (CYP6P9a/b, GSTe2 and CYP9K1). However, a sharp regional contrast was observed between populations correlating with gene flow barriers. Signatures of complex molecular evolution of resistance were detected with evidence of copy number variation, transposon insertion and a gene conversion between CYP6P9a/b paralog genes. Temporal analyses of samples before and after bed net scale up suggest that these genomic changes are driven by this control intervention. Multiple independent selective sweeps at the same locus in different parts of Africa suggests that local evolution of resistance in malaria vectors may be a greater threat than trans-regional spread of resistance haplotypes.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , África , Alelos , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Família 6 do Citocromo P450/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Loci Gênicos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Metagenômica , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético , Piretrinas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008861, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525870

RESUMO

In metazoan germlines, the piRNA pathway acts as a genomic immune system, employing small RNA-mediated silencing to defend host DNA from the harmful effects of transposable elements (TEs). Expression of genomic TEs is proposed to initiate self regulation by increasing the production of repressive piRNAs, thereby "adapting" piRNA-mediated control to the most active TE families. Surprisingly, however, piRNA pathway proteins, which execute piRNA biogenesis and enforce silencing of targeted sequences, evolve rapidly and adaptively in animals. If TE silencing is ensured through piRNA biogenesis, what necessitates changes in piRNA pathway proteins? Here we used interspecific complementation to test for functional differences between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans alleles of three adaptively evolving piRNA pathway proteins: Armitage, Aubergine and Spindle-E. In contrast to piRNA-mediated transcriptional regulators examined in previous studies, these three proteins have cytoplasmic functions in piRNA maturation and post-transcriptional silencing. Across all three proteins we observed interspecific divergence in the regulation of only a handful of TE families, which were more robustly silenced by the heterospecific piRNA pathway protein. This unexpected result suggests that unlike transcriptional regulators, positive selection has not acted on cytoplasmic piRNA effector proteins to enhance their function in TE repression. Rather, TEs may evolve to "escape" silencing by host proteins. We further discovered that D. simulans alleles of aub and armi exhibit enhanced off-target effects on host transcripts in a D. melanogaster background, as well as modest reductions in the efficiency of piRNA biogenesis, suggesting that promiscuous binding of D. simulans Aub and Armi proteins to host transcripts reduces their participation in piRNA production. Avoidance of genomic auto-immunity may therefore be a critical target of selection. Our observations suggest that piRNA effector proteins are subject to an evolutionary trade-off between defending the host genome from the harmful effect of TEs while also minimizing collateral damage to host genes.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/imunologia , Drosophila simulans/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Inseto/imunologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/biossíntese , Alelos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Citoplasma/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/imunologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/imunologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophila simulans/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Interferência de RNA/imunologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2179, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358487

RESUMO

Genomic outcomes of hybridization depend on selection and recombination in hybrids. Whether these processes have similar effects on hybrid genome composition in contemporary hybrid zones versus ancient hybrid lineages is unknown. Here we show that patterns of introgression in a contemporary hybrid zone in Lycaeides butterflies predict patterns of ancestry in geographically adjacent, older hybrid populations. We find a particularly striking lack of ancestry from one of the hybridizing taxa, Lycaeides melissa, on the Z chromosome in both the old and contemporary hybrids. The same pattern of reduced L. melissa ancestry on the Z chromosome is seen in two other ancient hybrid lineages. More generally, we find that patterns of ancestry in old or ancient hybrids are remarkably predictable from contemporary hybrids, which suggests selection and recombination affect hybrid genomes in a similar way across disparate time scales and during distinct stages of speciation and species breakdown.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Hibridização Genética/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Loci Gênicos , Especiação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232527, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407393

RESUMO

Dendrolimus houi is one of the most common caterpillars infesting Gymnosperm trees, and widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia, and exists soley or coexists with several congeners and some Lasiocampidae species in various forest habitats. However, natural hybrids occasionally occur among some closely related species in the same habitat, and host preference, extreme climate stress, and geographic isolation probably lead to their uncertain taxonomic consensus. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of D. houi was extracted and sequenced by using high-throughput technology, and the mitogenome composition and characteristics were compared and analyzed of these species, then the phylogenetic relationship was constructed using the maximum likelihood method (ML) and the Bayesian method (BI) based on their 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) dataset, which were combined and made available to download which were combined and made available to download among global Lasiocampidae species data. Mitogenome of D. houi was 15,373 bp in length, with 37 genes, including 13 PCGs, 22 tRNA genes (tRNAs) and 2 rRNA genes (rRNAs). The positions and sequences of genes were consistent with those of most known Lasiocampidae species. The nucleotide composition was highly A+T biased, accounting for ~80% of the whole mitogenome. All start codons of PCGs belonged to typical start codons ATN except for COI which used CGA, and most stop codons ended with standard TAA or TAG, while COI, COII, ND4 ended with incomplete T. Only tRNASer (AGN) lacked DHU arm, while the remainder formed a typical "clover-shaped" secondary structure. For Lasiocampidae species, their complete mitochondrial genomes ranged from 15,281 to 15,570 bp in length, and all first genes started from trnM in the same direction. And base composition was biased toward A and T. Finally, both two methods (ML and BI) separately revealed that the same phylogenetic relationship of D. spp. as ((((D. punctatus + D. tabulaeformis) + D. spectabilis) + D. superans) + (D. kikuchii of Hunan population + D. houi) as in previous research, but results were different in that D. kikuchii from a Yunnan population was included, indicating that different geographical populations of insects have differentiated. And the phylogenetic relationship among Lasiocampidae species was ((((Dendrolimus) + Kunugia) + Euthrix) + Trabala). This provides a better theoretical basis for Lasiocampidae evolution and classification for future research directions.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13615-13625, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471944

RESUMO

Developmental plasticity generates phenotypic variation, but how it contributes to evolutionary change is unclear. Phenotypes of individuals in caste-based (eusocial) societies are particularly sensitive to developmental processes, and the evolutionary origins of eusociality may be rooted in developmental plasticity of ancestral forms. We used an integrative genomics approach to evaluate the relationships among developmental plasticity, molecular evolution, and social behavior in a bee species (Megalopta genalis) that expresses flexible sociality, and thus provides a window into the factors that may have been important at the evolutionary origins of eusociality. We find that differences in social behavior are derived from genes that also regulate sex differentiation and metamorphosis. Positive selection on social traits is influenced by the function of these genes in development. We further identify evidence that social polyphenisms may become encoded in the genome via genetic changes in regulatory regions, specifically in transcription factor binding sites. Taken together, our results provide evidence that developmental plasticity provides the substrate for evolutionary novelty and shapes the selective landscape for molecular evolution in a major evolutionary innovation: Eusociality.


Assuntos
Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abelhas/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma de Inseto , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metamorfose Biológica , Comportamento Social
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2631, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457347

RESUMO

The evolution of winged insects revolutionized terrestrial ecosystems and led to the largest animal radiation on Earth. However, we still have an incomplete picture of the genomic changes that underlay this diversification. Mayflies, as one of the sister groups of all other winged insects, are key to understanding this radiation. Here, we describe the genome of the mayfly Cloeon dipterum and its gene expression throughout its aquatic and aerial life cycle and specific organs. We discover an expansion of odorant-binding-protein genes, some expressed specifically in breathing gills of aquatic nymphs, suggesting a novel sensory role for this organ. In contrast, flying adults use an enlarged opsin set in a sexually dimorphic manner, with some expressed only in males. Finally, we identify a set of wing-associated genes deeply conserved in the pterygote insects and find transcriptomic similarities between gills and wings, suggesting a common genetic program. Globally, this comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic study uncovers the genetic basis of key evolutionary adaptations in mayflies and winged insects.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Ephemeroptera/genética , Evolução Molecular , Asas de Animais , Animais , Ephemeroptera/classificação , Ephemeroptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes de Insetos/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Brânquias , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Masculino , Filogenia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2321, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385305

RESUMO

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella is a cosmopolitan pest that has evolved resistance to all classes of insecticide, and costs the world economy an estimated US $4-5 billion annually. We analyse patterns of variation among 532 P. xylostella genomes, representing a worldwide sample of 114 populations. We find evidence that suggests South America is the geographical area of origin of this species, challenging earlier hypotheses of an Old-World origin. Our analysis indicates that Plutella xylostella has experienced three major expansions across the world, mainly facilitated by European colonization and global trade. We identify genomic signatures of selection in genes related to metabolic and signaling pathways that could be evidence of environmental adaptation. This evolutionary history of P. xylostella provides insights into transoceanic movements that have enabled it to become a worldwide pest.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto/genética , Herbivoria/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Entomologia/métodos , Genética Populacional/métodos , Filogenia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
18.
J Insect Sci ; 20(2)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302386

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Epicauta impressicornis Pic (Coleoptera: Meloidae) was determined. The circular genome is 15,713-bp long, and encodes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The 13 PCGs start with the typical ATN codon and terminate with the typical stop codon TAA (ND2, ND4L, ND6, ATP6, ATP8, and CYTB), TAG (ND1 and ND3), and T- (COX1, COX2, COX3, ND4, and ND5). The two rRNA genes (rrn12S and rrn16S) are encoded on the minority strand. All tRNAs genes except trnS1 (AGN) are predicted to fold into the typical cloverleaf structure. The longest overlap (10 bp) is observed between ATP8 and ATP6. CR mainly harbors a conserved poly-T stretch (15 bp), a short repeat unit (17 bp), some universal microsatellite-like repeats, and a canonical poly-A tail. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inferences and maximum likelihood based on nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences of the 13 PCGs showed that E. impressicornis is closely related to E. chinensis, this relationship is and supported within Cucujiformia belonging to Meloidae (Tenebrionoidea). Our results further confirmed the monophyly of Tenebrionoidea, Lymexyloidea, Curculionoidea, Chrysomeloidea, Cucujoidea, Coccinelloidea, and Cleroidea within Cucujiformia, and revealed the sister relationships of (Cleroidea + Coccinelloidea), (Lymexyloidea + Tenebrionoidea), and ((Chrysomeloidea + Cucujoidea) + Curculionoidea). We believe that the complete mitogenome of E. impressicornis will contribute to further studies on molecular bases for the classification and phylogeny of Meloidae or even Cucujiformia.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Besouros/classificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282857

RESUMO

The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) are two major vectors of arthropod-borne pathogens in Grenada, West Indies. As conventional vector control methods present many challenges, alternatives are urgently needed. Manipulation of mosquito microbiota is emerging as a field for the development of vector control strategies. Critical to this vector control approach is knowledge of the microbiota of these mosquitoes and finding candidate microorganisms that are common to the vectors with properties that could be used in microbiota modification studies. Results showed that bacteria genera including Asaia, Escherichia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Serratia are common to both major arboviral vectors in Grenada and have previously been shown to be good candidates for transgenetic studies. Also, for the first time, the presence of Grenada mosquito rhabdovirus 1 is reported in C. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Culex/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Metagenômica , Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Culex/microbiologia , Culex/virologia , Feminino , Granada , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(8): 4344-4356, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187363

RESUMO

The genome is the blueprint for an organism. Interrogating the genome, especially locating critical cis-regulatory elements, requires deletion analysis. This is conventionally performed using synthetic constructs, making it cumbersome and non-physiological. Thus, we created Cas9-mediated Arrayed Mutagenesis of Individual Offspring (CAMIO) to achieve comprehensive analysis of a targeted region of native DNA. CAMIO utilizes CRISPR that is spatially restricted to generate independent deletions in the intact Drosophila genome. Controlled by recombination, a single guide RNA is stochastically chosen from a set targeting a specific DNA region. Combining two sets increases variability, leading to either indels at 1-2 target sites or inter-target deletions. Cas9 restriction to male germ cells elicits autonomous double-strand-break repair, consequently creating offspring with diverse mutations. Thus, from a single population cross, we can obtain a deletion matrix covering a large expanse of DNA at both coarse and fine resolution. We demonstrate the ease and power of CAMIO by mapping 5'UTR sequences crucial for chinmo's post-transcriptional regulation.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Drosophila/genética , Edição de Genes , Mutagênese , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
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