Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.012
Filtrar
1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 157: 53-59, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153477

RESUMO

Indian hedge mustard (Sisymbrium orientale) (IHM) is an important broadleaf weed across southern Australia. Resistance to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides that inhibit acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is extensive in Australia, but resistance to imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides has only been reported recently. The AHAS-mutation profile of 65 IHM populations collected randomly from cropped fields was investigated to better understand the extent and types of resistance present. Resistance to SU herbicides was present in 40% of the populations and resistance to IMI herbicides in 11%. Mutations were identified in SoAHAS by sequence analysis, and included previously reported amino-acid substitutions at Pro197 and Trp574, but also new substitutions at Pro197 and Asp376 for this species. One population with possible non-target-site resistance was identified. Germination studies with fresh seed found no significant effect by mutations in SoAHAS on germination; however, population factors had a large effect on germination in S. orientale. Resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in populations of S. orientale is endowed by mutations in SoAHAS in all but one population examined. Mutations at Pro197 conferring resistance to SU herbicides were most common, while mutations at Trp574 that provide resistance to IMI herbicides are also present.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Mostardeira/genética , Mutação/genética , Austrália , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Mostardeira/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 279, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seed germination, a complex, physiological-morphogenetic process, is a critical stage in the life cycle of plants. Biological changes in germinating seeds have not been investigated in poplar, a model woody plant. RESULTS: In this study, we exploited next-generation sequencing and metabolomics analysis and uncovered a series of significantly different genes and metabolites at various stages of seed germination and post germination. The K-means method was used to identify multiple transcription factors, including AP2/EREBP, DOF, and YABBY, involved in specific seed germination and post-germination stages. A weighted gene coexpression network analysis revealed that cell wall, amino acid metabolism, and transport-related pathways were significantly enriched during stages 3 and 5, with no significant enrichment observed in primary metabolic processes such as glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A metabolomics analysis detected significant changes in intermediate metabolites in these primary metabolic processes, while a targeted correlation network analysis identified the gene family members most relevant to these changing metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results provide important insights into the molecular networks underlying poplar seed germination and post-germination processes. The targeted correlation network analysis approach developed in this study can be applied to search for key candidate genes in specific biochemical reactions and represents a new strategy for joint multiomics analyses.


Assuntos
Germinação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035313

RESUMO

Seed storage proteins must be hydrolyzed by proteases to deliver the amino acids essential for embryo growth and development. Several groups of proteases involved in this process have been identified in both the monocot and the dicot species. This review focuses on the implication of proteases during germination in two cereal species, barley and wheat, where proteolytic control during the germination process has considerable economic importance. Formerly, the participation of proteases during grain germination was inferred from reports of proteolytic activities, the expression of individual genes, or the presence of individual proteins and showed a prominent role for papain-like and legumain-like cysteine proteases and for serine carboxypeptidases. Nowadays, the development of new technologies and the release of the genomic sequences of wheat and barley have permitted the application of genome-scale approaches, such as those used in functional genomics and proteomics. Using these approaches, the repertoire of proteases known to be involved in germination has increased and includes members of distinct protease families. The development of novel techniques based on shotgun proteomics, activity-based protein profiling, and comparative and structural genomics will help to achieve a general view of the proteolytic process during germination.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Hordeum/enzimologia , Hordeum/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Germinação/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
4.
J Plant Res ; 132(4): 461-471, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115709

RESUMO

Reproductive isolation, including prezygotic and postzygotic barriers, is a mechanism that separates species. Many species in the Nicotiana section Suaveolentes exhibit reproductive isolation in crosses with Nicotiana tabacum. In this study, we investigated whether the chromosome numbers and ploidy levels of eight Nicotiana suaveolens accessions are related to the reproductive isolation after crosses with N. tabacum by flow cytometry and chromosome analyses. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the eight N. suaveolens accessions were sequenced and compared with the previously reported sequences of 22 Suaveolentes species to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships in the section Suaveolentes. We revealed that four N. suaveolens accessions comprised 64 chromosomes, while the other four accessions carried 32 chromosomes. Depending on the ploidy levels of N. suaveolens, several types of reproductive isolation were observed after crosses with N. tabacum, including decreases in the number of capsules and the germination rates of hybrid seeds, as well as hybrid lethality and abscission of enlarged ovaries at 12-17 days after pollination. A phylogenetic analysis involving ITS sequences divided the eight N. suaveolens accessions into three distinct clades. Based on the results, we confirmed that N. suaveolens accessions vary regarding ploidy levels and reproductive isolation mechanisms in crosses with N. tabacum. These accessions will be very useful for revealing and characterizing the reproductive isolation mechanisms in interspecific crosses and their relationships with ploidy levels.


Assuntos
Ploidias , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Tabaco/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA Intergênico/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Germinação/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tabaco/anatomia & histologia , Tabaco/fisiologia
5.
J Appl Genet ; 60(2): 137-146, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949857

RESUMO

Simulating drought stress during the breeding process has been proposed as a way to select varieties under naturally non-stressful conditions. The aim of the study was to characterise the genetic basis of the response of 111 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and landraces to chemical desiccation and to rain-out shelter drought. The effect of the rain-out shelter was a 15% reduction in plant height, spike length and thousand seed weight (TSW); in contrast, the desiccant treatment induced a 15% reduction in seed number, a 35-72% loss in TSW and a reduction in subsequent germination of 12%. A genome-wide association analysis revealed 263 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs), of which 246 involved days to anthesis, plant height, spike length, number of spikelets, seed number, TSW and germination from the non-treated plants. Only four and five MTAs involved TSW from plants grown under the rain-out shelter and the chemical desiccation, respectively, and harboured the Sugar-Dependent6 gene. Seven MTAs involved seed number for chemical desiccated plants. Both, chemical desiccation and rain-out shelter drought identified same tolerant genotypes. Concluding, both approaches are suitable to simulate different drought scenarios. However, there was a strong environmental impact for chemical desiccation which may increase the complexity of this tolerance mechanism.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Dessecação , Secas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Germinação/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Chuva , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(3): 18-24, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942152

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stress factors that is expanding its influence because of global climate change and global warming. It causes gene expression changes, a reduction in seed germination and related characteristics, and poor seedling establishment in many crop plants by creating a lower osmotic potential in the seedbed and/or toxic ion effects in germinated seeds. In recent years, seed priming has been considered a promising strategy in modern stress management to protect plants against stress conditions. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of osmopriming with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000) on seed germination, seedling growth and gene expression in the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) in different saline conditions. Common vetch seeds were primed with PEG-6000 solutions having different osmotic potentials (0.00, -0.50,  -0.75, -1.00, -1.25, and -1.50 MPa) for 12 hours. Control (un-primed) and primed seeds were germinated and seedlings were grown in different saline conditions (EC= zero, 4, 8 and 16 dS m-1). Furthermore, gene expression was compared in the primed seedlings in two different osmotic potentials (0.00 and -1.50 MPa) by microarray technology. Results demonstrated that germination percentage of common vetch seeds and seedling growth were diminished by high salinity. However, several priming treatments alleviated the adverse effects of high salinity on germination and early seedling growth of common vetch. The microarray showed that the expression of many genes in both stress and normal conditions was not significantly different.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia sativa/genética , Vicia sativa/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/genética , Vicia sativa/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Food Sci ; 84(5): 946-953, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947368

RESUMO

Germination of wheat maximizes phytochemical content and antioxidant activity while altering chemical composition, gluten content, and pasting properties. This study investigated the effect of short-term imbibition on gene expression profiles and the physical and functional characteristics of wheat. Changes in gene expression profiles of wheat during short-term imbibition (0, 16, and 24 hr) were evaluated by DNA microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis was carried out to categorize the function of genes with altered expression. Genes related to cellulose and cell wall synthesis were upregulated by imbibition for 16 hr, whereas those associated with polysaccharide catabolism and nucleosome assembly were upregulated in the subsequent 8 hr. The genes related to proteases and gluten were expressed in dry seeds but disappeared after 16 hr of imbibition. Genes encoding α-amylase were not expressed in dry seeds whereas those encoding ß-amylase were expressed in dry seeds and downregulated by imbibition. According to quantitative real-time PCR and enzymatic activity assay, α-Amylase expression increased by imbibition and reached a maximum 24 hr after imbibition, with a corresponding increase in enzymatic activity. Pasting properties of flour made from wheat seeds imbibed for different times were decreased when seeds were imbibed for over 16 hr, by examination with Rapid Visco Analyzer. Gluten content did not significantly change until 24-hr imbibition, although expression of genes encoding gliadin and glutenin disappeared by 16-hr imbibition. The data indicated that it was possible to use 16-hr imbibed wheat, with up to the 50% w/w replacement of nonimbibed wheat.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Sementes , Triticum/genética , Água , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Grão Comestível , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Gliadina/metabolismo , Glutens/análise , Glutens/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/metabolismo
8.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(8): 899-914, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004187

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A 146-bp sugar response complex MTSRC is identified in the promoter of rice metallothionein OsMT2b gene conferring high-level expression of luciferase reporter gene and bioactive recombinant haFGF in transgenic rice. A rice subfamily type 2 plant metallothionein (pMT) gene, OsMT2b, encoding a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger protein, has been previously shown to exhibit the most abundant gene expression in young rice seedling. Expression of OsMT2b was found to be regulated negatively by ethylene and hydrogen peroxide in rice stem node under flooding stress, but little is known about its response to sugar depletion. In this study, transient expression assay and transgenic approach were employed to characterize the regulation of the OsMT2b gene expression in rice. We found that the expression of OsMT2b gene is induced by sugar starvation in both rice suspension cells and germinated embryos. Deletion analysis and functional assay of the OsMT2b promoter revealed that the 5'-flanking region of the OsMT2b between nucleotides - 351 and - 121, which contains the sugar response complex (- 266 to - 121, designated MTSRC) is responsible for high-level promoter activity under sugar starvation. It was also found that MTSRC significantly enhances the Act1 promoter activity in transgenic rice cells and seedlings. The modified Act1 promoter, Act1-MTSRC, was used to produce the recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (haFGF) in rice cells. Our result shows that the bioactive recombinant haFGF is stably produced in transformed rice cell culture and yields are up to 2% of total medium proteins. Our studies reveal that MTSRC serves as a strong transcriptional activator and the Act1-MTSRC promoter can be applicable in establishing an efficient expression system for the high-level production of foreign proteins in transgenic rice cells and seedlings.


Assuntos
Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Germinação/genética , Germinação/fisiologia , Metalotioneína/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
9.
Planta ; 250(1): 187-198, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972483

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Totally, 23 and 26 loci for the first count germination ratio and the final germination ratio were detected by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and association mapping, respectively, which could be used to facilitate wheat pre-harvest sprouting breeding. Weak dormancy can cause pre-harvest sprouting in seeds of common wheat which significantly reduces grain yield. In this study, both quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and genome-wide association study (GWAS) were used to identify loci controlling seed dormancy. The analyses were based on a recombinant inbred line population derived from Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring cross and 166 common wheat accessions. Inclusive composite interval mapping detected 8 QTL, while 45 loci were identified in the 166 wheat accessions by GWAS. Among these, four loci (Qbifcgr.cas-3AS/Qfcgr.cas-3AS, Qbifcgr.cas-6AL.1/Qfcgr.cas-6AL.1, Qbifcgr.cas-7BL.2/Qfcgr.cas-7BL.2, and Qbigr.cas-3DL/Qgr.cas-3DL) were detected in both QTL mapping and GWAS. In addition, 41 loci co-located with QTL reported previously, whereas 8 loci (Qfcgr.cas-5AL, Qfcgr.cas-6DS, Qfcgr.cas-7AS, Qgr.cas-3DS.1, Qgr.cas-3DS.2, Qbigr.cas-3DL/Qgr.cas-3DL, Qgr.cas-4B, and Qgr.cas-5A) were likely to be new. Linear regression showed the first count germination ratio or the final germination ratio reduced while multiple favorable alleles increased. It is suggested that QTL pyramiding was effective to reduce pre-harvest sprouting risk. This study could enrich the research on pre-harvest sprouting and provide valuable information of marker exploration for wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Germinação/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/genética , Sementes/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 411-418, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981157

RESUMO

Potato tuber dormancy is critical for the postharvest quality. The supply of carbohydrates is considered as one of the important factors controlling the rate of potato tuber sprouting. Starch is the major carbohydrate reserve in potato tuber, but very little is known about the specific starch degrading enzymes responsible for controlling tuber dormancy and sprouting. In this study, we demonstrate that an α-amylase gene StAmy23 is involved in starch breakdown and regulation of tuber dormancy. Silencing of StAmy23 delayed tuber sprouting by one to two weeks compared with the control. This phenotype is accompanied by reduced levels of reducing sugars and elevated levels of malto-oligosaccharides in tuber cortex and pith tissue below the bud eye of StAmy23-deficient potato tubers. Changes in soluble sugars is accompanied by a slight variation of phytoglycogen structure and starch granule size. Our results suggest that StAmy23 may stimulate sprouting by hydrolyzing soluble phytoglycogen to ensure supply of sugars during tuber dormancy.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Tubérculos/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Germinação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/genética
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 446-458, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999132

RESUMO

Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis ((Trin.) Tzvel)) is an important perennial forage grass that is widely distributed in the Eurasia steppe. The seed germination percentage show significant variation among the different germplasm in sheepgrass. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of distinct germination during seed development are still mostly unknown. Here, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of high seed germination percentage (H) and low seed germination percentage (L) at 14, 28, and 42 days after pollination. After comparing 3 consecutive development stages, 9255, 5366, and 4306 genes were found to be significantly differently expressed between H and L. Pathway analysis indicated that transcripts related to starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, and photosynthesis were significantly changed between the two germplasm at three stages. ABA and GA metabolism- and signaling transduction-related genes were differentially expressed between two germplasm at development stages, suggesting that the reduced signaling of GA and ABA is likely to be related to seed germination and dormancy in sheepgrass. We also identified 81 transcription factor (TF) families, and some TFs genes such as NAC48, NAC78, WRKY80, ZnFP, C3H14 and ILR3 were significantly differential expressed in two germplasm. Our results provide insights into seed development, germination and dormancy in sheepgrass at the transcriptional level.


Assuntos
Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Germinação/genética , Germinação/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 127, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 2n pollen play a strong competitive role in hybridization and breeding of multiploids in Rosa hybrida. The ploidy inheritable characteristic of 'Orange Fire' × 'Old Blush' were analyzed. RESULT: The results of the cytological observations indicated that 2n pollen developed from the defeated cytoplasmic division or nuclear division in the meiosis metaphase II of PMC (pollen mother cell) in 'Old Blush'. The natural generation rate of the 2n pollen in 'Old Blush' (2x) was about 1.39 in percentage of all male gametes, whereas the tetraploids in the F1 offspring possessed a high rate, i.e., 44.00%. The temporal and spatial characteristics of 'Old Blush' pollen germination on the stigma and growth in pistil of 'Orange Fire' and 'DEE' were observed, and the results suggested that the germination rate of 2n pollen on the stigma was not superior to that of 1n pollen, but that the proportion of 2n pollen increased to 30.90 and 37.20%, respectively, while it traversed the stigma and entered into style. The callose plug in the 2n pollen tube was significantly thinner than that of 1n pollen tube. And each trait involved in our experiment probably is very important for F1 morphological phenotypes. CONCLUSION: We conclude that 2n pollen are involved in hybridization and have a competitive advantage while it traversed the stigma and entered into style. The callose plug in the 2n pollen tube was may have strongly influenced the competitive process in R. hybrida.


Assuntos
Rosa/genética , Germinação/genética , Hibridização Genética , Meiose/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Pólen/genética , Pólen/fisiologia , Poliploidia , Rosa/fisiologia
13.
Plant Sci ; 280: 155-163, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823993

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum is a precious medicinal woody plant with a very low seed germination rate in China. The gibberellin (GA) treatment extremely increased the germination rate of zanthoxylum seeds. Our previous transcriptome data showed that exogenous GA played a negative role in the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism during imbibition. Our present data indicated that compared with the GA-treated seeds, the soluble sugars were more quickly consumed and lipid breakdown was prematurely and actively initiated in the water-treated seeds during the early germination. However, the application of sucrose could improve the germination of water-treated seeds and significantly inhibit lipid breakdown. Both the application of sucrose and exogenous GA could significantly reduce the catalytic activities of sugar-dependent 1 (SDP1) and isocitratelyase (ICL), the expressions of SDP1 and ICL genes, and decrease the products of lipid breakdown as well during the early germination. We suggested that exogenous GA might enhance starch hydrolysis by promoting the catalytic activity of ɑ-amylase to supplement metabolically consumed soluble sugars, thus the increased sugars levels would help to inhibit the lipid breakdown to mitigate oxidative damages in the early germination of zanthoxylum seeds. In the end, we summarized the possible molecular mechanism on the exogenous GA weakening lipid breakdown by increasing soluble sugars levels in the early germination of zanthoxylum seeds.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Zanthoxylum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/fisiologia
14.
Plant Sci ; 281: 180-185, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824050

RESUMO

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important phenomenon that results in weather dependent reductions in grain yield and quality across the globe. Due to the large annual losses, breeding PHS resistant varieties is of great importance. Many quantitative trait loci have been associated with PHS and a number of specific genes have been proven to impact PHS. TaPHS1, TaMKK3, Tamyb10, and TaVp1 have been shown to have a large impact on PHS susceptibility while many other genes such as TaSdr, TaQSd, and TaDOG1 have been shown to account for smaller, but significant, proportions of variation. These advances in understanding the genetics behind PHS are making molecular selection and loci stacking viable methods for affecting this quantitative trait. The current review article serves to provide a brief synthesis of recent advances regarding PHS, as well as provide unique insight into the genetic mechanisms governing PHS in bread wheat.


Assuntos
Triticum/genética , Genótipo , Germinação/genética , Germinação/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
Plant Sci ; 281: 82-92, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824064

RESUMO

DELLA proteins are a group of plant specific GRAS proteins of transcriptional regulators that have a key role in gibberellin (GA) signaling. In Arabidopsis, the DELLA family is formed by five members. The complexity of this gene family raises the question on whether single DELLA proteins have specific or overlapping functions in the control of several GA-dependent developmental processes. To better understand the roles played by RGL2, one of the DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis, two transgenic lines that express fusion proteins of Venus-RGL2 and a dominant version of RGL2, YPet-rgl2Δ17, were generated by recombineering strategy using a genomic clone that contained the RGL2 gene. The dominant YPet-rgl2Δ17 protein is not degraded by GAs, and therefore it blocks the RGL2-dependent GA signaling and hence RGL2-dependent development. The RGL2 role in seed germination was further confirmed using these genetic tools, while new functions of RGL2 in plant development were uncovered. RGL2 has a clear function in the regulation of flower development, particularly stamen growth and anther dehiscence, which has a great impact in fertility. Moreover, the increased ovule number in the YPet-rgl2Δ17 line points out the role of RGL2 in the determination of ovule number.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Germinação/genética , Germinação/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 137: 14-24, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710795

RESUMO

Glutamyl-tRNA reductase1 (HEMA1) and ferrochelatase1 (FC1) are both expressed in response to salt stress in the biosynthetic pathway of tetrapyrroles. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) HEMA1 and FC1 were isolated by RT-PCR. The amino acid sequence encoded by the two genes showed high similarity with that in other plant species. The AhFC1 fusion protein was verified to function in chloroplast using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast. Sense and wild-type (WT) tobaccos were used to further study the physiological effects of AhHEMA1 and AhFC1. Compared with WT, the Heme contents and germination rate were higher in AhFC1 overexpressing plants under salt stress. Meanwhile, overexpressing AhHEMA1 also led to higher ALA and chlorophyll contents and multiple physiological changes under salt stress, such as higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), lower contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and slighter membrane damage. In addition, the activities of CAT, POD and APX in the AhFC1 overexpressing plants were significantly higher than that in WT lines under salt stress, but the activity of SOD between the WT plants and the transgenic plants did not exhibit significant differences. These results suggested that, peanut can enhance resistance to salt stress by improving the biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole biosynthetic.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Tabaco/genética , Ácido Aminolevulínico/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Heme/biossíntese , Heme/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Tetrapirróis/genética , Tetrapirróis/metabolismo , Tabaco/fisiologia
17.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 135, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst information regarding small RNAs within agricultural crops is increasing, the miRNA composition of the nutritionally valuable pulse narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) remains unknown. RESULTS: By conducting a genome- and transcriptome-wide survey we identified 7 Dicer-like and 16 Argonaute narrow-leafed lupin genes, which were highly homologous to their legume counterparts. We identified 43 conserved miRNAs belonging to 16 families, and 13 novel narrow-leafed lupin-specific miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs from foliar and root and five seed development stages. We observed up-regulation of members of the miRNA families miR167, miR399, miR156, miR319 and miR164 in narrow-leafed lupin seeds, and confirmed expression of miR156, miR166, miR164, miR1507 and miR396 using quantitative RT-PCR during five narrow-leafed lupin seed development stages. We identified potential targets for the conserved and novel miRNAs and were able to validate targets of miR399 and miR159 using 5' RLM-RACE. The conserved miRNAs are predicted to predominately target transcription factors and 93% of the conserved miRNAs originate from intergenic regions. In contrast, only 43% of the novel miRNAs originate from intergenic regions and their predicted targets were more functionally diverse. CONCLUSION: This study provides important insights into the miRNA gene regulatory networks during narrow-leafed lupin seed development.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lupinus/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Variação Biológica da População , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Duplicação Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Germinação/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lupinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma
18.
Chemosphere ; 223: 636-650, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798059

RESUMO

The main aim of this study is to investigate the toxicity of organophosphate (OPs) insecticides monocrotophos (MCP) and chlorpyrifos (CLS) on plant growth promoting (PGP) properties and seed germination of brinjal, tomato and okra vegetables inoculated by Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans (BHUJP-P1), Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (BHUJP-P2), Bacillus licheniformis (BHUJP-P3) and Bacillus cereus (BHUJP-P4). Maximum increase in microbial growth (52.6% & 47.9%) with enhanced EPS production (447.67 mg/ml & 75.00 mg/ml) was showed by BHUJP-P4 and BHUJP-P3 at 10× dose of MCP and CLS over control, BHUJP-2 and BHUJP-P1 respectively. Simultaneously, both strains recorded minimum reduction in PGP activities and seed germination at 3× dose of both insecticides as compared to BHUJP-2 and BHUJP-P1, respectively. Strains BHUJP-P3 and BHUJP-P4 showed 83 and 81% of monocrotophos degradation at 50 mg/kg concentration; 81 and 80% at 150 mg/kg concentration within 5days respectively. Concurrently, these strains BHUJP-P3 and BHUJP-P4 were recorded 53 and 90% of chlorpyrifos degradation at 50 mg/kg concentration; 49% and 87% at 100 mg/kg concentration within 72 h, respectively. The OPs insecticide degrading gene opdA and opd was found in strain BHUJP-P3 and BHUJP-P4, respectively. The multifarious biological activities of strain BHUJP-P3 and BHUJP-P4 showed maximum tolerance against insecticide, and minimum reduction in P-solubilisation, IAA, siderophore and HCN production for plant growth promotion and biological control under insecticide stress. Thus, these novel isolates may be used as biodegradation of organophosphate insecticide and plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) inoculum for enhancing seed germination of vegetables under stress insecticide. These novel strains will be environment friendly, socially acceptable and economically viable.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorpirifos/química , Germinação/genética , Monocrotofós/química , Verduras/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
PLoS Genet ; 15(1): e1007798, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615606

RESUMO

Salt stress is one of the major abiotic factors that affect the metabolism, growth and development of plants, and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germination is sensitive to salt stress. Thus, to ensure the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soil, the genetic mechanisms of salt tolerance at the soybean germination stage need to be explored. In this study, a population of 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was utilized to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to salt tolerance. A major QTL related to salt tolerance at the soybean germination stage named qST-8 was closely linked with the marker Sat_162 and detected on chromosome 8. Interestingly, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with salt tolerance in the same genetic region on chromosome 8. Resequencing, bioinformatics and gene expression analyses were implemented to identify the candidate gene Glyma.08g102000, which belongs to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family and was named GmCDF1. Overexpression and RNA interference of GmCDF1 in soybean hairy roots resulted in increased sensitivity and tolerance to salt stress, respectively. This report provides the first demonstration that GmCDF1 negatively regulates salt tolerance by maintaining K+-Na+ homeostasis in soybean. In addition, GmCDF1 affected the expression of two ion homeostasis-associated genes, salt overly sensitive 1 (GmSOS1) and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (GmNHX1), in transgenic hairy roots. Moreover, a haplotype analysis detected ten haplotypes of GmCDF1 in 31 soybean genotypes. A candidate-gene association analysis showed that two SNPs in GmCDF1 were significantly associated with salt tolerance and that Hap1 was more sensitive to salt stress than Hap2. The results demonstrated that the expression level of GmCDF1 was negatively correlated with salt tolerance in the 31 soybean accessions (r = -0.56, P < 0.01). Taken together, these results not only indicate that GmCDF1 plays a negative role in soybean salt tolerance but also help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance and accelerate the breeding of salt-tolerant soybean.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alelos , Cátions/química , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Germinação/genética , Haplótipos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína SOS1/genética , Soja/genética
20.
PLoS Genet ; 15(1): e1007928, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657769

RESUMO

A wide range of biological processes are regulated by sumoylation, a post-translational modification involving the conjugation of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier) to protein. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtSIZ1 encodes a SUMO E3 ligase for SUMO modification. siz1 mutants displayed defective secondary cell walls (SCWs) in inflorescence fiber cells. Such defects were caused by repression of SND1/NST1-mediated transcriptional networks. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that SIZ1 interacts with the LBD30 C-terminal domain, which was further confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and immunoprecipitation. Mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation indicated that SIZ1 mediates SUMO conjugation to LBD30 at the K226 residue. Genes controlling SCW formation were activated by the overexpression of LBD30, but not in the LBD30(K226R) mutant. LBD30 enhancement of SCW formation resulted from upregulation of SND1/NST1-mediated transcriptional networks. This study presents a mechanism by which sumoylation of LBD30, mediated by SIZ1, regulates SCW formation in A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Ligases/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Parede Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Inflorescência/genética , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Sumoilação/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA