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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946525

RESUMO

Agro-waste reduction and reuse are among the current main social challenges. In this perspective, the present research was aimed at the complete valorisation of Garganega grape pomace by recovering bioactive phenol extracts and by testing the solid fibre extract residues in composite formulation for packaging applications. The pomace was derived from white wine production, therefore, respect to red pomace, it was promptly removed from must after pressing, and its exploitation can be particularly interesting and valuable as still rich in active compounds. Phenol extracts were obtained both via solvent-based and pressurised liquid extractions and their phytochemical compositions were compared in terms of total amount of phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and reducing sugars. Antioxidant activity and detailed phenol profiles were also achieved. The highest phenol yield was obtained via solvent-based extraction with 75% acetone (v/v), solid/liquid ratio 1:5, 2h incubation at 50°C (77.9 gGAeq/kgDW). The fibrous solid residue of the extraction was characterized via thermogravimetric analysis and used for composite preparation by melt mixing with the renewable and biodegradable PHBV polymer through a green approach (solvent-less process). The composites resulted thermally stable at high temperatures, showing initial degradation processes only at temperatures higher than 250°C. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses were carried out to study melting and crystallization phenomena, while mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests. The materials finally showed properties similar to those of the matrix. The bio-composites can be considered as an alternative to plain PHBV, since they are less expensive and eco-friendlier thanks to a reduced polymeric content, and they could represent a suitable way for full agro-waste exploitation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Resíduos Industriais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vitis/química , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/química , Vinho
2.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 63(3): 350-357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769321

RESUMO

Declared as a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020, COVID-19 has brought about a dramatic change in the working of different laboratories across the country. Diagnostic laboratories testing different types of samples play a vital role in the treatment management. Irrespective of their size, each laboratory has to follow strict biosafety guidelines. Different sections of the laboratory receive samples that are variably infectious. Each sample needs to undergo a proper and well-designed processing system so that the personnel involved are not infected and also their close contacts. It takes a huge effort so as to limit the risk of exposure of the working staff during the collection, processing, reporting or dispatching of biohazard samples. Guidelines help in preventing the laboratory staff and healthcare workers from contracting the disease which has a known human to human route of transmission and high rate of mortality. A well-knit approach is the need of the hour to combat this fast spreading disease. We anticipate that the guidelines described in this article will be useful for continuing safe work practices by all the laboratories in the country.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Desinfecção/métodos , Guias como Assunto , Substâncias Perigosas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Laboratórios/normas , Patologistas/normas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818952

RESUMO

Financing municipal solid waste (MSW) services is one of the key challenges faced by cities in developing countries. This study used plastic waste, a constituent of MSW, to explore the possibility of generating revenue for financing MSW management in the municipalities of Nepal. The results of this study suggest that plastic material recovery could generate revenue, which is equivalent to 1.38 times of the plastic-waste-related management cost when collection efficiency reaches 66.7%. An increase in 1% of recovery rate and collection efficiency could cover an additional 4.64% and 2.06% of the costs of managing plastic waste, respectively. In addition, an increase in tax on imported plastic materials could also motivate recovery of plastic waste for recycle and reuse. An additional 1% tax on plastic imports would be sufficient to cover plastic-related waste management when plastic waste recovery and collection efficiency rates are low. This plastic recovery- revenue exercise could be expanded to other materials such as paper and metal to fully understand the possibility of sustainable financing of MSW management and reducing environmental harm in developing countries like Nepal.


Assuntos
Reciclagem/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/economia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Cidades , Países em Desenvolvimento , Nepal , Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/química , Reciclagem/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/economia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18347-18354, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694202

RESUMO

Novel biotechnologies are required to remediate iron ore mines and address the increasing number of tailings (mine waste) dam collapses worldwide. In this study, we aimed to accelerate iron reduction and oxidation to stabilize an artificial slope. An open-air bioreactor was inoculated with a mixed consortium of microorganisms capable of reducing iron. Fluid from the bioreactor was allowed to overflow onto the artificial slope. Carbon sources from the bioreactor fluid promoted the growth of a surface biofilm within the artificial slope, which naturally aggregated the crushed grains. The biofilms provided an organic framework for the nucleation of iron oxide minerals. Iron-rich biocements stabilized the artificial slope and were significantly more resistant to physical deformation compared with the control experiment. These biotechnologies highlight the potential to develop strategies for mine remediation and waste stabilization by accelerating the biogeochemical cycling of iron.


Assuntos
Ferro , Mineração , Solo/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microbiologia do Solo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
8.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127148, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535434

RESUMO

Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is a common highly toxic cyclic aliphatic ether that frequently exists in waste gases. Removal of gaseous THF is a serious issue with important environmental ramifications. A novel three-phase airlift bioreactor (TPAB) loaded with immobilized cells was developed for efficient THF removal from gas streams. An effective THF-degrading transformant, Pseudomonas oleovorans GDT4, which contains the pTn-Mod-OTc-gfp plasmid and was tagged with a green fluorescent protein (GFP), was constructed. Continuous treatment of THF-containing waste gases was succeeded by the GFP-labelled cells immobilized with calcium alginate and activated carbon fiber in the TPAB for 60 days with >90% removal efficiency. The number of fluorescent cells in the beads reached 1.7 × 1011 cells·g-1 of bead on day 10, accounting for 83.3% of the total number of cells. The amount further increased to 3.0 × 1011 cells·g-1 of bead on day 40. However, it decreased to 2.5 × 1011 cells·g-1 of bead with a substantial increase in biomass in the liquid because of cell leakage and hydraulic shock. PCR-DGGE revealed that P. oleovorans was the dominant microorganism throughout the entire operation. The maximum elimination capacity was affected by empty bed residence time (EBRT). The capacity was only 25.9 g m-3·h-1 at EBRT of 80 s, whereas it reached 37.8 g m-3·h-1 at EBRT of 140 s. This work provides an alternative method for full-scale removal of gaseous THF and presents a useful tool for determining the biomass of a specific degrader in immobilized beads.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Furanos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas oleovorans/metabolismo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Alginatos/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Fibra de Carbono , Células Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal , Desenho de Equipamento , Gases , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Microbiota , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Pseudomonas oleovorans/citologia , Pseudomonas oleovorans/genética , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/instrumentação
9.
Can J Surg ; 63(3): E278-E283, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437094

RESUMO

Background: It is estimated that one-quarter to half of all hospital waste is produced in the operating room. Recycling of surgical waste in the perioperative setting is uncommon, even though there are many recyclable materials. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of waste produced in the preoperative and operative periods for several orthopedic subspecialties and to assess how much of this waste was recycled. Methods: Surgical cases at 1 adult and 1 pediatric tertiary care hospital in Calgary, Alberta, were prospectively chosen from 6 orthopedic subspecialties over a 1-month period. Waste was collected, weighed and divided into recyclable and nonrecyclable categories in the preoperative period and into recyclable, nonrecyclable, linen and biological categories in the intraoperative period. Waste bags were weighed using a portable hand-held scale. The primary outcome was the amount of recyclable waste produced per case. Secondary outcomes included the amount of nonrecyclable, biological and total waste produced. An analysis of variance was performed to test for statistically significant differences among subspecialties. Results: This study included 55 procedures. A total of 341.0 kg of waste was collected, with a mean mass of 6.2 kg per case. Arthroplasty produced a greater amount of recyclable waste per case in the preoperative (2017.1 g) and intraoperative (938.6 g) periods as well as total recyclable waste per case, resulting in a greater ratio of waste recycling per case then nearly all other subspecialties in the preoperative (86%) and intraoperative (14%) periods. Arthroplasty similarly produced a greater amount of nonrecyclable waste per case (5823.6 g) than the other subspecialties, most of which was produced during the intraoperative period (5512.9 g). Overall an average of 27% of waste was recycled per case. Conclusion: Among orthopedic subspecialties, arthroplasty is one of the largest waste producers and it has the highest potential for recycling of materials. Effective recycling programs in the operating room can reduce our ecological footprint by diverting waste from landfills, as our study revealed that nearly three-quarters of this waste is recyclable.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Ortopédicos/instrumentação , Ortopedia/métodos , Reciclagem/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(5): 535-553, mayo 2020. tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194127

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Presentar una revisión sistemática de estudios donde se evalúa el impacto provocado por los residuos sólidos urbanos generados en la Mixteca Oaxaqueña. RESULTADOS: El análisis de los resultados de investigación consultados en las bases de datos: Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe (Redalyc), Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo), Dialnet, EBSCO y Consorcio Nacional de Recursos de Información Científica y Tecnológica (CONRICYT), ponen de manifiesto que la contaminación es un problema que se ha venido incrementando a nivel global gradualmente lo que ha derivado que exista presencia de organismos y sustancias extraños que interfieren y dañan la salud de las personas, los recursos naturales y el equilibrio ecológico; cabe mencionar que el impacto en las comunidades provocado por la generación y manejo de los residuos sólidos en forma inadecuada altera de forma importante el ecosistema de los lugares aledaños a los sitios de disposición final de dichos residuos. Es importante hacer notar que existe legislación en la materia y clasifica de forma puntual los diferentes sitios de disposición final y encomienda a los municipios llevar a cabo el manejo integral de los residuos sólidos urbanos pero dicha legislación no es aplicada en forma correcta a pesar de que esta problemática ha tomado mucha relevancia en las últimas dos décadas en los ámbitos gubernamentales. CONCLUSIONES: México tiene el reto de lograr resolver los problemas ambientales para lograr alcanzar un nivel de sustentabilidad y sostenibilidad a mediano plazo, las tasas de generación de residuos sólidos urbanos siguen aumentando por que se vive en una sociedad que ha modificado drásticamente sus hábitos de consumo. La degradación del medio ambiente y los recursos naturales para la región de la Mixteca Oaxaqueña está clasificada en rangos de inestable-crítico a crítico provocando que se ejerza presión sobre los recursos naturales, es por ello que se debe tener una adecuada gestión y disposición de los residuos sólidos urbanos, para lograrlo es preciso contar con el apoyo de la sociedad, gobiernos y sociedad en general, esta sinergia es necesaria para reducir la extracción de recursos empleados al producirlos obteniendo beneficios económicos, sociales y ambientales a largo plazo para la región


OBJECTIVE: To present a systematic review of studies assessing the impact caused by municipal solid waste generated in the mixtec region of oaxaca. RESULTS: The analysis of the research results consulted in the databases: Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe (Redalyc), Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo), Dialnet, EBSCO and Consorcio Nacional de Recursos de Información Científica y Tecnológica (CONRICYT), show that pollution is a problem that has been increasing at a global level gradually what has resulted in the presence of foreign organisms and substances that interfere with and damage people's health, natural resources and ecological balance; It is worth mentioning that the impact on the communities caused by the generation and management of solid waste in an inadequate manner significantly alters the ecosystem of the places adjacent to the final disposal sites of these wastes. It is important to note that there is legislation on the subject and classifies in a specific way the different final disposal sites and entrusts municipalities to carry out the integral management of urban solid waste but this legislation is not applied correctly despite the fact that this problem has become very relevant in the last two decades in government spheres. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has the challenge of solving environmental problems to achieve a level of sustainability and sustainability in the medium term, the rates of generation of solid urban waste continue to increase because we live in a society that has drastically changed their consumption habits. The degradation of the environment and natural resources for the Mixteca Oaxaqueña region is classified in ranges from unstable-critical to critical, causing pressure to be exerted on the natural resources. This is why it is necessary to have adequate management and disposal of solid urban waste, to achieve this it is necessary to have the support of society, governments and society in general; this synergy is necessary to reduce the extraction of resources used to produce them, obtaining long-term economic, social and environmental benefits for the region


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Volume de Resíduos Sólidos/análise , México/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Am J Nurs ; 120(6): 48-55, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443125

RESUMO

Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to alter their organization's environmental footprint. This article addresses how they can strengthen efficiency and environmental sustainability initiatives in their facilities by engaging in, monitoring, and supporting environmentally friendly clinical practices and programs at the point of care. Included are practical tips and examples of projects in which nurses identified sources of waste-the relaundering of unused linens; disposal of unused products; and improper sorting of pharmaceutical waste, recycling, and regulated medical waste-and realized significant cost savings as well as improved efficiency and environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/efeitos adversos , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/normas , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/tendências , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Reciclagem/métodos , Reciclagem/tendências
13.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126896, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402467

RESUMO

High concentrations of manganese (Mn2+) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) in electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) have seriously hindered the sustainable development of electrolytic manganese industry. In this study, an innovative basic burning raw material (BRM) was used to stabilize/solidify Mn2+ and NH4+-N in EMR. The characteristics of EMR and BRM, stabilize mechanism of NH4+-N and Mn2+, and leaching test were investigated. The concentrations of NH4+-N and Mn2+ were 12.8 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, when the solid liquid ratio was 1.5:1, and the mass ratio of EMR and BRM was 100:10, at the temperature of 20 °C reacting for 12 h Mn2+ was mostly solidified as bustamite ((Mn,Ca)Si2O6), groutite (MnOOH) and ramsdellite (MnO2). NH4+-N was mostly recycled by (NH4)2SO4 and (NH4)3H(SO4)2. Leaching test results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals were within the permitted level for the integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB8978-1996). Economic evaluation revealed that the cost of EMR treatment was $ 10.15/t by BRM. This study provided a new research idea for EMR harmless disposal.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Materiais de Construção/análise , Eletrólitos/química , Compostos de Manganês/química , Nitrogênio/química , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , China , Metais Pesados/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126754, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302914

RESUMO

This study sought to analyze the effect of curing temperature on mechanical strength and microstructure of a copper tailing-based geopolymer via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), HCl extraction, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The distribution of gel formed in geopolymers tended to be uniform with increasing curing temperature from 25 to 80 °C. Moreover, the percentage of Si sites in C-S-H and N-A-S-H gels increased from 62.08% to 78.94% and more tetrahedral [AlO4] was incorporated into the tetrahedron [SiO4] backbone, leading to an increase of compressive strength from 10.2 to 39.6 MPa. When the curing temperature was increased to 120 °C, the percentage of Si sites in C-S-H and N-A-S-H gel decreased to 69.52%, and the compressive strength decreased to 27.5 MPa. Moderately elevated curing temperature promoted the dissolution of aluminosilicate while curing temperatures above 80 °C hindered it. Excessive curing temperature led to a decrease in the geopolymer alkaline medium.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Materiais de Construção/análise , Cobre/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Força Compressiva , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mineração , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238096

RESUMO

This work presents the health-care waste (HCW) management and an approach to assess and identify polymers in a General Surgery Unit - Internment Service (GSU) of a Brazilian university hospital, to estimate the main polymers presenting in medical devices that are consumed during a year, discarded either as infecting (Group A) or as scarifying residue (Group E). Among the waste produced from the medical devices, 3.14 ton (98.79%) were composed of polymers (63.06% of plastics and 35.73% elastomers) while around 0.03 ton (1.21%) by metals. The proposed approach is composed of 4 steps: (1) Collecting data about consumed medical devices to be categorized into the residues Groups (A and E); (2) Identifying the polymeric composition with information provided by suppliers; (3) Characterizing the polymer functional groups by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and (4) Determining the polymer melting point by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). According to the results, the analyzed HCW was composed mainly of polypropylene (80.88%), high-density polyethylene (5.28%), polystyrene (4.51%), and cellulose (3.58%), from a total of 11 different polymers.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Polímeros/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Brasil , Celulose/análise , Hospitais de Ensino , Polietileno/análise , Poliestirenos/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
Food Chem ; 322: 126767, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330787

RESUMO

Due to the lack of innovative valorization strategies, berry pomaces are a poorly utilized as a cheap source of valuable nutrients and phytochemicals. An effective biorefining scheme was developed to recover functional components from lingonberry pomace by consecutive supercritical CO2 (SFE-CO2), pressurized liquid (PLE) and enzyme assisted (EAE) extractions. SFE-CO2 at optimized parameters yielded 11.8 g/100 g of lipophilic fraction, containing 43.3 and 37.4% of α-linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, respectively. The combined PLE with ethanol and water additionally recovered 61.8 g/100 g of polar constituents and reduced the antioxidant capacity of starting material by up to 94%. The major portion of the antioxidants (89-94% in different assays), anthocyanins (231 mg/100 g pomace) and proanthocyanidins (15.9 g/100 g pomace) was present in PLE-EtOH extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was the major anthocyanin (146.9 mg/100 g). High-pressure fractionation was more efficient for obtaining bioactive pomace constituents as compared with conventional and enzyme-assisted extractions.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Solventes/química , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Etanol/química , Frutas/química , Galactosídeos/análise , Galactosídeos/química , Química Verde , Resíduos Industriais , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Pressão , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Água
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325760

RESUMO

The recycling of e-waste by the informal sector has brought countries in the Global South raw materials (e.g. metals and plastics), second-hand electronic equipment and components, and economic opportunities in conjunction with appalling environmental pollutions and health problems. Despite the longstanding international and national legislation regulating transnational trade and domestic recycling, informal e-waste economies are still clustering in many Global South countries. This study offers historically and geographically specific explanations of this conundrum, by interrogating the multi-scalar regulatory frameworks in which the informal e-waste economies and their pollutions are embedded, by drawing on China, particularly the former global e-waste hub-Guiyu town, as the case study. We argue that the contested and problematic application of current international and national legislation in regulating e-waste is in part pertaining to the slippery definition of what counts as "e-waste" and its paradoxical nature as both resources and pollutants. At the global scale, trajectories of global e-waste flows are shaped by the multitude of loopholes, contradictions and ambiguous articles left by the Basel Convention and by different countries' disparate attitudes towards the e-waste trade. At the national scale, the ambiguities and contradictions in the Basel Convention have been passed on to and shaped China's national e-waste regulatory frameworks. China's equivocal legislation, paradoxical attitude, and formal enterprises' weak competence contribute to the rise of informal e-waste recycling in Guiyu. Yet, China's e-waste regime has been greatly restructured within the past decade, with formal recycling enterprises playing an increasingly significant role.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Poluentes Ambientais , Reciclagem/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Gestão da Segurança/métodos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-5779

RESUMO

The outbreak of an epidemic disease may pose significant treats to human beings and may further lead to a global crisis. In order to control the spread of an epidemic, the effective management of rapidly increased medical waste through establishing a temporary reverse logistics system is of vital importance. However, no research has been conducted with the focus on the design of an epidemic reverse logistics network for dealing with medical waste during epidemic outbreaks, which, if improperly treated, may accelerate disease spread and pose a significant risk for both medical staffs and patients. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel multi-objective multi-period mixed integer program for reverse logistics network design in epidemic outbreaks, which aims at determining the best locations of temporary facilities and the transportation strategies for effective management of the exponentially increased medical waste within a very short period. The application of the model is illustrated with a case study based on the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Even though the uncertainty of the future COVID-19 spread tendency is very high at the time of this research, several general policy recommendations can still be obtained based on computational experiments and quantitative analyses. Among other insights, the results suggest installing temporary incinerators may be an effective solution for managing the tremendous increase of medical waste during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, but the location selection of these temporary incinerators is of significant importance. Due to the limitation on available data and knowledge at present stage, more real-world information are needed to assess the effectiveness of the current solution.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Pesquisa Operacional , Resolução de Problemas , Incerteza
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182811

RESUMO

The outbreak of an epidemic disease may pose significant treats to human beings and may further lead to a global crisis. In order to control the spread of an epidemic, the effective management of rapidly increased medical waste through establishing a temporary reverse logistics system is of vital importance. However, no research has been conducted with the focus on the design of an epidemic reverse logistics network for dealing with medical waste during epidemic outbreaks, which, if improperly treated, may accelerate disease spread and pose a significant risk for both medical staffs and patients. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel multi-objective multi-period mixed integer program for reverse logistics network design in epidemic outbreaks, which aims at determining the best locations of temporary facilities and the transportation strategies for effective management of the exponentially increased medical waste within a very short period. The application of the model is illustrated with a case study based on the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Even though the uncertainty of the future COVID-19 spread tendency is very high at the time of this research, several general policy recommendations can still be obtained based on computational experiments and quantitative analyses. Among other insights, the results suggest installing temporary incinerators may be an effective solution for managing the tremendous increase of medical waste during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, but the location selection of these temporary incinerators is of significant importance. Due to the limitation on available data and knowledge at present stage, more real-world information are needed to assess the effectiveness of the current solution.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Pesquisa Operacional , Resolução de Problemas , Incerteza
20.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 3780431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184833

RESUMO

This study deals with the occupational health and safety of valuable and recyclable waste collectors (called scavengers) in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. The analytical descriptive approach was used in this study to achieve this goal. Waste pickers in the study area are working informally at existing dumpsites, solid waste transfer stations, landfills, and community streets' bins areas. A sample of 301 scavengers was surveyed filling a structured questionnaire designed for this purpose, during individual interviews. In addition, interviews with key Palestinian officials in the Gaza Strip have been conducted to provide accurate data and comprehensive information regarding waste pickers activities. The results showed that the occupational health and safety of the waste pickers is in constant deterioration mainly due to the informal nature of their work. The waste pickers are reportedly suffering in the current situation and the majority has no access to potable water, sanitation, and hygienically appropriate place to sleep and have meals. None of them has ever received occupational health and safety training. The study recommends that local decision makers should uptake short-term and long-term measures in waste management sector both aiming at improving this vulnerable social group's health and safety life status.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Reciclagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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