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1.
Oecologia ; 192(4): 929-937, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172377

RESUMO

All orchids and pyroloids are mycoheterotrophic at least in the early stage. Many species are predisposed to mycoheterotrophic nutrition even in the adult stage, due to the initial mycoheterotrophy during germination. Although other green plants, such as gentian species, also produce numerous minute seeds, whose germination may depend on fungal associations to meet C demands, physiological evidence for partial mycoheterotrophy in the adult stage is lacking for most candidate taxa. Here, we compared the natural abundances of 13C and 15N isotopes in the AM-associated gentian species Pterygocalyx volubilis growing in high-light-intensity habitats with those of co-occurring autotrophic C3 and C4 plants and AM fungal spores. We found that P. volubilis was significantly enriched in 13C compared with the surrounding C3 plants, which suggests the transfer of some C from the surrounding autotrophic plants through shared AM networks. In addition, the intermediate δ15N values of P. volubilis, between those of autotrophic plants and AM fungal spores, provide further evidence for partial mycoheterotrophy in P. volubilis. Although it is often considered that light deficiency selects partial mycoheterotrophy, we show that partial mycoheterotrophy in AM-forming plants can evolve even under light-saturated conditions. The fact that there have been relatively few descriptions of partial mycoheterotrophy in AM plants may not necessarily reflect the rarity of such associations. In conclusion, partial mycoheterotrophy in AM plants may be more common than hitherto believed.


Assuntos
Gentiana , Micorrizas , Orchidaceae , Isótopos de Carbono , Pradaria , Simbiose
2.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817679

RESUMO

The root of Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), is officially listed as "Qin-Jiao" in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the treatment of rheumatic arthritis, icteric hepatitis, constipation, pain, and hypertension. To establish the geographical origin traceability in G. straminea, its chemical profiles were determined by a UPLC-Q exactive mass spectrometer, from which 43 compounds were identified by comparing retention times and mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, a pair of isomers (loganin and secologanol) was identified by mass spectrometry based on their fragmentation pathway. A total of 42 samples from difference habitats were determined by an UPLC-Q exactive mass spectrometer and the data were assayed with multivariate statistical analysis. Eight characteristic compounds were identified to determine the geographical origin of the herb. To estimate the key characteristic markers associated with pharmacological function, the inhibiting activities of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages were examined. This finding is crucial in realizing the determination of botanical origin and evaluating the quality of G. straminea.


Assuntos
Gentiana/metabolismo , Glicosídeos Iridoides/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Análise Multivariada , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
3.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 58(1): 60-74, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845984

RESUMO

A potential method called microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (MA-ATPE) was developed for concurrent extraction and purification of gentiopicroside from Gentiana scabra Bunge. Formation characteristics of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of ethanol and 25 kinds of salts were investigated; K2HPO4 (w/w, 21.71%) and ethanol (w/w, 40.72%) were determined to be the optimal compositions of ATPS. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the extraction conditions, the optimal parameters were summarized as follows: 80°C of extraction temperature, 31 s of extraction time, 11:1 (mL/g) of liquid-to-solid ratio, 100 meshes of particle size and 806 W of microwave power. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of gentiopicroside was 65.32 ± 0.24 mg/g with a recovery of 96.51%. Compared with other four methods, the purity of gentiopicroside in the crude extracts reached 17.16 ± 0.25%, which was significantly higher than that of smashing tissue extraction, microwave assisted-extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, respectively. In addition, the phase-forming salt can be recyclable. Therefore, MA-ATPE was an excellent and alternative technique to the conventional extraction approaches of gentiopicroside.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Gentiana/química , Glucosídeos Iridoides/química , Glucosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Micro-Ondas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(18): 2071-2076, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity, diabetes, and associated diseases are increasing all over the world, and pose a great burden on public health. According to the latest reports, 440 million people are suffering from diabetes. Diabetes is caused by impaired ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin consequently resulting in hyperglycemia. METHODS: Data used for this review was obtained by using PUBMED/MEDLINE (1987-2018). The main data search terms were: Gentiana lutea, Gentiana lutea extract, Gentiana lutea constituents, obesity, diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications. RESULTS: In the present review, we describe the potential of root powder of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) for the prevention of obesity and diabetes including complications related to this disease. CONCLUSION: Reasonably effective, low-cost alternatives could fulfill an important role for a large part of the human population and could be of great value for the food market. Even a modest reduction of morbidity and mortality with respect to this disease translates into millions of lives saved.


Assuntos
Gentiana/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/química
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2291-2300, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418232

RESUMO

Based on the species distribution data provided by the National Specimen Information Infrastructure combined with field survey and MaxEnt model, we simulated and verified the suitable distribution area of Gentiana rigescens. Furthermore, the relationship between the geographical distribution and climatic factors of G. rigescens was analyzed. The results showed that area under curve of training set and test set were more than 0.90, indicating high prediction precision and accurate prediction results. Geographic coordinate range of G. rigescens were 22.2°â”€28.75° N and 98.48°â”€110.59° E. The suitable altitude range was from 1830 to 1959 m. The total area of suitable distribution region was 63.92×104 km2, including the most suitable distribution region (4.33×104 km2) and middle suitable distribution region (21.42×104 km2). Total area of suitable distribution region in Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces was about 59.10×104 km2, which accounted for 92.46% of total suitable distribution region in China. Solar radiation (March, June and August), temperature annual range, mean temperature of warmest quarter, mean precipitation of October and November, precipitation of driest quarter were the major climatic factors influencing the geographi-cal distribution of G. rigescens. Results from partial least squares regression analysis showed that solar radiation (March, June and August), temperature annual range, mean precipitation of October and November, precipitation of driest quarter were the main restriction factors in north and east of suitable distribution region. The main restriction factors in south of suitable distribution region were solar radiation of June, mean temperature of warmest quarter, precipitation of October and November. The factors limiting distribution of G. rigescens to basin of Sichuan and Guangxi were solar radiation, temperature annual range, mean temperature of warmest quarter, annual biotempe-rature and annual potential evapotranspiration. In conclusion, suitable distribution region of G. rigescens primarily located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, where subtropical humid climate was most suitable for its growth.


Assuntos
Clima , Gentiana , Altitude , China , Temperatura
6.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337159

RESUMO

Gentiana rigescens Franchet, which is famous for its bitter properties, is a traditional drug of chronic hepatitis and important raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry in China. In the study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with diode array detector (DAD) and chemometrics, were used to investigate the chemical geographical variation of G. rigescens and to classify medicinal materials, according to their grown latitudes. The chromatographic fingerprints of 280 individuals and 840 samples from rhizomes, stems, and leaves of four different latitude areas were recorded and analyzed for tracing the geographical origin of medicinal materials. At first, HPLC fingerprints of underground and aerial parts were generated while using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. After the preliminary data exploration, two supervised pattern recognition techniques, random forest (RF) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were applied to the three HPLC fingerprint data sets of rhizomes, stems, and leaves, respectively. Furthermore, fingerprint data sets of aerial and underground parts were separately processed and joined while using two data fusion strategies ("low-level" and "mid-level"). The results showed that classification models that are based OPLS-DA were more efficient than RF models. The classification models using low-level data fusion method built showed considerably good recognition and prediction abilities (the accuracy is higher than 99% and sensibility, specificity, Matthews correlation coefficient, and efficiency range from 0.95 to 1.00). Low-level data fusion strategy combined with OPLS-DA could provide the best discrimination result. In summary, this study explored the latitude variation of phytochemical of G. rigescens and developed a reliable and accurate identification method for G. rigescens that were grown at different latitudes based on untargeted HPLC fingerprint, data fusion, and chemometrics. The study results are meaningful for authentication and the quality control of Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Gentiana/química , Gentiana/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia , Fenótipo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
7.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742659

RESUMO

Corolla color in Gentiana lutea L. exhibits a yellow/orange variation. We previously demonstrated that the orange petal color of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca is predominantly caused by newly synthesized pelargonidin glycosides that confer a reddish hue to the yellow background color, derived from the carotenoids. However, the anthocyanin molecules of these pelargonidin glycosides are not yet fully identified and characterized. Here, we investigated the regulation, content and type of anthocyanins determining the petal coloration of the orange-flowered G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca. Anthocyanins from the petals of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca were characterized and quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS (High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry) coupled with a diode array detector in flowers at three different stages of development (S1, S3 and S5). Eleven pelargonidin derivatives were identified in the petals of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca for the first time, but quantitative and qualitative differences were observed at each developmental stage. The highest levels of these pelargonidin derivatives were reached at the fully open flower stage (S5) where all anthocyanins were detected. In contrast, not all the anthocyanins were detected at the budlet stage (S1) and mature bud stage (S3) and those corresponded to more complex pelargonidin derivatives. The major pelargonidin derivatives found at all the stages were pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-O-diglucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside. Furthermore, the expression of DFR (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase), ANS (anthocyanidin synthase), 3GT (UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase), 5GT (UDP-glucose:flavonoid 5-O-glucosyltransferase) and 5AT (anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase) genes was analyzed in the petals of three developmental stages, showing that the expression level of DFR, ANS and 3GT parallels the accumulation of the pelargonidin glucosides. Overall, this study enhances the knowledge of the biochemical basis of flower coloration in Gentiana species, and lays a foundation for breeding of flower color and genetic variation studies on Gentiana varieties.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Gentiana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gentiana/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Flores/química , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Gentiana/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 233: 141-147, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630090

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The roots and rhizomes of Gentiana scabra Bunge in the family Gentianaceae comprise a major herbal medicine for skin diseases caused by wind-heat or dampness-heat in China, Japan and Korea. This treatment can clear away heat and dry dampness and purge fire from the liver and gallbladder. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential and anti-inflammatory effects of G. scabra, roots and rhizomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of gentiopicrin in the roots and rhizomes of G. scabra. We then investigated the effects of ethanol extract of G. scabra, roots and rhizomes (EEGS) on skin lesions and thickness, erythema and melanin index, histopathological abnormalities, and cytokine and chemokine production in mice with contact dermatitis (CD) induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). Moreover, the effects of EEGS on body weights and spleen body weight ratio were evaluated. RESULTS: Topical application of EEGS alleviated skin lesions such as surface roughness, excoriations and scabs on the skin of CD mice, as well as prevented skin enlargement, and lowered the erythema and melanin index. In addition, EEGS prevented hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia and immune cell infiltration, and inhibited TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and MCP-1 production in inflamed tissues. EEGS did not affect changes in body weights and spleen body weight ratio in contrast to dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the roots and rhizomes of G. scabra can be used as anti-inflammatory agents for CD with relative safety and that its therapeutic mechanisms are related to regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Gentiana , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Dermatite de Contato/patologia , Hiperplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia/imunologia , Hiperplasia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia
9.
Phytomedicine ; 57: 129-136, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gentiana is a genus of flowering plants in Gentianaceae family, which comprises of 1,600 species. The roots of few species of Gentiana, also known as Long Dan Cao in Chinese, are traditionally used in herbal remedies for a wide variety of liver-associated diseases. The medicinal part of Gentiana is root; however, the trumpet-shaped flowers are seldom being used. PURPOSE: We investigated the anti-melanogenesis effect of water extract of Gentiana veitchiorum Hemsl. flowers, and isoorientin was identified to be the active compound. STUDY DESIGN: We tested the anti-melanogenesis effects of extracts deriving from different parts of G. veitchiorum, followed by identification of active ingredients within the extracts. The mechanism of inhibitory effect on melanogenesis, triggered by isoorientin, was elucidated by in vitro analyses. METHODS: HPLC was applied to identify the components in water extracts from different parts of G. veitchiorum. The cytotoxicity of extracts and pure compounds in cultured B16F10 murine melanoma cells was determined by MTT and trypan blue assays. Melanin assay, tyrosinase assay, RT-PCR, luciferase assay and western blot were used to analyze the effect of isoorientin in melanin content, tyrosinase activity, as well as the expressions of those related genes and proteins. RESULTS: We identified an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis from water extract of G. veitchiorum flowers in B16F10 cells. Isoorientin, a major flavone in the extract, was identified to be an active ingredient causing reduction in melanin content in a dose-dependent manner. Such reduction was suggested to be a result of suppressed expression of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP1) and DOPA-chrome tautomerase (DCT). Isoorientin also suppressed the expression of microphthalmia- associated transcription factor (MITF) through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that isoorientin derived from G. veitchiorum flowers may be a potential skin lightening agent for the treatment of skin pigmentary disorders.


Assuntos
Gentiana/química , Luteolina/farmacologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Flores/química , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Luteolina/análise , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
Planta Med ; 85(7): 608-614, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690691

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory properties of the topical herbal composition VEL-091604 with gentian root, licorice root, and willow bark extract were assessed in a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind ultraviolet (UV)-erythema test study with 42 healthy volunteers in comparison to 1% hydrocortisone acetate. The efficacy and tolerability of VEL-091604 cream 2 times daily over 2 wk was evaluated in an open-label, prospective proof of concept study in 10 subjects with atopic dermatitis using a lesional SCORAD severity score. In the UV-erythema test VEL-091604 cream significantly reduced inflammation compared to placebo and was as effective as 1% hydrocortisone acetate. The clinical study with atopic subjects revealed a significant and rapid reduction of the lesional SCORAD severity score in the test areas after 1 and 2 wk. No adverse events were recorded. It is concluded that the herbal cream VEL-091604 with licorice root, willow bark, and gentian root extract display anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. It is a promising new treatment option for atopic dermatitis that warrants further investigation in controlled studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Gentiana/química , Glycyrrhiza/química , Medicina Herbária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Salix/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Creme para a Pele/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Complement Med Res ; 26(1): 31-38, 2019.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gentiana siphonantha Maxim. is a traditional medicine for the treatment of rheumarthritis, icterepatitis, pain and hypertension; it is rich in gentiopicroside with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and free radical-scavenging activities. This study was to evaluate the antidermatophyte activity of G. siphonantha on a guinea pig model in vitro and in vivo. Material andMethods: The antidermatophyte activities of 10 plants were tested by the broth microdilution method. Fractions and an extract of G. siphonantha were tested against Trichophyton mentagrophytes by the disc diffusion method. The morphological changes of T. mentagrophytes were observed. Component analysis of the n-butanol (n-BuOH) fraction was made by HPLC. Finally, the antifungal activity in an in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis was examined. RESULTS: G. siphonantha had strong antidermatophyte activity with MIC50 values of 32-64 µg/mL. The n-BuOH fraction of G. siphonantha showed the most potent activity compared to the other fractions. After being exposed to the n-BuOH fraction at 80 and 160 µg/mL, the hyphae were distorted and collapsed. Gentiopicroside is the main active ingredient in the n-BuOH fraction of G. siphonantha. The lesion scores of the guinea pig model of dermatophytosis significantly declined in the 10% and 30% extract and positive control groups in comparison with the untreated control group. Periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin/eosin staining displayed similar results. CONCLUSION: The n-BuOH fraction of G. siphonantha demonstrated antidermatophyte efficacy in experimental dermatophytosis.


Assuntos
Gentiana/química , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Butanóis/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cobaias , Glucosídeos Iridoides/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas/química , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(2): e1800509, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511810

RESUMO

Inter- and intrapopulation variability in six natural populations of the rare species Gentiana pneumonanthe was examined based on morphological and chemical data. Population size and linear morphometric parameters differed significantly among populations, but without a clear connection to habitat conditions, i. e. water supply and light availability. Leaf shape varied from ovate to lanceolate in all populations, and one population was distinctive in having the largest number of leaves of transitional shape. HPLC analyses of six secondary metabolites were performed separately for belowground parts, and aboveground vegetative and reproductive parts of individual plants (6 populations ×7 individuals ×3 plant parts, n=126) in order to examine differences at the population and individual levels. Three secoiridoids (swertiamarin (SWM), sweroside (SWZ), and gentiopicrin (GP)), one xanthone (mangiferin (MGF)), and two flavones (isoorientin (IO) and isovitexin (IV)) were detected and quantified in the analyzed samples: sweroside dominated in the aboveground reproductive part, mangiferin in the aboveground vegetative part, and gentiopicrin in the belowground part. At the population level, differences in contents of the analyzed chemicals among populations were significant only for a few metabolites. At the individual level, a pronounced organ-dependent distribution of secondary metabolites was revealed. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of natural variability within populations of the rare and threatened G. pneumonanthe, and provide data on the contents and within-plant distribution of secondary metabolites, which are important as pharmacologically active compounds and may be useful for further biotechnological procedures regarding this species.


Assuntos
Flavonas/análise , Gentiana/química , Iridoides/análise , Xantonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
13.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 71(2): 240-250, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The hepatoprotective effect of Gentianae macrophyllae root extract (GME) on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was evaluated through ethanol induced ALD animal model. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into control normal group (10 mice), ethanol-induced ALD model group (10 mice) and GME plus ethanol group (30 mice). Mice in model group were given intragastric administration with 50% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solution (200 µl for each) once daily for 19 days. Mice in control normal group received equal volumes of water. Mice in GME plus ethanol group were given intragastric administration with 50% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solution (200 µl for each) once daily at 10:00 a.m., after 1 h, mice in GME group sequentially were treated with 20, 40 and 100 mg/kg of GME by gastric gavage for 19 days. the average food and water consumed by the mice in every group were recorded every 2 days and body weight of every mouse in every group was measured every 2 days. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed that GME significantly improved alcohol induced liver injury in a dose-dependent manner. The impaired hepatic tissue structure was repaired and the collagen deposition declined after GME administration. Meanwhile, the level of malonaldehyde (MDA), Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (indicators of liver damage) in blood serum were significantly controlled by GME with a dose-dependent manner, moreover, body weight and liver index were also improved after administration of GME. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 were detected through RT-PCR and ELISA in experiment and GME can significantly inhibit the expression of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 but have no effect on MCP-1. In order to explore the mechanism of GME on ALD, MAPKs pathway was examined and results indicated that GME attenuated ALD through inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and P38 and further suppressing the initiation of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: GME attenuated ALD through inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and P38 and further suppressing the initiation of inflammation.


Assuntos
Gentiana/química , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/toxicidade , Feminino , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
14.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(4): 428-436, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295581

RESUMO

Plant stomata represent the main battlefield for host plants and the pathogens that enter plant tissues via stomata. Septoria spp., a group of ascomycete fungi, use host plant stomata for invasion and cause serious damage to agricultural plants. There is no evidence, however, showing the involvement of stomata in defense systems against Septoria infection. In this study, we isolated Septoria gentianae 20-35 (Sg20-35) from Gentiana triflora showing gentian leaf blight disease symptoms in the field. Establishment of an infection system using gentian plants cultured in vitro enabled us to observe the Sg20-35 infection process and estimate its virulence in several gentian cultivars or lines. Sg20-35 also entered gentian tissues via stomata and showed increased virulence in G. triflora compared with G. scabra and their interspecific hybrid. Notably, the susceptibility of gentian cultivars to Sg20-35 was associated with their stomatal density on the adaxial but not abaxial leaf surface. Treatment of EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE 9 (EPFL9/STOMAGEN) peptides, a small secreted peptide controlling stomatal density in Arabidopsis thaliana, increased stomatal density on the adaxial side of gentian leaves as well. Consequently, treated plants showed enhanced susceptibility to Sg20-35. These results indicate that stomatal density on the adaxial leaf surface is one of the major factors determining the susceptibility of gentian cultivars to S. gentianae and suggest that stomatal density control may represent an effective strategy to confer Septoria resistance.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Gentiana , Estômatos de Plantas , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Gentiana/anatomia & histologia , Gentiana/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563266

RESUMO

Gentiana radix is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has functions of clearing heat and drying dampness, as well as purging liver and gallbladder fire. A highly sensitive and effective strategy for rapid screening and identification of target constituents has been developed by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap) in crude and wine-processed Gentiana radix. Based on the accurate mass measurement (<5 ppm), retention times, and MS fragmentation ions, 52 constituents were unambiguously or tentatively characterized from Gentiana radix, including 21 iridoids, 11 flavonoids, 19 xanthones, and a triterpenoid. This study demonstrated that the established method could be a rapid, effective analytical tool for screening and characterization of compounds in the complex systems of Gentiana radix. By comparing the structure and peak areas of chemical constituents in crude and wine-processed Gentiana radix, we found that some compounds in crude and wine-processed Gentiana radix were significantly different.


Assuntos
Gentiana/química , Vinho , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Terpenos/análise , Xantonas/análise
16.
Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1813-1823, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388310

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Variation in demographic parameters reflects the life-history strategies of plants in response to specific environments. We aimed to investigate the intraspecific variation in life-history traits of a clonal alpine herb, Gentiana nipponica, in various snowmelt conditions. METHODS: Individual ramets within genets accumulate leaves for 7-9 yr without shedding, and die after reproduction. We tested the physiological function of accumulated leaves for reproduction and monitored the ramet demography in early, intermediate, and late snowmelt populations over 3 yr. Then, we simulated ramet dynamics using the demographic parameters. KEY RESULTS: Old leaves had a carbon storage function, and the initiation of reproduction depended on the amount of ramet leaves. Growth and reproductive performance were highest in the population with an intermediate snowmelt period. The early snowmelt population showed short persistence periods due to restricted growth and high mortality of the ramets. The late snowmelt populations showed slow growth, but high survival rate of the ramets, in which the ramet size at reproduction was smallest and fruit formation was often suppressed by the short growing period. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting factors dictating the distribution of G. nipponica differed between the early and late snowmelt habitats. High mortality and restricted growth, because of the harsh environment, determine the distribution limit toward earlier snowmelt locations. By contrast, late snowmelt strongly limited fecundity because of the short period for fruit maturation. The difference in snowmelt time provides a clear gradient of selective forces that may promote local adaptation among neighboring populations.


Assuntos
Gentiana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Gentiana/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Reprodução
17.
Phytomedicine ; 47: 151-160, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GMB) is the most malignant of all brain tumors with poor prognosis. Anticancer potential of xanthones, bioactive compounds found in Gentiana dinarica, is well-documented. Transformation of G. dinarica roots with Agrobacterium rhizogenes provides higher xanthones accumulation, which enables better exploitation of these anticancer compounds. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate antiglioma effect of three different G. dinarica extracts: E1-derived from untransformed roots, E2-derived from roots transformed using A. rhizogenes strain A4M70GUS, and E3-derived from roots transformed using A. rhizogenes strain 15834/PI. Further, mechanisms involved in anticancer potential of the most potent extract were examined in detail, and its active component was determined. METHODS: The cell viability was assessed using MTT and crystal violet test. Cell cycle analysis, the expression of differentiation markers, the levels of autophagy, and oxidative stress were analyzed by flow cytometry. Autophagy and related signaling pathways were assessed by immunoblotting. RESULTS: E3, in contrast to E1 and E2, strongly reduced growth of U251 human glioblastoma cells, triggered cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, changed cellular morphology, and increased expression of markers of differentiated astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and neurons (ß-tubulin). E3 stimulated autophagy, as demonstrated by enhanced intracellular acidification, increased microtubule-associated light chain 3B (LC3-I) conversion to autophagosome associated LC3-II, and decreased level of selective autophagy target p62. Induction of autophagy was associated with Akt-dependent inhibition of main autophagy suppressor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy suppressed the expression of differentiation markers, but had no effect on cell cycle arrest in E3-treated cells. E3 stimulated oxidative stress, and antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetyl cysteine inhibited autophagy and differentiation of E3-treated U251 cells. The most prevalent compound of E3, xanthone aglycone norswertianin, also arrested glioblastoma cell proliferation in G2/M phase and induced glioblastoma cell differentiation through induction of autophagy and oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that E3 and its main active component norswertianin may serve as a potential candidate for differentiation therapy of glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Gentiana/química , Xantonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
Planta ; 248(6): 1431-1441, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128602

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Gentian plants ( Gentiana triflora ) severely restrict apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) invasion to the gametes (pollens and ovules) and block seed transmission to progeny plants. Early flowering of horticultural plants can be induced by infection of ALSV vector expressing Flowering Locus T (FT) gene. In the present study, flowering of gentian plants was induced by infection with an ALSV vector expressing a gentian FT gene and the patterns of seed transmission of ALSV in gentian were compared with those in apple and Nicotiana benthamiana. Infection of gentian progeny plants with ALSV was examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ALSV was not transmitted to the progeny gentian plants, whereas small proportions of apple and N. benthamiana progeny plants are infected with ALSV. The in situ hybridization analyses indicated that ALSVs are not present in gentian pollen and ovules, but detected in most of gametes in apple and N. benthamiana. Collectively, these results suggest that seed transmission of ALSV is blocked in gentian plants through the unknown barriers present in their gametes. On the other hand, apple and N. benthamiana seem to minimize ALSV seed transmission by inhibiting viral propagation in embryos.


Assuntos
Gentiana/virologia , Malus/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Secoviridae/fisiologia , Gentiana/citologia , Células Germinativas Vegetais/citologia , Células Germinativas Vegetais/virologia , Malus/citologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Secoviridae/genética , Plântula/citologia , Plântula/virologia , Sementes/citologia , Sementes/virologia , Tabaco/citologia , Tabaco/virologia
19.
Phytomedicine ; 46: 142-163, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, commonly known as Qinjiao (in Chinese), is dried roots of medicinal plants that belong to Gentianaceae family and Gentiana genus. It has medically been used for the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, stroke, facial paralysis, and scapulohumeral periarthritis in China since ancient times. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and constructive overview of Qinjiao mainly containing Gentiana macrophylla Pall., Gentiana straminea Maxim., Gentiana crasicaulis Duthie ex Burk., and Gentiana daurica Fisch. in botany, traditional use, phytochemicals, pharmacology (biological activities and pharmacokinetics), quality control, and authentication according to the up-to-date data of available scientific literatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All information regarding these four plants was collected from various academic search engines for example Google, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SciFinder, Pubmed, CNKI, and Wanfang. Additional information was obtained from botanical books, Chinese classic texts, and medical monographs. RESULTS: So far 166 compounds have been isolated and identified from Qinjiao plants together with Gentiana tibetica King ex Hook. f., Gentiana siphonantha Maxim., Gentiana officinalis H. Smith, and Gentiana waltonii Burk. Their constituents are mainly classified into iridoid glycosides, triterpenes, flavones, sterols, benzene derivatives, etc. The pharmacological studies demonstrate that Qinjiao plants display a wide range of bioactivities e.g. anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, cardio- and neuro-protective, insecticidal, and anti-influenza effects. The conventional quality control is performed by determination of the concentration of some compounds, e.g., gentiopicroside, or establishment of the fingerprint. In addition to seed propagation, tissue culture technology has been used to address the limited supplies and guarantee the sustainable development of Qinjiao in the experimental scale. CONCLUSIONS: Although the identification of compounds from Qinjiao and demonstration of medicinal uses in vitro and in vivo have been carried out, various other studies on these plants should deserve our more attention. More efforts should be concentrated on the underlying mechanisms of their beneficial bioactivities. The proper toxic evaluation is indispensable to guarantee the safety, efficacy, and eligibility for medical use. To sum up, the summarized achievements could highlight the importance of Qinjiao and provide a solid foundation for scientists not only to further exploit the therapeutic potentials, but also possibly develop novel drugs in the subsequent research.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Gentiana/química , Animais , Botânica , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Controle de Qualidade
20.
Mycorrhiza ; 28(8): 717-726, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141076

RESUMO

Fungal root endophytes play an important role in plant nutrition, helping plants acquire nutrients in exchange for photosynthates. We sought to characterize the progression of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), dark septate endophytes (DSE), and fine root endophytes (FRE) over an alpine growing season, and to understand the role of the host plant and environment in driving colonization levels. We sampled four forbs on a regular schedule from June 26th-September 11th from a moist meadow (3535 m a.s.l) on Niwot Ridge, Rocky Mountain Front Range, CO, USA. We quantified the degree of root colonization by storage structures, exchange structures, and hyphae of all three groups of fungi. AMF and FRE percent colonization fluctuated significantly over time, while DSE did not. All AMF structures changed over time, and the degree of change in vesicles differed by plant species. FRE hyphae, AMF arbuscules and AMF vesicles peaked late in the season as plants produced seeds. AMF hyphae levels started high, decreased, and then increased within 20 days, highlighting the dynamic nature of plant-fungal interactions. Overall, our results show that AMF and FRE, not DSE, root colonization rapidly changes over the course of a growing season and these changes are driven by plant phenology and seasonal changes in the environment.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Artemisia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Artemisia/microbiologia , Colorado , Gentiana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gentiana/microbiologia , Geum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geum/microbiologia , Pradaria , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polygonum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polygonum/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo
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