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PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866209


In this study, we performed an analysis of the impact of performance enhancing polymorphisms (PEPs) on gymnastic aptitude while considering epistatic effects. Seven PEPs (rs1815739, rs8192678, rs4253778, rs6265, rs5443, rs1076560, rs362584) were considered in a case (gymnasts)-control (sedentary individuals) setting. The study sample comprised of two athletes' sets: 27 elite (aged 24.8 ± 2.1 years) and 46 sub-elite (aged 19.7 ± 2.4 years) sportsmen as well as a control group of 245 sedentary individuals (aged 22.5 ± 2.1 years). The DNA was derived from saliva and PEP alleles were determined by PCR, RT-PCR. Following Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction, logistic regression models were built. The synergistic effect for rs1815739 x rs362584 reached 5.43%. The rs1815739 x rs362584 epistatic regression model exhibited a good fit to the data (Chi-squared = 33.758, p ≈ 0) achieving a significant improvement in sportsmen identification over naïve guessing. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.715 (Z-score = 38.917, p ≈ 0). In contrast, the additive ACTN3 -SNAP-25 logistic regression model has been verified as non-significant. We demonstrate that a gene involved in the differentiation of muscle architecture-ACTN3 and a gene, which plays an important role in the nervous system-SNAP-25 interact. From the perspective originally established by the Berlin Academy of Science in 1751, the matter of communication between the brain and muscles via nerves adopts molecular manifestations. Further in-vitro investigations are required to explain the molecular details of the rs1815739 -rs362584 interaction.

Actinina/genética , Aptidão , Epistasia Genética , Ginástica/fisiologia , Proteína 25 Associada a Sinaptossoma/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Área Sob a Curva , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Entropia , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Redução Dimensional com Múltiplos Fatores , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 20(79): 567-583, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197055


Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar la influencia de la morfología del pie en el rendimiento en Gimnasia Rítmica y analizar la influencia de los años de práctica. La muestra estaba compuesta por 48 gimnastas que habían practicado gimnasia federada y competido durante el último año. Los resultados indican que las gimnastas tienen predominantemente un pie neutro y con huella normal, presentando bastante asimetría entre pies, no significativa, lo que puede ser consecuencia de un trabajo unilateral y debería ser corregido en el entrenamiento. Sólo el rango de amplitud de la articulación talocrural parece ser una característica de la morfología del pie que incida sobre el rendimiento técnico y parece más una característica innata. La práctica de la Gimnasia Rítmica podría no ser un factor tan decisivo como podía suponerse en las modificaciones morfológicas de la huella plantar

The objectives of the study were to determine the influence of foot morphology on performance in Rhythmic Gymnastics and to analyze the influence of years of practice. The sample consisted of 48 gymnasts who had practiced federated gymnastics and competed during the last year. The results indicate that the gymnasts have predominantly a neutral foot and with a normal footprint, presenting enough asymmetry between feet, not significant, which may be a consequence of asymmetric work and should be corrected in training. Only the range of amplitude of the talocrural joint seems to be a characteristic of foot morphology that affects technical performance and seems more an innate characteristic. The practice of rhythmic gymnastics might not be as decisive a factor as could be supposed in the morphological modifications of the footprint

Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Ginástica/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(7): 979-984, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597615


BACKGROUND: Plyometric exercises are often used to develop lower limb strength and performance-related biomechanics such as leg stiffness. However, the effectiveness of plyometric training may depend on participants' own training and performance demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of plyometric training on Reactive Strength Index (RSI) and leg stiffness (Kleg) on young athletes of different sports. METHODS: Forty eight female athletes (25 Taekwondo (TKD) and 23 rhythmic gymnastics (RG), mean±SD: age: 8.94±2.50 years; mass: 29.73±7.69 kg; height: 138.84±11.90 cm; training experience: 4.62±2.37 years) participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental (PT, N.=24) and control (CG, N.=24) groups. The PT group followed a twice-weekly plyometric training program for 4 weeks. Plyometric drills lasted approximately 5-10 s, and at least 90 s rest was allowed after each set. To examine RSI, participants performed trials of five maximal CMJs. Submaximal hopping (20 hops) was performed in order to examine leg stiffness. RESULTS: Significant interaction effect was found for RSI and the post hoc analysis showed that RSI significantly increased by 35% (P=0.017) in RG athletes, whereas a significantly reduction by 28% (P=0.004) was revealed in TKD athletes. The interaction effect between time and group was statistically significant for Kleg (P<0.05) with Kleg significantly increasing by 31% (P=0.008) in TKD athletes, but remaining unchanged (P>0.05) in RG athletes. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the effect of a 4-week plyometric training program on RSI and leg stiffness is sport dependent. Further, the applied plyometric program was effective in reducing ground contact time and therefore increasing leg stiffness.

Ginástica/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico/métodos , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(supl.5): 99-102, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196485


Gymnastics or exercise during pregnancy has a positive effect on the reduction of pain experienced by third trimester pregnant women. Preliminary study conducted at the lepolepo health center in Wundudopi, Baruga, Kendari, and the number of pregnant women for the period of January to June 2018 was 85 pregnant women, consisting of the first, second and third trimesters. Interviews were also conducted to 11 pregnant women in the third trimester, that often experience in the form of back pain, tingling, aches and fatigue, the pregnant woman also did not take any action to overcome it because according to pregnant women the problems experienced are common in pregnant women especially trimester three. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of third trimester pregnant women with the implementation of pregnancy gymnastics. This study applied quantitative using a cross sectional approach, with a population of 85 pregnant women and a sample was 46 third trimester pregnant women. Analysis method used Chi Square Test and Phi Test. The results of the study for knowledge variable showed that there was a correlation between knowledge of third trimester pregnant women with the implementation of pregnant gymnastics with a value of X2count=6.758>X2table=3.841 so that Ho was rejected or Ha was accepted. For attitudes variable from the results of the SPSS test analysis, the chi square statistical test results showed that X2count=5.073>X2table=3.841 so that Ho was rejected or Ha was accepted which means that there was a correlation between the attitude of the third trimester pregnant women and the implementation of pregnant gymnastics. Finally, it is recommended for researchers to continue the research toward other variables related to pregnancy exercise, for relevant agencies to develop services for pregnant women

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Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Conhecimento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ginástica/fisiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Gravidez/fisiologia , Gravidez/psicologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia
Phys Ther Sport ; 44: 33-40, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375075


OBJECTIVES: To explore the multidisciplinary team experience of Low Back Pain (LBP) in elite gymnastics. DESIGN: A qualitative focus group. SETTING: British Gymnastics. PARTICIPANTS: Ten coaching, sports science and medicine multidisciplinary team members working with British gymnasts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A topic guide informed by literature/expert opinion enabled discussion that was recorded/transcribed verbatim. Initial inductive analytic process developed theoretical insights. Manual coding using constant comparative methods categorised meaningful themes and sub-themes. RESULTS: Two key aspects were identified. Emerging themes for LBP presentation included: early identification LBP and influence of multidisciplinary team members on outcomes; factors influencing LBP reporting e.g. coach-athlete relationship; frequent presentations of LBP and accepted norms; athlete history and physical examination e.g. training load. Emerging themes for causation of LBP included: intrinsic risk factors e.g. growth and maturation; extrinsic risk factors e.g. equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Individual responses of a gymnast to experiencing LBP were important across all themes. Some LBP was perceived as normal. The coach-athlete relationship and support team are crucial decision-makers around training load and adaptation. Early detection will help minimise time loss from training/performance to expedite healing.

Atletas , Ginástica/fisiologia , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
J Sports Sci ; 38(16): 1859-1868, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329647


Low-pass filters are ideal when filtering human movements, however the effectiveness of such filters relies on the correct selection of the cut-off frequency. The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate filter cut-off for acceleration- and force-time data when measuring peak resultant acceleration (PRA) and ground reaction force (PRGRF) during gymnastics landings. Sixteen gymnasts executed backward handsprings and backward somersault landings onto a matted force plate while wearing four inertial measurement units (IMUs). Acceleration- and force-time data were filtered using a fourth-order Butterworth filter at different cut-off frequencies ranging from raw through to 250 Hz. Residual analysis plots were produced, and the PRGRF and PRA for all IMUs were calculated for each participant and skill at all cut-off frequencies. Descriptive statistics, model II linear regressions and Bland-Altman plots were conducted. Results indicated that a minimum 85 Hz cut-off is optimal. High cut-off frequencies (>80 Hz) showed good linear relationships and had minimal mean bias compared with raw values, indicating that either filtered (above ~85 Hz) or raw signals can be used. It is suggested that for applied sports settings no filtering is needed, however a minimum cut-off of 85 Hz should be implemented for research purposes.

Ginástica/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(2): 577-586, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386634


Nassib, SH, Mkaouer, B, Riahi, SH, Wali, SM, and Nassib, S. Prediction of gymnastics physical profile through an international program evaluation in women artistic gymnastics. J Strength Cond Res 34(2): 577-586, 2020-The purpose of this study was to investigate the most appropriate aptitudes for top-level sporting results to identify physical profile of talent identified women's artistic gymnastics (WAG). Forty-eight women's artistic gymnasts in the provincial team (age 11.12 ± 1.22 years; height 1.35 ± 0.04 m; body mass 28.5 ± 4.04 kg) voluntarily participated in this study. Anthropometrics measures and the WAG battery physical tests were used to ensure a systematic approach for the WAG development worldwide. The present findings revealed that the strength (static strength, speed strength, and endurance strength), power and flexibility seem to be important and essential for good performance. Another characteristic that emerged from the results of the physical domain is coordination. This motor skill may seem relevant to gymnastics, they are applicable to the gymnasts' ability to perform all apparatus and more generally they relate to the ability to accurately perform whole-body skills supported by the leg on the floor, balance beam, and vault. Therefore, athletic performance can be boosted using combination of several characteristics that seems to be important for an elite gymnast. This reinforcing the view that systematic approach for the development and mufti-dimensional profile seems promising.

Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
Sports Biomech ; 19(3): 322-332, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912644


A case study visualisation approach to examining the coordination and variability of multiple interacting segments is presented using a whole-body gymnastic skill as the task example. One elite male gymnast performed 10 trials of 10 longswings whilst three-dimensional locations of joint centres were tracked using a motion analysis system. Segment angles were used to define coupling between the arms and trunk, trunk and thighs and thighs and shanks. Rectified continuous relative phase profiles for each interacting couple for 80 longswings were produced. Graphical representations of coordination couplings are presented that include the traditional single coupling, followed by the relational dynamics of two couplings and finally three couplings simultaneously plotted. This method highlights the power of visualisation of movement dynamics and identifies properties of the global interacting segmental couplings that a more formal analysis may not reveal. Visualisation precedes and informs the appropriate qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics.

Ginástica/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Braço/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento , Ombro/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
Sports Biomech ; 19(2): 258-270, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004294


Female gymnasts have been evidenced to experience sport-specific growth, of which broad shoulders and narrow hips are common characteristics. In addition to being a central component of handstand performance, postural control mechanisms, including whole-body and lumbo-pelvic stability, have been identified as risk factors for overuse spinal pathology. The study aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of musculoskeletal growth and postural control responses of female artistic gymnasts in order to extend longitudinal insights into overuse spinal pathology risk. Whole-body anthropometric measures were collected for 12 competitive female gymnasts (age at recruitment: nine to 15 years) at three time points across a 12 month period. Musculoskeletal growth was partially defined as the rate of bicristal-to-biacromial breadth ratio development, and informed shoulder- and pelvis-dominant growth sub-groups. Kinematic and kinetic indicators of postural control were determined for a total of 700 handstand trials. The shoulder-dominant (gymnastics-specific) growth group was found to have significantly greater biomechanical risk for general stability (p < 0.001) than the pelvis-dominant group. Significantly greater lumbo-pelvic risk was demonstrated for the pelvis-dominant group (p < 0.001). Extended idiosyncratic examination of proportional sport-specific growth measures alongside multi-faceted risk monitoring was advocated for the effective development of future overuse pathology prevention protocols.

Ginástica/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Musculoesquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ginástica/lesões , Quadril/anatomia & histologia , Quadril/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Pelve/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Risco , Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Ombro/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Sports Biomech ; 19(4): 467-482, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136894


The aim of this study was to investigate if a visible target for the hurdle take-off would influence the onset of visual regulation and hurdle kinematics during the approach run. Ten elite male gymnasts (age 23.4 ± 4.9 years, height 1.68 ± 0.06 m, mass 63.3 ± 6.2 kg) performed six handspring vaults with a full approach run under two controlled conditions: (a) with a 5-cm white tape on the runway marking the last touchdown of the approach run and the commencement of the hurdle (tape condition-T) and (b) under the standard vaulting regulations (non-tape condition-NT). Spatiotemporal data of the approach run and the hurdle were collected by four stationary and one panning cameras (sampling rate 300 fps). Eight out of 10 gymnasts commenced regulation earlier under T than under NT. Under T condition, horizontal velocity (Vx to = 9.06 ± 0.41 m/s) and vertical velocity (V to = 9.35 ± 0.37 m/s) was significantly faster than under NT condition (Vx to = 8.85 ± 0.49 m/s; V to = 9.11 ± 0.47 m/s). Introducing a target for the hurdle facilitates an early onset of step regulation and significantly improves the kinematics of the hurdle.

Ginástica/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
Sports Biomech ; 19(2): 201-211, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792560


The purpose of this study was to describe the mechanical characteristics of a trampoline circus act and its individual tracks performed in training and shows using a tri-axial accelerometer. A track is an artist's specific role within a choreographed act. Seven male acrobats performed their trampoline act during training and shows while wearing a triaxial accelerometer and reported ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) after each trial. Average acceleration (AVG), root mean square (RMS), root mean to the fourth (RM4), time spent in specific acceleration ranges and RPE were measured/recorded from training and show acts. Paired t-tests compared dependent variables between training and show. Acceleration AVG, RMS and RM4 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in training than show. RPE was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in show than training. No significant differences existed in time spent in any of the acceleration ranges between training and show. GPS devices have been used to manage workloads in field sports but are inoperable in theatres. But, inertial measurements may be an effective alternative to describe mechanical demands in theatre or arena environments. Wearable technology may be useful to coaches to improve understanding of track demands to manage artist workloads.

Acelerometria/instrumentação , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1534-1540, Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040166


Las diferencias de sexo es un aspecto muy presente en el mundo laboral y deportivo. Esto se traduce en la diferenciación de actividades deportivas, determinadas como masculinas o femeninas. De ahí que el objetivo del estudio fue analizar el nivel de participación y características morfológicas en gimnastas de acrobática y ver las diferencias en relación al sexo y rol: portor y ágil. Se analizó la participación en los Campeonatos de España entre 2011 y 2018, y se comparó medidas antropométricas, composición corporal y de proporcionalidad, en función del rol de actuación y sexo. El Comité Autonómico de Ética de Investigación de la Xunta de Galicia (España) aprobó la metodología de trabajo. Los resultados mostraron un porcentaje mucho mayor de participación en función del sexo a favor del sexo femenino en todos los campeonatos analizados. Sin embargo, el peso, índice de masa corporal y el porcentaje muscular no fueron diferentes entre sexos en ninguno de los dos roles. De las 62 variables morfológicas evaluadas, existe un mayor predominio de las diferencias en los portores que en los ágiles en relación al sexo, destacando el porcentaje de grasa.

Sex differences are a very present aspect in the world of work and sports. This translates into the differentiation of sports activities, determined as masculine or feminine. Hence, the aim of the study was to analyze the level of participation and morphological characteristics in acrobatic gymnasts and to see the differences in relation to sex and role: Base and top. Participation in the Spanish Championships between 2011 and 2018 was analyzed, and anthropometric measures, body composition and proportionality were compared, depending on the role of performance and sex. The Autonomous Committee of Research Ethics of the Xunta de Galicia (Spain) approved the work methodology. The results showed a much higher percentage of participation according to sex in favor of the female sex in all the analyzed championships. However, the weight, body mass index and muscle percentage were not different between sexes in either of the two roles. Of the 62 morphological variables evaluated, there is a greater predominance of differences in the bases than in the tops ones in relation to sex, highlighting the percentage of fat.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Fatores Sexuais , Ginástica/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Somatotipos , Espanha , Antropometria
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(76): 579-598, dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187233


El aprendizaje de las habilidades gimnásticas carece de investigaciones suficientes que se centren en estrategias que puedan contribuir a un desarrollo de estas habilidades de forma colaborativa. Este estudio analiza las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de Bachillerato y del profesorado de educación física sobre la implementación de una estrategia colaborativa para el aprendizaje gimnástico en el contexto educativo. Se ha utilizado una metodología cualitativa que ha permitido analizar y categorizar las reflexiones de los participantes. Los resultados muestran que los estudiantes y el profesorado de educación física perciben mejoras en las competencias gimnásticas, en su relación con el grupo, en su capacidad de toma de decisiones y en su grado de satisfacción con la implementación de la estrategia colaborativa

The learning of gymnastic skills lacks sufficient research that focuses on strategies that can contribute to the development of these skills in a collaborative way. This study analyses the perceptions of Secondary Education students and their physical education teachers on the implementation of a collaborative strategy for learning of gymnastic in the educational context. A qualitative methodology has been used to analyse and categorize the reflections of the participants. The results show that the students and the physical education teachers perceive improvements in the gymnastic competences, in their relation with the group, in their capacity of decision-making and in their degree of satisfaction with the implementation of the collaborative strategy

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Ginástica/fisiologia , Aptidão/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento , Logro , Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisões , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Aprendizagem
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752246


In gymnastics, coaches are constantly searching for efficient training methods in order to improve the athletes' performance. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the effects of a novel, four-week, gymnastic-specific, eccentric-isokinetic (0.1 m/s) cluster training on a computer-controlled training device on the improvement of two static strength elements on rings (swallow and support scale). Nine elite male gymnasts participated in this study. Outcome parameters were maximum strength and strength endurance in maintaining the static position of both elements. After four weeks of training, specific maximum strength increased significantly (swallow: +4.1%; d = 0.85; p = 0.01; support scale: +3.6%; d = 2.47; p = 0.0002) and strength endurance tended to improve (swallow: +104.8%; d = 0.60; p = 0.07; support scale: +26.8%; d = 0.27; p = 0.19). Our results demonstrate that top athletes can considerably improve ring-specific strength and strength endurance in only four weeks. We assumed that the high specificity but also the unfamiliar stimulus of slow eccentric movements with very long times under maximal muscle tension led to these improvements. We suggest to use this type of training periodically and during phases in which the technical training load is low.

Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
Acta Bioeng Biomech ; 21(2): 37-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741485


PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the values of selected stability indices registered in the trials in standing with eyes open and without visual control, and in handstand in athletes practicing gymnastics at the highest level of advancement. METHODS: The study included 20 athletes practicing gymnastics. The research tool was posturograph CQ-Stab 2P. The results obtained in individual trials were compared using Friedman repeated measures analysis of variance by ranks and then subjected to Dunn post-hoc test with Bonferroni adjustment. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in the values of stability indices recorded in individual samples were found. Exceptions are the results obtained in the trials with eyes open and without visual control with regard to the size of the surface area delineated by the COP (p = 0.173) and the frequency of corrective reactions (p = 0.464), as well as the length of the statokinesiogram path in the mediolateral direction (p = 0.342), mean velocity of COP movement in the mediolateral direction (p = 0.246), maximal amplitude of the COP in the mediolateral direction (p = 0.342) and number of COP displacements in the mediolateral direction (p = 0.246). CONCLUSIONS: In seniors, disabling visual control during free standing as well as adopting a handstand position result in deterioration of the stability indices, which is a resultant of the COP displacement in both directions as well as in the anteroposterior direction. Lack of differences in the values of stability indices in the mediolateral direction suggest that in a free standing position, seniors practicing gymnastics control the movement of the center of foot pressure in the mediolateral direction and eye control is not important for the stability of the body in the frontal plane.

Atletas , Ginástica/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Humanos , Pressão , Adulto Jovem
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1095-1104, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633414


CONTEXT: Gymnastics trains fundamental movement skills but has high rates of early sport specialization. Early specialization is associated with increased injury risk. Gymnasts devote time to developing technical skill, but whether specialization status influences performance is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe the participation and specialization characteristics of youth club gymnastics participants and determine whether the level of specialization is associated with fitness and functional task performance. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: A single gymnastics facility. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Data on youth gymnasts (n = 131; 84 females, 47 males; age = 10.9 ± 2.9 years, height = 142.14 ± 16.23 cm, mass = 38.15 ± 12.93 kg) were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Specialization was assessed using a 3-tiered classification. Fitness measurements consisted of the Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool, Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool, and core strength. Functional tasks evaluated hop performance, dynamic balance, and jump-landing technique. Separate analyses of covariance, covaried by age, hours of training, and years of gymnastics participation, were used to identify differences in fitness and functional performance among specialization groups. Pearson product correlations were calculated to evaluate the relationships between training hours per week and years in gymnastics with fitness and functional performance. RESULTS: Most gymnasts were classified as moderately (50.4%, n = 66) or highly (35.1%, n = 46) specialized. Only 14.5% (n = 19) were classified as having a low level of specialization. Weak to moderate correlations were present between years in gymnastics and most fitness tasks. Moderate to strong correlations were noted between training hours per week and most fitness tasks. Low-specialization gymnasts scored lower on right lower extremity Y-balance (P = .004), upper left extremity Y-balance (P = .033), and right hop performance (P = .039) tests. CONCLUSIONS: Gymnasts reported high proportions of moderate to high specialization, and many exceeded guidelines for hours participating in gymnastics per week. We did not observe clinically meaningful group differences among specialization status and fitness or functional movement tasks, indicating no clear benefit of gymnastics training to the exclusion of other sports for increased performance.

Teste de Esforço/métodos , Ginástica/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Especialização , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 779-788, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487749


Static stretching (SS) can increase joint range of motion (ROM), due to neural, morphological, and physio-psychological factors. Periodized training programs (PD) (e. g., strength, power) are adopted to induce greater adaptations while avoiding overtraining. However, the effectiveness of periodized stretch training adaptations are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of periodized and non-periodized (NP) stretching programs on flexibility, hamstrings stiffness and muscle performance. Sixteen gymnasts were allocated to either periodized or non-periodized SS training and tested pre- and post-8 weeks for countermovement jump height, hip flexors, hip extensors and dorsiflexors ROM, hamstrings stiffness and hamstrings and quadriceps peak torque. Both stretch training groups significantly and similarly increased hip extensor (33.2%), hip flexor (25.2%), and dorsiflexor (23.8%) ROM, hamstrings peak torque (7.9%) and jump height (8.1%) from pre - to post- training. Both groups decreased hamstrings stiffness across the last ten angles (32.1%). PD elicited consistently large magnitude flexibility effect size changes compared to small and moderate magnitude changes for the non-periodized. Therefore, 8-week PD and NP SS programs can decrease young gymnasts' muscle-tendon stiffness and increase muscle performance. However, effect sizes indicate that PD stretch training was more advantageous to increasing flexibility and improving performance.

Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Criança , Elasticidade , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Torque
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(5): 5862-5876, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499742


Landing is a crucial factor in gymnastics competitions, but the underlying biomechanical and neuromuscular strategies remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical characteristics and neuromuscular strategies of landing for backward somersault. A 19-segment human model was developed and bilateral lower-limb joint loadings were estimated using computer stimulation. Bilateral lower-limb joint angles, vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), impulse, joint reaction force, joint torque, power, work, stiffness and electromyogram (EMG) of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius were presented during initial (touchdown to peak vGRF) and terminal impact-phases of landing (peak vGRF to vGRF equaling to body weight). The hip, knee, and ankle joints were rapidly flexed (8º, 20º, and 18º, respectively) during initial impact-phase and maintained at around 90º, 120º, and 60º, respectively terminal impact-phase. Flexor and extensor torques were demonstrated for lower-limb joints during initial and terminal impact-phases, respectively. The stiffness of lower limb joints and the EMGs amplitude of all examined muscles during terminal impact-phase were several times larger than that during initial impact-phase. The absolute symmetry indexes were less than 10% for lower limb joint angles and larger than 10% for the kinetics and muscle activation. The findings demonstrated symmetrical motion for lower limb joints with flexing rapidly at initial impact-phase and maintaining unchanged at terminal impact-phase and asymmetry in joint loading and muscle activation during landing.

Ginástica/fisiologia , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Articulações/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Adolescente , Articulação do Tornozelo , Antropometria , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Articulação do Joelho , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Movimento , Estresse Mecânico , Suporte de Carga
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 12(3): 243-246, sept. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191858


OBJECTIVES: Abdominal hypopressive gymnastics (AHG) is a little-researched method designed to train the muscles of the abdominal wall and pelvic floor under low stress. This study's objective is to compare levels of muscle activation in AHG against prone bridge by surface electromyography (sEMG) of the abdominal wall muscles. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects were enrolled to measure the muscle activity of the rectus abdominis (RA), transversus abdominis/internal oblique (Tra/IO), and external oblique (EO) during three exercises: prone bridge (PB), orthostatic hypopressive (OH), and hypopressive bridge (HB). Root mean square values normalized to the PB (%PB) as a baseline were used to compare the PB against OH and HB. RESULTS: The median PB ratio (%PB) for the Tra/IO showed -10.31% and +59.7% activation during OH and the HB, respectively, whereas the RA showed -77.8% and +19.3% and the EO -39.8% and +9.8%. Significant differences were found for all muscles except the Tra/IO during the OH. CONCLUSION: This study's results suggest that hypopressive exercises facilitate the activation of the Tra/IO similar to bridge exercises while simultaneously reducing RA and EO activity. This suggests that hypopressive training is a valid alternative for activating the abdominal muscles, isolating the Tra/IO at low intra-abdominal pressure

OBJETIVOS: La gimnasia abdominal hipopresiva (AHG) es un método poco estudiado, diseñado para entrenar los músculos de la pared abdominal y piso pélvico con bajos niveles de estrés. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comparar los niveles de activación muscular de la AHG y el ejercicio de puente en prono a través de electromiografía de superficie (sEMG). MÉTODOS: 20 voluntarios sanos fueron reclutados para medir el recto abdominal (RA), transverso del abdomen/oblicuo interno (Tra/IO), y oblicuo externo (EO) durante tres ejercicios: Puente en prono (PB), hipopresivo Ortostático (OH) y Puente hipopresivo (HB). La raíz media cuadrática normalizada en proporción al PB (%PB) como línea de base fue utilizada para la comparación. RESULTADOS: El %PB para el Tra/IO fue de -10.31% y +59.7% durante el OH y HB respectivamente, el RA -77.8% y 19.3% y el EO -39.88% y +9.8%. Todos presentaron diferencias significativas, excepto el Tra/IO durante el OH. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados sugieren que el ejercicio hipopresivo facilita la activación del Tra/IO de manera similar al ejercicio de puente mientras que simultáneamente se reducen la actividad del RA y el EO. La AHG es una alternativa válida para activar la musculatura abdominal, aislando al Tra/IO a baja presión intraabdominal

OBJETIVOS: A ginástica abdominal hipopressiva (AHG) é um método pouco estudado, projetado para treinar os músculos da parede abdominal e do assoalho pélvico com baixos níveis de estresse. Os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar os níveis de ativação muscular do AHG e do exercício em ponte através da eletromiografia de superfície (EMGs). MÉTODOS: 20 voluntários saudáveis ​​foram recrutados para medir o rectus abdominis externo (RA), transverso abdominal/oblíquo interno (Tra/IO) e oblíquo (EO) durante três anos: Ponte (PB), Hypopressive ortostática (OH) e ponte hipopressora (HB). A raiz média quadrática normalizada em proporção ao PB (% PB) como base foi utilizada para a comparação. RESULTADOS: %PB para o Tra/IO foi de -10,31% e + 59,7% durante o OH e HB, respectivamente, o RA -77,8% e 19,3% e o EO -39,88% e + 9,8%. Todos apresentaram diferenças significativas, exceto o Tra/IO durante o OH. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que o exercício hipopressivo facilita a ativação de Tra/OI de forma semelhante ao exercício em ponte e simultaneamente reduz a atividade de RA e OE. O AHG é uma alternativa válida para ativar os músculos abdominais, isolando o Tra/IO a baixa pressão intra-abdominal

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Eletromiografia/métodos , Ginástica/fisiologia , Decúbito Ventral , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiologia
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 12(3): 258-262, sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191861


OBJETIVO: Determinar el perfil antropométrico y fisiológico de los equipos de gimnasia rítmica españoles de los Juegos Olímpicos 1996 y 2016; reflejo de los cambios en este deporte. MÉTODO: El conjunto de los Juegos Olímpicos lo integraron seis gimnastas en 1996 y cinco en 2016. Se realizó estudio antropométrico de composición corporal, somatotipo y proporcionalidad; y prueba de esfuerzo máxima en tapiz rodante para determinación del consumo máximo de oxígeno y de los umbrales ventilatorios. Las diferencias estadísticas se determinaron por la U de Mann-Whitney, para una p < 0.05. RESULTADOS: Las gimnastas de 1996 fueron más jóvenes, con menor peso, talla y envergadura que las de 2016. El porcentaje de grasa y el sumatorio de pliegues cutáneos fueron similares en ambos conjuntos. El conjunto de 2016 tuvo mayor masa muscular (kg) y áreas musculares transversales a nivel de brazo, muslo y pierna. El conjunto de 1996 tuvo un componente ectomórfico más alto. La potencia aeróbica máxima fue superior en el conjunto de 2016 en valor absoluto (l/min) igualándose en valor relativo al peso corporal (ml·kg-1·min-1). CONCLUSIÓN: El conjunto de gimnasia rítmica de 2016 está integrado por deportistas de más experiencia en alta competición y con mayor desarrollo músculo-esquelético lo que les confiere más fuerza muscular para la ejecución correcta de los nuevos elementos acrobáticos, saltos y lanzamientos que conforman el ejercicio en la actualidad

OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric and physiological profile of the Spanish rhythmic gymnastics teams at the 1996 and 2016 Olympic Games; reflection of the changes in this sport. METHOD: the team consisted of six gymnasts in 1996 and five in 2016. It was performed an anthropometric study of body composition, somatotype and proportionality; and a test of maximum effort in treadmill for determination of the maximum consumption of oxygen and ventilatory thresholds. Statistical differences were determined by the Mann-Whitney U, p < 0.05. RESULTS: Gymnasts at the 1996 Olympics were younger and had lighter weight, size and wingspan than the ones of the group of 2016. The percentage of fat and the sum of skinfolds were similar in both sets. The group of 2016 had greater muscle mass (kg) and muscle cross-sectional areas at arm, thigh and leg. The group of 1996 had a higher ectomorfic component. The maximum aerobic power was superior in the group of 2016 in absolute values (l/min), but equal in relative values to body weight (ml·kg-1·min-1). CONCLUSION: 2016 rhythmic gymnastics team is integrated by athletes more experienced in high competition and greater muscle-skeletal development which gives them more muscle strength for the correct execution of the new acrobatic elements, jumps and throws that define the exercise today

OBJETIVO: Determinar o perfil antropométrico e fisiológico das equipes de ginástica rítmica espanhola dos Jogos Olímpicos de 1996 y 2016; reflexo das mudanças nesse esporte. MÉTODO: O conjunto dos Jogos Olímpicos foi composto por seis ginastas em 1996 e cinco em 2016. Foi realizado um estudo antropométrico de composição corporal, somatotipo e proporcionalidade; teste de esforço máximo em uma esteira rolante para determinar o consumo máximo de oxigênio e limiares ventilatórios. As diferenças estatísticas se determinaram pelo teste de U de Mann-Whitney, com umas diferença estatística estabelecida em p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: As ginastas de 1996 foram mais jovens, com menos peso, tamanho e envergadura que as de 2016. O percentual de gordura e o somatório das dobras cutâneas foram similares em ambos os grupos. O conjunto de 2016 teve maior massa muscular (Kg) e áreas musculares transversais a nível de braço, coxa e perna. O conjunto de 1996 teve um componente ectomórfico mais alto. A potência aeróbica máxima foi superior no conjunto de 2016 em valor absoluto (1/min) igualando-se em valor relativo ao peso corporal (ml·kg-1·min-1). CONCLUSÃO: O conjunto de ginástica rítmica de 2016 está integrado por desportistas de maior experiência em alta competição e com maior desenvolvimento musculoesquelético, o que lhes confere mais força muscular para a execução correta de novos elementos acrobáticos, saltos e lançamentos que definem o esporte a atualidade

Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Antropometria , Ginástica/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Espanha