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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110230, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148300

RESUMO

In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to minimizing the environmental consequences from building industry globally, as the industry is notorious for its significant resource consumption and environmental emissions. However, due to a lack of data representativeness in many parts of the world, considerable variations were observed among studies, and thus makes life cycle assessment (LCA) results difficult for the decision-making purpose. In addition, the selection of low impact materials and the management of end-of-life building waste are the most important concern. By considering several strategies including data representativeness, low carbon material, and end-of-life building waste management, this study aimed to enhance the accuracy of such assessment and sustainability performance of building. An integrated LCA framework is proposed for implementing those strategies through a case specific high-rise residential building in Hong Kong. Based on case-specific/regional data, carbon emission of building was evaluated with a cradle-to-construction system boundary with the functional unit of 1 m2 of gross floor area using the IMPACT 2002+ method, and then compared to that of selecting generic databases under different scenarios. The results demonstrate that the application of case-specific and generic data would significantly influence the outcomes of the case study, as the deviations of certain magnitudes were mostly derived from different building materials that it can lead to an underestimation of carbon emissions of up to 28%. Along with using alternative materials, the adoption of the proposed materials cycling and resource recovery approach at the end-of-life building could lead to a reduction of 14% of the total emissions (i.e. excluding the use and renovation of building). The results would support data selection for accuracy of evaluation which can be used as benchmark where recognized database is not available and promote sustainability performance of buildings locally, while the proposed framework could be adopted for comprehensive evaluation globally.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Hong Kong
2.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110234, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148304

RESUMO

Electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) became an integral part of daily life and had an immense influence on the economy. The skyrocketing demand, progressive technologies, and high dependency resulted in inconceivable utilization of EEE. However, these scientific expansions shortened the life span of EEE, thereby generating massive volumes of waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE). On a global perspective, Oceania generates a per capita of 17.3 kg/inh (inhabitants), followed by Europe 16.6 kg/inh, America 11.6 kg/inh, Asia 4.2 kg/inh and the least contribution by Africa 1.9 kg/inh. As known, EEE comprises complex metallic and non-metallic fractions causing severe discrepancies within the ecosystem, endangering the living species; if not dealt with properly. Thus, there is a pressing need of immediate addressal on the effective e-waste management strategies both from developed and developing countries. On the spin side, the separation of the precious fractions from the EEE on the end-of-life may be a twin dimensional strategy of economic addition, and plummeting the alarming level threats to ecology. However, these menaces are well tackled by the developed countries to some extent by the stringent law enactments, establishing proper recycling facilities, and trading to the underdeveloped and developing nations. But, the majority of the developing and under developed nations lacks the statutes, gaps in policy making, socio-economic-cultural barriers, technology, and the appropriate treatment facilities. In addition, the review identified ten major shortfalls (10L's) refraining the effective e-waste management, especially in the developing and under developed nations. Among which, integration of the formal and informal sectors, mandated network registry, stringent law enforcements, regulated transboundary movements, manufacturers responsibility, consumer awareness and improved eco designs, investing on effective recycling facilities, and improved disposal facilities holds the key. Further, replacing the traditional and conventional procedures with the futuristic and eco-friendly approaches such as chelation, inducing ionic liquids, integrated processes or hybrid technologies, micro factories, photo catalysis, and green adsorption will substantially harness the current barriers of the e-waste management. Finally, the present review will be a thorough glancing for the future research of e-waste management of meso-micro-macro scales.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , África , Ásia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Reciclagem
4.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(2): 171-182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify debris management best practices for planning and responding to debris-generating disaster events. METHODOLOGY: Four best practice county case studies were selected through the responses of emergency management directors to an initial survey about debris management. Interviews were setup with the emergency management directors, and additional interviewees were identified through snowballing. Interviews were conducted, transcribed, and coded to identify six themes. RESULTS: The six themes that were identified through the coding include: debris management plans, challenges, collaboration, learning, communication, and debris operations. Case study interviewees identified their pre-event debris management plans as important for an effective and efficient debris management process. Interviewees also demonstrated a strong willingness to work together on debris management as well as an understanding of individual roles and responsibilities. Furthermore, interviewees address the concept of learning from past disaster events as a means of managing the uncertainty of disaster debris management.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Comunicação , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais
5.
Waste Manag ; 105: 328-338, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113124

RESUMO

China is facing the dual challenge of economic development and environment protection. Recently, Shanghai (tier-1 city) implemented the pilot project of household solid waste (HSW) management and expects to execute a similar project in 45 cities across China by 2020. The current research's aim is to examine the pilot project's progress by comparing it with existing HSW management practice in other cities. From a theoretical perspective, a socio-ecological framework is used to examine citizens' HSW sorting behavior (HSWSB), which is further mapped based on the theory of planned behavior to enrich the findings. A total of 1409 citizen responses are utilized to generalize the findings. The study concludes that replicating tier-1 practices in other cities could produce unsatisfactory results. The regulatory environment should focus on comparatively long-lasting citizen behavior change by designing a citizen-centric approach (i.e., awareness campaigns) related to ecological concerns (i.e., climate change) because it could define the future of HSWSB practice in Chinese society.


Assuntos
Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Cidades , Projetos Piloto
6.
Waste Manag ; 105: 384-394, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120265

RESUMO

The efficient provision of municipal solid waste (MSW) services is essential from an economic and environmental perspective. This paper investigates the effect of ownership type on the eco-efficiency of MSW management in Tuscan municipalities. In the first stage of the analysis, the authors use a data envelopment analysis metafrontier approach with the integration of unsorted waste as an undesirable output. Three different clusters of municipalities are created based on the ownership type of the municipal waste operators: public, private, and mixed. In the second stage of analysis, the paper investigates factors affecting eco-efficiency in order to provide new knowledge that can be used by policy and decision makers to improve eco-efficiency. The results show that eco-efficiency is higher for municipalities that entrust the delivery of waste services to publicly owned firms compared to municipalities with delivery by mixed and private firms. Moreover, eco-efficiency in MSW management is higher for municipalities with younger residents, a larger population, and an overall higher population density. Smaller municipalities and those with less tourism manage their waste services more eco-efficiently than do bigger municipalities and those with more tourism. The results indicate that policy-makers should improve communication and engagement activities with older residents in smaller, less densely populated areas. In municipalities featuring heavy tourism, eco-taxes could be used to support these activities, avoiding any impact on residents.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Eficiência , Resíduos Sólidos
7.
Waste Manag ; 105: 445-449, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135465

RESUMO

Waste recycling, in particular source separation contribute significantly to the extension of landfill life and the evolution of green communities. Factors that affect participation in source waste separation amongst Metropolitans Johannesburg residents was investigated by social survey using field questionnaire data to assess socio-demographic factors and was analysed by statistical tools and behavioural constructs i.e. attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, intentions, and situational factors. The results revealed that for graduates, source separation was driven by social responsibilities and family size while council awareness campaign, financial incentives and provision of recycling facilities are the driving force for source separation amongst respondents with matric and lower formal education. Family size and level of education are correlated to attitude with low correlations. The weak correlation was due to the perception of quality of services provided by the council. Incentives are moderators of intention of source separation but distances to buyback centre have to be carefully selected in order not to be a deterrent. Waste management agencies should accommodate the level of formal education and different family size in the formulation of source separation program.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Atitude , Intenção , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Waste Manag ; 105: 467-481, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135468

RESUMO

Municipal solid waste management is a major challenge for nowadays urban societies, because it accounts for a large proportion of public budget and, when mishandled, it can lead to environmental and social problems. This work focuses on the problem of locating waste bins in an urban area, which is considered to have a strong influence in the overall efficiency of the reverse logistic chain. This article contributes with an exact multiobjective approach to solve the waste bin location in which the optimization criteria that are considered are: the accessibility to the system (as quality of service measure), the investment cost, and the required frequency of waste removal from the bins (as a proxy of the posterior routing costs). In this approach, different methods to obtain the objectives ideal and nadir values over the Pareto front are proposed and compared. Then, a family of heuristic methods based on the PageRank algorithm is proposed which aims to optimize the accessibility to the system, the amount of collected waste and the installation cost. The experimental evaluation was performed on real-world scenarios of the cities of Montevideo, Uruguay, and Bahía Blanca, Argentina. The obtained results show the competitiveness of the proposed approaches for constructing a set of candidate solutions that considers the different trade-offs between the optimization criteria.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Argentina , Cidades , Heurística
9.
Waste Manag ; 105: 501-510, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145684

RESUMO

Population growth, urbanisation and economic development have led to the increasing generation of municipal solid waste while environmentally sustainable management remains a challenge the world over. This study sought to investigate health effects associated with proximity to waste collection points in Beitbridge Municipality, Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the occurrence of disease among the residents living within different distances from the waste collection points (50 m, 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, 250 m, 300 m and above 300 m). A handheld GPS device was used to collect coordinates of the location for the purposes of mapping. The Fishers Exact test and the Multiple Logistic Regression model conducted (on STATA V 13 SE) to determine the association between different variables and the occurrence of health effects. Questionnaires were administered to 700 stratified randomly selected respondents. Five refuse collection points and spatial distribution of health conditions were mapped at Dulibadzimu high-density suburb. The overall response rate was 98% and females constituted the majority of respondents (58%). Most of these respondents were aged between 26 and 35 years of age and were involved in informal trading (35%). Reported health conditions were diarrhoea, dyspnoea, dry cough, eye irritation and asthma. Distance, waste collection point, level of education, nature of occupation and sex were significant contributors to the prevalence of health effects associated with exposure to waste. Exposure to waste is a serious health concern in Beitbridge. Local authority is encouraged to abolish these waste collection points and invest more on conventional waste management systems in partnership with different stakeholders.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Resíduos Sólidos , Zimbábue
10.
Waste Manag ; 105: 586-593, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171157

RESUMO

With the proposed Circular Economy Package, the European Union is striving to play a leading role in the implementation of recycling goals. The significantly increased recycling targets are just some of the defined objectives. However, to assess the Member States' attainment of the new recycling targets, the European Union still builds on a purely quantitative recycling rate assessment procedure that neglects to include qualitative recycling aspects. This circumstance could lead to additional quality losses in recycling processes because recyclers might tend to focus exclusively on higher quantities to achieve the stricter recycling targets on time. To prevent such a development, the aim of this study is to establish a complementary recycling indicator that combines quantitative and qualitative recycling aspects in one single metric. The basis of this assessment method is the statistical entropy approach, which enables the concentrating or diluting effect of a recycling process brought about through the separation or mixing of materials to be measured. The results of the statistical entropy metric will provide greater insight into recycling processes (or systems) and thereby yield enhanced information on the quantity and purity of recycling outputs. The simple structure of the new approach will allow enhanced comparisons between technologies as well as national recycling performance. A case study on plastic packaging recycling demonstrates that the new recycling indicator provides multifaceted findings relative to the hitherto purely quantitative recycling assessment data, hence enriching conclusions on the recycling performance.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , União Europeia , Plásticos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
11.
Waste Manag ; 105: 594-603, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199583

RESUMO

In a consumer society, the retail sector contributes significantly to waste production. Supermarkets play a central role in the challenges of resources efficiency and waste prevention. The circular economy has become a major alternative to the classical economic model and the retail sector has begun moving along this path. The aim of this study is to analyse supermarket waste management systems to identify more sustainable and circular processes. A specific case study was analysed to assess and improve the waste management system of a supermarket. We used the DMAIC (Define - Measure - Analyse - Improve - Control) model from the Lean Six Sigma methodology to collect data and information. We evaluated the environmental performance of the waste management system through its carbon footprint and compared the environmental impacts in terms of CO2-eq of different waste treatments for each waste category. We introduced a new waste management system in the supermarket, which demonstrated better performance. Our comparison of different waste treatments highlights the importance of recycling, particularly in the context of the circular economy. We then focused on organic matter, as the category producing the most waste and compared composting and anaerobic digestion. We found that anaerobic digestion releases less greenhouse gas emissions. Similar improvement programs can be directly adopted by other stores without repeating the analysis. Our study can inform future research into the use of organic waste for obtaining biogas and other sub-products. The integration of the Lean Six Sigma methodology and other environmental tools can also be assessed as a strategy in the circular economy.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Pegada de Carbono , Efeito Estufa , Itália
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182811

RESUMO

The outbreak of an epidemic disease may pose significant treats to human beings and may further lead to a global crisis. In order to control the spread of an epidemic, the effective management of rapidly increased medical waste through establishing a temporary reverse logistics system is of vital importance. However, no research has been conducted with the focus on the design of an epidemic reverse logistics network for dealing with medical waste during epidemic outbreaks, which, if improperly treated, may accelerate disease spread and pose a significant risk for both medical staffs and patients. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel multi-objective multi-period mixed integer program for reverse logistics network design in epidemic outbreaks, which aims at determining the best locations of temporary facilities and the transportation strategies for effective management of the exponentially increased medical waste within a very short period. The application of the model is illustrated with a case study based on the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Even though the uncertainty of the future COVID-19 spread tendency is very high at the time of this research, several general policy recommendations can still be obtained based on computational experiments and quantitative analyses. Among other insights, the results suggest installing temporary incinerators may be an effective solution for managing the tremendous increase of medical waste during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, but the location selection of these temporary incinerators is of significant importance. Due to the limitation on available data and knowledge at present stage, more real-world information are needed to assess the effectiveness of the current solution.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Pesquisa Operacional , Resolução de Problemas , Incerteza
13.
Recurso na Internet em Espanhol | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-ES-PROF | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47024

RESUMO

Documento técnico que contiene: introducción, herramientas de triaje, identificar el caso en investigación, equipo de protección individual, procedimiento diagnóstico, tratamiento en urgencias, limpieza, desinfección y gestión de residuos del cuarto de aislamiento, traslado del paciente en la urgencia extrahospitalaria, referencias y anexos.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122945, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058904

RESUMO

Success of composting as an ecological technology for organic waste management has allowed its implementation in the current circular economy models. However, composting on an industrial scale often shows drawbacks and peculiarities. In this work, a comparative analysis of 15 industrial composting facilities was carried out in which different anthropogenic organic waste were processed. Results showed that composting process on an industrial scale did not always evolve in a standard way. Monitoring parameters as well as enzymatic activity depended largely on the raw materials and were strongly linked to the transformation of nitrogen fractions. Despite the heterogeneity of the processes and raw materials, microbial activity managed to the optimal biotransformation, obtaining products that comply with the agronomic quality standards. This work represents a breakthrough in composting and provides new knowledge for better management of this process on an industrial scale.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Solo
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123018, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087547

RESUMO

Adoption of circular practices within environmental management is gaining worldwide recognition owing to rapid resource depletion and detrimental effects of climate change. The present study therefore attempted to ascertain the linkages between circular economy (CE) and sustainable development (SD) by examining the role of renewable energy (RE) and waste management (WM) sectors in CE combined with policy setup and enabling frameworks boosting the influx of circularity principles in the Indian context. Results revealed that research dedicated towards energy recovery from waste in India lacks integration with SD. Findings also revealed that although India is extremely dedicated towards attainment of the SDGs, penetration of CE principles within administration requires considerable efforts especially since WM regulations for municipal, plastic and e-waste lack alignment with CE principles. Integration of WM and RE policies under an umbrella CE policy would provide further impetus to the attainment of circularity and SD within the Indian economy.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Mudança Climática , Índia , Fenômenos Físicos , Energia Renovável , Resíduos Sólidos
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123036, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107150

RESUMO

Environmental deterioration and the need for energy security are intrinsic problems linked with the linear economy based on fossil fuels. Recently, a transformation to a sustainable circular bio-economy is being experienced where biomass waste is being valorized for energy production as well as minimization of waste and greenhouse gas emissions. The agricultural waste, generated in vast quantities in India is a prospective feedstock for biogas production. Agri-waste to biogas based circular economy requires an integration of agri-waste management, biogas production and utilization and policy support. This paper comprehensively discusses the potential of biogas production from agricultural waste, its upgradation and utilization along with the government initiatives, policy regulations. In addition, barriers that impede the development of an efficient agri-waste to biogas based circular economy, and the future research opportunities to meet the growing needs for agri-waste management, energy production and climate change mitigation are discussed.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Agricultura , Índia , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 153, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006184

RESUMO

The analysis of change factors in waste management in the period from 2012 to 2015 in three municipalities in a mountainous region of southern Poland exhibited strong differentiation. This was recognised based on multiple indicators of waste accumulation. Such differences were investigated between two periods, which highlighted the effect of changes in waste management primarily resulting from Directive 2008/98/EC. These changes relate to the development of selective waste collection based on eight types of waste. On this basis, an increase was observed in the amount of waste collected in the communities. Particular attention was paid to the community with the highest number of tourists, the waste accumulation rate (452.74 kg per capita) and the cost per year. An increase in the number of tourists is an important factor in terms of waste accumulation, and other factors made it possible to recognise the direction of the changes taking place in waste management. In terms of changes in waste accumulation, the implementation of the European Union law into the national law in the field of waste management is a significant factor.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Polônia , Reciclagem
19.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(4): 415-422, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043421

RESUMO

Construction and demolition waste represents a significant waste flow, both in Brazil and in other countries. According to specific Brazilian legislation, since 2004 construction and demolition waste can no longer be disposed of in open dumps, municipal solid waste landfills, slopes, waterways and environmental protected areas. Construction and demolition waste should preferably be recycled, but just a small amount of it returns to the construction industry production chain in Brazil. This work aims both to present diagnoses of the construction and demolition waste management in Brazil, the European Union and the United States and to compare their results. It is concluded that Brazil presents performance indicators in relation to construction and demolition waste management well below those found for the other analysed countries. Furthermore, differences and similarities are identified and potentials for improvement in the current situation of construction and demolition waste in Brazil are discussed.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Brasil , Materiais de Construção , União Europeia , Resíduos Industriais , Reciclagem , Estados Unidos
20.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(4): 371-382, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043425

RESUMO

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most critical global challenges nowadays. It has a severe negative effect on the triple bottom line of sustainability. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) contributes about 50% of the total global annual generated SW. In the particular case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region including Egypt, the SW problem has become a major challenge, and the need to find sustainable solutions is overwhelming. However, the region faces several challenges that hinder the development of an effective and efficient SWM system. This has resulted in the predominance of unsustainable SWM practices such as indiscriminate disposals. The aim of this paper is to investigate the escalating problem of SW in the MENA region, while focusing on CDW in Egypt as a part of the total generated SW, by reviewing the most recent research papers, and technical and governmental reports on the SW problem. The main challenges towards effective and efficient SWM systems and recommendations for improvement are gathered in this study based on the explored literature. Findings from this study are expected to be beneficial to local and central governments, academics, construction industry practitioners, and policymakers contending with the problems of SW in the MENA region and especially CDW in Egypt.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Egito , Oriente Médio , Resíduos Sólidos
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