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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722705

RESUMO

The crisis facing the world's oceans from plastics is well documented, yet there is little knowledge of the perspectives, experiences and options of the coastal communities facing overwhelming quantities of plastics on their beaches and in their fishing waters. In emerging economies such as those in the Coral Triangle, the communities affected are among the poorest of their countries. To understand the consequences of ocean plastic pollution in coastal regions, through the eyes of local people, this study examines the knowledge, use, disposal and local consequences of single use plastics in remote island communities in two archipelagos of southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using mixed methods-a survey of plastic literacy and behaviour, household interviews about purchasing and disposal, and focus group discussions to generate shared mental models-we identify a complex set of factors contributing to extensive plastic leakage into the marine environment. The rising standard of living has allowed people in low resource, remote communities to buy more single-use plastic items than they could before. Meanwhile complex geography and minimal collection services make waste management a difficult issue, and leave the communities themselves to shoulder the impacts of the ocean plastic crisis. Although plastic literacy is low, there is little the coastal communities can do unless presented with better choice architecture both on the supply side and in disposal options. Our results suggest that for such coastal communities improved waste disposal is urgent. Responsible supply chains and non-plastic alternatives are needed. Producers and manufacturers can no longer focus only on low-cost packaged products, without taking responsibility for the outcomes. Without access to biodegradable, environmentally friendly products, and a circular plastic system, coastal communities and surrounding marine ecosystems will continue to be inundated in plastic waste.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Plásticos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Indonésia , Oceanos e Mares , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 3780431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184833

RESUMO

This study deals with the occupational health and safety of valuable and recyclable waste collectors (called scavengers) in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. The analytical descriptive approach was used in this study to achieve this goal. Waste pickers in the study area are working informally at existing dumpsites, solid waste transfer stations, landfills, and community streets' bins areas. A sample of 301 scavengers was surveyed filling a structured questionnaire designed for this purpose, during individual interviews. In addition, interviews with key Palestinian officials in the Gaza Strip have been conducted to provide accurate data and comprehensive information regarding waste pickers activities. The results showed that the occupational health and safety of the waste pickers is in constant deterioration mainly due to the informal nature of their work. The waste pickers are reportedly suffering in the current situation and the majority has no access to potable water, sanitation, and hygienically appropriate place to sleep and have meals. None of them has ever received occupational health and safety training. The study recommends that local decision makers should uptake short-term and long-term measures in waste management sector both aiming at improving this vulnerable social group's health and safety life status.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Reciclagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150949

RESUMO

This study evaluated the engagement of staff regarding infectious healthcare waste management, in two case-study universities in Tunisia. Using a questionnaire survey, it was found that the most significant reported factors that influenced engagement were the availability of technical sheets and posters, training and education programs, and the age range of the staff. While there was some accordance with the Tunisian Decree application n° 2008-2745 of July 28th, 2008, as well as international guidelines and best practice (e.g. the use of color coded bins, waste management teams, and infection control measures), there were also limitations in the provision of training. This limitation in training and, to a lesser extent, awareness impacted on the beliefs about infectious healthcare waste management of staff and their practices. Recommendations for addressing these issues are suggested.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Política Organizacional , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Fatores Etários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Engajamento no Trabalho
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952237

RESUMO

Ozone pollution, which can be caused by photochemical reactions, has become a serious problem. The ozone formation potential (OFP) is used to describe the photochemical reactivity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are main precursors of ozone formation, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are important sources of VOCs. Therefore, it is necessary to study the concentration level and OFP of VOCs from WWTPs. In this work, a coking WWTP with anaerobic-oxic-oxic (A/O/O) processes in Shaoguan city, Guangdong province, China, was selected to investigate the characteristics of VOCs at wastewater treatment areas and office areas. The OFP of VOCs was estimated by the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) coefficient method. Results showed that 17 VOCs were detected, and the total concentration of VOCs was the highest at the raw water tank (857.86 µg m-3). The benzene series accounted for 69.0%-86.9% and was the main component of VOCs in the WWTP. Based on OFP data, the top six VOCs contributing most to the OFP were m-xylene, toluene, p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, and benzene. This study provides field data and information on the environmental risk of VOCs for coking companies and environmental departments. We found that the priority control sources of VOCs were wastewater treatment units because of their larger OFP contributions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Coque , Ozônio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Benzeno/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tolueno/análise , Águas Residuárias , Xilenos/análise
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546765

RESUMO

The waste generation rate (WGR) is used to predict the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and has become a prevalent tool for efficient waste management systems. Many studies have focused on deriving the WGR, but most focused on demolition waste rather than construction waste (CW). Moreover, previous studies have used theoretical databases and thus were limited in showing changes in the generated CW during the construction period of actual sites. In this study, CW data were collected for recently completed apartment building sites through direct measurement, and the WGR was calculated by CW type for the construction period. The CW generation characteristics by type were analyzed, and the results were compared with those of previous studies. In this study, CW was classified into six types: Waste concrete, waste asphalt concrete, waste wood, waste synthetic resin, waste board, and mixed waste. The amount of CW generated was lowest at the beginning of the construction period. It slowly increased over time and then decreased again at the end. In particular, waste concrete and mixed waste were generated throughout the construction period, while other CWs were generated in the middle of the construction period or towards the end. The research method and results of this study are significant in that the construction period was considered, which has been neglected in previous studies on the WGR. These findings are expected to contribute to the development of efficient CW management systems.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 401, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Globally, cities generate 1.3 billion tons of solid waste per year, amounting to a rate of 1.2 kg per person per day. Solid waste management is an important challenge to both the developed and developing countries. This study aimed to assess the willingness to pay for the improved solid waste management and associated factors among households in Injibara town, Ethiopia. RESULTS: A total of 903 household heads participated in the study. The finding indicated that 81.06% were willing to pay for the service. The average amount of money the participants would be willing to pay per month was 29.7 ETB ($1.07)). The study revealed that sex (ß = 3.24, (95% CI 1.98, 4.50)), age (ß = - 0.09: 95% CI - 0.19, - 0.01), educational status (ß = 6.19: 95% CI 3.54, 8.84), occupation (ß = 2.43: 95% CI 1.009, 3.86), amount of solid waste generated (ß = 1.74: 95% CI 0.19, 3.29), distance from dump site (ß = 1.58: 95% CI 0.45, 2.72), satisfaction with the existing service (ß = 3.89, (95% CI 2.75, 5.06) and wealth status (ß = 2.43: 95% CI 1.0, 3.86) were statistically significant. Therefore, the level of premium load should consider the amount of waste generated, wealth status and the distance from the dump site.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Resíduos Sólidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/economia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212657

RESUMO

Landfill and street waste pickers in South Africa are responsible for collecting substantial volumes of recyclable material, saving municipalities millions and contributing to a generally healthier and cleaner environment. Yet waste pickers continue to operate on the fringes of the economy and are exposed to many risks, particularly health risks which have a direct impact on the sustainability of their livelihoods. This article, using a mixed-methods approach, explores the health risks to which waste pickers working on nine different landfills in the country are exposed. The socio-ecological framework was used to analyse and present the results. A key finding was that waste picking, by its very nature, lends itself to innumerable health risks, but that these can be lessened through concerted and collaborative efforts on the part of landfill operators, local authorities and other stakeholders. Integrating the 'self-employed' waste pickers into the formal waste management system should be comprehensive in order to limit health risks. Waste pickers will never have a risk-free environment, but facilitative policies and supportive institutions can collaboratively help to mitigate these risks and create a more sustainable and dignified working environment towards sustaining their livelihoods.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Exposição Ocupacional , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Eliminação de Resíduos , África do Sul
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21098-21108, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129902

RESUMO

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains both toxic and valuable materials. Due to rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT), a large amount of WEEE have been produced, leading to increasing academic efforts in this field. This study aims to depict the trends and features of WEEE-related studies through a bibliometric analysis. The results show that the total number of WEEE-related publications had sharply increased, with China as the leading country. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences is the most productive WEEE-related research institution, while Mai BX is the most productive author. As such, Waste Management, Journal of Cleaner Production, and Environmental Science & Technology are the most influential journals. The research hotspots of WEEE mainly focus on the recycling and treatment technologies, environmental impacts, and relevant policies of WEEE. By tracing the evolutionary pathway of WEEE research, it is clear that the research frontiers have switched from electronic equipment, extended producer responsibility, sediment, environment and design, risk assessment to life cycle assessment, mobile phone, and behaviors. This study provides valuable insights to those WEEE-related scholars so that they can identify their own research topics and partners. This paper is one of the first studies in WEEE research field that offers critical discussions and suggestions related to research development and future trends, and used visualized tools to present the holistic picture of this field.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , China , Ecologia , Eficiência , Eletrônica , Publicações , Reciclagem/métodos , Pesquisa/tendências , Tecnologia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 20003-20013, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102225

RESUMO

The massive generation of electronic waste (e-waste) and the informal recycling of e-waste are serious concerns in China. As a hazardous waste stream, e-waste calls for sustainable management practices to avoid adverse effects on environment and health. However, consumers' awareness and active participation are needed to make e-waste management successful. Therefore, this study is an exploratory attempt to investigate young consumer awareness, knowledge, and participation in sustainable e-waste management practices. Meanwhile, the study reviews the current situation of e-waste recycling, its related legislative framework, and practices in China. The survey revealed that the respondents have keen environmental consciousness, while they have low awareness about e-waste-related rules and regulations, recycling programs, and the formal and informal recycling sector. The findings provide valuable insights for practitioners in order to promote environmental awareness and sustainable e-waste management practices among young consumers in China.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Participação da Comunidade , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Reciclagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(1): 81-91, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962657

RESUMO

Improper healthcare waste management (HCWM) poses a serious public health problem worldwide. Primary health centres (PHCs) provide public health and medical care services as the basic structural and functional units of healthcare services in Myanmar. However, no study has been conducted in Myanmar about HCWM at PHCs. This study aims to assess the practice of HCWM at PHCs in Mon State, Myanmar. A cross-sectional study was conducted in all ten townships in Mon State, Myanmar. In total, 93 PHCs (71 non-hospitals and 22 hospitals) were selected using simple random sampling. The observational checklist which was developed based on the World Health Organization's standard guideline procedure of HCWM was used to determine the practice of HCWM at PHCs. Binary logistic regression was used for final data analysis. The burning in pits method was used as the final disposal method of healthcare waste in 78.5% of PHCs. Non-hospital type PHC were more likely not to have colour coding system for HCWM (odds ratio [OR] 7.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15-26.52), did not have equipment for accidental spillage of healthcare waste (OR 3.92; 95% CI 1.3-11.77) and did not have separate staff for HCWM (OR 8.27; 95% CI 2.77-24.64), relative to hospitals. Non-hospital type PHCs practices poorly on the colour coding for waste segregation, assigning separate staff for HCWM, and possessing equipment for accidental spillage of healthcare waste than hospital type PHCs. The Ministry of Health and Sports should issue technical guidelines of safe HCWM as a compulsory policy for both hospitals and non-hospital type PHCs.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mianmar
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(12): 11618-11630, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859444

RESUMO

Annually, over 5.5 trillion cigarettes are produced worldwide, and it is estimated that 4.5 trillion cigarette butts (CBs) are still being littered in the world. The dispersal of the CBs has caused this hazardous waste to be considered as one of the most important litters and environmental risks all over the world. This systematic study with the search protocol definition and keyword identification was developed to find the CBs control and recycling methods by searching in five scientific databases. Founded articles were monitored and finally, 35 related articles were selected and studied by the authors. The results of this study showed that CBs recycling methods have been tested in 10 specific categories all over the world. The CBs have been applied without any pre-processing methods in the bricks and asphalt production. However, other applications of the CBs such as the absorbent material production, vector control, and use as a biofilm carrier in wastewater treatment need various processing methods. The researchers also presented models and suggestions such as taxes, penalties, and public education for the control of CBs littering. Despite the innovative methods applied for the CBs recycling in previous studies, CBs have not received much attention in terms of pollutant control and environmental issues in recycling processes.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Produtos do Tabaco , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Reciclagem , Fumar , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Qual Health Res ; 29(3): 371-381, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196766

RESUMO

Frequent contact with hazardous materials makes waste collection a potentially unhealthy activity. This article assesses the perception of waste management workers regarding work-related accidents in domestic and health service contexts in Brazil. Six focus groups were performed between June 2014 and August 2015. The aims of this study were to apprehend different aspects of the participants' health, workers' experiences of work-related accidents and perception of risks. Cuts and puncture injuries were reported most frequently in the line of work and were often considered as irrelevant. Immunization against hepatitis B was not common among all workers, which increases the risk of infection for those individuals. Finally, it is considered urgent to consolidate an inclusive space in which workers can have discussions on their health.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/psicologia , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia
14.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 69(3): 277-288, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239326

RESUMO

Food waste from different sources or at different generation stages may have different compositional characteristics and is therefore suitable for recycling into different products. To have a better understanding of their chemical composition, five food waste types were collected, namely, household kitchen waste (HH), preconsumption and postconsumption food waste from a hotel (Hpr and Hpo), wet market food waste (WM) and kitchen waste from a Chinese restaurant (CR), and their compositions were assessed monthly for 1 year. They served as suitable feedstock for various conversion technologies according to their chemical profiles. HH and CR had higher crude protein content (26%) and considerable amounts of minerals, making them nutritionally suitable for feeding animals. Preconsumption food wastes Hpr and WM had more favorable C:N ratios (16.5-17.4) and crude fat contents (4.6-6.5%) as feedstock for composting. Postconsumption food wastes were potential feedstock for the production of biogas and biodiesel because of the higher dry matter (>26%) and fat content (>13%). The coefficients of variation (CV) in all nutrients analyzed except Ca for postconsumption food wastes ranged from 5% to 37%, which showed lower temporal variability than preconsumption food wastes (CVs 10-131%). This implies that the composition of postconsumption food waste was relatively less fluctuating and can be considered a more reliable feedstock for food waste conversion. Implications: Characterization of food waste composition from different sources and determination of their temporal variation were performed to understand their characteristics and facilitate sound food waste management. Separating food wastes according to their sources and types helps reduce their composition variability, and thus increases the consistence in food-waste-derived products and recycling success. Study on temporal variation indicates that postconsumption food wastes varied less with time and could serve as reliable feedstocks for food waste conversion.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Reciclagem/métodos , Reciclagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Hong Kong
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366376

RESUMO

Based on survey data collected in 2016 from 100 villages across five provinces in China, this paper uses binary logistic model to explore the main factors related to the supply and quality of rural residential solid waste collection (RRSWC) services, especially focusing on the role of village population structure characteristics. It is indicated from the results that village population structure characteristics are significantly correlated with RRSWC services; specifically: (1) the total registered population of village households is significantly positively correlated with the supply of RRSWC services, however, the correlation between the registered population and the quality of RRSWC services is negative and the more the labors working and living outside the village, the less likely the village is to provide RRSWC services; (2) the villagers' educational levels and RRSWC services show no significant correlativity at the present stage; (3) the preferential policies brought by population structure advantage play a positive role in the supply of RRSWC services but is not clearly related to the quality of RRSWC services, especially in the villages with a larger minority population. In addition, the study finds that, the economic development level of a village and the characteristics of village leaders are also positively correlated with the supply and quality of RRSWC services and; the natural and traffic conditions have no significant correlation with RRSWC services. This study can act as a reference for the further promotion of the development of RRSWC services in China.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200889, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to describe current practices of medical waste management, including its generation, investments, collection, storage, segregation, and disposal, and to explore the level of support from upper tiers of the government and health care system for medical waste management in rural China. METHODS: The authors draw on a dataset comprised of 209 randomly selected rural township health centers (THCs) in 21 counties in three provinces of China: Anhui, Shaanxi and Sichuan. Surveys were administered to health center administrators in sample THCs in June 2015. RESULTS: The results show that the generation rate of medical waste was about 0.18 kg/bed, 0.15 kg/patient, or 0.13 kg/person per day on average. Such per capita levels are significant given China's large rural population. Although investments of medical waste facilities and personnel in THCs have improved, results show that compliance with national regulations is low. For example, less than half of hazardous medical waste was packed in sealed containers or containers labeled with bio-hazard markings. None of the THCs segregated correctly according to the categories required by formal Chinese regulations. Many THCs reported improper disposal methods of medical waste. Our results also indicate low levels of staff training and low rates of centralized disposal in rural THCs. CONCLUSIONS: Medical waste is a serious environmental issue that is rising on the agenda of policymakers. While a large share of THCs has invested in medical waste facilities and personnel, it appears that actual compliance remains low. Using evidence of low rates of training and centralized disposal, we surmise that a lack of support from upper tiers of management is one contributing factor. Given these findings, we recommend that China's policymakers should enhance support from upper tiers and improve monitoring as well as incentives in order to improve medical waste management.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 68(6): 360-363, 2018 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893940

RESUMO

Background: Poor knowledge and practice of waste management among hospital cleaners is a significant occupational and public health risk which could be improved by better training. Aims: To assess private hospital cleaners' knowledge and practice of hospital waste management and the association with training. Methods: A cross-sectional study using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was undertaken. The questionnaire was designed to record demographics, assess knowledge and assess self-reported practice and training by private hospital cleaners in Etiosa in Nigeria. Results were analysed with SPSS20 using chi-squared tests. Results: Ninety-eight hospital cleaners out of 135 participated (response rate 73%), of whom 81% reported that they had received training. Forty-nine per cent had good knowledge, while 90% self-reported good practice. Statistical analysis showed a significant negative association between training and knowledge (χ2 = 11.1, P < 0.01). There was no significant association between knowledge and practice. Conclusions: This group of cleaners reported good practice but knowledge was negatively associated with training. This may be related to the nature of training. The study found a knowledge gap, exposing these hospital cleaners to occupational risks which appropriate training has the potential to prevent. Collaboration to produce effective training programmes is recommended.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/normas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Rev Environ Health ; 33(2): 219-228, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750656

RESUMO

As one of the largest waste streams, electronic waste (e-waste) production continues to grow in response to global demand for consumer electronics. This waste is often shipped to developing countries where it is disassembled and recycled. In many cases, e-waste recycling activities are conducted in informal settings with very few controls or protections in place for workers. These activities involve exposure to hazardous substances such as cadmium, lead, and brominated flame retardants and are frequently performed by women and children. Although recycling practices and exposures vary by scale and geographic region, we present case studies of e-waste recycling scenarios and intervention approaches to reduce or prevent exposures to the hazardous substances in e-waste that may be broadly applicable to diverse situations. Drawing on parallels identified in these cases, we discuss the future prevention and intervention strategies that recognize the difficult economic realities of informal e-waste recycling.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Reciclagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Humanos , Uruguai
19.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 19(3): 273-277, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603697

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to obtain information about knowledge, execution, and attitude toward biomedical waste (BMW) and its management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire was designed to conduct a cross-sectional survey. It was distributed among 614 dentists (institution associated or private practitioners) in the cities of North India. The questionnaire comprised 36 questions regarding knowledge, execution, and attitude toward BMW and its management. Frequency distribution and chi-square test along with paired t-test were used to compare the data obtained between the private practitioners and institution-associated dentists. RESULTS: The study showed that 80% private practitioners were aware of the categories of BMW as compared with 100% of institution-associated dentists. However, 41% dentists associated with institution were disposing the chemical waste directly into sewer and a surprising high number of private practitioners were discarding directly without any treatment. Furthermore, regarding the mandatory maintenance of BMW records, 100% institution-associated respondents were aware, whereas only 6.5% private practitioners knew about it. Regarding BMW management not frequently being followed, 78% of private practitioners believed extra burden as the reason. CONCLUSION: Most of the dentists had adequate knowledge regarding BMW policies and its management. Although it was being practiced in mostly all the institutes on a regular basis, the majority of private practitioners were not practicing it due to various reasons, such as financial burden, lack of availability of service, and poor attitude toward its management. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to make it compulsory and organize training sessions to educate the dental personnel and to establish the importance of proper management.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Resíduos Odontológicos , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos Odontológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontólogos/psicologia , Educação Continuada em Odontologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Prática Privada/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Waste Manag ; 70: 189-197, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951150

RESUMO

According to the statistic office of the European Union (Eurostat), Germany is the main producer of waste wood in Europe followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy and Finland. Based on the characteristics of the waste wood, it can be classified in four (4) categories: A I, A II, A III and A IV. This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. However, the newest Renewable Energy Act (EEG 2017) may promote the cascade-use of A I waste wood prior to be intended for energy purposes. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood-based industry has to overcome. The peak availability, collection logistics (collection centers and transportation) and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries (UK, Italy and Finland) is briefly presented.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Madeira , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
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