Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.145
Filtrar
1.
Zootaxa ; 5026(4): 586-594, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810914

RESUMO

This paper describes one new species from Yunnan, China and reports the complete mitogenome. The new species differs from other species of the genus in markings on the frons and pronotum with 1 pair of black spots. The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of this new species was sequenced and analyzed using High-Throughput Sequencing. The mitogenome was 15513bp in length, comprising of 37 genes and a control region, and its gene order and location are identical to the ancestral insect mitogenome. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) had typical ATN initiation codons, and were terminated by typical TAN stop codons except for COII and ND5. Almost all tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNASer(AGN). All the type specimens are deposited in the Guangxi Normal University.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Ortópteros , Animais , China , Ordem dos Genes , Genoma de Inseto , Ortópteros/genética
2.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(10)2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568917

RESUMO

Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), known as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, is a xylem feeding leafhopper and an important agricultural pest as a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, which causes Pierce's disease in grapes and a variety of other scorch diseases. The current H. vitripennis reference genome from the Baylor College of Medicine's i5k pilot project is a 1.4-Gb assembly with 110,000 scaffolds, which still has significant gaps making identification of genes difficult. To improve on this effort, we used a combination of Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing technology combined with Illumina sequencing reads to generate a better assembly and first-pass annotation of the whole genome sequence of a wild-caught Californian (Tulare County) individual of H. vitripennis. The improved reference genome assembly for H. vitripennis is 1.93-Gb in length (21,254 scaffolds, N50 = 650 Mb, BUSCO completeness = 94.3%), with 33.06% of the genome masked as repetitive. In total, 108,762 gene models were predicted including 98,296 protein-coding genes and 10,466 tRNA genes. As an additional community resource, we identified 27 orthologous candidate genes of interest for future experimental work including phenotypic marker genes like white. Furthermore, as part of the assembly process, we generated four endosymbiont metagenome-assembled genomes, including a high-quality near complete 1.7-Mb Wolbachia sp. genome (1 scaffold, CheckM completeness = 99.4%). The improved genome assembly and annotation for H. vitripennis, curated set of candidate genes, and endosymbiont MAGs will be invaluable resources for future research of H. vitripennis.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Hemípteros , Xylella , Animais , Hemípteros/genética , Metagenoma , Projetos Piloto
3.
Elife ; 102021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342574

RESUMO

During the essential and conserved process of zygotic genome activation (ZGA), chromatin accessibility must increase to promote transcription. Drosophila is a well-established model for defining mechanisms that drive ZGA. Zelda (ZLD) is a key pioneer transcription factor (TF) that promotes ZGA in the Drosophila embryo. However, many genomic loci that contain GA-rich motifs become accessible during ZGA independent of ZLD. Therefore, we hypothesized that other early TFs that function with ZLD have not yet been identified, especially those that are capable of binding to GA-rich motifs such as chromatin-linked adaptor for male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins (CLAMP). Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila embryonic development requires maternal CLAMP to (1) activate zygotic transcription; (2) increase chromatin accessibility at promoters of specific genes that often encode other essential TFs; and (3) enhance chromatin accessibility and facilitate ZLD occupancy at a subset of key embryonic promoters. Thus, CLAMP functions as a pioneer factor that plays a targeted yet essential role in ZGA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Zigoto/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16349, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381125

RESUMO

Transposable elements (TEs), also known as jumping genes, are widely spread in the genomes of insects and play a considerable role in genomic evolution. Mariner/DD34D family belongs to class II transposable elements which is widely spread in the genomes of insects and have considerable role in genomic evolution. Mariner like elements (MLEs) were searched in the genomes of seven species of Rhus gall aphids belonging to six genera. In total, 121 MLEs were detected in the genomes of the seven investigated species of Rhus gall aphids, which showed a wide distribution in both close and distant related species. The sequences of MLEs ranged from 1 to 1.4 kb in length and the structural analysis of the MLEs showed that only five copies were potentially active with intact open reading frame (ORF) and terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the 121 MLE sequences belonged to four subfamilies, i.e., Mauritiana, Drosophila, Vertumana and Irritans, among which Drosophila and Vertumana subfamilies were reported in aphids for the first time. Our present report revealed the diversity and distribution of MLEs in Rhus gall aphid genomes and expanded our understandings on the characterization of transposable elements in aphid genomes, which might be useful as genetic markers and tools and would play an important role in genomic evolution and adaptation of aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Rhus/genética , Transposases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Evolução Molecular , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Genômica/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379632

RESUMO

Aging is universal, yet characterizing the molecular changes that occur in aging which lead to an increased risk for neurological disease remains a challenging problem. Aging affects the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which governs executive function, learning, and memory. Previous sequencing studies have demonstrated that aging alters gene expression in the PFC, however the extent to which these changes are conserved across species and are meaningful in neurodegeneration is unknown. Identifying conserved, age-related genetic and morphological changes in the brain allows application of the wealth of tools available to study underlying mechanisms in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster. RNA sequencing data from human PFC and fly heads were analyzed to determine conserved transcriptome signatures of age. Our analysis revealed that expression of 50 conserved genes can accurately determine age in Drosophila (R2 = 0.85) and humans (R2 = 0.46). These transcriptome signatures were also able to classify Drosophila into three age groups with a mean accuracy of 88% and classify human samples with a mean accuracy of 69%. Overall, this work identifies 50 highly conserved aging-associated genetic changes in the brain that can be further studied in model organisms and demonstrates a novel approach to uncovering genetic changes conserved across species from multi-study public databases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Inseto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Estados Unidos
6.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 154, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conserved syntenic gene complexes are rare in Arthropods and likely only retained due to functional constraint. Numerous sHSPs have been identified in the genomes of insects, some of which are located clustered in close proximity. Previous phylogenetic analyses of these clustered sHSP have been limited to a small number of holometabolous insect species and have not determined the pattern of evolution of the clustered sHSP genes (sHSP-C) in insect or Arthropod lineages. RESULTS: Using eight genomes from representative insect orders and three non-insect arthropod genomes we have identified that a syntenic cluster of sHSPs (sHSP-C) is a hallmark of most Arthropod genomes. Using 11 genomes from Hymenopteran species our phylogenetic analyses have refined the evolution of the sHSP-C in Hymenoptera and found that the sHSP-C is order-specific with evidence of birth-and-death evolution in the hymenopteran lineage. Finally we have shown that the honeybee sHSP-C is co-ordinately expressed and is marked by genomic features, including H3K27me3 histone marks consistent with coordinate regulation, during honeybee ovary activation. CONCLUSIONS: The syntenic sHSP-C is present in most insect genomes, and its conserved coordinate expression and regulation implies that it is an integral genomic component of environmental response in arthropods.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Família Multigênica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Abelhas , Feminino , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Genômica , Insetos/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Filogenia
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(1): e21797, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272770

RESUMO

Cold temperatures are one of the factors influencing color polymorphisms in Acyrthosiphon pisum, resulting in a change from a red to greenish color. Here we characterized gene expression profiles of A. pisum under different low temperatures (1°C, 4°C, 8°C, and 14°C) and durations (3, 6, 12, and 24 h). The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) increased as temperatures decreased and time increased, but only a small number of significant DEGs were identified. Genes involved in pigment metabolism were downregulated. An interaction network analysis for 506 common DEGs in comparisons among aphids exposed to 1°C for four durations indicated that a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP, LOC112935894) significantly downregulated may interact with a carotenoid metabolism gene (LOC100574964), similar to other genes encoding CYP, lycopene dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase. We proposed that the body color shift in A. pisum responding to low temperatures may be regulated by CYPs.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Temperatura Baixa , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Afídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Genoma de Inseto , RNA-Seq/métodos , Transcriptoma
8.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297812

RESUMO

Tapinoma indicum (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a nuisance pest in Asia countries. However, studies on T. indicum are limited, especially in the field of molecular biology, to investigate the species characteristic at the molecular level. This paper aims to provide valuable genetic markers as tools with which to study the T. indicum population. In this study, a total of 143,998 microsatellite markers were developed based on the 2.61 × 106 microsatellites isolated from T. indicum genomic DNA sequences. Fifty selected microsatellite markers were amplified with varying numbers of alleles ranging from 0 to 19. Seven out of fifty microsatellite markers were characterized for polymorphism with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis. All seven microsatellite markers demonstrated a high polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranging from 0.87 to 0.93, with a mean value of 0.90. There is no evidence of scoring errors caused by stutter peaks, no large allele dropout, and no linkage disequilibrium among the seven loci; although loci Ti-Tr04, Ti-Tr09, Ti-Te04, Ti-Te13, and Ti-Pe5 showed signs of null alleles and deviation from the HWE due to excessive homozygosity. In conclusion, a significant amount of microsatellite markers was developed from the data set of next-generation sequencing, and seven of microsatellite markers were validated as informative genetic markers that can be utilized to study the T. indicum population.


Assuntos
Formigas/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Inseto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Controle de Pragas , Polimorfismo Genético
9.
PLoS Genet ; 17(7): e1009556, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228718

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is a major obstacle in maintaining the momentum in reducing the malaria burden; mitigating strategies require improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Mutations in the target site of insecticides (the voltage gated sodium channel for the most widely used pyrethroid class) and over-expression of detoxification enzymes are commonly reported, but their relative contribution to phenotypic resistance remain poorly understood. Here we present a genome editing pipeline to introduce single nucleotide polymorphisms in An. gambiae which we have used to study the effect of the classical kdr mutation L1014F (L995F based on An. gambiae numbering), one of the most widely distributed resistance alleles. Introduction of 1014F in an otherwise fully susceptible genetic background increased levels of resistance to all tested pyrethroids and DDT ranging from 9.9-fold for permethrin to >24-fold for DDT. The introduction of the 1014F allele was sufficient to reduce mortality of mosquitoes after exposure to deltamethrin treated bednets, even as the only resistance mechanism present. When 1014F was combined with over-expression of glutathione transferase Gste2, resistance to permethrin increased further demonstrating the critical combined effect between target site resistance and detoxification enzymes in vivo. We also show that mosquitoes carrying the 1014F allele in homozygosity showed fitness disadvantages including increased mortality at the larval stage and a reduction in fecundity and adult longevity, which can have consequences for the strength of selection that will apply to this allele in the field.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mutação , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , DDT/farmacologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Permetrina/farmacologia , Butóxido de Piperonila/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia
10.
Mol Ecol ; 30(19): 4804-4818, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322926

RESUMO

The presence of DNA methylation marks within genic intervals, also called gene body methylation, is an evolutionarily-conserved epigenetic hallmark of animal and plant methylomes. In social insects, gene body methylation is thought to contribute to behavioural plasticity, for example between foragers and nurse workers, by modulating gene expression. However, recent studies have suggested that the majority of DNA methylation is sequence-specific, and therefore cannot act as a flexible mediator between environmental cues and gene expression. To address this paradox, we examined whole-genome methylation patterns in the brains and ovaries of young honey bee workers that had been subjected to divergent social contexts: the presence or absence of the queen. Although these social contexts are known to bring about extreme changes in behavioral and reproductive traits through differential gene expression, we found no significant differences between the methylomes of workers from queenright and queenless colonies. In contrast, thousands of regions were differentially methylated between colonies, and these differences were not associated with differential gene expression in the subset of genes examined. Methylation patterns were highly similar between brain and ovary tissues and only differed in nine regions. These results strongly indicate that DNA methylation is not a driver of differential gene expression between tissues or behavioral morphs. Finally, despite the lack of difference in methylation patterns, queen presence affected the expression of all four DNA methyltransferase genes, suggesting that these enzymes have roles beyond DNA methylation. Therefore, the functional role of DNA methylation in social insect genomes remains an open question.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Genoma de Inseto , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Encéfalo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Ovário
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4170, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234130

RESUMO

Genome organization is driven by forces affecting transcriptional state, but the relationship between transcription and genome architecture remains unclear. Here, we identified the Drosophila transcription factor Motif 1 Binding Protein (M1BP) in physical association with the gypsy chromatin insulator core complex, including the universal insulator protein CP190. M1BP is required for enhancer-blocking and barrier activities of the gypsy insulator as well as its proper nuclear localization. Genome-wide, M1BP specifically colocalizes with CP190 at Motif 1-containing promoters, which are enriched at topologically associating domain (TAD) borders. M1BP facilitates CP190 chromatin binding at many shared sites and vice versa. Both factors promote Motif 1-dependent gene expression and transcription near TAD borders genome-wide. Finally, loss of M1BP reduces chromatin accessibility and increases both inter- and intra-TAD local genome compaction. Our results reveal physical and functional interaction between CP190 and M1BP to activate transcription at TAD borders and mediate chromatin insulator-dependent genome organization.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genoma de Inseto , Elementos Isolantes/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Science ; 373(6554): 535-541, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326235

RESUMO

Interkingdom competition occurs between hymenopteran parasitoids and insect viruses sharing the same insect hosts. It has been assumed that parasitoid larvae die with the death of the infected host or as result of competition for host resources. Here we describe a gene family, parasitoid killing factor (pkf), that encodes proteins toxic to parasitoids of the Microgastrinae group and determines parasitism success. Pkfs are found in several entomopathogenic DNA virus families and in some lepidopteran genomes. We provide evidence of equivalent and specific toxicity against endoparasites for PKFs found in entomopoxvirus, ascovirus, baculovirus, and Lepidoptera through a mechanism that elicits apoptosis in the cells of susceptible parasitoids. This highlights the evolutionary arms race between parasitoids, viruses, and their insect hosts.


Assuntos
Entomopoxvirinae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/toxicidade , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/virologia , Proteínas Virais/toxicidade , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Evolução Biológica , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma de Inseto , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/virologia , Lepidópteros/genética , Lepidópteros/metabolismo , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Spodoptera/virologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Gene ; 800: 145833, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274477

RESUMO

As one of the most common benthic invertebrates in freshwater, mayflies are very sensitive to changes in water quality and have high requirements for the water environment to allow their nymphs to successfully live and grow. Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, can enter fresh water and pollute the aquatic environment. The present study had two goals: (1) investigate imidacloprid effects on mayfly larvae Choroterpes (Euthralus) yixingensis, and (2) contribute to the phylogenetic status of Ephemeroptera that has always been controversial. Nymphs were collected from Jinhua, China and exposed to different concentrations imidacloprid (5, 10, 20, and 40 µg/L) in the laboratory. Survival of C. yixingensis nymphs decreased as a function of time and imidacloprid concentration with only ~ 55% survival after 72 h exposure to 40 µg/L imidacloprid. After culture under 40 µg/L imidacloprid for 24 h, the steady state transcript levels of mitochondrial COX3, ND4 and ND4L genes were reduced to just 0.07 ± 0.11, 0.30 ± 0.16, and 0.28 ± 0.13 as compared with respective control values (P < 0.01). Steady state transcript levels of ND4 and ND4L were also significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), suggesting that the steady state transcript pattern of these genes in mayfly nymphs can change in response to different levels of environmental contamination. Hence, the mitochondrial protein-coding genes of mayflies could potentially be developed as biomarkers for water ecotoxicity monitoring in the future. In addition, we used the mitochondrial genome sequence of C. yixingensis for an assessment of the phylogenetic tree of Ephemeroptera. The monophyly of Leptophlebiidae was supported and showed that Leptophlebiidae was a sister group to the clade (Baetidae + Caenidae).


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Animais , Ephemeroptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Inseto , Genoma Mitocondrial , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/genética , Filogenia
14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 847, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234279

RESUMO

The aphid Myzus persicae is a destructive agricultural pest that displays an exceptional ability to develop resistance to both natural and synthetic insecticides. To investigate the evolution of resistance in this species we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly and living panel of >110 fully sequenced globally sampled clonal lines. Our analyses reveal a remarkable diversity of resistance mutations segregating in global populations of M. persicae. We show that the emergence and spread of these mechanisms is influenced by host-plant associations, uncovering the widespread co-option of a host-plant adaptation that also offers resistance against synthetic insecticides. We identify both the repeated evolution of independent resistance mutations at the same locus, and multiple instances of the evolution of novel resistance mechanisms against key insecticides. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the genomic responses of global insect populations to strong selective forces, and hold practical relevance for the control of pests and parasites.


Assuntos
Afídeos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Afídeos/classificação , Afídeos/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Genômica/métodos , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Filogenia , Plantas/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
15.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 64, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the completion of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip for honey bees, the technical basis of genomic selection is laid. However, for its application in practice, methods to estimate genomic breeding values need to be adapted to the specificities of the genetics and breeding infrastructure of this species. Drone-producing queens (DPQ) are used for mating control, and usually, they head non-phenotyped colonies that will be placed on mating stations. Breeding queens (BQ) head colonies that are intended to be phenotyped and used to produce new queens. Our aim was to evaluate different breeding program designs for the initiation of genomic selection in honey bees. METHODS: Stochastic simulations were conducted to evaluate the quality of the estimated breeding values. We developed a variation of the genomic relationship matrix to include genotypes of DPQ and tested different sizes of the reference population. The results were used to estimate genetic gain in the initial selection cycle of a genomic breeding program. This program was run over six years, and different numbers of genotyped queens per year were considered. Resources could be allocated to increase the reference population, or to perform genomic preselection of BQ and/or DPQ. RESULTS: Including the genotypes of 5000 phenotyped BQ increased the accuracy of predictions of breeding values by up to 173%, depending on the size of the reference population and the trait considered. To initiate a breeding program, genotyping a minimum number of 1000 queens per year is required. In this case, genetic gain was highest when genomic preselection of DPQ was coupled with the genotyping of 10-20% of the phenotyped BQ. For maximum genetic gain per used genotype, more than 2500 genotyped queens per year and preselection of all BQ and DPQ are required. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the first priority in a breeding program is to genotype phenotyped BQ to obtain a sufficiently large reference population, which allows successful genomic preselection of queens. To maximize genetic gain, DPQ should be preselected, and their genotypes included in the genomic relationship matrix. We suggest, that the developed methods for genomic prediction are suitable for implementation in genomic honey bee breeding programs.


Assuntos
Abelhas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Artificial , Animais , Genoma de Inseto , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos
16.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327530

RESUMO

We explored characterization of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome or mtGenome) and phylogenetic analysis between 32 Fulgoroid species by sequencing and analyzing the mitogenome of Nisia fuliginosa Yang and Hu, 1985 (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Meenoplidae), thereby making it the first determined mitogenome from the family Meenoplidae. The mitogenome was found to be 15,754 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and a control region. All PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for nad1, which used GTG as the start codon. Canonical TAA termination codons were found in 10 PCGs and the remaining three genes (cox2, nad6, and nad1) had incomplete stop codons T. All tRNAs could fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structures, with the exception of trnC, trnV, and trnS1. Additionally, we compared the AT and GC skews of 13 PCGs of 32 Fulgoroidea mitogenomes, on the L-strand, the AT and GC skews were negative and positive, respectively. However, on the H-strand, the AT skew could be positive or negative and the GC skew was always negative. Phylogenetic results showed that the eight families of Fulgoroidea were divided into two large groups. Delphacidae formed a monophyletic group sister to a clade comprising Meenoplidae and other six families (Fulgoridae, Ricaniidae, Flatidae, Issidae, Caliscelidae, and Achilidae). Meenoplidae was located near the clade of Delphacidae, and Fulgoridae was located near the clade of Meenoplidae. Furthermore, Caliscelidae, Issidae, Ricaniidae, and Flatidae are closely related and they collectively formed a sister group to Achilidae.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Hemípteros/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Classificação , Ordem dos Genes , Genoma de Inseto , RNA Ribossômico/genética
17.
J Insect Physiol ; 132: 104269, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174320

RESUMO

The anal papillae of mosquito larvae are osmoregulatory organs in direct contact with the external aquatic environment that actively sequester ions and take up water in dilute freshwater. In the disease vector Aedes aegypti mechanisms of ion, water and ammonia transport have only been partially resolved. Furthermore, A. aegypti larvae are known to reside in high ammonia sewage and high salt brackish waters, and understanding of anal papillae function in these conditions is in its infancy. The objective of this study was to identify the complement of ion and water transport genes expressed by the anal papillae of freshwater larvae by sequencing their transcriptome, and comparing their expression in anal papillae of larvae abruptly transferred to brackish water for 24 h. Results identified a number of ion and water transport proteins, ammonia detoxifying enzymes, a full suite of xenobiotic detoxifying enzymes and transporters, and G-protein coupled receptors of specific hormones. We identified a marked increase in transcript and protein abundance of aquaporin AaAQP2 in the anal papillae with abrupt transfer to brackish water. We present an updated and more comprehensive model for ion and water transport with additional putative transporters for Na+ and Cl- uptake in the anal papillae. These are organs which are actively engaged in Na+, Cl- and water uptake and regulation when the aquatic larvae encounter fluctuating salinities over the course of their development. Furthermore the transcriptome of the anal papillae includes a full set of xenobiotic detoxification genes suggesting that these are important detoxification organs which is particularly important when larvae reside in polluted water.


Assuntos
Aedes , Aquaporinas , Osmorregulação/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Xenobióticos/metabolismo , Aedes/genética , Aedes/metabolismo , Aedes/fisiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Canal Anal/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Íons/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Águas Salinas , Salinidade , Sódio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Água/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
18.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(10): 907-921, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074606

RESUMO

Mosquito control strategies increasingly apply knowledge from population genomics research. This review highlights recent applications to three research domains: mosquito invasions, insecticide resistance evolution, and rear and release programs. Current research trends follow developments in reference assemblies, either as improvements to existing assemblies (particularly Aedes) or assemblies for new taxa (particularly Anopheles). With improved assemblies, studies of invasive and rear and release target populations are better able to incorporate adaptive as well as demographic hypotheses. New reference assemblies are aiding comparisons of insecticide resistance across sister taxa while helping resolve taxon boundaries amidst frequent introgression. Anopheles gene drive deployments and improved Aedes genome assemblies should lead to a convergence in research aims for Anopheles and Aedes in the coming years.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Genômica , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Culicidae/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
19.
Trends Genet ; 37(9): 846-859, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116864

RESUMO

Social insects, such as ants, bees, wasps, and termites, draw biologists' attention due to their distinctive lifestyles. As experimental systems, they provide unique opportunities to study organismal differentiation, division of labor, longevity, and the evolution of development. Ants are particularly attractive because several ant species can be propagated in the laboratory. However, the same lifestyle that makes social insects interesting also hampers the use of molecular genetic techniques. Here, we summarize the efforts of the ant research community to surmount these hurdles and obtain novel mechanistic insight into the biology of social insects. We review current approaches and propose novel ones involving genomics, transcriptomics, chromatin and DNA methylation profiling, RNA interference (RNAi), and genome editing in ants and discuss future experimental strategies.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Formigas , Comportamento Animal , Cromatina/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Insetos/genética , Interferência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Comportamento Social
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 332, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174947

RESUMO

Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the main vectors of many viruses, e.g. dengue and Zika, which affect millions of people each year and for which there are limited treatment options. Understanding how Aedes mosquitoes tolerate high viral loads may lead to better disease control strategies. Elucidating endogenous viral elements (EVEs) within vector genomes may give exploitable biological insights. Previous studies have reported the presence of a large number of EVEs in Aedes genomes. Here we investigated if flavivirus EVEs are conserved across populations and different Aedes species by using ~ 500 whole genome sequence libraries from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, sourced from colonies and field mosquitoes across continents. We found that nearly all flavivirus EVEs in the Ae. aegypti reference genome originate from four separate putative viral integration events, and that they are highly conserved across geographically diverse samples. By contrast, flavivirus EVEs in the Ae. albopictus reference genome originate from up to nine distinct integration events and show low levels of conservation, even within samples from narrow geographical ranges. Our analysis suggests that flaviviruses integrated as long sequences and were subsequently fragmented and shuffled by transposable elements. Given that EVEs of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus belong to different phylogenetic clades and have very differing levels of conservation, they may have different evolutionary origins and potentially different functional roles.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Flavivirus/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Integração Viral , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Animais , Flavivirus/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Filogenia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...