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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12164-12171, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600067

RESUMO

Plant biostimulants (PBS) increase crop productivity and induce beneficial processes in plants. Although PBS can stimulate plant tolerance to some abiotic stresses, their effect in improving crop resistance to herbicide injuries has barely been investigated. Therefore, a study on the effect of a biostimulant (Megafol) on maize (Zea mays L.) tolerance to a chloro-acetanilide herbicide (metolachlor) was carried out. We found that Megafol reduced the negative effects of metolachlor on maize. Indeed, biostimulated samples showed increases in germination, biomass production, Vigor index, and EC50 (effective concentration causing 50% reductions to roots and aerial biomass) with respect to the samples treated with metolachlor alone. Furthermore, plants treated with the herbicide in combination with Megafol showed lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Antioxidant enzymes, namely, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT), were assayed in samples treated with metolachlor alone or in combination with Megafol, and higher enzymes activities were found in biostimulated plants. The results of this study open the perspective of using Megafol, as well as other suitable plant biostimulants, in improving the crop's capacity to cope with injuries and unwanted effects that herbicide could cause to these species.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1066-1072, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561296

RESUMO

This study was conducted to explore the effects of priming of seven-year-old aged seeds with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on growth of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Seeds were primed with different concentrations of AgNPs for 6 h before growing in the plastic trays. Different growth parameters like growth attributes, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, antioxidant enzymes and chloroplast ultrastructure were estimated after 14 days of germination. Priming with AgNPs affected the root and shoot growth attributes as compared with control depending upon concentrations of AgNPs. In all treatments, photosynthetic pigments increased significantly above control levels, but total soluble sugars decreased in 10 and 50 ppm AgNPs and slightly increased in 100 ppm AgNPs as compared with control. Starch accumulation was apparent in all treated seedlings above that of control levels. Mesophyll cells of all treated seedlings were altered with electron dense particles than control. Priming with AgNPs affected the chloroplast structure which appeared in the form of less stacking of Greene, formation of protrusions and extensions, irregular shape of chloroplasts as compared with spindle shaped regular chloroplasts of control. In all treatments, total phenols were slightly affected as compared with control. The antioxidant enzyme activities in seedlings varied with the dose and type of antioxidants. Overall, AgNPs adversely affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, but increased growth of seedlings and starch accumulation. Further studies are required to explore the effects of AgNPs on the long-term on crop productivity of aged seeds.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Plântula/ultraestrutura , Prata/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/farmacologia , Amido/metabolismo , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/ultraestrutura
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10813-10822, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490069

RESUMO

Traditional seed pretreatment methods cause secondary pollution for the application of various chemicals. This study investigated the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) cold plasma on seedling growth. Effects of plasma-activated tap water (PATW) and plasma-activated seeds (PAS) were compared for germination rates, seedling height, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Results show that compared with controls these growth parameters were all increased by more than 50%. The yields and contributions of hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium were quantified. Hydrogen peroxide and nitrate have an important role in seedling growth. By etching, the seed epidermis free radicals can reduce the apparent contact angle and increase the water absorption of the seeds. In addition to the low cost of PATW and PAS compared with commercial fertilizers, DBD does not involve any chemical addition. Thus, both PATW and PAS can be an alternative for improvement of agricultural production.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/química
4.
Food Chem ; 299: 125095, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279124

RESUMO

Hydrogen gas (H2), a multifunctional signaling molecule, has received increasing attention in recent years. In the present study, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) (2 ppm) was used for the processing of sprouted black barley (Hordeum distichum L.), and the results showed that the HRW treatment could significantly increase the germination rate and growth rate of black barley (P < 0.05). A chemical component analysis showed that in sprouted black barley, the HRW treatment could change the distribution of phytochemicals (e.g., the ionic strength of guanosine), increase the concentrations of free vanillic acid, coumaric acid, sinapic acid, conjugated sinapic acid, Ca and Fe and the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate, and decrease the protein, fat, starch and dietary fibre contents compared with the results obtained after treatment with ultra-pure water (P < 0.05). HRW can be used for the processing of sprouted grains to effectively increase their germination efficiency and concentrations of bioactive phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/análise , Água/química , Água/farmacologia
5.
Chemosphere ; 233: 905-912, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340418

RESUMO

We investigated the interconnected roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon seed exposure to glyphosate and/or gibberellic acid (GA3), and the possible interaction between the herbicide and the plant hormone during germination of sorghum seeds. GA3 decreased antioxidant enzyme activity in embryos, and the over accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in 1000 mM GA3-treated seeds resulted in the lowest germinability among treatments. The deleterious effects of glyphosate on germination rate, in contrast, were not related to H2O2 accumulation, but to its interference with the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, interactions among glyphosate, GA3 and H2O2 during seed germination were observed. Similar to paclobutrazol, glyphosate appears to interfere with the de novo synthesis of gibberellin, which modulates seed germination through oxidative metabolism. Seeds experiencing increased oxidative status due to GA3 (100 mM) or H2O2 (50 mM) applications had the effects of glyphosate on germination rate reversed. Since decreased ATP synthesis is a secondary effect of glyphosate, increased H2O2 concentrations in embryos must facilitate germination by decreasing the energy required by ATP-demanding metabolism. Our results showed that glyphosate affect seed germination of sorghum, and that the herbicide interacts with oxidative and gibberellin metabolisms.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Chemosphere ; 233: 920-935, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340420

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the impacts of different concentrations of GO/PANI nanocomposites (25, 50 and 100 mg L-1), in comparison with GO and PANI, on seed germination behaviors, morpho-physiological and biochemical traits in intact (mucilaginous) and demucilaged seeds, and young seedlings of the medicinal plant Salvia mirzayanii. Upon exposure to GO, seed germination was delayed and reduced, and growth attributes (root and shoot length, shoot fresh weight, and total chlorophyll content) declined, all of which could be attributed to the reductions in water uptake and oxidative stress particularly in demucilaged seeds. A hormetic dose-dependent response was observed for the growth traits in both intact and demucilaged seedlings upon exposure to GO/PANI concentrations, i.e. low-concentration stimulation and high-concentration repression. Elevated levels of H2O2 in shoot tissue of the seedlings exposed to GO and high concentration of GO/PANI, in comparison with those exposed to low levels of GO/PANI and control, were linked with the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, POD, and total phenolics. Overall, the results showed high toxicity of GO on germination and early growth of S. mirzayani that was more evident in demucilaged seedlings, whereas GO/PANI stimulated germination, and the effects on seedling growth were stimulatory or inhibitory depending on the application dose and presence of mucilage. Furthermore, the capacity of GO/PANI nanocomposites to improve germination and cause a regular porosity pattern in roots accompanied by improved water uptake and early establishment of S. mirzayanii propose potential implications of GO/PANI nanocomposites for seeds/plants in drought-prone ecosystems.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/toxicidade , Salvia/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Nanocompostos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucilagem Vegetal/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Água
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 26216-26228, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286378

RESUMO

The use of allelopathic compounds is an alternative for weeds control, since they present low toxicity when compared with the synthetic herbicides, that may cause several damages, as the contamination of the environment. Our objective was to determine the chemical composition and allelopathic properties of the essential oils of Psidium cattleianum, P. myrtoides, P. friedrichsthalianum, and P. gaudichaudianum on the germination and root growth of Lactuca sativa and Sorghum bicolor, and to evaluate their action on the cell cycle of root meristematic cells of L. sativa. The main compound found in all the studied species was (E)-caryophyllene (P. cattleianum-23.4 %; P. myrtoides-19.3%; P. friedrichsthalianum-24.6% and P. gaudichaudianum-17.0%). The different essential oils were tested at different concentrations on L. sativa and S. bicolor, reducing germination, germination speed index, and root and shoot growth of lettuce and sorghum seedlings. The cytotoxicity and aneugenic potential of these oils were evidenced by the reduction of the mitotic index and increase of the frequency of chromosomal alterations in L. sativa. The essential oils of the species of Psidium studied have potential to be used in weeds control.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Psidium/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorghum/química , Alelopatia , Herbicidas/química , Alface/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Psidium/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 756-761, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154200

RESUMO

Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Nitro-PAHs) as important organic pollutants are ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment, agricultural soils and aquatic environments to pose a severe polluting risk. However, little is known about the mechanism of Nitro-PAHs genotoxicity in plants. We analyzed seeds germination, seedlings growth, and toxicity mechanism following 1-Nitropyrene treatment in Hordeum vulgare. Our results reveal that 1-NP treatment could be an inhibited agent on seeds germination and growth of roots and shoots. Additionally, the reduction of mitotic index and the increasing frequency of micronucleus suggest that 1-NP may pose a potential risk of genotoxicity in the plant. We further clarify that O2- and H2O2 radicals contribute to 1-NP stimulation induced oxidative damage. Our study provides insights into the role of Nitro-PAHs exposure on growth processing toxicity and genotoxicity in plant and provided a useful reference for the surveillance and risk management of Nitro-PAHs in environments.


Assuntos
Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pirenos/toxicidade
9.
Chemosphere ; 232: 439-452, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158639

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of an allochthonous Gram-positive wastewater bacterium (Bacillus sp. KUJM2) selected through rigorous screening, for the removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs; As, Cd, Cu, Ni) and promotion of plant growth under PTE-stress conditions. The dried biomass of the bacterial strain removed PTEs (5 mg L-1) from water by 90.17-94.75 and 60.4-81.41%, whereas live cells removed 87.15-91.69 and 57.5-78.8%, respectively, under single-PTE and co-contaminated conditions. When subjected to a single PTE, the bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) reached the maxima with Cu (67.66%) and Ni (64.33%), but Cd showed an inhibitory effect beyond 5 mg L-1 level. The multiple-PTE treatment induced IAA production only up to 5 mg L-1 beyond which inhibition ensued. Enhanced germination rate, germination index and seed production of lentil plant (Lens culinaris) under the bacterial inoculation indicated the plant growth promotion potential of the microbial strain. Lentil plants, as a result of bacterial inoculation, responded with higher shoot length (7.1-27.61%), shoot dry weight (18.22-36.3%) and seed production (19.23-29.17%) under PTE-stress conditions. The PTE uptake in lentil shoots decreased by 67.02-79.85% and 65.94-78.08%, respectively, under single- and multiple-PTE contaminated conditions. Similarly, PTE uptake was reduced in seeds up to 72.82-86.62% and 68.68-85.94%, respectively. The bacteria-mediated inhibition of PTE translocation in lentil plant was confirmed from the translocation factor of the respective PTEs. Thus, the selected bacterium (Bacillus sp. KUJM2) offered considerable potential as a PTE remediating agent, plant growth promoter and regulator of PTE translocation curtailing environmental and human health risks.


Assuntos
Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Bacillus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Lens (Planta)/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
10.
J Plant Physiol ; 239: 71-82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212099

RESUMO

Cryopreservation is a process whereby biological structures are preserved in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) without losing their viability. Many cryopreservation techniques use the Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) for cryoprotection. This study will therefore evaluate the influence of different exposure times to the cryoprotectant PVS2 and discuss the importance of the mobilization of reserves and the antioxidant metabolism during the germination of cryopreserved Passiflora ligularis embryos. The composition of P. ligularis seeds was analytically determined. We tested the germination capacity and the Germination Speed Index (GSI) of embryos (that is, seeds without external tegument) which were exposed to different PVS2 exposure times (0, 30, 60 and 120 min) at 30 days after thawing. Proline content, hydrogen peroxide, activity of isocitrate lyase (ICL), malate synthase (MSy), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, APX) were measured at 7, 14 and 21 days after cryopreservation. The germination from cryopreserved embryos was maximal (85%) after 60 min PVS2 exposure with a GSI of 0.6. At 60 min, the highest activity of the enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ICL and MSy were recorded. We hypothesize that a 60 min exposure to PVS2 accelerates the reserve mobilization which correlates positively with germination. Until 60 min, there was a positive correlation between the PVS2 exposure time and the proline content, as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX), and a negative correlation with the lipid peroxidation. This study enables us to optimize the long-term conservation of this species. In conclusion, fundamental research is necessary to optimize the cryopreservation procedure, and this study offers an effective and efficient workflow which can be extrapolated to other (oil-rich) species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Crioprotetores/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Passiflora/fisiologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Criopreservação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(3): 461-467, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222423

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the impact of treated domestic wastewater on seed germination, seedling growth and reserve mobilization from Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum L.). Seeds were germinated by soaking in distilled water (H2O) or wastewater treated with various methods: activated sludge processes (T1), facultative lagoons treatment (T2) and dilution. Results show high levels of organic matter (OM), suspended solids (TSS) and nutrients in TWW (T2) than that of TWW (T1). The embryo length and biomass of fenugreek imbibed by TWW were higher in TWW (T2) compared with TWW (T1). There was more reduction in free amino acids and soluble sugar contents in fenugreek treated with TWW (T1) than treated by TWW (T2). Important solutes leakage is recorded by measuring electric conductivity during seed imbibition with TWW. Improving the quality of wastewater by dilution (50%) stimulated germination of seeds and the growth of the tested plant. Moreover, it significantly reduces the solutes leakage and enhanced seed metabolites accumulation.


Assuntos
Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Trigonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Trigonella/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Agricultura , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Esgotos/efeitos adversos , Esgotos/química , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900278, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207097

RESUMO

Using synthetic chemicals in industry and agriculture has led to several environmental problems. Thus, plant products derived from volatile oils (VOs) could be a potential green source for bioherbicides. Little is known about the VOs of Lactuca serriola. Hence, the present study aimed to characterize the VOs chemical composition from the aerial parts of L. serriola, assessment of antioxidant activity, and evaluate allelopathic potential against the noxious weed Bidens pilosa. The VOs were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The VOs from the Egyptian ecospecies of L. serriola were found to comprise 34 compounds mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. The major compounds were isoshyobunone (64.22 %), isocembrol (17.35 %), and alloaromadendrene oxide-1 (7.32 %). So, L. serriola can be considered as a good source for isoshyobunone, considering that it has a much higher concentration than any other plants. Also, this plant has a high content of the oxygenated diterpene compound, isocembrol, which is rarely found in the VOs of most plants. The VOs expressed strong antioxidant activity. Also, for the first time, our results showed a strong allelopathic activity of VOs from L. serriola on germination and seedling growth of the noxious weed, B. pilosa. We suppose that the activity of the VOs from L. serriola could be attributed to these previously mentioned major compounds, as they represent about 89 % of the total identified oil constituents. Nevertheless, to evaluate these compounds as new allelochemicals, further study is needed to test the allelopathic activity of authenticated standard of these compounds either singular or in combination on several weeds as well as evaluate the safety, and improve the efficacy and stability at the field scale.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Asteraceae/química , Diterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Bidens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 345-352, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202935

RESUMO

Nanomaterials are being used increasingly in various areas such as electronic devices manufacture, medicine, mechanical devices production, and even food industry. Therefore, the evaluation of their toxicity is mandatory. Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to have both positive as well as negative impact on different crop plants, depending on species, dose, and duration of exposure. The current study evaluated the impact of GO sheets at different concentrations (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L) on physiological, biochemical and genetic levels to determine the possible toxic action. Wheat caryopses were treated with GO for 48 h and 7 days. The germination rate and roots elongation decreased in a dose-response manner, except the sample treated with GO at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. Mitotic index has ascendant trend; its increase may be due to the accumulation of prophases GO induced significant accumulation of the cells with aberrations, their presence suggests a clastogenic/aneugenic effect of these carbon nanomaterials. Regarding enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system defence, the activity varied depending on the dose of GO. Thus, chlorophyll a pigments content decreased significantly at high dose (2000 mg/L), while the carotenoid pigments had lower content at 500 mg/L of GO, and no statistical difference encountered in case of chlorophyll b amount. The antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, POD, and SOD) was higher at low dose of GO, indicating the presence of oxidative stress generated as a response to the GO treatment. Also, the free radical scavenging activity of the polyphenolic compounds was enhanced upon GO exposure. The GO accumulation has been identified by transmission electron microscopy only at plumules level, near the intercellular space.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Óxidos/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 465, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243568

RESUMO

The germination capacity of poplar seeds has never been studied in the context of metal(loid)-contaminated soils, even though poplars are present over a vast geographical area. In this study, black poplar seeds from the Loire Valley (France) were grown for 28 days in mesocosm on a heavily polluted soil that was subjected to different amendments. This phytomanagement process aimed to allow the revegetation of an As and Pb-contaminated mining soil by adding appropriate amendments, resulting in metal(loid) soil stabilisation and efficient plant growth. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of three amendments (garden soil, compost and biochar) when added alone or combined to a technosol on (i) the soil physicochemical properties, (ii) the mobility of As and Pb in the soil pore water (SPW), (iii) the capacity of poplar seeds to germinate and to grow and (iv) the metal(loid) distribution within the plant organs. The addition of amendments alone or combined allowed a 90% decrease in SPW Pb concentrations, while the arsenic concentrations were between 18 and 416 times higher. However, we were only able to obtain seed germination and plant growth on amended soils. These promising results will allow us to explore the use of such amendments in rehabilitating areas that are sources of significant metal(loid) dissemination, as well as allowing a natural plant recolonisation of these sites by seeds from the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Compostagem , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Mineração , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , França , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/toxicidade , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 157: 53-59, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153477

RESUMO

Indian hedge mustard (Sisymbrium orientale) (IHM) is an important broadleaf weed across southern Australia. Resistance to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides that inhibit acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is extensive in Australia, but resistance to imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides has only been reported recently. The AHAS-mutation profile of 65 IHM populations collected randomly from cropped fields was investigated to better understand the extent and types of resistance present. Resistance to SU herbicides was present in 40% of the populations and resistance to IMI herbicides in 11%. Mutations were identified in SoAHAS by sequence analysis, and included previously reported amino-acid substitutions at Pro197 and Trp574, but also new substitutions at Pro197 and Asp376 for this species. One population with possible non-target-site resistance was identified. Germination studies with fresh seed found no significant effect by mutations in SoAHAS on germination; however, population factors had a large effect on germination in S. orientale. Resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in populations of S. orientale is endowed by mutations in SoAHAS in all but one population examined. Mutations at Pro197 conferring resistance to SU herbicides were most common, while mutations at Trp574 that provide resistance to IMI herbicides are also present.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Mostardeira/genética , Mutação/genética , Austrália , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Mostardeira/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 21013-21021, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119539

RESUMO

In this study the phytotoxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of two commercial fungicide-active compounds, procymidone (PR) and iprodione (IP), were determined. The parameters evaluated were germination and root growth, mitotic index, chromosomal and nuclear aberrations, and molecular analyses were also performed in the model plant Allium cepa L. The results demonstrated that the active compounds PR and IP were phytotoxic, delaying germination and slowing the development of A. cepa seedlings. Moreover, PR and IP showed cytogenotoxicity towards A. cepa meristematic cells, inducing chromosomal changes and cell death. The mutagenic activity of the active compounds was demonstrated by the detection of DNA changes in simple sequence repeat (SSR) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers in the treated cells compared to the negative control. Together, these results contribute to a better understanding of the damage caused by these substances in living organisms and reveal a promising strategy for prospective studies of the toxic effects of environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Hidantoínas/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cebolas/genética , Cebolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 257-263, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082610

RESUMO

Biological tests with plant seeds have been adopted in many studies to investigate the phytotoxicity of pollutants to facilitate the control of risks and remain to be optimized. In this work, the experiment with a small sample size (Experiment 1) and the experiment with a large one (Experiment 2) were designed to study the effect of tetracycline (TC) on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) at seed germination and radicle elongation stages. At the former stage, germination number data were obtained to analyze the germination energy (GE) and to judge the probability of the number of germinated seeds (Pn) by the binomial distribution model in Experiment 1. While germination time-to-number data were obtained to analyze the mean time to germination (MGT), the estimate of mean time to germination (EMGT) by survival analysis method, the time to germination for 50% of total seeds (T50) and the germination rate (GR) besides GE in Experiment 2. At the latter stage, the data of radicle length (RL) were obtained in all the experiments and the influence from the former stage on this stage was excluded in Experiment 2 but not in Experiment 1. Results showed that TC had universal adverse effects on the latter stage but not on the former stage in the experiments. Considering the availability of germination data for statistical analysis and the robustness of RL data, the methods adopted in Experiment 2 were more feasible than those in Experiment 1. In addition, Chinese cabbage seeds with medium size have the character of rapid germination compared with the commonly used crop species and can be used to shorten the experimental cycle to study the responses of seeds to pollutants to evaluate the phytotoxicity. We introduced survival analysis method to analyze the germination time-to-number data obtained in seed germination test to evaluate the phytotoxicity of tetracycline.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetraciclina/toxicidade , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18451-18464, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044381

RESUMO

Petroleum contamination and its remediation via plant-based solutions have got increasing attention by environmental scientists and engineers. In the current study, the physiological and growth responses of two diesel-tolerant plant species (tolerance limit: 1500-2000 mg/kg), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), have been investigated in vegetable oil- and diesel oil-amended soils. A long-term (147-day) greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to differentiate the main focus of the study: physical and chemical effects of oil (vegetable and diesel) in freshly spiked soils via evaluating the plant performance and hydrocarbon degradation. Moreover, plant performance was evaluated in terms of seed germination, plant shoot biomass, physiological parameters, and root biomass. Addition of both diesel oil and vegetable oil in freshly spiked soils showed deleterious effects on seedling emergence, root/shoot biomass, and chlorophyll content of grass and legume plants. Italian ryegrass showed more sensitivity in terms of germination rate to both vegetable and diesel oil as compared to non-contaminated soils while Birdsfoot trefoil reduced the germination rate only in diesel oil-impacted soils. The results of the current study suggest that both physical and chemical effects of oil pose negative effects of plant growth and root development. This observation may explain the phenomenon of reduced plant growth in aged/weathered contaminated soils during rhizoremediation experiments.


Assuntos
Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Lotus/efeitos dos fármacos , Petróleo/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lolium/metabolismo , Lotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lotus/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizosfera , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 17986-17995, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065986

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the resistance of lawn plant to Co2+ at germination stage and discuss its concentration property at adult stage, four kinds of lawn plant which have some growth advantages in Co2+ polluted environment were selected as experimental materials in this research. They are tall fescue, timothy grass, inflorescences, and annual ryegrass. The results show that the evaluation of resistance to Co2+ of tall fescue's seed is the highest; the evaluation of resistance to Co2+ of annual ryegrass seed is the lowest. The low consistence Co2+ could improve the seed germination. With Co2+ concentration increase, the accumulation coefficient of four plants increased at first and decreased later; the accumulation coefficient of underground portion is higher than the accumulation coefficient of aboveground; with Co2+ concentration increase, the transfer coefficient of four plants have a remarkable decline. In these plants, the accumulation coefficient of tall fescue and annual ryegrass is bigger than other two plants. As the concentration of Co2+ treatment increased to 100 mg/kg, the aboveground enrichment of Co2+ in F. elata reached 75 mg/kg, followed by L. multiflorum (68.9 mg/kg), P. pratense (48.8 mg/kg), and D. glomerata (27.2 mg/kg).The highest underground enrichment of Co2+ in F. elata reached 836.46 mg/kg, in contrast to the lowest underground enrichment in D. glomerata, 264.67 mg/kg. It shows that fescue and annual ryegrass have a better enrichment property to Co2+ and have a better prospect for the treatment of cobalt-contaminated soil. This research could provide some scientific basis and main technical approach for the soil contaminated by Co2+.


Assuntos
Cobalto/análise , Festuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobalto/toxicidade , Festuca/química , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lolium/química , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Teóricos , Plântula/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 199, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fraxinus hupehensis is an endangered tree species that is endemic to in China; the species has very high commercial value because of its intricate shape and potential to improve and protect the environment. Its seeds show very low germination rates in natural conditions. Preliminary experiments indicated that gibberellin (GA3) effectively stimulated the seed germination of F. hupehensis. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA3 on F. hupehensis seed germination. RESULTS: We compared dormant seeds (CK group) and germinated seeds after treatment with water (W group) and GA3 (G group) in terms of seed vigor and several other physiological indicators related to germination, hormone content, and transcriptomics. Results showed that GA3 treatment increases seed vigor, energy requirements, and trans-Zetain (ZT) and GA3 contents but decreases sugar and abscisic acid (ABA) contents. A total of 116,932 unigenes were obtained from F. hupehensis transcriptome. RNA-seq analysis identified 31,856, 33,188 and 2056 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the W and CK groups, the G and CK groups, and the G and W groups, respectively. Up-regulation of eight selected DEGs of the glycolytic pathway accelerated the oxidative decomposition of sugar to release energy for germination. Up-regulated genes involved in ZT (two genes) and GA3 (one gene) biosynthesis, ABA degradation pathway (one gene), and ABA signal transduction (two genes) may contribute to seed germination. Two down-regulated genes associated with GA3 signal transduction were also observed in the G group. GA3-regulated genes may alter hormone levels to facilitate germination. Candidate transcription factors played important roles in GA3-promoted F. hupehensis seed germination, and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis verified the expression patterns of these genes. CONCLUSION: Exogenous GA3 increased the germination rate, vigor, and water absorption rate of F. hupehensis seeds. Our results provide novel insights into the transcriptional regulation mechanism of effect of exogenous GA3 on F. hupehensis seed germination. The transcriptome data generated in this study may be used for further molecular research on this unique species.


Assuntos
Fraxinus/fisiologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fraxinus/genética , Fraxinus/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
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