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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445210

RESUMO

Ischemic episodes are a leading cause of death worldwide with limited therapeutic interventions. The current study explored mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS1) activity modulation by PKCßII through GC-MS untargeted metabolomics approach. Mitochondria were used to elucidate the endogenous resistance of hippocampal CA2-4 and dentate gyrus (DG) to transient ischemia and reperfusion in a model of ischemic episode in gerbils. In the present investigation, male gerbils were subjected to bilateral carotids occlusion for 5 min followed by reperfusion (IR). Gerbils were randomly divided into three groups as vehicle-treated sham control, vehicle-treated IR and PKCßII specific inhibitor peptide ßIIV5-3-treated IR. Vehicle or ßIIV5-3 (3 mg/kg, i.v.) were administered at the moment of reperfusion. The gerbils hippocampal tissue were isolated at various time of reperfusion and cell lysates or mitochondria were isolated from CA1 and CA2-4,DG hippocampal regions. Recombinant proteins PKCßII and GLS1 were used in in vitro phosphorylation reaction and organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHC) transiently exposed to NMDA (25 µM) to evaluate the inhibition of GLS1 on neuronal viability. PKCßII co-precipitates with GAC (GLS1 isoform) in CA2-4,DG mitochondria and phosphorylates GLS1 in vitro. Cell death was dose dependently increased when GLS1 was inhibited by BPTA while inhibition of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) attenuated cell death in NMDA-challenged OHC. Fumarate and malate were increased after IR 1h in CA2-4,DG and this was reversed by ßIIV5-3 what correlated with GLS1 activity increases and earlier showed elevation of neuronal death (Krupska et al., 2017). The present study illustrates that CA2-4,DG resistance to ischemic episode at least partially rely on glutamine and glutamate utilization in mitochondria as a source of carbon to tricarboxylic acid cycle. This phenomenon depends on modulation of GLS1 activity by PKCßII and remodeling of MPC: all these do not occur in ischemia-vulnerable CA1.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/enzimologia , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Proteína Quinase C beta/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/enzimologia , Animais , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 229: 108143, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current treatment options for onchocerciasis are sub-optimal, prompting research and development of a safe cure (macrofilaricide). Onchocerca ochengi, a parasite of cattle, is used as a close surrogate for the human parasite O. volvulus in a murine model for pre-clinical screening of macrofilaricides. Skin from naturally infected cattle have been used in previous studies as a reliable source of parasite material. However, there is limited knowledge on how source-related factors such as the microfilaridermia status of the cattle, the nodule load and nodular worm viability may affect survival of male O. ochengi worms implanted in the rodent hosts. Such relationships were investigated in this study. METHODS: Dermal tissue and nodules were obtained from Gudali cattle, dissected and cultured to obtain migrating microfilariae (mf) and male worms. Emerged male worms were implanted into SCID mice and Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and recovery rates were determined upon 42 days post implantation. Finally, nodules were processed for histology and embryogram analyses to assess the nodular worm viability and fertility, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 69 cattle sampled, 24 (34.8%) were mf+ and 45 (65.2%) were mf-. The mean nodule loads were 180.5 ± 117.7 (mf+) and 110.6 ± 102.7 (mf-) (p = 0.0186). The mean male worm harvest from nodules were 76.8 ± 120.3 and 47.2 ± 33.4 (p = 0.2488) for mf+ and mf- cattle, respectively. The number of male worms per 100 nodules were 57/100 and 46/100 nodules for mf+ and mf- cows, respectively. Female worms from nodules of mf- cows had higher counts of both normal and abnormal embryos with higher proportions of dead nodular worms evinced by histology compared to those from mf+ cows. A total of 651 worms were implanted into mice and gerbils, out of which 129 (19.81%) were recovered. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the microfilaridermia status of the cattle (presence of mf) (OR = 4.3319; P = 0.001) is the single most important predictor of the success of male worm recovery after implantation into rodents. CONCLUSION: Microfilaridermic cattle provide a promising source of adult O. ochengi. Male worms from this group of cattle have a better success rate of survival in a murine implant model. Nevertheless, in the programmatic point of view, amicrofilaridermic Gudali cattle would still constitute an important source of O. ochengi male worms with relatively good viability after implantation into rodents.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Onchocerca/fisiologia , Oncocercose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fertilidade , Gerbillinae , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Microfilárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microfilárias/fisiologia , Análise Multivariada , Onchocerca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oncocercose/parasitologia , Análise de Regressão
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361744

RESUMO

Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) belongs to the Genus Pinus, and its bark contains a great amount of naturally occurring phenolic compounds. Until now, few studies have been conducted to assess the neuroprotective effects of Pinus densiflora bark extract against brain ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of pre-treatment with the extract in the hippocampus following 5-min transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Furthermore, this study examined the anti-inflammatory effect as a neuroprotective mechanism of the extract. Pinus densiflora bark was extracted by pure water (100 °C), and this extract was quantitatively analyzed and contained abundant polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for seven days before the ischemia. In the gerbil hippocampus, death of the pyramidal neurons was found in the subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) five days after the ischemia. This death was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg, not 25 or 50 mg/kg, of the extract. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of the extract markedly inhibited the activation of microglia (microgliosis) and significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α). In addition, the treatment significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 4 and interleukin 13). Taken together, this study clearly indicates that pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of Pinus densiflora bark extract in gerbils can exert neuroprotection against brain ischemic injury by the attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Prosencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação , Interleucina-13/agonistas , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/agonistas , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Neuroscience ; 468: 75-87, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126187

RESUMO

Localization of sound sources in the environment requires neurons that extract interaural timing differences (ITD) in low-frequency hearing animals from fast and precisely timed converging inputs from both ears. In mammals, this is accomplished by neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO). MSO neurons receive converging excitatory input from both the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear nuclei and glycinergic, inhibitory input by way of interneurons in the medial and lateral nuclei of the trapezoid body (MNTB and LNTB, respectively). Key features of the ITD circuit are MSO neurons with symmetric dendrites that segregate inputs from the ipsilateral and contralateral ears and preferential distribution of glycinergic inputs on MSO cell bodies. This circuit for ITD is well characterized in gerbils, a mammal with a prominent MSO and a low-frequency hearing range similar to humans. However, the organization of this circuit in the human MSO has not been characterized. This is further complicated by limited understanding of the human LNTB. Nonetheless, we hypothesized that the ITD circuit characterized in laboratory animals is similarly arranged in the human MSO. Herein, we utilized neuron reconstructions and immunohistochemistry to investigate the distribution of glutamatergic and glycinergic inputs onto human MSO neurons. Our results indicate that human MSO neurons have simple, symmetric dendrites and that glycinergic inputs outnumber glutamatergic inputs on MSO cell bodies and proximal dendrites. Together these results suggest that the human MSO utilizes similar circuitry to other mammals with excellent low-frequency hearing.


Assuntos
Vias Auditivas , Complexo Olivar Superior , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Gerbillinae , Audição , Humanos , Neurônios , Núcleo Olivar
5.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(7): 1104-1111, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD) may lead to vestibular and auditory impairments. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of power absorbance (PA), Distortion Product Otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), and hearing thresholds in normal ears of fat sand rats, after a bullotomy, creation and patching. METHODS: SSCD was performed unilaterally in eight normal hearing animals while the contra-lateral un-operated ear was used as a control. Measures included auditory brain stem responses thresholds for air and bone conduction stimuli, DPOAEs and PA at peak pressure. RESULTS: The normal PA pattern of the animals grossly resembled that of human ears. A bullotomy generated specific, large and significant (p < 0.0001) changes in PA without altering hearing thresholds. SSCD significantly decreased PA at low (p < 0.02) and increased at high frequencies (p < 0.03), but on a smaller scale than the bullotomy. SSCD, induced a mean air-bone gaps of 24.3 for clicks, and 31.2 dB for 1 kHz TB. SSCD also increased the DPOAEs levels by mean of 10.1 dB SPL (p < 0.03). Patching the dehiscence, reversed partially the PA changes, the auditory threshold shifts, and the DPOAEs levels to pre-SSCD values. CONCLUSIONS: SSCD affects both incoming and emitting sounds from the ear, probably due to its effect on cochlear impedance and stiffness of the middle and inner ear. The presence of DPOAEs and ABGs indicated a "third window" disease, i.e., SSCD. Due to similar PA patterns after bullotomy and SCCD, PA alone has limited diagnostic yield for patients with SCCD.


Assuntos
Audição , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas , Animais , Limiar Auditivo , Gerbillinae , Testes Auditivos , Humanos
6.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(3): 4768-4780, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061412

RESUMO

Human hearing loss (HL) is often accompanied by comorbidities like tinnitus, which is affecting up to 15% of the adult population. Rodent animal studies could show that tinnitus may not only be a result of apparent HL due to cochlear hair cell damage but can also be a consequence of synaptopathy at the inner hair cells (IHCs) already induced by moderate sound traumata. Here, we investigate synaptopathy previously shown in mice in our animal model, the Mongolian gerbil, and relate it to behavioral signs of tinnitus. Tinnitus was induced by a mild monaural acoustic trauma leading to monaural noise induced HL in the animals, quantified by auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry. Behavioral signs of tinnitus percepts were detected by measurement of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in a gap-noise paradigm. Fourteen days after trauma, the cochleae of both ears were isolated, and IHC synapses were counted within several spectral regions of the cochlea. Behavioral signs of tinnitus were only found in animals with IHC synaptopathy, independent of type of HL. On the other hand, animals with apparent HL but without behavioral signs of tinnitus showed a reduction in amplitudes of ABR waves I&II but no significant changes in the number of synapses at the IHC. We conclude-in line with the literature-that HL is caused by damage to the IHC or by other reasons but that the development of tinnitus, at least in our animal model, is closely linked to synaptopathy at the IHC.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Zumbido , Animais , Limiar Auditivo , Cóclea , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Gerbillinae , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Internas , Humanos , Camundongos , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Zumbido/etiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975688

RESUMO

The lining of the stomach is a tight monolayer of epithelial cells performing functions in digestion and a protective barrier against gastric acid, toxic metabolites and infectious agents, including Helicobacter pylori. The response of the epithelial barrier to infections underlies gastric pathologies, including gastric cancer. H. pylori has the unique capacity to colonise the gastric mucosa while evading the immune system. The colonised mucosa initiates an inflammatory response to fight the infection and a strong regenerative program to avoid barrier failure and ulceration. This response changes the morphology and cell composition of the gastric epithelium and in parallel it might contribute to the accumulation of somatic mutations leading to cellular transformation. Genetically modified mice, cell lines and human-derived organoids are the main biological models to study the gastric epithelial barrier. With these models it is possible to dissect the stepwise process of tissue adaptation to infection that places the epithelium at risk of malignant transformation.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Animais , Gerbillinae , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
8.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918660

RESUMO

Angelica gigas Nakai root contains decursin which exerts beneficial properties such as anti-amnesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Until now, however, the neuroprotective effects of decursin against transient ischemic injury in the forebrain have been insufficiently investigated. Here, we revealed that post-treatment with decursin and the root extract saved pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus following transient ischemia for 5 min in gerbil forebrain. Through high-performance liquid chromatography, we defined that decursin was contained in the extract as 7.3 ± 0.2%. Based on this, we post-treated with 350 mg/kg of extract, which is the corresponding dosage of 25 mg/kg of decursin that exerted neuroprotection in gerbil hippocampus against the ischemia. In addition, behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate ischemia-induced dysfunctions via tests of spatial memory (by the 8-arm radial maze test) and learning memory (by the passive avoidance test), and post-treatment with the extract and decursin attenuated ischemia-induced memory impairments. Furthermore, we carried out histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and double immunohistofluorescence. Pyramidal neurons located in the subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) among the hippocampal subfields were dead at 5 days after the ischemia; however, treatment with the extract and decursin saved the pyramidal neurons after ischemia. Immunoglobulin G (IgG, an indicator of extravasation), which is not found in the parenchyma in normal brain tissue, was apparently shown in CA1 parenchyma from 2 days after the ischemia, but IgG leakage was dramatically attenuated in the CA1 parenchyma treated with the extract and decursin. Furthermore, astrocyte endfeet, which are a component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), were severely damaged at 5 days after the ischemia; however, post-treatment with the extract and decursin dramatically attenuated the damage of the endfeet. In brief, therapeutic treatment of the extract of Angelica gigas Nakai root and decursin after 5 min transient forebrain ischemia protected hippocampal neurons from the ischemia, showing that ischemia-induced BBB leakage and damage of astrocyte endfeet was significantly attenuated by the extract and decursin. Based on these findings, we suggest that Angelica gigas Nakai root containing decursin can be employed as a pharmaceutical composition to develop a therapeutic strategy for brain ischemic injury.


Assuntos
Angelica/química , Astrócitos/patologia , Benzopiranos/uso terapêutico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Butiratos/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Benzopiranos/química , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Butiratos/química , Butiratos/farmacologia , Gerbillinae , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Padrões de Referência , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921375

RESUMO

It has been studied that the damage or death of neurons in the hippocampus is different according to hippocampal subregions, cornu ammonis 1-3 (CA1-3), after transient ischemia in the forebrain, showing that pyramidal neurons located in the subfield CA1 (CA1) are most vulnerable to this ischemia. Hyperthermia is a proven risk factor for brain ischemia and can develop more severe and extensive brain damage related with mortality rate. It is well known that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity and expression is increased by various stimuli in the brain, including hyperthermia. HO-1 can be either protective or deleterious in the central nervous system, and its roles depend on the expression levels of enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effects of hyperthermia during ischemia on HO-1 expression and neuronal damage/death in the hippocampus to examine the relationship between HO-1 and neuronal damage/death following 5-min transient ischemia in the forebrain using gerbils. Gerbils were assigned to four groups: (1) sham-operated gerbils with normothermia (Normo + sham group); (2) ischemia-operated gerbils with normothermia (Normo + ischemia group); (3) sham-operated gerbils with hyperthermia (39.5 ± 0.2 °C) during ischemia (Hyper + sham group); and (4) ischemia-operated gerbils with hyperthermia during ischemia (Hyper + ischemia group). HO-1 expression levels in CA1-3 of the Hyper + ischemia group were significantly higher than those in the Normo + ischemia group. HO-1 immunoreactivity in the Hyper + ischemia group was significantly increased in pyramidal neurons and astrocytes with time after ischemia, and the immunoreactivity was significantly higher than that in the Normo + ischemia group. In the Normo + Ischemia group, neuronal death was shown in pyramidal neurons located only in CA1 at 5 days after ischemia. However, in the Hyper + ischemia group, pyramidal neuronal death occurred in CA1-3 at 2 days after ischemia. Taken together, our findings showed that brain ischemic insult during hyperthermic condition brings up earlier and severer neuronal damage/death in the hippocampus, showing that HO-1 expression in neurons and astrocytes is different according to brain subregions and temperature condition. Based on these findings, we suggest that hyperthermia in patients with ischemic stroke must be taken into the consideration in the therapy.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Gerbillinae/genética , Gerbillinae/metabolismo , Hipocampo/lesões , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2085, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837194

RESUMO

Long-term infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori can cause gastric cancer. However, the mechanisms by which the bacteria adapt to the stomach environment are poorly understood. Here, we show that a small non-coding RNA of H. pylori (HPnc4160, also known as IsoB or NikS) regulates the pathogen's adaptation to the host environment as well as bacterial oncoprotein production. In a rodent model of H. pylori infection, the genomes of bacteria isolated from the stomach possess an increased number of T-repeats upstream of the HPnc4160-coding region, and this leads to reduced HPnc4160 expression. We use RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses to identify eight targets of HPnc4160, including genes encoding outer membrane proteins and oncoprotein CagA. Mutant strains with HPnc4160 deficiency display increased colonization ability of the mouse stomach, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, HPnc4160 expression is lower in clinical isolates from gastric cancer patients than in isolates derived from non-cancer patients, while the expression of HPnc4160's targets is higher in the isolates from gastric cancer patients. Therefore, the small RNA HPnc4160 regulates H. pylori adaptation to the host environment and, potentially, gastric carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carcinogênese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Gerbillinae , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA-Seq , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658359

RESUMO

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) integrates information about different features of sound and then distributes this information to thalamocortical circuits. However, the lack of clear definitions of circuit elements in the ICC has limited our understanding of the nature of these circuit transformations. Here, we combine virus-based genetic access with electrophysiological and optogenetic approaches to identify a large family of excitatory, cholecystokinin-expressing thalamic projection neurons in the ICC of the Mongolian gerbil. We show that these neurons form a distinct cell type, displaying uniform morphology and intrinsic firing features, and provide powerful, spatially restricted excitation exclusively to the ventral auditory thalamus. In vivo, these neurons consistently exhibit V-shaped receptive field properties but strikingly diverse temporal responses to sound. Our results indicate that temporal response diversity is maintained within this population of otherwise uniform cells in the ICC and then relayed to cortex through spatially restricted thalamic subdomains.


Assuntos
Vias Auditivas/metabolismo , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tálamo/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Gerbillinae , Masculino
12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 322, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692502

RESUMO

In the adult vertebrate brain, enzymatic removal of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is increasingly recognized to promote learning, memory recall, and restorative plasticity. The impact of the ECM on translaminar dynamics during cortical circuit processing is still not understood. Here, we removed the ECM in the primary auditory cortex (ACx) of adult Mongolian gerbils using local injections of hyaluronidase (HYase). Using laminar current-source density (CSD) analysis, we found layer-specific changes of the spatiotemporal synaptic patterns with increased cross-columnar integration and simultaneous weakening of early local sensory input processing within infragranular layers Vb. These changes had an oscillatory fingerprint within beta-band (25-36 Hz) selectively within infragranular layers Vb. To understand the laminar interaction dynamics after ECM digestion, we used time-domain conditional Granger causality (GC) measures to identify the increased drive of supragranular layers towards deeper infragranular layers. These results showed that ECM degradation altered translaminar cortical network dynamics with a stronger supragranular lead of the columnar response profile.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Auditivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Auditivo/metabolismo , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Gerbillinae , Audição , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/administração & dosagem , Injeções , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248689, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735236

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia causes tissue death owing to occlusion of the cerebral blood vessels, and cerebral ischemia activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Adenosine A2A receptor agonist, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), suppresses the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and exhibits anti-inflammatory effect. In the current study, the therapeutic effect of PDRN on cerebral ischemia was evaluated using gerbils. For the induction of cerebral ischemia, the common carotid arteries were exposed, and then aneurysm clips were used to occlude the common carotid arteries bilaterally for 7 minutes. In the PDRN-treated groups, the gerbils were injected intraperitoneally with 0.3 mL of saline containing 8 mg/kg PDRN, per a day for 7 days following cerebral ischemia induction. In order to confirm the participation of the adenosine A2A receptor in the effects mediated by PDRN, 8 mg/kg 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX), adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, was treated with PDRN. In the current study, induction of ischemia enhanced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased phosphorylation of MAPK signaling factors in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. However, treatment with PDRN ameliorated short-term memory impairment by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inactivation of MAPK signaling factors in cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, PDRN treatment enhanced the concentration of cyclic adenosine-3,5'-monophosphate (cAMP) as well as phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Co-treatment of DMPX and PDRN attenuated the therapeutic effect of PDRN on cerebral ischemia. Based on these findings, PDRN may be developed as the primary treatment in cerebral ischemia.


Assuntos
Agonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gerbillinae , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/imunologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo
14.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(1): 17-21, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685063

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of eprinomectin, moxidectin and fenbendazole for treating Dentostomella translucida infections in naturally infected Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Methods: A total of 28 gerbils were placed in individually numbered cages to determine the individual animal parasite load. Eggs per gram (EPG) counts were used to estimate the efficacy of the drugs. The day before the anthelmintic administration was denoted as day 0, and the EPG counts were determined by the McMaster technique from the stool removed from the cage bottom on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The animals were assigned to one of four treatment groups according to their day 0 EPG counts. The orally administered drugs in the treatment groups were eprinomectin (15 mg/kg), moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg) and fenbendazole (12 mg/kg) for groups 1-3, respectively. The fourth group served as the control (without any drug administration). Results: Treatment efficacy was evaluated based on weekly EPG counts. The values decreased to zero in the fenbendazole group at 4 weeks of follow-up after treatment, and no parasite was found in any of the repeated examinations. The eprinomectin and moxidectin groups exhibited a fluctuating EPG state on both individual and group basis. Conclusion: D. translucida, which is known as the specific parasite of gerbils, can easily affect other members of the animal colony; thus, the control of its presence in gerbil breeding units is necessary. Therefore, the reported effective drug treatments are important for the fight against the investigated parasitic infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Gerbillinae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Spirurida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237849, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787734

RESUMO

Meriones dahli (Shidlovsky, 1962) was previously accepted to be a subspecies of M. meridianus (Pallas, 1773). However, it was later suggested that they are geographically isolated from each other. Although hybridological studies and differences in certain external characteristics support the idea that M. dahli is a separate species, there are still doubts on its species status, and the exact range of its distribution is not known. In this paper, we provide some taxonomic information about the species, and compare these with the information given in previous studies. We argue that some differences exist among Armenian population regarding external measurements. Recent studies indicate that M. dahli is currently only distributed in Turkey, as an endemic mammal species. We provide predictions about the distribution of M. dahli, and report the estimated population size to its maximum value. Food preference studies for this species, conducted under laboratory conditions, are also introduced for the first time. We discuss the ecological data obtained from field studies, and emphasize that the habitat of M. dahli is about to disappear. Consequently, the protection status of this species should urgently be changed to the CR category and conservation studies must be carried out immediately.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ecossistema , Animais , Gerbillinae , Densidade Demográfica
16.
Acta Parasitol ; 66(3): 938-946, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: (1) To assess the in vitro activity of Artemisia cina against Haemonchus contortus L3 (HcL3) and in transitional (L3-L4) larvae (HcTrL3-L4); (2) to quantify the relative expression of the Hc29 gene in HcTrL3-L4 exposed to the A. cina n-hexane extract; and (3) to assess the anthelmintic activity (AA) of the A. cina organic extracts in gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus (HcArt/inf/gerbs). METHODS: The in vitro assay was carried out in 96-well microtitration plates. The following A. cina extracts: ethyl acetate (Ac-EtOAcEx), n-hexane (Ac-n-HexEx), and methanol (Ac-MethEx) were assessed at 1 and 2 mg/mL against HcL3 and HcTrL3-L4 at 24 h exposure. Relative expression of the Hc29 gene in HcTrL3-L4 was obtained by RT-PCR. For assessing the AA, six groups of five HcArt/inf/gerbs were used. Groups were treated orally with 4 mg/kg BW of A. cina extracts. Five days after treatment, the gerbils were necropsied and nematodes counted. RESULTS: The highest in vitro activities (75 and 82.6%) were shown by Ac-n-HexEx at 1 and 2 mg/mL, respectively. For HcTrL3-L4 the highest in vitro activities (69 and 23%) were shown by Ac-n-HexEx and isoguaiacine at 0.625 mg/mL, respectively. Also, upregulation of H. contortus Hc29 gene by 13- and 80-fold (p < 0.01) was observed on the HcTrL3-L4 stage after exposure to Ac-n-HexEx extract and isoguaiacine at 0.078 mg/mL, respectively. Reduction percentage was 100% in HcArt/inf/gerbs treated with Ac-n-HexEx. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the Ac-n-HexEx and isoguaiacine compound had anthelmintic efficacy against H. contortus and L3 and HcTrL3-L4.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Artemisia , Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Gerbillinae , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 65: 126722, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that lead (Pb) is one of hazardous heavy metals with various adverse effects on human health including mental health; Pb can induce psychiatric disorders like anxiety. In the present work, we examined the potential of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) as a neuroprotective agent against lead induced anxiety inMeriones shawi (M. shawi). METHODS: We asses, the potential of three consecutive day exposure to Pb (25 mg/kg body weight) in inducing anxiogenic effect, serotoninergic and vasopressinergic disruptions inM. shawi. This was done using neurobehavioral tests (open field, elevated plus maze), immunohistochemestry by anti-serotonin (5-HT), and anti-vasopressin (AVP) antibodies. We also measured the possible restorative potential of BDMC (30 mg/kg body weight), delivered by oral gavage. After that, a biochemical and histopathological studies were done. RESULTS: Our results showed that lead exposure for three consecutive days increases significantly the 5-HT-immunoreactivity in dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) accompanied with a significant enhancement of AVP-immunoreactivity in the cell bodies and fibers in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. In the collecting tube, AVP binds to the V2 receptor of the epithelial cells and increases the water permeability. Our results showed clearly the epithelial cells degeneration after lead exposure, then we suggest that the increased AVP could be a response to the hydric balance disrupted after degenerative effect of lead exposure on epithelial cells. BDMC produced an anxiolytic effect in meriones. Moreover, it restored 5-HT and AVP immunoreactivity within studying nuclei. The biochemical and histopathological studies showed that Pb induced renal damages. In addition, BDMC restored the renal alterations. CONCLUSION: According to the obtained results, we suggest new pharmacological effects of BDMC; while it has an anxiolytic effect against Pb-induced anxiety by working on serotoninergic and vasopressinergic systems with an obvious restoration of the renal injuries induced by lead exposure.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Diarileptanoides/administração & dosagem , Gerbillinae , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Chumbo/administração & dosagem , Chumbo/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem
18.
Life Sci ; 271: 119198, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577857

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether high levels of exogenous testosterone (T) interfere in prostate morphogenesis. Pregnant females were exposed to subcutaneous injections of T cypionate (500 µg/animal) at gestational days 20 and 22. Male and female pups were euthanized at postnatal days 1 and 15. 15-day-old males had only fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) immunostaining and nuclear form factor altered by the treatment, whereas treated females (T1 and T15) had almost all analyzed parameters changed. T1 females showed an increased anogenital distance (AGD), whereas T15 females had both AGD and ovary weight increased. T1 females had a higher number of epithelial buds emerging from the urethral and vaginal epithelium. We observed ectopic prostatic tissue surrounding the vagina in both T1 and T15 females. Moreover, the ectopic acini of T15 females showed delayed luminal formation, and there was a thickening of the periacinar smooth muscle layer (SML). Finally, FGF10 immunostaining intensity decreased in both T15 male and female prostates. Indeed, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) was upregulated in T15 female prostates, whereas no difference was observed between the male groups. These data showed that exogenous T changed the nuclear morphology of prostate epithelial cells in both males and females. Surprisingly, smooth muscle hyperplasia was also observed in the ectopic female prostate. Moreover, T downregulated FGF10 in both male and female prostates. Interestingly, the results suggest that FGF10 downregulation is mediated by the upregulation of Shh in females. In conclusion, exogenous T disrupts prostate development, particularly, affecting, the female.


Assuntos
Epitélio/metabolismo , Fator 10 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/biossíntese , Proteínas Hedgehog/biossíntese , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Testosterona/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/patologia , Feminino , Fator 10 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Gerbillinae , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Masculino , Músculo Liso/citologia , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/patologia
19.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537826

RESUMO

Altered expression levels of N­methyl­D­aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a ligand­gated ion channel, have a harmful effect on cellular survival. Hyperthermia is a proven risk factor of transient forebrain ischemia (tFI) and can cause extensive and severe brain damage associated with mortality. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether hyperthermic preconditioning affected NMDAR1 immunoreactivity associated with deterioration of neuronal function in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following tFI via histological and western blot analyses. Hyperthermic preconditioning was performed for 1 h before tFI, which was developed by ligating common carotid arteries for 5 min. tFI­induced cognitive impairment under hyperthermia was worse compared with that under normothermia. Loss (death) of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region occurred fast and was more severe under hyperthermia compared with that under normothermia. NMDAR1 immunoreactivity was not observed in the somata of pyramidal neurons of sham gerbils with normothermia. However, its immunoreactivity was strong in the somata and processes at 12 h post­tFI. Thereafter, NMDAR1 immunoreactivity decreased with time after tFI. On the other hand, NMDAR1 immunoreactivity under hyperthermia was significantly increased in the somata and processes at 6 h post­tFI. The change pattern of NMDAR1 immunoreactivity under hyperthermia was different from that under normothermia. Overall, accelerated tFI­induced neuronal death under hyperthermia may be closely associated with altered NMDAR1 expression compared with that under normothermia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipertermia Induzida , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/biossíntese , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Morte Celular , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Neurônios , Prosencéfalo/patologia
20.
Microb Pathog ; 152: 104721, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539962

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis as a public health concern that attracts many attentions in endemic area. There is no exact estimation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. This study aimed to assess the exact prevalence of disease and carried out in databases including: Pub Med, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Iran doc, Barakatkns and Scientific Information Database (SID) from 2000 to 2019. Totally 84 studies were eligible to be included in this systematic review and Meta-analysis study. Based on a random effect model the pooled prevalence of leishmaniasis was estimated 45% (95% CI: 39%-51%; I^2 = 99.8%P < 0.001). The highest prevalence of CL was related to Isfahan 66% (53%-78%), Golestan 64% (62%-65%) and Fars province 63% (38%-84%) and the lowest prevalence was estimated in Kermanshah province 4% (4%-5%), Hormozgan 10% (8%-11%), Bushehr 12% (1%-35%) and Kerman 15% (9%-22%) provinces respectively. The lowest prevalence was associated with L. trapica spices 23% (11%-38%) and the highest was associated with L. major spices 32% (21%-45%). The prevalence with both L. trapica and L. major spices was achieved 60% (48%-71%). It is essential for health authorities to take steps to control and prevent the epidemic by rapid treatment of patients, destroying gerbils and promotion of general and health education for the local population.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Animais , Gerbillinae , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Prevalência
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