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2.
3.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 177, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462281

RESUMO

Funding research is a challenge faced by most scientists around the world. Genome Biology has invited four scientists based in three different countries to share their own experience and opinions regarding funding, the difficulties young scientists must overcome, and how the process of securing funding can be improved. Here, Hui Yang discusses the funding opportunities open to scientists conducting research in China.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Genoma , Humanos , Pesquisa
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1158: 247-255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452144

RESUMO

The maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is located inside every mitochondrion, in variable number of copies, and it contains 37 crucial genes for cellular bioenergetics. This chapter will discuss the unique features of this circular genome including heteroplasmy, haplogroups, among others, along with the corresponding clinical relevance for each. The discussion also covers the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes (N > 1000) and the epistatic interactions between mtDNA and the nuclear genome. Examples of mitochondrial diseases related to specific mtDNA mutation sites of relevance for humans are provided. This chapter aims to provide an overview of mitochondrial genetics as an emerging hot topic for the future of medicine.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Epistasia Genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Genoma/genética , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação
5.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 39, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested the premise that optimum-contribution selection with pedigree relationships to control inbreeding (POCS) realises at least as much true genetic gain as optimum-contribution selection with genomic relationships (GOCS) at the same rate of true inbreeding. METHODS: We used stochastic simulation to estimate rates of true genetic gain realised by POCS and GOCS at a 0.01 rate of true inbreeding in three breeding schemes with best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values based on pedigree (PBLUP) and genomic (GBLUP) information. The three breeding schemes differed in number of matings and litter size. Selection was for a single trait with a heritability of 0.2. The trait was controlled by 7702 biallelic quantitative-trait loci (QTL) that were distributed across a 30-M genome. The genome contained 54,218 biallelic markers that were used in GOCS and GBLUP. A total of 6012 identity-by-descent loci were placed across the genome in base populations. Unique alleles at these loci were used to calculate rates of true inbreeding. Breeding schemes were run for 10 discrete generations. Selection candidates were genotyped and phenotyped before selection. RESULTS: POCS realised more true genetic gain than GOCS at a 0.01 rate of true inbreeding in all combinations of breeding scheme and prediction method. POCS realised 14 to 33% more true genetic gain than GOCS with PBLUP in the three breeding schemes. It realised 1.5 to 5.7% more true genetic gain than GOCS with GBLUP. CONCLUSIONS: POCS realised more true genetic gain than GOCS because it managed expected genetic drift without restricting selection at QTL. By contrast, GOCS penalised changes in allele frequencies at markers that were generated by genetic drift and selection. Because these marker alleles were in linkage disequilibrium with QTL alleles, GOCS restricted changes in allele frequencies at QTL. This provides little incentive to use GOCS and highlights that we have more to learn before we can control inbreeding using genomic relationships in selective-breeding schemes. Until we can do so, POCS remains a worthy method of optimum-contribution selection because it realises more true genetic gain than GOCS at the same rate of true inbreeding.


Assuntos
Endogamia , Linhagem , Alelos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genoma , Masculino , Processos Estocásticos
6.
Life Sci ; 232: 116636, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295471

RESUMO

Till date, only three techniques namely Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN), Transcription-Activator Like Effector Nucleases (TALEN) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-CRISPR-Associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) are available for targeted genome editing. CRISPR-Cas system is very efficient, fast, easy and cheap technique for achieving knock-out gene in the cell. CRISPR-Cas9 system refurbishes the targeted genome editing approach into a more expedient and competent way, thus facilitating proficient genome editing through embattled double-strand breaks in approximately any organism and cell type. The off-target effects of CRISPR Cas system has been circumnavigated by using paired nickases. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been used effectively for numerous purposes, like knock-out of a gene, regulation of endogenous gene expression, live-cell labelling of chromosomal loci, edition of single-stranded RNA and high-throughput gene screening. The execution of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has amplified the number of accessible scientific substitutes for studying gene function, thus enabling generation of CRISPR-based disease models. Even though many mechanistic questions are left behind to be answered and the system is not yet fool-proof i.e., a number of challenges are yet to be addressed, the employment of CRISPR-Cas9-based genome engineering technologies will increase our understanding to disease processes and their treatment in the near future. In this review we have discussed the history of CRISPR-Cas9, its mechanism for genome editing and its application in animal, plant and protozoan parasites. Additionally, the pros and cons of CRISPR-Cas9 and its potential in therapeutic application have also been detailed here.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Animais , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Edição de Genes/tendências , Genoma , Humanos , Plantas/genética
7.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 144, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid accumulation of vertebrate genome sequences render comparative genomics a powerful approach to study macro-evolutionary events. The assessment of phylogenic relationships between species routinely depends on the analysis of sequence homology at the nucleotide or protein level. RESULTS: We analyzed mRNA GC content, codon usage and divergence of orthologous proteins in 55 vertebrate genomes. Data were visualized in genome-wide landscapes using a sliding window approach. Landscapes of GC content reveal both evolutionary conservation of clustered genes, and lineage-specific changes, so that it was possible to construct a phylogenetic tree that closely matched the classic "tree of life". Landscapes of GC content also strongly correlated to landscapes of amino acid usage: positive correlation with glycine, alanine, arginine and proline and negative correlation with phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, isoleucine, asparagine and lysine. Peaks of GC content correlated strongly with increased protein divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Landscapes of base- and amino acid composition of the coding genome opens a new approach in comparative genomics, allowing identification of discrete regions in which protein evolution accelerated over deep evolutionary time. Insight in the evolution of genome structure may spur novel studies assessing the evolutionary benefit of genes in particular genomic regions.


Assuntos
Composição de Bases/genética , Evolução Molecular , Exoma/genética , Proteínas/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Códon/genética , Genoma , Humanos , Mamíferos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Répteis/genética
8.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 399, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-throughput experiments can bring to light associations between genes, proteins and/or metabolites, many of which will be explainable by existing knowledge. Our aim is to speed elucidation of such explanations and, in some cases, find explanations that scientists might otherwise overlook. RESULTS: We describe the MultiOmics Explainer, a new tool within the Pathway Tools software suite that leverages what is known about an organism's metabolic and regulatory network to suggest explanations for the results of omics experiments. Querying a database such as EcoCyc, the MultiOmics Explainer searches the organism's network of metabolic reactions, transporters, cofactors, enzyme substrate-level activation and inhibition relationships, and transcriptional and translational regulation relationships to identify paths of influence among input genes, proteins and metabolites. Results are presented in a combined metabolic and regulatory diagram. We present several examples of explanations generated for associations found in the Escherichia coli literature. CONCLUSIONS: The MultiOmics Explainer is a valuable tool that helps researchers understand and interpret the results of their omics experiments in the context of what is known about an organism's metabolic and regulatory network. It showcases the rich set of computational inferences that can be drawn from a database such as EcoCyc that encodes a diverse range of biological interactions.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Proteômica , Software , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Genoma , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 151, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allopatric speciation has played a particularly important role in archipelagic settings where populations evolve in isolation after colonizing different islands. The Indo-Australasian island realm is an unparalleled natural laboratory of biotic diversification. Here we explore how the level of earth-historic isolation has influenced genetic differentiation across the region by investigating phylogeographic patterns in the Pitta sordida species complex. RESULTS: We generated a de novo genome and compared population genomics of 29 individuals of Pitta sordida from the entire distributional range and we reconstructed phylogenetic relationship using mitogenomes, a multi-nuclear gene dataset and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We found deep divergence between an eastern and a western group of taxa across Indo-Australasia. Within both groups we have identified major lineages that are geographically separated into Philippines, Borneo, western Sundaland, and New Guinea, respectively. Although these lineages are genetically well-differentiated, suggesting a long-term isolation, there are signatures of extensive gene flow within each lineage throughout the Pleistocene, despite the wide geographic range occupied by some of them. We found little evidence of hybridization or introgression among the studied taxa, but forsteni from Sulawesi makes an exception. This individual, belonging to the eastern clade, is genetically admixed between the western and eastern clades. Geographically this makes sense as Sulawesi is not far from Borneo that houses a population of hooded pittas that belongs to the western clade. CONCLUSIONS: We found that geological vicariance events cannot explain the current genetic differentiation in the Pitta sordida species complex. Instead, the glacial-interglacial cycles may have played a major role therein. During glacials the sea level could be up to 120 m lower than today and land bridges formed within both the Sunda Shelf and the Sahul Shelf permitting dispersal of floral and faunal elements. The geographic distribution of hooded pittas shows the importance of overwater, "stepping-stone" dispersals not only to deep-sea islands, but also from one shelf to the other. The most parsimonious hypothesis is an Asian ancestral home of the Pitta sordida species complex and a colonization from west to east, probably via Wallacea.


Assuntos
Terra (Planeta) , Genoma , Ilhas , Passeriformes/genética , Animais , Austrália , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Índia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2489, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171815

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS), trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), results in a broad range of phenotypes. A recent study reported that DS cells show genome-wide transcriptional changes in which up- or down-regulated genes are clustered in gene expression dysregulation domains (GEDDs). GEDDs were also reported in fibroblasts derived from a DS mouse model duplicated for some Hsa21-orthologous genes, indicating cross-species conservation of this phenomenon. Here we investigate GEDDs using the Dp1Tyb mouse model of DS, which is duplicated for the entire Hsa21-orthologous region of mouse chromosome 16. Our statistical analysis shows that GEDDs are present both in DS cells and in Dp1Tyb mouse fibroblasts and hippocampus. However, we find that GEDDs do not depend on the DS genotype but occur whenever gene expression changes. We conclude that GEDDs are not a specific feature of DS but instead result from the clustering of co-regulated genes, a function of mammalian genome organisation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Genótipo , Camundongos , Família Multigênica , Fenótipo
11.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 87, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197171

RESUMO

Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), a critically endangered Acipenseridae family member, is one of the largest anadromous, native fish in China. Numerous research programmes and protection agencies have focused on breeding and preserving this endangered species. However, available information is limited on the different stages of sex development, especially on the reproductive regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis of A. sinensis. To unravel the mechanism of gene interactions during sex differentiation and gonad development of A. sinensis, we performed transcriptome sequencing using HPG samples from male and female A. sinensis in two developmental stages. In this study, 271.19 Gb high-quality transcriptome data were obtained from 45 samples belonging to 15 individuals (six in stage I, six males and three females in stage II). These transcriptomic data will help us understand the reproductive regulation of the HPG axis in the development stages of A. sinensis and provide important reference data for genomic and genetic studies in A. sinensis and related species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Peixes/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Animais , Feminino , Peixes/genética , Genoma , Masculino , Transcriptoma
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2756, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227702

RESUMO

Flight loss in birds is as characteristic of the class Aves as flight itself. Although morphological and physiological differences are recognized in flight-degenerate bird species, their contributions to recurrent flight degeneration events across modern birds and underlying genetic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, in an analysis of 295 million nucleotides from 48 bird genomes, we identify two convergent sites causing amino acid changes in ATGLSer321Gly and ACOT7Ala197Val in flight-degenerate birds, which to our knowledge have not previously been implicated in loss of flight. Functional assays suggest that Ser321Gly reduces lipid hydrolytic ability of ATGL, and Ala197Val enhances acyl-CoA hydrolytic activity of ACOT7. Modeling simulations suggest a switch of main energy sources from lipids to carbohydrates in flight-degenerate birds. Our results thus suggest that physiological convergence plays an important role in flight degeneration, and anatomical convergence often invoked may not.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Aves/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Genoma/genética , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Genômica/métodos , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipólise/fisiologia , Palmitoil-CoA Hidrolase/genética , Palmitoil-CoA Hidrolase/metabolismo , Filogenia
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 298, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several standalone error correction tools have been proposed to correct sequencing errors in Illumina data in order to facilitate de novo genome assembly. However, in a recent survey, we showed that state-of-the-art assemblers often did not benefit from this pre-correction step. We found that many error correction tools introduce new errors in reads that overlap highly repetitive DNA regions such as low-complexity patterns or short homopolymers, ultimately leading to a more fragmented assembly. RESULTS: We propose BrownieCorrector, an error correction tool for Illumina sequencing data that focuses on the correction of only those reads that overlap short DNA patterns that are highly repetitive in the genome. BrownieCorrector extracts all reads that contain such a pattern and clusters them into different groups using a community detection algorithm that takes into account both the sequence similarity between overlapping reads and their respective paired-end reads. Each cluster holds reads that originate from the same genomic region and hence each cluster can be corrected individually, thus providing a consistent correction for all reads within that cluster. CONCLUSIONS: BrownieCorrector is benchmarked using six real Illumina datasets for different eukaryotic genomes. The prior use of BrownieCorrector improves assembly results over the use of uncorrected reads in all cases. In comparison with other error correction tools, BrownieCorrector leads to the best assembly results in most cases even though less than 2% of the reads within a dataset are corrected. Additionally, we investigate the impact of error correction on hybrid assembly where the corrected Illumina reads are supplemented with PacBio data. Our results confirm that BrownieCorrector improves the quality of hybrid genome assembly as well. BrownieCorrector is written in standard C++11 and released under GPL license. BrownieCorrector relies on multithreading to take advantage of multi-core/multi-CPU systems. The source code is available at https://github.com/biointec/browniecorrector .


Assuntos
Algoritmos , DNA/genética , Genoma , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Anim Genet ; 50(4): 391-394, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179556

RESUMO

In this study, we conducted genomic prediction for two Yorkshire purebred populations (Yichun and Chifeng) from two different provinces of China that both had a limited population size. Two growth traits (age adjusted to 100 kg weight, AGE; back-fat thickness adjusted to 100 kg weight, BF) and one reproduction trait (total number of piglets born, TNB) were analyzed with four prediction strategies: one-population BLUP, joint two-population BLUP, one-population single-step BLUP (SSBLUP) and joint two-population SSBLUP. Our results illustrate that accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values were improved for BF and TNB for the Yichun population and for BF for the Chifeng population by genomic prediction (one-population SSBLUP and joint two-population SSBLUP). The accuracy of TNB for the Yichun population was increased two fold when comparing the one-population SSBLUP to the one-population BLUP prediction. Meanwhile, prediction biases were dramatically reduced for AGE for the Yichun population and for TNB for the Chifeng population. The conclusions of this study are as follows: first, genomic prediction is useful for improving prediction accuracy for purebred pig breeding farms with a limited population size; second, joint genomic prediction for different populations of the same breed with certain genetic links has the trend to further improve prediction accuracy.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , China , Genética Populacional , Genoma , Modelos Biológicos , Análise de Regressão , Sus scrofa/classificação
16.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2328-2336, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228211

RESUMO

Changes of nuclear localization of lineage-specific genes from a transcriptionally inert to permissive environment are a crucial step in establishing the identity of a cell. Noncoding RNA transcription-mediated genome folding and activation of target gene expression have been found in a variety of cell types. Noncoding RNA ThymoD (thymocyte differentiation factor) transcription at superenhancers is essential for mouse T-cell lineage commitment. The cessation of ThymoD transcription abolishes transcription-mediated demethylation, recruiting looping factors such as the cohesin complex, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), ultimately leading to the phenotype of severe combined immunodeficiency and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. In this review, we describe the functional role of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription at enhancers and in genome folding. We also highlight the involvement of faulty activation or suppression of enhancer transcription and enhancer-promoter interaction in cancer development.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Genoma/genética , Neoplasias/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Animais , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2852, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253764

RESUMO

Cytosine base editors (CBEs) enable programmable C-to-T conversion without DNA double-stranded breaks and homology-directed repair in a variety of organisms, which exhibit great potential for agricultural and biomedical applications. However, all reported cases only involved C-to-T substitution at a single targeted genomic site. Whether C-to-T substitution is effective in multiple sites/loci has not been verified in large animals. Here, by using pigs, an important animal for agriculture and biomedicine, as the subjective animal, we showed that CBEs could efficiently induce C-to-T conversions at multiple sites/loci with the combination of three genes, including DMD, TYR, and LMNA, or RAG1, RAG2, and IL2RG, simultaneously, at the embryonic and cellular levels. CBEs also could disrupt genes (pol gene of porcine endogenous retrovirus) with dozens of copies by introducing multiple premature stop codons. With the CBEs, pigs carrying single gene or multiple gene point mutations were generated through embryo injection or nuclear transfer approach.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Mutação Puntual , Suínos/genética , Desaminase APOBEC-1 , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , DNA/genética , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Genoma , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/veterinária , RNA Guia/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 307, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The maturation of the female germ cell, the oocyte, requires the synthesis and storing of all the necessary metabolites to support multiple divisions after fertilization. Oocyte maturation is only possible in the presence of surrounding, diverse, and changing layers of somatic cells. Our understanding of metabolic interactions between the oocyte and somatic cells has been limited due to dynamic nature of ovarian follicle development, thus warranting a systems approach. RESULTS: Here, we developed a genome-scale metabolic model of the mouse ovarian follicle. This model was constructed using an updated mouse general metabolic model (Mouse Recon 2) and contains several key ovarian follicle development metabolic pathways. We used this model to characterize the changes in the metabolism of each follicular cell type (i.e., oocyte, granulosa cells, including cumulus and mural cells), during ovarian follicle development in vivo. Using this model, we predicted major metabolic pathways that are differentially active across multiple follicle stages. We identified a set of possible secreted and consumed metabolites that could potentially serve as biomarkers for monitoring follicle development, as well as metabolites for addition to in vitro culture media that support the growth and maturation of primordial follicles. CONCLUSIONS: Our systems approach to model follicle metabolism can guide future experimental studies to validate the model results and improve oocyte maturation approaches and support growth of primordial follicles in vitro.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Genoma , Modelos Biológicos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Folículo Ovariano/citologia
19.
Nat Chem ; 11(7): 629-637, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209299

RESUMO

In DNA, the loss of a nucleobase by hydrolysis generates an abasic site. Formed as a result of DNA damage, as well as a key intermediate during the base excision repair pathway, abasic sites are frequent DNA lesions that can lead to mutations and strand breaks. Here we present snAP-seq, a chemical approach that selectively exploits the reactive aldehyde moiety at abasic sites to reveal their location within DNA at single-nucleotide resolution. Importantly, the approach resolves abasic sites from other aldehyde functionalities known to exist in genomic DNA. snAP-seq was validated on synthetic DNA and then applied to two separate genomes. We studied the distribution of thymine modifications in the Leishmania major genome by enzymatically converting these modifications into abasic sites followed by abasic site mapping. We also applied snAP-seq directly to HeLa DNA to provide a map of endogenous abasic sites in the human genome.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Genoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Aldeídos/química , Sequência de Bases , DNA/química , Dano ao DNA/genética , DNA Liase (Sítios Apurínicos ou Apirimidínicos)/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HeLa , Humanos , Leishmania major/genética , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Sondas Moleculares/química , Timina/química , Uracila-DNA Glicosidase/química
20.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(6): 921-930, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231990

RESUMO

Genome editing is a genetic engineering technique that uses site-directed cleavage activity of specific artificial nucleases and endogenous DNA damage repair activity to generate insertions, deletions or substitutions in the targeted genomic loci. As the accuracy and efficiency of genome editing is improving and the operation is simple, the application of genome editing is expanding. This article provides an overview of the three major genome editing technologies and genome editing types, and the regulatory frameworks for genome-edited products were summarized in the United States, the European Union, and other countries. At the same time, based on the Chinese safety management principles and systems for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the authors proposed a regulatory framework for genome-edited products. Genome-edited products should first be classified according to whether containing exogenous genetic components such as Cas9 editing enzymes or not. They should be regulated as traditional genetically modified organisms if they do. Otherwise, the regulation of genome-edited products depends on targeted modifications.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Genoma , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Endonucleases , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida
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