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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 69, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464420

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to offer an approach to assess the risk associated with Municipal Solid Wastes, in a geospatial context. Initially, a risk index including hazard, vulnerability and other important variables was built. The built model is based on multi-criteria evaluation techniques and geographic information systems. Subsequently, the constructed index was used to model possible damage in various municipalities of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. The results indicate that the highest levels of risk are found in places with unfavorable conditions, such as high rates of waste generation, low waste collection coverage, steep slopes, etc. that cover 6.22% of the study area. The areas with high risk level are mainly found in the southeast of the municipalities of Villa Corzo and Villaflores, and cover 27.06% of the study area. The places of low and very low risk levels are concentrated in the center and northeast of the study area, in the municipalities of Suchiapa, Chiapa de Corzo and Acala, and cover 38.6% of the area. At the municipal level, Berriozábal, Villaflores and Villa Corzo have the highest levels of risk in most of their territory; the high levels of risk presented in Berriozábal are due to the limited territorial area that it occupies in the study area. In Villaflores and Villa Corzo, the high levels of risk are due to the high population dispersion. A large part of Tuxtla Gutiérrez territory presents low and medium risk levels, especially within the population settlement. The peripheral areas show the highest levels of risk, because the waste collection service is not provided very often. Finally, the Cohen's kappa statistic used to validate the precision of the model gave a value of 0.34, which means that the spatial model can be considered acceptable despite its low value. Although this work is only a general approach to spatial risk modeling at a regional scale, it provides interesting information. Moreover, it adds to the few efforts that exist in the literature to model the risk associated with wastes.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , México , Resíduos Sólidos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 64, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447942

RESUMO

This work seeks to perform a baseline study to determine the implementation area for a management system of oily waste generated by artisanal fishing boats within the Peruvian context. This explanatory study, conducted based on quantitative and cross-sectional considerations, includes a regulatory review; content analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) both in seawater and sediments; and metal assessment in sediments and waste oil, with the corresponding result correlations. In this study, the results reveal that while regulations are adequate, their implementation is not evident. In addition, no evidence of contamination by PAH and TPH was found. However, traces of metal contamination were found in sediments, and, after being correlated with the metal values from waste oil, a Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient of 0.619480 was reported. Hence, we can conclude that the regulations to prevent marine pollution from oily waste contained in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships MARPOL agreement have been accepted and approved for implementation. In fact, they can even be applied to different activities that fall out of the scope of the agreement. Finally, the baseline study reveals oily waste generation indicators, as well as a correlation between waste oil metals and marine sediment metals that merits the implementation of an oily waste management system within the study area.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
3.
Environ Technol ; 42(2): 329-336, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331802

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the emanating challenges in urban and healthcare waste management in Isfahan, after the new Coronavirus outbreak. Production of 'dry wastes' in Isfahan, with a population of more than 1.9 million, has increased during the pandemic. Personal protective equipments (PPEs) including face masks, single-use gloves and face shields are an emerging group of materials in Isfahan's waste stream. On average, Isfahanian residents have daily discarded over 1.49 and 2.98 million pieces of facemasks and plastic gloves, respectively, after the new Coronavirus pandemic. Overall production of hospital wastes in Isfahan slightly decreased during the pandemic. COVID-19 related wastes in hospitals are mainly treated by wet autoclave method, then collected and transferred to the Sejzy site to be landfilled. Waste separation, recycling and composting programs have been banned due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and all collected MSW are directly disposed of at Sejzy disposal site. Composting as the main disposal method for 60%-70% of the MSW in Isfahan has been terminated; therefore landfilling of urban wastes has dramatically escalated by 3.6 times. Appropriate urban waste management protocols must be provided to restart safe separation, recycling and composting programs to reduce pressure on land for disposal, while practicing safe waste management measures to minimize the possibility of the spread of the viral disease.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
4.
Waste Manag ; 120: 549-563, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308953

RESUMO

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) comprises a globally important waste stream due to the scarcity and value of the materials that it contains; annual generation of WEEE is increasing by 3-5% per annum. The effective management of WEEE will contribute critically to progress towards (1) realisation of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, (2) a circular economy, and (3) resource efficiency. This comprehensive review paper provides a critical and contemporary examination of the current global situation of WEEE management and discusses opportunities for enhancement. Trends in WEEE generation, WEEE-related policies and legislation are exemplified in detail. Four typical future WEEE management scenarios are identified, classified and outlined. The European Community is at the forefront of WEEE management, largely due to the WEEE Directive (Directive 2012/19/EU) which sets high collection and recycling targets for Member States. WEEE generation rates are increasing in Africa though collection and recycling rates are low. WEEE-related legislation coverage is increasing in Asia (notably China and India) and in Latin America. This review highlights emerging concerns, including: stockpiling of WEEE devices; reuse standards; device obsolescence; the Internet of Things, the potential for collecting space e-debris, and emerging trends in electrical and electronic consumer goods. Key areas of concern in regard to WEEE management are identified: the partial provision of formal systems for WEEE collection and treatment at global scale; further escalation of global WEEE generation (increased ownership, and acceleration of obsolescence and redundancy); and absence of regulation and its enforcement. Measures to improve WEEE management at global scale are recommended: incorporation of circular economy principles in EEE design and production, and WEEE management, including urban mining; extension of WEEE legislation and regulation, and improved enforcement thereof; harmonisation of key terms and definitions to permit consistency and meaning in WEEE management; and improvements to regulation and recognition of the informal WEEE management sector.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Ásia , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Eletrônica , Índia , Reciclagem
5.
Waste Manag ; 120: 290-302, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333467

RESUMO

Household packaging waste sorting facilities consist of complex networks of processes to separate diverse waste streams. These facilities are a key first step to re-enter materials into the recycling chain. However, so far there are no general methods to predict the performance of such sorting facilities, i.e. how efficiently the heterogeneous packaging waste is sorted into fractions with value for further recycling. In this paper, a model of the material flow in a sorting facility is presented, which allows changing the incoming waste composition, split factors on the sorting units as well as the setup of the sorting facility. The performance of the sorting facility is judged based on the purity of the output material (grade) and the recovery of the input material. A validation of the model was performed via a case study on Belgian post-consumer packaging waste with a selection of typical waste items that can be found in this stream. Moreover, the model was used to predict the possible sorting qualities of future Belgian post-consumer packaging waste after an extension of the allowed waste packaging items in the waste stream. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed on the split factors, which are a key data source in the model. Overall, the developed model is flexible and able to predict the performance of packaging waste sorting facilities as well as support waste management and design for recycling decisions, including future design of packaging, to ensure proper sorting and separation.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Fenômenos Físicos , Plásticos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124114, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942236

RESUMO

Conventional treatment and recycling methods of organic solid waste contain inherent flaws, such as low efficiency, low accuracy, high cost, and potential environmental risks. In the past decade, machine learning has gradually attracted increasing attention in solving the complex problems of organic solid waste treatment. Although significant research has been carried out, there is a lack of a systematic review of the research findings in this field. This study sorts the research studies published between 2003 and 2020, summarizes the specific application fields, characteristics, and suitability of different machine learning models, and discusses the relevant application limitations and future prospects. It can be concluded that studies mostly focused on municipal solid waste management, followed by anaerobic digestion, thermal treatment, composting, and landfill. The most widely used model is the artificial neural network, which has been successfully applied to various complicated non-linear organic solid waste related problems.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 142259, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207488

RESUMO

Currently, there is no effective vaccine for tackling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 with the occurrence of repeat waves of infection frequently stretching hospital resources beyond capacity. Disease countermeasures rely upon preventing person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV2 so as to protect front-line healthcare workers (HCWs). COVID-19 brings enormous challenges in terms of sustaining the supply chain for single-use-plastic personal and protective equipment (PPE). Post-COVID-19, the changes in medical practice will drive high demand for PPE. Important countermeasures for preventing COVID-19 transmission include mitigating potential high risk aerosol transmission in healthcare setting using medical PPE (such as filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs)) and the appropriate use of face coverings by the general public that carries a lower transmission risk. PPE reuse is a potential short term solution during COVID-19 pandemic where there is increased evidence for effective deployment of reprocessing methods such as vaporized hydrogen peroxide (30 to 35% VH2O2) used alone or combined with ozone, ultraviolet light at 254 nm (2000 mJ/cm2) and moist heat (60 °C at high humidity for 60 min). Barriers to PPE reuse include potentially trust and acceptance by HCWs. Efficacy of face coverings are influenced by the appropriate wearing to cover the nose and mouth, type of material used, number of layers, duration of wearing, and potentially superior use of ties over ear loops. Insertion of a nose clip into cloth coverings may help with maintaining fit. Use of 60 °C for 60 min (such as, use of domestic washing machine and spin dryer) has been advocated for face covering decontamination. Risk of virus infiltration in improvised face coverings is potentially increased by duration of wearing due to humidity, liquid diffusion and virus retention. Future sustained use of PPE will be influenced by the availability of recyclable PPE and by innovative biomedical waste management.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141514, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835961

RESUMO

The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has enhanced the complexities of plastic waste management. Our improved, hyper-hygienic way of life in the fear of transmission has conveniently shifted our behavioral patterns like the use of PPE (Personal protective equipment), increased demand for plastic-packaged food and groceries, and the use of disposable utensils. The inadequacies and inefficiencies of our current waste management system to deal with the increased dependence on plastic could aggravate its mismanagement and leakage into the environment, thus triggering a new environmental crisis. Mandating scientific sterilization and the use of sealed bags for safe disposal of contaminated plastic wastes should be an immediate priority to reduce the risk of transmission to sanitation workers. Investments in circular technologies like feedstock recycling, improving the infrastructure and environmental viability of existing techniques could be the key to dealing with the plastic waste fluxes during such a crisis. Transition towards environmentally friendly materials like bioplastics and harboring new sustainable technologies would be crucial to fighting future pandemics. Although the rollbacks and relaxation of single-use plastic bans may be temporary, their likely implications on the consumer perception could hinder our long-term goals of transitioning towards a circular economy. Likewise, any delay in building international willingness and participation to curb any form of pollution through summits and agendas may also delay its implementation. Reduction in plastic pollution and at the same time promoting sustainable plastic waste management technologies can be achieved by prioritizing our policies to instill individual behavioral as well as social, institutional changes. Incentivizing measures that encourage circularity and sustainable practices, and public-private investments in research, infrastructure and marketing would help in bringing the aforementioned changes. Individual responsibility, corporate action, and government policy are all necessary to keep us from transitioning from one disaster to another.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Plásticos , Pneumonia Viral , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
9.
Waste Manag ; 119: 275-284, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099072

RESUMO

Critical high-tech minerals (CHTMs) are raw materials that are essential for a future clean-energy transition and the manufacture of high-end products. Cellphones, one of the fastest growing electronic products, contain various CHTMs. Since 2019, India has surpassed the United States to become the second largest smartphone market in the world. An increasing and alarming number of excessive waste cellphones will be generated in India in the near future. In this study, the dynamic material flow analysis approach and the Weibull distribution are adopted to analyze the volumes of accumulated waste cellphones and the contained CHTMs based on the differentiation between smartphones and feature phones in India. Moreover, a market supply model is adopted to predict the future trends of CHTMs in waste cellphones. The results show a general upward tendency of waste cellphone volume in India, which indicates that various CHTMs contained in cellphone waste can be properly reused or recycled. Future implications based on the analysis results are provided for efficient cellphone management in India.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Previsões , Índia , Minerais , Reciclagem
10.
Waste Manag ; 119: 1-10, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032153

RESUMO

Disaster waste clean-up after large disasters is one of the core activities at the recovery stage of disaster management, which aims to restoring the normal functioning of the disaster affected area. In this paper we considered a waste clean-up system consists of (i) demolition operation, (ii) collection of waste from customer nodes to temporary disaster waste management sites (TDWMSs), (iii) processing at TDWMSs, and (iv) transportation of the waste to final disposal sites in the recovery of disasters. A multi-objective mixed integer programming model is developed to minimise the total clean-up cost and time. Three different approaches are developed to solve the problem, which are tested with artificial instances and a real case study. Results of artificial instances indicate that the models developed can be used to obtain close to optimal solutions within an acceptable computing time. Results of the case study can facilitate the decision-makers to develop the waste clean-up with minimised total cost and clean-up time by selecting the right location of TDWMSs and setting up the proper waste clean-up schedule.


Assuntos
Desastres , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Transportes
11.
Waste Manag ; 119: 30-38, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039979

RESUMO

We present a proof-of-concept method to classify the presence of glass and metal in consumer trash bags. With the prevalent utilization of waste collection trucks in municipal solid waste management, the aim of this method is to help pinpoint the locations where waste sorting quality is below accepted standards, making it possible and more efficient to develop tailored procedures that can improve the waste sorting quality in areas with the most urgent needs. Using trash bags containing various amounts of glass and metal, in addition to common waste found in households, we use a combination of sound recording and a beat-frequency oscillation metal detector as inputs to a machine learning algorithm to identify the occurrence of glass and metal in trash bags. A custom-built test rig was developed to mimic a real waste collection truck, which was used to test different sensors and build the datasets. Convolutional neural networks were trained for the classification task, achieving accuracies of up to 98%. These promising results support this method's potential implementation in real waste collection trucks, enabling location-specific and long-term monitoring of consumer waste sorting quality, which can provide decision support for waste management systems, and research on consumer behavior.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Resíduos Sólidos
12.
Waste Manag ; 119: 91-100, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045490

RESUMO

The sustainable future of contemporary society has been compromised due to environmental pollution from industrial systems and the generation of solid waste. Consequentially, the managed exploitation of natural resources to a sustainable level within the Earth's capacity remains a present and future challenge. Furthermore, the pursuit of materials free from toxic substances made from renewable sources is a tendency towards effective cleaner production and waste management. To address these problems, this article reports the results of exploratory and experimental research that developed a novel eco-efficient product - a pyramidal absorber of electromagnetic radiation - from rice husks and MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard) residues through design from waste principles. Key findings indicated that the technical performance of the absorber is better in the frequency of 2.45 GHz, resulting in a difference of -18.71 dB concerning the reflective metal plate used in the tests. This result is above the expected limit of -10 dB found in similar commercial products. This study is an innovation in improving the design from waste of pyramidal microwave absorbers used in radio frequency anechoic chambers. The product represents a new and sustainable alternative to similar products in the market that are produced from toxic materials extracted from non-renewable raw materials. The limitations and technical characteristics of usage for which the pyramidal absorbers of electromagnetic radiation are applicable should be considered.


Assuntos
Oryza , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Poluição Ambiental , Micro-Ondas , Resíduos Sólidos
13.
Waste Manag ; 119: 135-144, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059163

RESUMO

The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Malaysia has been mainly focused on collection, transportation and disposal of MSW. To examine the contribution of MSW management to GHG emissions, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Waste Model was used by deploying Tier 2 method. It estimated that 6,898,167 tonnes CO2-eq of GHG emissions were released in 2016 from solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) and are projected to increase to 9,991,486 tonnes CO2-eq in 2030. To reduce GHG emissions from MSW management, Solid-Waste-Management Greenhouse-Gas (SWM-GHG) calculator was used to compare different approaches. SWM-GHG calculator focused on three settings including recycling approach, incineration approach and integrated approach. According to SWM-GHG calculator, in 2016, 15,906,614 tonnes CO2-eq of GHG emissions were released by recycling approximately 16% of MSW and disposing of 84% of MSW in SWDS. Out of the three approaches, integrated approach can result in highest reduction of GHG emissions by 2050 (64%) from GHG emissions in 2016, as compared to recycling approach (50% reduction) and incineration approach (46% reduction). While, recycling has been the main national goal for last 14 years as it has increased up to 17.5% by 2016, the current Malaysian government aims to establish 8 incinerators in Malaysia that will treat approximately 32% of MSW annually. However, estimations of SWM-GHG calculator and some opportunities and threats highlighted by SWOT analysis suggest the integrated approach as the best suited approach for Malaysia for achieving significant and sustainable reductions in GHG emissions.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Gases/análise , Efeito Estufa , Malásia , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
14.
Waste Manag ; 119: 226-234, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075619

RESUMO

This study analyzed the environmental impacts of nine scenarios for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste disposal, in the city of Bauru, Brazil. Nine scenarios were considered in this study: (1) current (base) scenario (96.4% of PET waste is sent to landfill, 3.6% is sent to sorting cooperatives); (2) 50% to sorting cooperatives, 50% to landfill; (3) 50% to sorting cooperatives, 50% to incineration; (4) 50% to landfill, 50% to incineration; (5) 100% to sorting cooperatives (keeping the current collection distribution); (6) 100% to landfill; (7) 100% to incineration; (8) and (9) 100% sent to sorting cooperatives, with changes in the collection scheme. Life cycle assessment was implemented to compute the impacts for each scenario and compare their environmental performances. The results have shown that recycling is a better option than incineration across all impact categories analyzed. Landfilling had lower net impacts than incineration in all categories, except for ozone depletion and freshwater eutrophication. All recycling scenarios proposed outperformed the current scenario in all impact categories. Even though recycling presents itself as an environmentally-promising alternative, much work still needs to be done for its successful implementation, such as promoting source-separation at home and improving the management strategies of recycling cooperatives, including additional funding and training to support an increased sorting capacity.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Incineração , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
15.
Waste Manag ; 119: 242-253, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091837

RESUMO

It is well known that Asia generates and receives large quantities of plastic waste. Through a detailed study of plastic waste generation and trade, the management and treatment of plastic waste in Asia were analyzed from the regional perspective. The amounts of plastic waste in municipal solid waste and in industrial solid waste were estimated to be 79 Mt and 42 Mt, respectively, in Asia. The overall treatment and recycling status in Asia are unsatisfactory. Asia imported 74% of the plastic waste in the world in 2016, and China (mainland) imported the most plastic waste until 2017, with 5.8 to 8.3 Mt. In 2017, about half the plastic waste imported by Asia came from other regions, and after subtracting the exported quantity, 98% of the plastic waste was left in Asia for treatment and disposal. The plastic waste imported by Asia declined about 72% in monetary value in 2018. There is still a large gap between the plastic waste quantity imported to Asia and that exported from Asia. China's ban of plastic waste imports caused import quantities to drop to 52 kt in 2018, simultaneously, exports from the largest exporting countries or regions such as Hong Kong (China), the USA, Japan, and Germany decreased. While Vietnam, Malaysia and some other Asian countries and regions saw significant increases in plastic waste imports from 2016 to 2018. Considering this situation, countries in Asia are starting to strictly limit plastic waste imports from other countries.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Alemanha , Hong Kong , Japão , Malásia , Plásticos , Resíduos Sólidos , Vietnã
16.
Waste Manag ; 119: 356-364, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186829

RESUMO

Sustainable development goals imply environmentally sound management of all wastes to minimize the waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling, and reuse. In particular, the poultry industry produces nutrient-rich waste that requires proper management.Additionally, the recycling of bio-wastes in agricultural lands is still a key technology for the sustainable use of nutrients as a renewable fertilizer. Currently, there are very few studies on the utilization of agro-industrial bio-wastes, such as poultry abattoir sludge (PAS), for crop cultivation in soils containing low organic matter and high pH. In this context, it is necessary to make a more particular assessment of poultry industry-oriented and locally available nutrient-rich organic wastes for nodulation, physiological adaptation, and crop yield. Considering the scarcity of the literature in this field, the present study aimed to fulfill the apparent gap by focusing on the applicability of recycled PAS to low fertility soil in the growth of chickpea selected as a model legume, thereby contributing to the development of an agricultural and sustainable industrial management strategy for the relevant sectors. In this study, leaf chlorophyll content and nodule color were also investigated by the image analysis methodology to describe the effects of bio-waste on closing chickpea yield gap in a marginal land with high soil pH and low organic matter. Two-year consecutive field experiments were carried out to explore the effect of the PAS with the application rates of 25 kg N ha-1 (T2), 50 kg N ha-1 (T3), and 100 kg N ha-1 (T4) along with unamended (T0) and fertilized control (T1). The results indicated that the PAS treatments significantly differed in chlorophyll content, nodulation parameters, and biomass and grain yields. The chlorophyll content was correlated (r = 0.910) with the red color value (RGB color model) of nodule image analysis in the response to bio-waste. Based on the two-year average, it was concluded that chickpea yield could be increased 45% by amending with the PAS (T3). The present study clearly demonstrated that the image analysis could be a useful digital tool for the evaluation of chlorophyll content, nitrogen fixation efficiency, and forecasting biomass and grain yields of chickpea. The results also confirmed that the PAS application to low fertility soil could prominently contribute to establish sustainable waste management and crop production alternatives for closing chickpea yield gap.


Assuntos
Cicer , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Agricultura , Animais , Fertilizantes/análise , Reciclagem , Solo
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 322: 124537, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341713

RESUMO

The world of bioplastics has expanded rapidly in recent decades, and the new waste stream generated is creating major barriers to waste processing. Anaerobic co-digestion is to be considered one of the best options for the efficient processing of bioplastic waste due to its minimal space requirements, lower degrees of environmental pollution, and renewable energy generation. The higher carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of bioplastics poses a challenge to anaerobic digestion, but co-digestion with lower C/N ratio biowastes can efficiently degrade bioplastics and improve biogas production in the system. In the future, the collection of organic waste in biodegradable plastic bags makes the waste management process easier for anaerobic digestion plants. The present review paper discusses current trends of bioplastic usage, degradation strategies, and the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for waste management with improved energy production in anaerobic digesters.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Digestão , Metano
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 322: 124538, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352392

RESUMO

Management of food waste (FW) is a global challenge due to increasing population and economic activities. Presently, landfill and incineration are the keyways of FW management, while economical and environmental sustainability have been an issue. Therefore, the biological processes have been investigated for resource and energy recovery from FW. However, these biological approaches have certain drawbacks and cannot be a complete solution for FW management. Therefore, this review aims to offer a detailed and complete analysis of current available technologies to achieve environmental and economical sustainability. In this context, zero solid waste discharge for resource and energy recovery has been put into view. Corresponding to which several innovative technologies using integrated biological methods for resource and energy recovery from FW have been elucidated.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Alimentos , Incineração , Resíduos Sólidos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
19.
J Surg Res ; 257: 597-604, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardized prescribing practices are recommended to decrease opioid abuse, however, data regarding the handling and disposal of leftover narcotics are lacking. This quality improvement project and analysis evaluated implementation of standardized prescribing, opioid education, and a narcotic disposal system. METHODS: This initiative was implemented over a 1-y period among patients who underwent breast surgery. The project included the following: 1) implementation of standardized prescribing, 2) voluntary and anonymous survey analysis, and 3) preoperative education regarding risks of opioids, charcoal disposal bag distribution, and follow-up survey to assess use and use of intervention. RESULTS: Preintervention surveys were completed by 53 patients, and 60% (n = 32) underwent lumpectomy. Narcotic prescriptions were filled by 90%; median number of pills taken was 3 (range 0-24), however 93% felt that a non-narcotic was more effective. Eighty three percentage of patients had unused pills, and 58% kept these pills in an unlocked cabinet. Postintervention surveys were completed by 66 patients, and 48% (n = 32) underwent lumpectomy. Narcotic prescriptions were filled by 88%, median number of pills taken was 4 (range 0-40), and 89% of patients had pills leftover. Sixty seven percentage of patients found the education handout useful and charcoal bag use was reported by 37% (n = 17). The median postoperative pain control satisfaction score was 4.5 (5-point Likert scale, 1 = very dissatisfied, 5 = very satisfied) on both preintervention and postintervention surveys. CONCLUSIONS: This study, which included standardized prescribing parameters, opioid education, and implementation of a disposal method, was found to be feasible, beneficial, and did not compromise postoperative pain control.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/instrumentação
20.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111672, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309110

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to assess whether and to what extent income and the stringency and enforcement (S&E) of environmental regulation influence compliance with the EU Waste Hierarchy (EWH), i.e., how EU member states treat waste. The EWH prioritizes waste prevention and re-use over recycling, which is ranked above waste to energy (WtE), while incineration and landfilling are the least preferred options. Biennial panel data for the period 2010-2016 is used to create a compliance index based on the waste treatment alternatives in the EWH. Waste (excluding major mineral waste) of 26 European Union countries is examined. This study is the first of its kind to regress an EWH compliance index on income, stringency and enforcement of environmental regulation, and other variables that are also expected to affect the relative benefits and costs of waste treatment, such as population density, heating demand, and electricity prices. The shares of landfilling, incineration, WtE, and recycling are also modeled to capture the effect of these variables in the waste treatment mix. The stringency and enforcement of environmental regulation are found to have a positive effect on compliance with the EWH, which has increased over time.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , União Europeia , Calefação , Incineração , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos
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