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1.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1095-1104, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633414

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Gymnastics trains fundamental movement skills but has high rates of early sport specialization. Early specialization is associated with increased injury risk. Gymnasts devote time to developing technical skill, but whether specialization status influences performance is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe the participation and specialization characteristics of youth club gymnastics participants and determine whether the level of specialization is associated with fitness and functional task performance. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: A single gymnastics facility. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Data on youth gymnasts (n = 131; 84 females, 47 males; age = 10.9 ± 2.9 years, height = 142.14 ± 16.23 cm, mass = 38.15 ± 12.93 kg) were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Specialization was assessed using a 3-tiered classification. Fitness measurements consisted of the Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool, Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool, and core strength. Functional tasks evaluated hop performance, dynamic balance, and jump-landing technique. Separate analyses of covariance, covaried by age, hours of training, and years of gymnastics participation, were used to identify differences in fitness and functional performance among specialization groups. Pearson product correlations were calculated to evaluate the relationships between training hours per week and years in gymnastics with fitness and functional performance. RESULTS: Most gymnasts were classified as moderately (50.4%, n = 66) or highly (35.1%, n = 46) specialized. Only 14.5% (n = 19) were classified as having a low level of specialization. Weak to moderate correlations were present between years in gymnastics and most fitness tasks. Moderate to strong correlations were noted between training hours per week and most fitness tasks. Low-specialization gymnasts scored lower on right lower extremity Y-balance (P = .004), upper left extremity Y-balance (P = .033), and right hop performance (P = .039) tests. CONCLUSIONS: Gymnasts reported high proportions of moderate to high specialization, and many exceeded guidelines for hours participating in gymnastics per week. We did not observe clinically meaningful group differences among specialization status and fitness or functional movement tasks, indicating no clear benefit of gymnastics training to the exclusion of other sports for increased performance.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Ginástica/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Especialização , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
2.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 779-788, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487749

RESUMO

Static stretching (SS) can increase joint range of motion (ROM), due to neural, morphological, and physio-psychological factors. Periodized training programs (PD) (e. g., strength, power) are adopted to induce greater adaptations while avoiding overtraining. However, the effectiveness of periodized stretch training adaptations are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of periodized and non-periodized (NP) stretching programs on flexibility, hamstrings stiffness and muscle performance. Sixteen gymnasts were allocated to either periodized or non-periodized SS training and tested pre- and post-8 weeks for countermovement jump height, hip flexors, hip extensors and dorsiflexors ROM, hamstrings stiffness and hamstrings and quadriceps peak torque. Both stretch training groups significantly and similarly increased hip extensor (33.2%), hip flexor (25.2%), and dorsiflexor (23.8%) ROM, hamstrings peak torque (7.9%) and jump height (8.1%) from pre - to post- training. Both groups decreased hamstrings stiffness across the last ten angles (32.1%). PD elicited consistently large magnitude flexibility effect size changes compared to small and moderate magnitude changes for the non-periodized. Therefore, 8-week PD and NP SS programs can decrease young gymnasts' muscle-tendon stiffness and increase muscle performance. However, effect sizes indicate that PD stretch training was more advantageous to increasing flexibility and improving performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Criança , Elasticidade , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Torque
3.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(3): 233-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257263

RESUMO

This study investigated whether body fat percentage (BF%) in Japanese female university rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and non-athletes (control) was associated with the time-of-day of energy intake. A total of 57 females (RG group, n=34; control group, n=23) completed 24-h dietary recall surveys on 3 non-consecutive days. BF% was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer after overnight fasting. Energy intake was stratified by time-of-day: morning (3:00 to 11:00), midday (11:00 to 17:00), evening (17:00 to 21:00), and nighttime (21:00 to 3:00). There was no significant difference between the groups in total energy intake, body weight, or body mass index. The RG group had significantly higher energy expenditure, a larger negative energy balance and lower BF% than the control group. The energy intake ratios (ER%) in the evening and at nighttime in the RG group were significantly lower and higher than in the control group, respectively. Total energy intake and energy balance did not show any significant association with BF% in either group. Multivariate linear regression with substitution model indicated that a substitution of ER% in the morning for ER% at nighttime was negatively associated with BF% after adjusting for confounding factors (ß=-0.240; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.455, -0.025) in the control group. In the RG group, a substitution of ER% in the evening for ER% at nighttime was negatively associated with BF% (ß=-0.117; 95%CI: -0.214, -0.019). These results suggest that the timing of energy intake throughout the day is associated with BF% in Japanese university RG and non-athlete female students.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sports Sci ; 37(20): 2374-2380, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226902

RESUMO

When learning swinging skills on a bar there has been conflicting advice in the research literature regarding whether to coach the "gold standard" technique to novices. The present study aimed to determine how technique (joint angle time histories) and (inter-limb) coordination changed as novice gymnasts learned a fundamental gymnastics skill (the upstart). It was hypothesised that both technique and coordination would become more like an expert as learning progressed. Eight novice gymnasts, unable to perform an upstart, underwent four months of training, with the number of successful upstarts out of 10 recorded at the start and then every month subsequently. In the first and last sessions motion capture was used to determine joint kinematics. Root mean squared differences for the joint angle time histories and continuous relative phase at the shoulder and hip were calculated between the novices and an expert gymnast. As training progressed technique and coordination became more like the expert gymnast. The more successful novices were better able to time their actions within the swing than the less successful novices. Gymnastics coaches teach towards a "gold standard" technique since being successful at the skill is not the only goal, as considerations for future skill development are made.


Assuntos
Ginástica/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Feminino , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rotação , Ombro/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(74): 329-350, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183695

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio fue traducir y validar al español el Cuestionario del Modelo Transteórico del Cambio de Ejercicio Físico de Prochaska y DiClemente (1983). Se utilizó una muestra de 812 personas, entre los 14 y los 88 años (29,5±21,7). Se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio, análisis de consistencia interna y validez predictiva. Los resultados del Cuestionario del Modelo Transteórico del Cambio de Ejercicio Físico presentaron valores adecuados (χ2/g.l = 4,3, CFI = 0,92, IFI = 0,92, TLI = 0,90, RMSEA = 0,06, SRMR = 0,05). La consistencia interna mostró valores encima de .70. Se halló una predicción positiva y significativa de los estadios más activos del Modelo Transteórico sobre la intención de ser físicamente activo. Este estudio ha permitido proporcionar un cuestionario válido y fiable para evaluar el estadio en el que se encuentran las personas con respecto a la práctica de ejercicio físico, en el ámbito español


The aim of this study was to translate and validate in Spanish the Questionnaire of the Transtheoretical Model of Change of Physical Exercise, of Prochaska and DiClemente (1983), and also to make adaptations and modifications as needed. The sample was composed of 812 people, aged between 14 and 88 years (29.5+21.7). Confirmative factorial analysis, analysis of internal consistency and of predictive validity were carried out. After the confirmative factorial analysis, the Questionnaire of the Theoretical Model of Change of Physical Exercise showed acceptable results (x2/g.1=4,3, CFI=0,92, IFI= 0.92, TLI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0,05). Similarly, internal consistency obtained from the respective dimensions showed values above .70. A positive and significant prediction of the most active stages of the Transtheoretical Model (action and maintenance) was found on the 'intention to be physically active'. This study has enabled the provision of a valid and reliable questionnaire


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exercício/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Ciências Biocomportamentais/métodos , Ginástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Dados , Modelos Logísticos
7.
Sports Health ; 11(4): 343-349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor landing mechanics are considered deficits in neuromuscular control and risk factors for lower extremity injury. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) has been used to assess the neuromuscular control of landing mechanics for the first landing in a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. However, the second DVJ landing may provide different results, warranting assessment. HYPOTHESES: (1) LESS scores will differ between first and second DVJ landings across all female participants with (2) greater intraparticipant variability among the second landing compared with the first landing scores. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: A total of 13 gymnasts and 31 softball players (N = 44) performed 3 DVJ trials. The mean ± SD age of 44 female athletes was 16.46 ± 2.59 years. The LESS was scored using 2-dimensional video of each trial. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the first and second DVJ landings (P < 0.01). All participants demonstrated higher LESS scores (worse landing mechanics) during the second DVJ landing (10.10 ± 2.25) than the first landing (6.97 ± 2.72). CONCLUSION: The initial landing in a DVJ has been the focus of neuromuscular control studies using the LESS. This study found worse neuromuscular control during the second DVJ landing, which highlights the importance of evaluating landing mechanics beyond the initial landing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: LESS analysis of both DVJ landings might improve neuromuscular control screening in female athletes and augment lower extremity and anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.


Assuntos
Beisebol/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico , Adolescente , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Beisebol/lesões , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ginástica/lesões , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
8.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213310, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845256

RESUMO

On vault in artistic gymnastics, a high run-up speed is thought to be important when performing difficult vaults. To test this assumption in a large cohort of elite athletes, we calculated the correlations between the run-up speed, scores, height and length of flight for handspring-, Tsukahara- and Yurchenko-style vaults and compared the performances of male and female elite and junior athletes (n = 407) during the 2016 European Championships. In females, run-up speed correlated significantly with the difficulty (D-) score and height of flight for all vaulting styles (r ≤ 0.80). In males, run-up speed correlated significantly with the D-score, height and length of flight of Tsukahara (r ≤ 0.69) and Yurchenko vaults only (r ≤ 0.65). Males reached 8-9% higher run-up speeds performing handspring and Tsukahara vaults than did females, but similar run-up speeds performing Yurchenko vaults. Elite females achieved higher run-up speeds than junior females performing Yurchenko vaults. Elite males displayed higher run-up speeds than junior males performing handspring and Tsukahara vaults. We conclude that, in females, more difficult vaults require higher run-up speeds than vaults with lower D-scores and thus, within the measured range of speeds, the faster the run-up, the better, regardless of vaulting style. Males, on the other hand, may not need to exhaust their sprinting capacity, even for the most difficult vaults. Finally, the knowledge of the required run-up speed for each vault helps coaches to estimate each athlete's potential and/or to focus the training on developing the required physical qualities.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Ginástica/fisiologia , Articulações/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Sports Sci ; 37(13): 1449-1456, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633642

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine if sex differences exist in the key elbow and wrist joint injury risk factors during different cartwheel (CW) and round-off (RO) techniques performed by young male and female artistic gymnasts. Sixteen active young gymnasts (8 males and 8 females) performed 30 successful trials of CW and RO with three different hand positions (parallel (10), T-shape (10) and reverse (10)). Synchronised kinematic and kinetic data were collected for each trial. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA (3 × 2, technique × sex) and effect-sizes (ES) were used for statistical analysis. In conclusion, female gymnasts exhibited greater normalised peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF), elbow and wrist compression forces and elbow internal adduction moments during CW and RO skills compared with male gymnasts. In both sexes, the parallel and reverse techniques increased peak VGRF, elbow and wrist compression forces and the elbow internal adduction moment. Increased elbow flexion resulted in decreased peak VGRF, elbow compression forces and elbow internal adduction moment. Injury risk factors including elbow extension and internal adduction moment with axial compression force suggest that a CW and RO in reverse and parallel techniques can be hazardous especially for young female gymnasts.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Articulação do Punho/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Feminino , Ginástica/lesões , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Traumatismos do Punho/fisiopatologia
10.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 31(1): 77-84, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine neuromuscular and torque kinetic changes after 10 months of explosive sport training in the elbow of prepubertal gymnasts compared with untrained age-matched controls. METHODS: In 15 young gymnasts (9.02 [0.41] y) and 15 age-matched untrained males (8.76 [0.51] y), the rate of torque development (RTD) using the Biodex System 4 and the coactivation index were evaluated using electromyography. Explosive strength variables were normalized to the peak torque. Measures were determined twice: before and after a 10-month period of gymnastic training. Covariation analysis was used to account for differences in baseline values between gymnasts and controls. RESULTS: After 10 months of training, gymnasts demonstrated a significantly (P < .05) greater increase in normalized peak RTD values in elbow flexion compared with controls (7.76% vs 0.65%). Covariation analysis also revealed a significantly (P < .05) greater reduction in the coactivation index of elbow extension in the gymnasts (-7.81% [5.44%] points) compared with controls (-1.23% [6.32%] points). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with physical development alone, 10 months of explosive-strength training of young gymnasts is sufficient to increase torque-normalized RTD in the elbow joint of prepubertal boys. The RTD changes the authors observed in antagonistic elbow functions vary among gymnasts due to the specific demands of gymnastic training.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Criança , Eletromiografia/métodos , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Torque
11.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(4): 593-599, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The specificity of postural balance control in sports as gymnastic where complex motor skills are involved is widely debated in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate in young gymnasts whether the amount of training influenced postural balance control in a simple-task and in a sport-specific task. METHODS: Seven female basic-level gymnasts (BLG) and eight female advanced-level gymnasts (ALG) performed two tests on a dynamometric platform: bipedal standing (B) and single-leg back scale (BS) before and after a combination of two gymnastic elements (rondade + flic-flac). RESULTS: BLG showed a better postural balance control in the B position while ALG in the BS position. All parameters referred to the Centre of pressure (COP) increased after the execution of the rondade + flic-flac in both ALG and BLG. ALG showed in BS a better performance on balance time-dependent response after the rondade + flic-flac. CONCLUSIONS: Results underlined how expertise level did not affect postural balance control during the simple task (B). Conversely, the sport specific task (BS) revealed to be more selective in representing the young gymnasts' level of expertise. Thus, the application of sport-specific tasks is recommended among coaches and practitioners to increase balance assessment selectivity.


Assuntos
Ginástica/fisiologia , Destreza Motora , Equilíbrio Postural , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pressão , Tempo de Reação , Posição Ortostática
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(6): 1609-1618, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700510

RESUMO

Kochanowicz, A, Niespodzinski, B, Mieszkowski, J, Marina, M, Kochanowicz, K, and Zasada, M. Changes in the muscle activity of gymnasts during a handstand on various apparatus. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1609-1618, 2019-Gymnasts perform handstands on various apparatus, both in stable and unstable conditions. Such performances require specific muscle activation, which should differ depending on the condition and expertise of the gymnast. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate (a) the difference in electromyography (EMG) between handstands performed on 3 apparatus (floor, rings, and parallel bars); and (b) the difference between young and well-trained adult gymnasts. Ten adult (25 ± 3.94 years) and 15 young (13.9 ± 0.7 years) gymnasts participated in the study. We investigated EMG amplitude in 13 muscles normalized by arbitrary angle maximal isometric voluntary contraction (normalized root mean square [NRMS]). In comparison with the handstand on the floor (61 ± 28%), the wrist flexor muscles of gymnasts exhibited a decreased NRMS on the parallel bars (44 ± 25%; p = 0.017), and rings (46 ± 32%; p = 0.029), whereas no changes were observed in the triceps brachii. The rest of the investigated muscles showed a higher NRMS in rings. Differences between young and adult gymnasts were seen in the triceps brachii and anterior deltoid muscles, where more experienced gymnasts showed 19.1% (p = 0.014) and 17.6% (p = 0.048) lower NRMS, respectively. The different gymnastic apparatus led to specific muscle activation. This activation predominantly depended on hand support conditions, which alternated the primary wrist strategy of the handstand balance control, and in consequence, the activation of other muscles controlling balance. Training focused on the development of motor control and strength of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii, and trapezius descendens muscles to improve handstand performance.


Assuntos
Ginástica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Músculo Deltoide/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Músculos Peitorais/fisiologia , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiologia , Punho , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(10): 2768-2777, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28796126

RESUMO

Isacco, L, Ennequin, G, Cassirame, J, and Tordi, N. Physiological pattern changes in response to a simulated competition in elite women's artistic gymnasts. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2768-2777, 2019-The outstanding progress in women's artistic gymnastics in recent decades has led to increased technical and physiological demands. The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the physiological demands of elite French gymnasts and (b) the impact of a competitive routine on physiological pattern changes. Fourteen French elite female gymnasts performed anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests, and a simulated 4-event competition. Heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded throughout the duration of the simulated competition. Blood lactate concentrations were assessed at rest, before the beginning and at 2, 4, and 10 minutes after completion of the routine on each apparatus. Isometric handgrip strength and anaerobic endurance and power were assessed during the simulated competition. The highest values of HR and blood lactate concentrations were reached during the floor and uneven bar exercises. Blood lactate concentrations and HR kinetics were apparatus dependent and values remained significantly increased at 10 minutes of recovery compared with resting data. Anaerobic endurance and power decreased significantly as the competition progressed (p < 0.001). The present results show specifically cardiorespiratory and anaerobic apparatus-dependent responses throughout a simulated competition. Recovery approaches seem relevant to prevent and minimize fatigue and optimize performance in these athletes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Limiar Anaeróbio , Feminino , Força da Mão , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Aptidão Física
14.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(3): 449-455, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes have a long history, but there are no published reviews on the somatotype of artistic gymnasts. Practitioners and professional coaches can gain guidance from improved understanding of the ideal body constitution and the impact of high-intensity training since preadolescence on body build. The present review is designed to provide this information. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, Medline, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate were searched in January 2017. All studies on the body composition of male artistic gymnasts were included. We identified 19 studies assessing somatotype in male gymnasts. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We found high heterogeneity of somatotype components between younger gymnasts (≤18 years) and older gymnasts (>18 years) (1.6±0.3, 5.4±0.8, 3.0±0.6 vs. 1.8±0.4, 5.9±0.6, 2.2±0.4). Four different somatotypes resulted from the literature analysis, and ectomorphic mesomorph was the prevalent somatotype in both younger and older athletes. The main result showed a significant difference in ectomorphy (lower in older gymnasts than in younger gymnasts). CONCLUSIONS: Proper interpretation of the literature data may inform future research and enable professional coaches to longitudinally monitor gymnasts' somatotype components during growth and in talent identification. More research is needed to better understand the most suitable somatotype variations related to the different apparatuses used in artistic gymnastics.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Somatotipos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antropometria , Atletas , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 18(72): 605-619, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180234

RESUMO

Se analizó la relación entre las penalizaciones técnicas obtenidas en la ejecución de un elemento gimnástico aislado con el nivel competitivo de las gimnastas, sus características antropométricas y las variables temporales y angulares más importantes analizadas en dicha habilidad. Fueron seleccionadas 29 gimnastas (17,1 ± 3,1 años) procedentes de distintos niveles competitivos. Tres entrenadores evaluaron la ejecución mediante una adaptación del Código de Puntuación. Se observaron asociaciones significativas directas e indirectas (p < 0,05): bajo índice de adiposidad (rho = 0,643), tiempo total de batida (rho = 0,619), tiempo total de vuelo (rho = - 0,596), máxima amplitud articular de caderas (rho = - 0,902) y máxima extensión de los tobillos (rho = - 0,738). La valoración de las penalizaciones así como el uso del nivel competitivo y del Salto Zancada como test específico han resultado ser herramientas útiles para la valoración del rendimiento


The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the following aspects: the technical penalties obtained in the execution of an isolated gymnastics element, the competitive level of the gymnasts, their anthropometric characteristics, and the most important temporal and angular variables analyzed in this skill. Twenty nine gymnasts (aged 17.1 ± 3.1 years) from different competition levels were selected. Three coaches evaluated the execution through an adaptation of the Code of Points. Significant direct and indirect associations were observed (p < 0.05): low adiposity index (rho = 0.643), take-off total time (rho = 0.619), flight total time (rho = - 0.596), maximum range of motion of the hips (rho = - 0.902), and maximum extension of ankles (rho = - 0.738). The assessment of penalties as well as the use of competitive level and Split Leap as specific tests, have demonstrated to be useful tools for evaluating performance


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Fotogrametria/métodos , Desempenho Atlético/normas , Ginástica/normas , Antropometria/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância
16.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 18(72): 769-781, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180244

RESUMO

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar los efectos de un programa de ejercicios de Brain Gym(R) con un programa de gimnasia de mantenimiento en pacientes mayores institucionalizados con deterioro cognitivo. Veintinueve personas institucionalizadas con deterioro cognitivo participaron en dos programas, uno basado en ejercicios de Brain Gym(R) y otro de gimnasia de mantenimiento, durante 18 semanas. Se emplearon los test Mini-examen cognoscitivo, Fototest, Trail Making Test, Índice de Barthel y el Timed up and Go. No se encontraron mejoras significativas en las variables analizadas. Se observó una tendencia positiva, especialmente en el grupo de gimnasia de mantenimiento, en la función cognitiva global y salud física. En conclusión, los efectos de un programa de ejercicios de Brain Gym(R) en una muestra de personas mayores institucionalizadas con deterioro cognitivo fueron similares a los de un programa de gimnasia de mantenimiento, sin mejoras significativas de la función cognitiva o independencia funcional


This study aimed at comparing the effects of a program based on Brain Gym(R) exercises against a fitness exercise program on the cognitive function and functional independence in institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment. Twenty-nine institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment took part either on a Brain Gym(R) based exercise program or on a fitness exercise program during eighteen weeks. The assessment measures used were the Mini-Examen Cognoscitivo, Fototest, Trail making test, Barthel Index and the Timed up and Go Test. None of the variables analysed improved significantly. A trend towards improvement, particularly in the fitness exercise group, in both cognitive status and functional independence was observed. In conclusion, the performance of a Brain Gym(R) exercise-based program had the same effects than taking part in a fitness exercise program, with no significant improvements on the cognitive function or functional independence, in a sample of institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/tendências , Ginástica/fisiologia , Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado , Exercício/fisiologia , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Análise Estatística
17.
Acta Bioeng Biomech ; 20(2): 117-123, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine whether 10- to 13-year-old, national-level, female acrobatic gymnasts present a different quiet standing postural control (with and without visual cues) than untrained female peers. METHODS: The mean velocity of the center of pressure (in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions) was computed from 60-s long quiet-standing trials on a stationary force plate in fifteen 10- to 13-year-old female acrobatic gymnasts and thirteen sex- and age-matched non-athletes. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA (acrobatic gymnasts vs. non-athletes and eyes open vs. eyes closed) was used for the anterior-posterior and mediallateral COP mean velocity. The relation between subjects' body mass and COP mean velocity was tested with the used Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. RESULTS: Postural sway (represented by COP mean velocity) was not significantly different between the acrobatic gymnasts and the non-athletes ( p > 0.05), except for the faster medial-lateral sway in eyes-open conditions in the acrobatic gymnasts ( p < 0.05). The gymnasts' body mass negatively correlated with their anterior-posterior sway velocity in both visual conditions (eyes open: r = -0.7; eyes closed: r = -0.6) and with medial-lateral sway velocity during eyes-closed trials (r = -0.5; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the study indicate that in quiet standing postural control 10- to 13-year-old acrobatic gymnasts did not make use of their trained abilities. Heavier gymnasts might have been more stable than lighter ones during quiet standing.


Assuntos
Ginástica/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Posição Ortostática , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
18.
Acta Bioeng Biomech ; 20(2): 139-147, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare and analyse of relationships between stability indices registered in two positions: standing and handstand in athletes practicing gymnastics at various levels of advancement. METHODS: The study included 46 athletes practicing gymnastics. The research tool was posturograph CQ-Stab 2P. RESULTS: In both standing position and handstand in the seniors there were statistically significantly lower values of such indicators as: sway area delimited by the center of pressure ( p = 0.004, p = 0.014), mean amplitude of COP ( p = 0.021, p = 0.017), mean displacement of the center of feet/hands pressure in medio-lateral direction ( p = 0.011, p = 0.003) and maximal displacement of the center of feet/hands pressure in mediolateral direction ( p = 0.036, p = 0.036). In the standing position, seniors also had statistically significantly lower values of the statokinesiogram path length, both total ( p = 0.000) as well as in anteroposterior ( p = 0.001) and mediolateral ( p = 0.002) directions. In the seniors group there were statistically significant correlations between variables obtained in standing position and handstand. CONCLUSIONS: The level of sport advancement significantly differentiates the stability of a body in standing position and handstand. The seniors practicing gymnastics, compared to juniors, are characterized by a better ability to control the position of the body in both positions. The lack of relationships between stability indices registered in standing and handstand in juniors suggests that the analysis of the values of stability indices obtained in a standing position does not provide the possibility of predicting the ability to maintain balance in the handstand during the recruitment of candidates for gymnastics.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ginástica/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Posição Ortostática , Adolescente , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Biomech ; 78: 45-51, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055842

RESUMO

Mechanical loading through youth exercise is highly modifiable and represents a strategy to maximize peak adult bone mass, with the potential for broad implementation across the population to lower fracture risk. For girls, circum-menarcheal growth is critical, with around 50% of adult bone acquired over a 4-year period. Here, we prospectively followed 10 gymnasts and 12 age-matched non-gymnasts across approximately 4 years circum-menarche. A combination of pQCT and subject-specific finite element models were used to measure differences in bone acquisition and structure between the groups, and to determine the degree to which specific mechanical factors predict change in bone structure. At baseline, gymnasts had stronger bone, including 26% higher BMC, 51% greater compressive strength, and 21% higher trabecular density. Over the study period, both groups more than doubled their bone strength. Pre-menarcheal principal stresses predicted change in pQCT variables for non-gymnasts, but not gymnasts. The bone of non-gymnasts became more asymmetrical than the bone of gymnasts. Our results suggest that exposure to the diverse, intense mechanical signals of gymnastic loading during adolescence imparts substantial benefits to bone geometry and mechanical function. Specifically, the bone of gymnasts is better able to resist loading from multiple directions, and operates with a higher factor of safety compared to non-gymnasts.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Menarca , Adolescente , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
J Sports Sci Med ; 17(2): 245-258, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769826

RESUMO

The amount of bone gained during childhood and adolescence impacts greatly on lifetime skeletal health. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence of the effects of gymnastics activities on bone mineral accrual during growth and to describe possible factors that influence bone mineral gains. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched, and a total of 24 articles met the selection criteria and were included in this review. Artistic and rhythmic gymnasts presented higher bone mineral density and content values compared to untrained controls, despite possible negative effects associated with hormonal levels, dietary restrictions and body fat. The results suggest that gymnasts had similar bone turnover values compared to untrained controls. High-intensity mechanical loading of gymnastics activity appears to increase bone development and counterbalance negative effects, such as later pubertal development, lower body fat mass and lower hormone levels. In conclusion, gymnasts present higher bone mineral values in comparison with untrained controls. The osteogenic effect of gymnastics athletic activity has a positive influence on bone mineral accrual and overcomes the possible negative influence of high athletic activity that may cause negative energy balance and low body fat mass which are associated with lower bone accrual.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Humanos
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