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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 8097-8108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116520

RESUMO

Background: Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are highly exploited in manufacturing and medical processes in a broad spectrum of industrial applications and in the academic sectors. Several studies have suggested that many metallic nanomaterials including those derived by silver (Ag) are entering the ecosystem to cause significant toxic consequences in cell culture and animal models. However, ecotoxicity studies are still receiving limited attention when designing functionalized and non.-functionalized AgNPs. Objective: This study aimed to investigate different ecotoxicological profiles of AgNPs, which were analyzed in two different states: in pristine form uncoated AgNPs and coated AgNPs with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin. These two types of AgNPs are exploited for a set of different tests using Daphnia magna and Raphidocelis subcapitata, which are representatives of two different levels of the aquatic trophic chain, and seeds of Lepidium sativum, Cucumis sativus and Lactuca sativa. Results: Ecotoxicological studies showed that the most sensitive organism to AgNPs was crustacean D. magna, followed by R. subcapitata and plant seeds, while AgNPs coated with indolicidin (IndAgNPs) showed a dose-dependent decreased toxicity for all three. Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate that high ecotoxicity induced by AgNPs is strongly dependent on the surface chemistry, thus the presence of the antimicrobial peptide. This finding opens new avenues to design and fabricate the next generation of metallic nanoparticles to ensure the biosafety and risk of using engineered nanoparticles in consumer products.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/toxicidade , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/síntese química , Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Daphnia/citologia , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lepidium/efeitos dos fármacos , Lepidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Toxicidade
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 553-558, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918155

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate, through nonlinear regression models, the initial development of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. BRS 257) in soil supplemented with different copper levels. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse under natural light and temperature conditions. The seeds were sowed in soil containing different copper levels (11.20, 32.28, 52.31, 64.51, 79.42, 117.70, 133.53, 144.32, or 164.00 mg kg- 1). Germination percentage was not affected by the increase of copper content in the soil, but there was a delay in the germination process. There was no influence of copper levels on the seedling emergence speed index until 98.42 mg kg- 1; however, higher copper amounts reduced this parameter. Low copper concentrations increased plant development, but higher concentrations compromised mainly root growth. Overall, these results suggest that copper supplementation in the soil exerted dose-dependent dual effects on soybean seedlings.


Assuntos
Cobre/efeitos adversos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dinâmica não Linear , Análise de Regressão , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986744

RESUMO

Exposure to lead (Pb) can have serious toxic effects on the physiological and biochemical processes of plants. The chemical form of the metal determines the degree of its toxicity. In our research, we examined the effect of lead in the form of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] and lead chloride (PbCl2) in concentrations of 12.5 mM and 25 mM on pine (Pinus sylvestris) seed germination. Nitrogen salt causes more severe changes than chloride salt. Increasing levels of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide were detected during germination processes. The high levels of ROS lead to redox changes in the cell. We observed a reduction in the level of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), and at the same time observed increased levels of the oxidised form of glutathione (GSSG) depending on the concentration and also the time of exposure to lead compounds. At the beginning of germination processes, the effective non-enzymatic activity of the antioxidant cycle was dominant, and at the late stage the enzymatic activity was noticed in the presence of Pb compounds. CAT activity significantly increased after Pb compound exposition.


Assuntos
Pinus sylvestris/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/farmacologia , Nitratos/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Pinus sylvestris/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Sementes/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio
4.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126918, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957302

RESUMO

The increasing application of various surfactants nowadays, may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and represent potential threat to terrestrial higher plants. In this article, the effect of 13 surfactants, with dodecyl alkyl chain and various aromatic (imidazolium, pyridinium, thiazolium) and aliphatic (guanidinium, ammonium, thiosemicarbazidium) polar heads, on germination, development and growth of wheat and cucumber was investigated. The study aimed to prove how changes in lipophilicity of surfactants and their various structural modifications (existence of the aliphatic or aromatic polar group, the introduction of oxygen and sulfur) influence toxicity towards investigated plants. The calculated lipophilic parameter (AlogP) is shown to be a useful parameter for predicting potential toxicity of the compound. The strategy of using surfactants with aliphatic polar heads instead of aromatic prove to be a promising strategy in reducing harmful effect, as well as the introduction of polar groups in the structure of cation. From all investigated compounds, surfactants with imidazolium polar head displayed the most harmful effect towards wheat and cucumber. The cucumber seeds were more sensitive to the addition of surfactants comparing to wheat. All obtained experimental results were additionally investigated using computational methods, simulating the transport of surfactants through a lipid bilayer. The influence of cation tendency to fit in lipid bilayer structure was correlated with toxicity. For the first time, it is concluded that cation ability to mimic the structure of bilayer have less harmful effect on plant development.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Compostos de Piridínio/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cátions , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Compostos de Piridínio/química , Compostos de Piridínio/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tensoativos/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(4-5): 513-527, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833149

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Os4BGlu14, a monolignol ß-glucosidase, plays a negative role in seed longevity by affecting primary metabolism during seed development and aging. Seed longevity is a crucial trait in agriculture and in the conservation of germplasm resources. ß-Glucosidases (BGlus) are multifunctional enzymes that affect plant growth and their adaptation to the environment. The function of rice BGlus in seed longevity, however, remains unknown. We report here that Os4BGlu14, a rice ß-Glucosidase, negatively affected seed longevity during accelerated aging. Os4BGlu14 was highly expressed in rice embryos and induced by accelerated aging. Compared to the wild type, rice lines overexpressing Os4BGlu14 had significantly greater grain length, but smaller grain width and thickness. Overexpressing (OE) lines also showed lower starch but higher glucose contents. After accelerated aging treatment, OE lines displayed a significantly lower germination percentage than the wild type. Additionally, these lines had higher lignin accumulation before and after accelerated aging. Metabolome analysis detected 217 metabolites in untreated and aged rice seeds. Comparison of the differential metabolites between WT and OE5 revealed that ten key metabolites, four of which (e.g., uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose-glucose, UDPG) were increased, while the other six (e.g., γ-aminobutyric acid and methionine) were decreased, might be the crucial factors that lead to seed deterioration. Further analysis confirmed higher UDPG levels and more severe programmed cell death in OE lines than in the wild type. Furthermore, OE lines presented a lower germination rate after abscisic acid and paclobutrazol treatment during germination, compared to the wild type. Our study provides a basis for understanding the function of Os4BGlu14 in seed longevity in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/fisiologia , beta-Glucosidase/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Morte Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignina/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Glucose/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790719

RESUMO

Melatonin is effective in enhancing various abiotic stress resistances of plants. However, its underlying mechanisms in drought-resistance in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is not clear. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of melatonin on seed germination and to evaluate leaf antioxidant physiology for two wheat varieties. Experiments included 20% PEG, melatonin plus 20% PEG and a control using two contrasting wheat varieties (JM22- drought sensitive and HG35- drought resistant). Melatonin levels were 0, 1, 10, 100 and 300 µmol L-1. Results revealed that 300 µmol L-1 of melatonin alleviated the negative effect of water stress on germination and increased radicle length, radicle number, and plumule length of the germinated seeds. Principal component analysis showed a significant change in amino acid content during germination and this change was dependent on melatonin concentration and the variety. Lysine (Lys) content in wheat seeds under the PEG plus 300 µmol L-1 melatonin treatment increased compared with that of the seeds under PEG alone. There was a significant and positive correlation between Lys content and morphological index of germination. During seedling growth, soluble protein was involved in osmotic adjustment and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased to mitigate the damage in the cytomembrane of JM 22 leaf under 300 µmol L-1 melatonin plus PEG treatment. The effect of melatonin was dependent on SOD activity increasing significantly for HG35-a drought resistant variety. The results of this work lays a foundation for further studies to determine if melatonin can be economically used to mitigate the impact of dry planting conditions on wheat productivity in North China Plain.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Osmose , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111104, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791360

RESUMO

Since development of antioxidant defence system is high energy demanding event, innate defence system and stress tolerance of plant is strictly governed by plant age. This study is aimed towards evaluating variation of tolerance in germinating seeds and seedlings of Oryza sativa L. cv. Swarna against nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). A comparative study of several physiological and biochemical parameters have been carried out among 2 distinct plant groups, Group I treated with variable concentrations of nZVI (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1) during germination and Group II treated with similar nZVI doses on 7th day after germination. Upon treatment with higher nZVI concentrations, Group I seedlings showed susceptibility towards oxidative stress while Group II seedlings showed tolerance against these higher doses of nZVI. Significant growth enhancement was observed upon treatment with 50-150 mg L-1 nZVI, since up-regulation of plant's endogenous antioxidant system protected relatively aged Group II seedlings from oxidative damages. Hierarchical clustering based on overall physiological, biochemical and stress parameters confirmed that in Group I seedlings 100-200 mg L-1 nZVI treatments were toxic where as in Group II seedlings 50-150 mg L-1 nZVI treatments showed growth promoting effects. This differential response is due to developmental stage related resistance in plants.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127288, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619935

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of green tea extract at 10 (GWG1%) and 50 (GWG5%) g/L as the steeping solution on the chemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of wheat grain during 14 days of germination. Fat, dry matter, and ash contents in the control was higher than GWG treatments due to the faster growth of control germs. Moisture, phenolic compounds, thiamin, niacin, and tocopherols decreased, whereas, fat, dry matter, carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber, ash, folic acid, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn increased significantly in all samples during germination. GWG5% showed the highest values in total phenols, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrate, followed by GWG1% and then the control. No significant differences in protein and crude fiber content were detected among treatments. GWG decreased the growth of total bacterial, yeast, and mold in germinated seeds. Overall, GWG improved the microbial and nutritional quality of wheat germ during 14 days of germination.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666147

RESUMO

Several invasive alien plants (IAP) can trigger evidently allelopathy on the seed germination and seedling growth (SgSg) of native plant species (NPS). The getting worse condition with heavy metal pollution (e.g., cadmium) can significantly impact SgSg of plant species. Silicon can offset the adverse effects of environmental pressure on the growth and development of plant species. Thus, it is important to evaluate the influences of silicon on the allelopathy of IAP on SgSg of NPS under cadmium stress to better understand the mechanism driving the successful colonization of IAP. This study focuses on the allelopathy of the infamous IAP Solidago canadensis L. (Canada goldenrod; by using leaf extracts) on SgSg of NPS Lactuca sativa L. under the separated and mixed silicon and cadmium addition. S. canadensis triggers notably allelopathy on SgSg of L. sativa and gradually upsurges with increasing leaf extract concentration. Thus, the growth performance of NPS will be gradually reduced with an increasing degree of S. canadensis invasion. Cadmium evidently declines SgSg of L. sativa due to the broken balance of plant species for nutrient absorption. The mixed S. canadensis leaf extracts and cadmium synergistically impact seed germination of L. sativa but antagonistically affect seedling growth of L. sativa. The mixed silicon and cadmium intensify the allelopathy of S. canadensis on SgSg of L. sativa probably due to the increased effective content of cadmium in plant roots under silicon addition. Thus, the mixed silicon and cadmium will be advantageous to the following invasion process of IAP largely via the depressed SgSg of NPS.


Assuntos
Alelopatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Solidago/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solidago/fisiologia
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(1): 127-133, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548730

RESUMO

In this work the toxicity caused by explosive industries effluent (yellow water) at different levels of toxicity (genetic, cellular and organismal level) was evaluated by the Allium cepa test and the Sorghum sudanense germination. The results showed that the effluent paralyze the mitotic process, keeping the cells in the interphase, decreasing the mitotic index in A. cepa. Chromosomal abnormalities such as c-metaphases, adhesions, breaks, early ascending chromosomes and irregular nucleus were observed for this receptor species. The germination of S. sudanense was reduced, and the development of the radicles were affected, showing reduced tolerance index at the highest concentrations of the effluent. Thus, it is concluded that the effluent from the explosive industry is extremely toxic to the tested organisms, both in cellular and chromosomal level and also for seed germination.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Índice Mitótico , Cebolas/genética , Cebolas/fisiologia , Sorghum
11.
Food Chem ; 331: 127282, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559597

RESUMO

Phenolics are important secondary metabolites in plants with strong antioxidant effects. Seeds germination and exogenous stimulation could activate endogenous enzymes to enhance the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Barley seeds geminated under NaCl (1-20 mM) treatment to evaluate the accumulation of phenolics in this study. Results showed that NaCl treatment significantly enhanced the growth of seedlings, especially bud length. NaCl treatment up-regulated genes and proteins expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), resulting in the enhancement of their activities. As a result, phenolic acids and flavonoids contents increased by 11.19% and 32.54%, respectively, in which gallic acid, protocatechuic, fisetin, myricetin and quercetin were affected mostly. Moreover, NaCl treatment enhanced 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity. Hence, NaCl stimulated the synthesis of phenolic components via enhancing gene, protein expression and the activity of key enzymes.


Assuntos
Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127350, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554012

RESUMO

The adverse effects of glyphosate herbicide on plants are well recognised, however, potential hormetic effects have not been well studied. This study aimed to use tomato as a model organism to explore the potential hormetic effects of glyphosate in water (0-30 mg L-1) and in compost soil (0-30 mg kg-1). The growth-promoting effects of glyphosate at concentrations of 0.03-1 mg L-1 in water or 0.03-1 mg kg-1 in compost were demonstrated in tomato for the first time. These hormetic effects were manifest as increased hypocotyl and radicle growth of seedlings germinated on paper towel soaked in glyphosate solution and also in crops which had been sprayed with glyphosate. Increased rates of photosynthesis (up to 2-fold) were observed in 4-week old crops when seeds were sown in compost amended with glyphosate and also when leaves were sprayed with glyphosate. The examination of chloroplast morphology using transmission electron microscopy revealed that the hormetic effects were associated with elongation of chloroplasts, possibly due to lateral expansion of thylakoid grana.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/toxicidade , Hormese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555619

RESUMO

Seeds stored in controlled conditions in gene banks, faster or slower lose their viability. The effects of seed moisture content levels (ca. 5, 8, 11%) combined with storage temperatures (-3°, -18°, -196°C) were investigated in terms of the description of seeds defined as orthodox under oxidative stress after seed storage, during germination, and initial seedling growth. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and ascorbate (Asc) were analyzed in relation to seed germinability and seedlings emergence in three species: Malus sylvestris L., Prunus avium L. and Prunus padus L. The effect of seed storage conditions on H2O2 levels appeared in germinated seeds after the third year of storage in each species. The H2O2 levels were negatively correlated with the germination and seedling emergence of P. avium seeds after three years of storage under all examined combinations. The emergence of P. padus seedlings was not linked to any of the stress markers tested. The P. padus seed biochemical traits were least altered by storage conditions, and the seeds produced tolerant seedlings of relatively high levels of H2O2 and TBARS. To cope with different H2O2 levels, TBARS levels, and Asc levels in seeds of three species varying storage conditions different molecular responses, i.e. repairing mechanisms, were applied during stratification to compensate for the storage conditions and, as a result, seeds remained viable and seedlings were successfully established.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110796, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505050

RESUMO

1,2-Hexanediol is commonly used in the cosmetic industry as a preservative, an emollient, and a moisturizing agent. However, studies on the scientific toxicity of 1,2-hexanediol are limited. In this study, we evaluated the potential toxic effects of 1,2-hexanediol using phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity testing methods. Phytotoxicity tests using Brassica campestris subsp. napus and Latuca sativa L. showed that 1,2-hexanediol significantly inhibited seed germination and root elongation at the lowest concentration (0.1%). Additionally, plants treated with 1,2-hexanediol failed to survive. In cytotoxicity tests, RAW 264.7 and HK-2 cells treated with 1.0% 1,2-Hexanediol showed a significant decline in viability, followed by death. Since most personal care products contain >2% 1,2-hexanediol, it is highly likely that 1,2-hexanediol is toxic to humans. Moreover, if 1,2-hexanediol enters the human body either via oral intake or through an open wound, it could have critical effects. Furthermore, upon release into the environment, 1,2-hexanediol could cause considerable damage to plants and other organisms. Therefore, further investigation of 1,2-hexanediol is required to prevent toxicity to humans and other living organisms.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Glicóis/toxicidade , Hexanos/toxicidade , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Risco , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(3): 493-507, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237543

RESUMO

Nickel and copper, as high toxic heavy metals (HMs), are the most serious contaminants in Jinchuan mining area, China. In this paper, the influence of combined HMs stress on the growth of widespread plant-S. salsa has been studied. The stress gradient of combined Ni-Cu was set based on the local environment and pre-experiment. Seed germination, growth, physiological characteristics of S. salsa were investigated by the control test, and its heavy metal bioaccumulation capacity was investigated by samples collected from field platform. The growth of S. salsa was promoted at lower concentration (≤40 mg/L) and inhibited at higher concentration (≥80 mg/L) under the single HMs stress and combined HMs stress (Cu20/Ni20). The malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased with increasing concentration, and the soluble protein and free proline content in stress group were higher than that of in control group. Under single HMs stress, the peroxidase (POD) activity increased with increasing concentration; while under combined HMs stress, the POD activity increased initially and then reduced. Cu320 and Ni320 combined HMs stress inhibited the growth of S. salsa at all concentrations. The average translocation factors (TF) of S. salsa were greater than 1.00, and higher in leaves compared to stems. The results of bio-concentration factors (BCF) of S. salsa show that BCF of leaves were larger than that of roots and stems. At lower concentration, the combined HMs stress promoted the growth of S. salsa in comparison to single HMs stress, however, opposite results were obtained at higher concentration. Overall, S. salsa showed high tolerance to Cu and Ni and stronger capabilities of HMs uptake and translocation, and therefore, it can be used as an alternative plant for the bioremediation of heavy metal pollution in mining area.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae , Metais Pesados , Chenopodiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodiaceae/metabolismo , China , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 770-777, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328666

RESUMO

The increasing utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) and their release into the environment has made it imperative to elucidate their impact on the ecological system including plants. However, their potential toxic impact and mechanisms on plant growth are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CuO NPs and released Cu ions on seed germination and early seedling growth, as well as physiological and biochemical parameters of Oryza sativa. The results showed that CuO NPs at high concentration significantly inhibited seed germination and early seedling growth. The toxicity of CuO NPs originated from the particulate NPs rather than the released Cu2+. The phytotoxicity of CuO NPs to rice seed germination and seedling growth probably induced by high Cu accumulation along with the lignification and oxidative damage. The work presented here will increase our knowledge of phytotoxicity of CuO NPs.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Cobre/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lignina/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289638

RESUMO

Chenopodium quinoa, a halophytic crop belonging to the Amaranthaceae, has remarkable resistance to harsh growth conditions and produces seed with excellent nutritional value. This makes it a suitable crop for marginal soils. However, to date most of the commercial cultivars are susceptible to preharvest sprouting (PHS). Meanwhile, understanding of the PHS regulatory mechanisms is still limited. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been demonstrated to be tightly associated with seed dormancy and germination regulation in many crops. Whether ABA metabolism pathway could be manipulated to prevent PHS in quinoa is worth investigating. In the present study, we tested the inhibitory effects of exogenous ABA on quinoa seed germination. By RNA-seq analysis we investigated the global gene expression changes during seed germination, and obtained 1066 ABA-repressed and 392 ABA-induced genes. Cis-elements enrichment analysis indicated that the promoters of these genes were highly enriched in motifs "AAAAAAAA" and "ACGTGKC (K = G/T)", the specific binding motifs of ABI3/VP1 and ABI5. Transcription factor annotation showed that 13 genes in bHLH, MADS-box, G2-like and NF-YB, and five genes in B3, bZIP, GATA and LBD families were specifically ABA-repressed and -induced, respectively. Furthermore, expression levels of 53 key homologs involved in seed dormancy and germination regulation were markedly changed. Hence, we speculated that the 18 transcription factors and the homologs were potential candidates involved in ABA-mediated seed dormancy and germination regulation, which could be manipulated for molecular breeding of quinoa elites with PHS tolerance in future.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Germinação , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes , Fatores de Transcrição , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Chenopodium quinoa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 106, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Eurasian steppe is an important vegetation type characterized by cold, arid and nitrogen poor conditions. At the Eastern edge, including in the Songnen grassland, the vegetation is dominated by Leymus chinensis (henceforth L. chinensis) and is increasing threatened by elevated anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. L. chinensis is a perennial grass that mainly reproduces vegetatively and its sexual reproduction is limited. However, sexual reproduction plays an important role influencing colonization after large disturbances. To develop an understanding of how elevated nitrogen deposition changes the plant community structure and functioning we need a better understanding how sexual reproduction of L. chinensis changes with nitrogen enrichment. Here we report on a field experiment where we added 10 g N m- 2 yr- 1 and examined changes in seed traits, seed germination and early seedling growth. RESULTS: Nitrogen addition increased seed production by 79%, contributing to this seed increases were a 28% increase in flowering plant density, a 40% increase in seed number per plant and a 11% increase in seed weight. Seed size increased with a 42% increase in large seeds and a 49% decrease in the smallest seed size category. Seed germination success improved by 10% for small seeds and 18% for large seeds. Combined, the increased in seed production and improved seed quality doubled the potential seed germination. Subsequent seedling above and below-ground biomass also significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: All aspects of L. chinensis sexual reproduction increased with nitrogen addition. Thus, L. chinensis competitive ability may increase when atmospheric nitrogen deposition increases, which may further reduce overall plant diversity in the low diversity Songnen grasslands.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poaceae/fisiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Atmosfera , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20180426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159585

RESUMO

Effective microorganisms (EM) are inoculants formed by fungi and bacteria isolated from soil. EM are commonly used by farmers on agronomic crops to stimulate plant growth, but their composition and their benefits has been controverted. This study aimed to analyze the diversity of microorganisms growing in three EM inoculants, as well as to evaluate their efficiency in the germination of palisade grass seeds. The total DNA of the three EM inoculants was extracted, the 16S rRNA and ITS genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Germination tests were conducted with three type of the EM, in three concentration and two times of the immersion. The bacterial group was the most abundant in EM, followed by fungi. Bacterial operational taxonomic units OTUs were shared by all EMs. Pre-treatments of palisade grass seeds with EMs resulted in a higher germination percentage (% G) and germination speed index (IVG) when EM was used at concentration of 1 or 2% in water. Seed immersion for 5 min was more efficient than immersion for 24 h. We can conclude that EM of different origin can share microbial groups and diversity of microorganisms, besides being an alternative to increase palisade grass seeds germination.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Germinação/fisiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Ácidos Sulfúricos/farmacologia
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110409, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155481

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is a promising "green technique" used to purify contaminated soils. The performed phytoremediation experiments assisted by the fertilization process involving pots of F.arundinacea grown on soils with diverse concentrations and types of contaminations produced the following decreased percentages after 6 months: Pb (25.4-34.1%), Ni (18.7-23.8%), Cd (26.3-46.7%), TPH (49.4-60.1%). Primarily, TPH biodegradation was occurring as a result of basic bioremediation stimulated by adding optimal volumes of biogenic substances and corrections in the soil reaction, while phytoremediation improved this process by 17.4 - 23.1%. The highest drop in a range of 45.6 - 55.5% was recorded for the group of C12-C18 hydrocarbons, with the lowest one for C25-C36, amounting to 9.1-17.4%. Translocation factor values were: TF<1 and ranged, respectively, for: Pb (0.46-0.53), Ni (0.29-0.33), and Cd (0.21-0.25), which indicate that heavy metals absorbed by Festuca arundinacea they mainly accumulated in the root of the tissue in descending order: Cd

Assuntos
Festuca/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Petróleo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Festuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/metabolismo , Lepidium sativum/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Níquel/análise , Níquel/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
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