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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20180426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159585

RESUMO

Effective microorganisms (EM) are inoculants formed by fungi and bacteria isolated from soil. EM are commonly used by farmers on agronomic crops to stimulate plant growth, but their composition and their benefits has been controverted. This study aimed to analyze the diversity of microorganisms growing in three EM inoculants, as well as to evaluate their efficiency in the germination of palisade grass seeds. The total DNA of the three EM inoculants was extracted, the 16S rRNA and ITS genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Germination tests were conducted with three type of the EM, in three concentration and two times of the immersion. The bacterial group was the most abundant in EM, followed by fungi. Bacterial operational taxonomic units OTUs were shared by all EMs. Pre-treatments of palisade grass seeds with EMs resulted in a higher germination percentage (% G) and germination speed index (IVG) when EM was used at concentration of 1 or 2% in water. Seed immersion for 5 min was more efficient than immersion for 24 h. We can conclude that EM of different origin can share microbial groups and diversity of microorganisms, besides being an alternative to increase palisade grass seeds germination.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Germinação/fisiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Ácidos Sulfúricos/farmacologia
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(6): 615-624, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997111

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: PTR2 in Arabidopsis thaliana is negatively regulated by ABI4 and plays a key role in water uptake by seeds, ensuring that imbibed seeds proceed to germination. Peptide transporters (PTRs) transport nitrogen-containing substrates in a proton-dependent manner. Among the six PTRs in Arabidopsis thaliana, the physiological role of the tonoplast-localized, seed embryo abundant PTR2 is unknown. In the present study, a molecular physiological analysis of PTR2 was conducted using ptr2 mutants and PTR2CO complementation lines. Compared with the wild type, the ptr2 mutant showed ca. 6 h delay in testa rupture and consequently endosperm rupture because of 17% lower water content and 10% higher free abscisic acid (ABA) content. Constitutive overexpression of the PTR2 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in ptr2 mutants rescued the mutant phenotypes. After cold stratification, a transient increase in ABA INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) transcript levels during induction of testa rupture was followed by a similar increase in PTR2 transcript levels, which peaked prior to endosperm rupture. The PTR2 promoter region containing multiple CCAC motifs was recognized by ABI4 in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and PTR2 expression was repressed by 67% in ABI4 overexpression lines compared with the wild type, suggesting that PTR2 is an immediate downstream target of ABI4. Taken together, the results suggest that ABI4-dependent temporal regulation of PTR2 expression may influence water status during seed germination to promote the post-germinative growth of imbibed seeds.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 312: 108374, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669765

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica outbreaks in sprouts originate from contaminated seeds; conventional prevention technologies have been reported from many research institutes. In this study, we applied a biological control approach to inhibit S. enterica growth using the seed-dwelling non-antagonistic bacteria. We isolated non-antibacterial seed-dwelling bacteria from vegetable sprouts. A total of 206 bacteria exhibiting non-antibacterial activity against S. enterica were subjected to alfalfa sprout development tests. Eight isolates exhibiting no deleterious effect on the growth of alfalfa sprouts were tested for S. enterica growth inhibition on alfalfa seeds and sprouts, and an isolate EUS78 was finally selected for further investigation. Based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoB gene sequence analyses, strain EUS78 was identified as Erwinia persicina. In population competition, the S. enterica population increased by >3 log CFU/g after 6 days of alfalfa sprout growth, whereas S. enterica growth was significantly inhibited by treatment with EUS78 (P < .05). This effect of S. enterica growth inhibition by EUS78 was sustained until the end of the alfalfa sprout harvest. Overall, bacterial strain EUS78 significantly reduced S. enterica growth on alfalfa sprouts in a manner consistent with competitive exclusion. These findings led us to monitor EUS78 behavior on seeds during early sprout development using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Strain EUS78 initially colonized alfalfa sprout seed coat edges, cotyledons, and finally root surfaces during early sprout germination. As alfalfa sprouts grew, EUS78 bacterial cells established colonies on newly emerged plant tissues such as root tips. The results of this study suggest that strain EUS78 has potential as a biological control agent to inhibit S. enterica contamination in the sprout food industry.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Erwinia/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , DNA Girase/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Erwinia/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Germinação/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Verduras/microbiologia
4.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22 Suppl 1: 103-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556244

RESUMO

The study of climate-driven effects on seed traits such as germination has gained momentum over the past decade as the impact of global warming becomes more apparent on the health and survival of plant diversity. Seed response to warming was evaluated in a suite of short-range endemic species from the biodiverse Greenstone Belt of southern Western Australia. The temperature dimensions for germination in 20 woody perennials were identified using small unreplicated samples over 6 weeks on a temperature gradient plate (constant and fluctuating temperatures between 5 and 40 °C). These data were subsequently modelled against current and forecast (2070) mean monthly minimum and maximum temperatures to illustrate seasonal changes to germination timing and final percentage germination. All but one species attained full germination in at least one cell on the gradient plate. Modelling of the data suggested only minimal changes to percentage germination despite a forecast rise in diurnal temperatures over the next 50 years. Nine species were predicted to experience declines of between <1% and 7%, whilst 11 species were predicted to increase their germination by <1% to 3%. Overall, the speed of germination is predicted to increase but the timing of germination for most species shifts seasonally (both advances and delays) as a result of changing diurnal temperatures. The capacity of this suite of species to cope with warmer temperatures during a critical early life stage shows a degree of adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Predicting the effects of global change on terrestrial plant communities is crucial to managing and conserving plant diversity.


Assuntos
Germinação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Temperatura Ambiente , Germinação/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Austrália Ocidental
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 144: 207-221, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586721

RESUMO

Rice is a major food crop. Due to urbanization and climate change, rice production is declining, posing a threat to the increasing food demand. For this, a modified technique of priming is used to enhance plant vigor. In the present study an endogenous rice cultivar was treated with two different iron salts for 72 h and grown for 14 days in nutrient solution. This increased the iron content of the samples which further escalated the photosynthetic efficiency and carbon assimilation in the treated plants. Photosynthesis being correlated to nitrogen assimilation, nitrogen assimilation intermediates and protein content were also elevated in treated plants. Plants showed no symptoms of stress as evident from low malondialdehyde content and increased antioxidant enzymes' activity. From this study it can be inferred that, treatment with iron during germination, helps to trigger growth by facilitating photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644643

RESUMO

Seed companies are looking for promising, quick and effective alternatives to determine the physiological quality of seeds. The objective of the current work was to study the efficiency of the exudate - phenolphthalein pH test to evaluate the seeds of two lots of Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz var. ferrea. The statistical design for the the exudate - phenolphthalein pH test was completely randomized with four replicates of 50 seeds in a factorial design (2 x 5), two seed lots and five soaking periods (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes), respectively, using two constant temperatures (25 and 30°C). The percentage of viability and germination of the seeds did not differ in the temperatures of 25 and 30°C and in the soaking periods by the exudate - phenolphthalein pH test. Thus, it is recommended that the test be conducted for at least 30 minutes in distilled and deionized water at the constant temperature of 25 or 30°C to evaluate the vigor of the Libidibia ferrea.


Assuntos
Caesalpinia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/fisiologia , Fenolftaleína/análise , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caesalpinia/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Controle de Qualidade , Sementes/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2955-2963, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529870

RESUMO

Light is a key factor affecting seed germination and seedling growth. In this study, seed germination and seedling growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Schima superba were compared under controlled conditions with five light treatments (100%, 60%, 40%, 15% and 5% of full sunlight). The results showed that light intensity significantly impacted seed germination and seedling growth of both species. With decreasing light intensity, the germination rate and germination index of C. lanceolata increased, while those of S. superba showed a trend which increased first and then decreased, with the maximum at 40% light intensity. The seedling survival rate of both species was 0 under full sunlight, while significantly decreased with decreasing light intensity from 60% to 5%. Root length, basal stem diameter and height showed a consistent trend with the change of light availability in both species. Root length significantly decreased, basal stem diameter and height increased first and then decreased with decreasing light intensity, with the minimum at 5% light intensity. With decreasing light intensity, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and total biomass of C. lanceolata seedlings declined, while high biomass accumulation of S. superba seedlings were observed in 15%-60% light intensities, and lowest at 5% light intensity. Biomass accumulation in each organ of S. superba seedlings was greater than that of C. lanceolata seedlings under the same light intensity. High stem biomass and leaf biomass, low root biomass and root to shoot ratio were a phenotypic response to low light intensity in C. lanceolata and S. superba seedlings grown under poor light condition. The growth of C. lanceolata is better under relatively high light intensity than S. superba. Whereas S. superba is moderately shade-tolerant at the seedling stage, thus is more suitable for planting under closed canopy.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Theaceae , Sementes
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180439, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531531

RESUMO

The orchid seed banks of Atlantic Forest may be considered a key strategy for the conservation of species threatened with extinction by indiscriminate collection or habitat destruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed viability, to choose the best culture medium for the asymbiotic germination and evaluate germination, after storage for different periods and temperatures for the Brazilian native orchids: Gomesa praetexta (Rchb.f.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa forbesii (Hook.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa recurva R.Br. and Grandiphyllum divaricatum (Lindl.) Docha Neto. Knudson C (KC), Murashige & Skoog (MS), half-strength MS (1/2 MS macro- and micro-nutrients) and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) culture media were tested for germination. The WPM culture medium was the best for asymbiotic germination of all species evaluated, with high germination percentages and improved seedling development. Seeds of G. divaricatum, G. praetexta, G. recurva and G. forbesii indicated orthodox behavior, with high viability rates after 12 months of storage, being recommended the storage temperature of -80°C for the first three species and -20°C for G. forbesii. The protocol developed in the present study was efficient for seed bank storage, in vitro germination and seedling production of G. divaricatum and G. praetexta, contributing to conservation strategies of these species.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Germinação/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , Brasil , Meios de Cultura , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florestas , Orchidaceae/classificação , Banco de Sementes
9.
J Plant Physiol ; 241: 153031, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476676

RESUMO

Seed dormancy is a critical mechanism that delays germination until environmental conditions are favorable for growth. Plant hormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) have long been recognized as key players in regulating dormancy and germination. Recent data have increased interest in brassinosteroid (BR) hormones that promote germination by activating GA downstream genes and inactivating ABA signaling. Exposure of imbibed seeds to low temperature (cold stratification) is widely used to release seed dormancy and to improve germination frequency. However, the mechanism by which cold stratification overcomes the inhibitory role of ABA is not completely understood. In the present study, we show delayed germination of seeds of the BR insensitive mutant, bri1-5, that was largely reversed by treatment with fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis. In addition, the bri1-5 seeds were markedly less sensitive to the cold stratification release of dormancy. These results suggest that BR locates upstream of ABA signaling and downstream of cold stratification signaling in dormancy and germination pathways. Consistent with this notion, BR biosynthetic genes, DWF4 and DET2, were upregulated by cold stratification. The transcripts of the GA biosynthesis gene, GA3ox1, and cold responsive genes, CBF1 and CBF2, increased in response to cold stratification in wild type seeds but not in bri1-5 seeds. Conversely, transgenic seeds overexpressing BRI1 germinated more rapidly than wild type in the absence of cold stratification. Thus, we propose that BR signaling plays a previously unrecognized role in the cold stratification pathway for seed dormancy and germination.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/antagonistas & inibidores , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Baixa , Escuridão , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Piridonas/farmacologia , Sementes/fisiologia
10.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(8): 869-877, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392635

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) that has been widely used for groundwater remediation on a terrestrial crop, Medicago sativa (Alfalfa), and comprehensively addressed its development and growth in soil culture. Root lengths, chlorophyll, carbohydrate and lignin contents were compared, and no physiological phytotoxicity was observed in the plants. In the roots, using an omics-based analytical, we found evidence of OH radical-induced cell wall loosening from exposure to nZVI, resulting in increased root lengths that were approximately 1.5 times greater than those of the control. Moreover, germination index (GI) was employed to physiologically evaluate the impact of nZVI on germination and root length. In regard to chlorophyll concentration, nZVI-treated alfalfa exhibited a higher value in 20-day-old seedlings, whereas the carbohydrate and lignin contents were slightly decreased in nZVI-treated alfalfa. Additionally, evidence for translocation of nZVI into plant tissues was also found. Vibrating sample magnetometry on shoots revealed the translocation of nZVI from the root to shoot. In this study, using an edible crop as a representative model, the potential impact of reactive engineered nanomaterials that can be exposed to the ecosystem on plant is discussed.


Assuntos
Ferro/efeitos adversos , Medicago sativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago sativa/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizosfera
11.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(11): 2584-2596, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373371

RESUMO

During seed germination, proteins are translated not only from mRNAs newly transcribed upon imbibition but also from long-lived mRNAs that are synthesized during seed maturation and stored in the mature dry seeds. To clarify the distinct roles of proteins translated from long-lived mRNAs and de novo transcribed mRNAs in germinating rice embryos, proteome analysis based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combining the use of a transcriptional inhibitor was performed. We observed that α-amanitin significantly represses transcription in germinating embryos; nevertheless, the embryos could germinate, albeit slowly. The proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 109 proteins were translated from long-lived mRNAs associated with germination as well as 222 proteins whose expression were dependent on de novo transcription upon imbibition. Transcriptomic datasets available in public databases demonstrated that mRNAs of the 222 proteins notably increased during germination while those of the 109 proteins highly accumulated in dry embryos and constitutively expressed upon imbibition. Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that many of the 109 proteins from long-lived mRNAs are implicated in energy production such as glycolysis or annotated as nucleotide binding proteins, while the 222 proteins are involved in pathways such as pyruvate metabolism and TCA cycle following glycolysis, and momilactones biosynthesis. We propose that long-lived mRNAs support initial energy production and activation of translational machinery upon imbibition whereas de novo transcription accelerates the energy production after glycolysis, which enables rice seeds to germinate vigorously.


Assuntos
Oryza/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Alfa-Amanitina/metabolismo , Germinação/fisiologia , Proteômica
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180504, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432902

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis from explants from hermaphrodite papaya mother plants is an alternative for the production of true-to-type plants without the need for sexing. This study aimed to analyze hormonal and osmotic inducers in different somatic embryogenesis stages in the commercial hermaphrodite hybrid papaya UENF/Caliman 01. Leaf disks from in vitro shoots originated from ex vitro hermaphrodite plants were cultured in induction medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 µM) and 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28, and 31 µM). After 90 days, the formation of somatic embryos was verified. The 2,4-D induced the formation of light brown calli with low frequency (20%) of somatic embryogenesis. However, 4-CPA (25 µM) induced 96% of embryogenic calli, which were transferred to maturation medium (MM) and cultured for 30 days. The MM contained ABA (0.5 µM) and AC (15 g L-1) and produced 36.6 somatic embryos callus-1, mainly on cotyledonary stage. Cotyledonary embryos were transferred to germination medium supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3) (0.0, 1.44, 2.88, and 4.32 µM), and the conversion into plantlets was enhanced with GA3 at 2.88 µM.


Assuntos
Carica/embriologia , Carica/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(11): 2394-2409, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292649

RESUMO

In higher plants, the post-translational modification of target proteins via the attachment of molecules such as ubiquitin (Ub) mediates a variety of cellular functions via the Ub/26S proteasome system. Here, a really interesting new gene (RING)-H2 type E3 ligase, which regulates target proteins via the Ub/26S proteasome system, was isolated from a rice plant, and its other grass orthologs were examined to determine the evolution of its molecular function during speciation. The gene encoding Oryza sativa cytoplasmic-localized RING finger protein 1 (OsCLR1) was highly expressed under salt and drought stresses. By contrast, the three grass orthologs, SbCLR1 from Sorghum bicolor, ZmCLR1 from Zea mays and TaCLR1 from Triticum aestivum, showed different responses to these stresses. Despite these differences, all four orthologs exhibited E3 ligase activity with cytosol-targeted localization, demonstrating conserved molecular functions. Although OsCLR1-overexpressing plants showed higher survival rates under both salt and drought stresses than that of the wild type (WT) plants, this pattern was not observed in the other orthologs. In addition, OsCLR1-overexpressing plants exhibited lower germination rates in ABA than that of WT plants, whereas the three ortholog CLR1-overexpressing plants showed rates similar to the WT plants. These results indicate the positive regulation of OsCLR1 in response to salt and drought in an ABA-dependent manner. Despite the molecular functions of the three CLR1 orthologs remaining largely unknown, our results provide an insight into the evolutionary fate of CLR1 grass orthologs during speciation after the divergence from a common ancestor.


Assuntos
Secas , Oryza/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Germinação/genética , Germinação/fisiologia , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276530

RESUMO

Plant life cycle begins with germination of seed below the ground. This is followed by seedling's development in the dark: skotomorphogenesis; and then a light-mediated growth: photomorphogenesis. After germination, hypocotyl grows rapidly to reach the sun, which involves elongation of shoot at the expense of root and cotyledons. Upon reaching ground level, seedling gets exposed to sunlight following a switch from the etiolated (skotomorphogenesis) to the de-etiolated (photomorphogenesis) stage, involving a series of molecular and physiological changes. Gymnosperms have evolved very differently and adopted diverse strategies as compared to angiosperms; with regards to response to light quality, conifers display a very mild high-irradiance response as compared to angiosperms. Absence of apical hook and synthesis of chlorophyll during skotomorphogenesis are two typical features in gymnosperms which differentiate them from angiosperms (dicots). Information regarding etiolation and de-etiolation processes are well understood in angiosperms, but these mechanisms are less explored in conifer species. It is, therefore, interesting to know how similar these processes are in conifers as compared to angiosperms. We performed a global expression analysis (RNA sequencing) on etiolated and de-etiolated seedlings of two economically important conifer species in Sweden to review the differentially expressed genes associated with the two processes. Based on the results, we propose that high levels of HY5 in conifers under DARK condition coupled with expression of few other genes associated with de-etiolation in angiosperms e.g. SPA, DET1 (lower expression under DARK) and CRY1 (higher expression under DARK), leads to partial expression of photomorphogenic genes in the DARK phenotype in conifers as displayed by absence of apical hook, opening of cotyledons and synthesis of chlorophyll.


Assuntos
Estiolamento/genética , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Traqueófitas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cotilédone/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cycadopsida/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Germinação/fisiologia , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Luz , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Suécia
15.
Mycorrhiza ; 29(5): 531-540, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270609

RESUMO

Orchid mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the seed germination and vegetative growth of orchids. The orchid Bletilla striata has great medical value in China because its tuber is rich in mannan. Some endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of B. striata. The isolate KB-3 was selected for experiments because it could promote the germination of B. striata seeds. Based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis, the isolate KB-3 was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Co-cultivation experiments of KB-3 with B. striata and Dendrobium candidum were performed to demonstrate orchid mycorrhizal structures. Microscopic examination showed that KB-3 established colonization and produced coiled hyphal structures known as pelotons within the cortical cells of both orchid roots. The results confirm that F. oxysporum KB-3 can behave as an orchid mycorrhizal fungus.


Assuntos
Fusarium/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Fusarium/classificação , Germinação/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(6): 1159-1166, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278841

RESUMO

Hypoxic floodwaters can seriously damage seedlings. Seed dormancy could be an effective trait to avoid lethal underwater germination. This research aimed to discover novel adaptive dormancy responses to hypoxic floodwaters in seeds of Echinochloa crus-galli, a noxious weed from rice fields and lowland croplands. Echinochloa crus-galli dormant seeds were subjected to a series of sequential treatments. Seeds were: (i) submerged under hypoxic floodwater (simulated with hypoxic flasks) at different temperatures for 15 or 30 days, and germination tested under drained conditions while exposing seeds to dormancy-breaking signals (alternating temperatures, nitrate (KNO3 ), light); or (ii) exposed to dormancy-breaking signals during hypoxic submergence, and germination monitored during incubation and after transfer to drained conditions. Echinochloa crus-galli seed primary dormancy was attenuated under hypoxic submergence but to a lesser extent than under drained conditions. Hypoxic floodwater did not reinforced dormancy but hindered secondary dormancy induction in warm temperatures. Seeds did not germinate under hypoxic submergence even when subjected to dormancy-breaking signals; however, these signals broke dormancy in seeds submerged under normoxic water. Seeds submerged in hypoxic water could sense light through phytochrome signals and germinated when normoxic conditions were regained. Hypoxic floodwaters interfere with E. crus-galli seed seasonal dormancy changes. Dormancy-breaking signals are overridden during hypoxic floods, drastically decreasing underwater germination. In addition, results indicate that a fraction of E. crus-galli seeds perceive dormancy-breaking signals under hypoxic water and germinate immediately after aerobic conditions are regained, a hazardous yet less competitive environment for establishment.


Assuntos
Echinochloa/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Echinochloa/metabolismo , Germinação/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas
17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0214427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348777

RESUMO

Biological systems manifest continuous weak autoluminescence, which is present even in the absence of external stimuli. Since this autoluminescence arises from internal metabolic and physiological processes, several works suggested that it could carry information in the time series of the detected photon counts. However, there is little experimental work which would show any difference of this signal from random Poisson noise and some works were prone to artifacts due to lacking or improper reference signals. Here we apply rigorous statistical methods and advanced reference signals to test the hypothesis whether time series of autoluminescence from germinating mung beans display any intrinsic correlations. Utilizing the fractional Brownian bridge that employs short samples of time series in the method kernel, we suggest that the detected autoluminescence signal from mung beans is not totally random, but it seems to involve a process with a negative memory. Our results contribute to the development of the rigorous methodology of signal analysis of photonic biosignals.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Luminescência , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Plant Sci ; 285: 34-43, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203892

RESUMO

Seed germination is a critical stage during the initiation of the plant lifecycle and is strongly affected by endogenous phytohormones and environmental stress. High temperature (HT) upregulates endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) to suppress seed germination, and ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) is the key positive regulator in the ABA signal-mediated modulation of seed germination. In plants, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a small gas messenger that participates in multiple physiological processes, but its role in seed germination thermotolerance has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we found that H2S enhanced the seed germination rate under HT. Moreover, HT accelerates the efflux of the E3 ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, which results in increased nuclear accumulation of ELONG HYPCOTYL 5 (HY5) to activate the expression of ABI5 and thereby suppress seed germination. However, the H2S signal reversed the HT effect, as characterized by increased COP1 in the nucleus, which resulted in increased degradation of HY5 and reduced expression of ABI5 and thereby enhanced the seed germination thermotolerance. Thus, our findings reveal a novel role for the H2S signal in the modulation of seed germination thermotolerance through the nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of COP1 and the downstream HY5 and ABI5 pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Germinação/fisiologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia
19.
Am J Bot ; 106(6): 879-893, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157415

RESUMO

PREMISE: Seed germination strategy has profound ecological and evolutionary consequences, with transitions between germination strategies receiving renewed recent attention. Oxalis from the Cape Flora, South Africa, has seeds with two contrasting germination strategies: orthodox and recalcitrant. The morphological gulf between these strategies (and potential intermediate morphologies) has been poorly quantified, with questions regarding their ecological function and evolution. We reconsidered this binary classification, emphasizing potential intermediate states. METHODS: Seed physiological traits were used to assign strategies to 64 Oxalis species. We tested for morphological/phenological signal corresponding to defined strategies with cluster, principal component, K-means clustering and discriminant analyses. RESULTS: We showed that an intermediate germination strategy does exist among Cape Oxalis, with two possible morphological groups within each strategy. These could reflect a continuum of germination states, where an ancestral orthodox strategy evolved toward a maximally recalcitrant peak, with a mosaic of intermediate states reflected in extant taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors may affect germination strategy and distribution throughout the Cape because recalcitrant and intermediate species are confined to the winter rainfall region. They occupy specialized niches and may face adverse impacts under predicted climate change (hotter and drier winters), meriting focused future conservation.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Oxalidaceae/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Oxalidaceae/classificação , África do Sul
20.
Plant Sci ; 284: 91-98, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084884

RESUMO

Seeds germination or dormancy is strictly controlled by endogenous phytohormone signal and environment cues. High temperature (HT) suppresses seeds germination or triggers seeds dormancy but underlying mechanism by which HT mediates seeds germination thermoinhibition needs more investigating. SOM is reported as the critical factor negatively controls light-irradiation seeds germination by altering Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) biosynthesis. Here we found that HT accelerates SOM expressing through ABA signal transduction component ABI3, both of abi3 and som mutants seeds show high germination rate under HT in contrast to wild type seeds. Using ABI3 as the bait, we identified the epigenetic factor Powerdress (PWR) as the ABI3 interaction protein. Genetic and physiological analysis showed that PWR negatively control the expressing of SOM, and overexpressing PWR enhanced, while pwr mutant reduced, seeds germination thermotolerance. Without HT stress, PWR accelerated the histone H3 deacetylation level and H2A.Z deposition at SOM locus, and thus suppressed ABI3-dependent SOM transcription for seeds germination, HT stress block PWR transcriptional level, thus attenuated the inhibition effect of PWR on SOM expressing, resulting into seeds germination thermoinhibition. Thus our finding propose a new function of PWR in controlling seeds germination under HT through histone acetylation modification and H2A.Z deposition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Germinação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Código das Histonas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
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