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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 711-719, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524523

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba is an important urban ornamental tree species, but poor growth and damages often occur in urban environments. As a street tree species, the decline and death of G. biloba is particularly frequent, with the relevant physiological mechanism being unclear. In this study, we compared hydraulic characteristics, non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) contents and health status between G. biloba trees growing along the streets and those in parks in Shenyang City. The results showed that G. biloba growing along the streets showed higher degrees of branch and leaf mortality than those growing in the parks. Branches of G. biloba growing in both conditions showed lower degrees of xylem embolism. Branch hydraulic vulnerable curves of G. biloba under the two growing conditions also showed no significant difference, with the average P50 being lower than -2.8 MPa. G. biloba growing along the streets had lower leaf area specific conductivity, smaller tracheid diameter, smaller hydraulic diameter, lower soluble sugar content and total NSC than those growing in parks. Hydraulic failure was not the direct reason for the decline and mortality of G. biloba growing along streets. Under the more stressed growth conditions along the streets, G. biloba had smaller tracheid diameters in stems and lower Huber values, which limited the ability of water transport and photosynthetic carbon assimilation at the whole branch level. In addition, in order to deal with more serious stress such as greater heat and drought stresses, G. biloba might need to invest more NSC to repair damage, which further decreaded NSC contents in branches and increased the risk of carbon imbalance. At the same habitat (street or park), xylem hydraulics and NSC contents of G. biloba also showed relatively large difference among sampling sites, which reflected large heterogeneity of urban environment for tree growth.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Xilema , Carboidratos , Carbono , Secas , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Água/fisiologia , Xilema/fisiologia
2.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 4558702, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510178

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image segmentation based on a segmentation algorithm was performed to assess neurological function in patients with acute cerebral infarction, to investigate the efficacy evaluation of Ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection (GDLI) in the treatment of cerebral infarction and the efficiency of MRI image segmentation algorithm. First, the results of the fast semisupervised segmentation algorithm (algorithm group) and traditional processing (control group) were compared and analyzed. The recall rate, accuracy, recognition accuracy, and segmentation time of the two groups were compared. The control group was given conventional treatment, while the algorithm group was given GDLI based on conventional treatment. Finally, the difference in serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-la (HIF-la), angiotensin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 protein concentration was analyzed after treatment. The algorithm evaluation results showed that the accuracy and recall rate of MRI images recognized by the algorithm group fluctuate at 90%. In the control group, the accuracy and recall rate of MRI image results fluctuated at 80%, and the data were statistically different (p < 0.05). The clinical index test results showed that the serum VEGF content of the test group was higher than that of the control group, and the data was statistically different (p < 0.05). In addition, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) of the lesion side of the algorithm group were greatly higher than those of the control group on the 30th day, and the differences were significant (p < 0.05). There was little difference between the method presented in this study and the manual delineation by a physician. Compared with traditional manual segmentation, this method greatly reduced the time required for the segmentation of lesions. The diagnostic specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of the images segmented by the fast semisupervised algorithm were higher than those of the conventional method, and the diagnostic accuracy of acute cerebral infarction was high. In addition, it was sensitive and accurate to detect acute cerebral infarction, which provided a reliable reference for early diagnosis and condition judgment of patients.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Diterpenos , Algoritmos , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lactonas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Meglumina , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 847240, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464055

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate if therapy with a nutraceutical combination of alpha lipoic acid, Vitis vinifera L. and Ginkgo biloba (Blunorm forte®) can be helpful and be synergic with Avanafil. Methods: The trial included 123 males with type 2 diabetic mellitus and with erectile dysfunction (ED), aged ≥18 years. Patients were divided in four different arms: 1st arm: placebo during the three months of treatment and before sexual act; 2nd arm: placebo for three months and Avanafil: 1 tablet, 200 mg, 15-30 minutes before sexual act; 3rd arm: Blunorm forte: 1 tablet, 40 minutes before the meal (breakfast) during the three months and Avanafil: 1 tablet, 200 mg, 15-30 minutes before sexual act; 4th arm: Blunorm forte: 1 tablet, 40 minutes before the meal (breakfast and dinner) during the three months and placebo 15-30 minutes before sexual act. Results: A significant reduction of fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index were recorded both in Avanafil + Blunorm forte and with Blunorm forte. Metalloproteinases-2, and -9 were reduced in the Avanafil + Blunorm forte group. High sensitivity-C-reactive protein was decreased by both Avanafil, and Avanafil + Blunorm forte group. No variations were recorded with the other treatments. The group treated with Blunorm forte and Avanafil reached a higher International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score after 3 months of therapy compared to baseline and placebo and compared to Avanafil and Blunorm forte taken alone. Conclusion: Blunorm forte® can be helpful and synergic with Avanafil in increasing sexual performance compared to placebo.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Disfunção Erétil , Ácido Tióctico , Vitis , Adolescente , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Feminino , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Masculino , Ereção Peniana , Pirimidinas , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nat Plants ; 8(4): 389-401, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437001

RESUMO

Cycads represent one of the most ancient lineages of living seed plants. Identifying genomic features uniquely shared by cycads and other extant seed plants, but not non-seed-producing plants, may shed light on the origin of key innovations, as well as the early diversification of seed plants. Here, we report the 10.5-Gb reference genome of Cycas panzhihuaensis, complemented by the transcriptomes of 339 cycad species. Nuclear and plastid phylogenomic analyses strongly suggest that cycads and Ginkgo form a clade sister to all other living gymnosperms, in contrast to mitochondrial data, which place cycads alone in this position. We found evidence for an ancient whole-genome duplication in the common ancestor of extant gymnosperms. The Cycas genome contains four homologues of the fitD gene family that were likely acquired via horizontal gene transfer from fungi, and these genes confer herbivore resistance in cycads. The male-specific region of the Y chromosome of C. panzhihuaensis contains a MADS-box transcription factor expressed exclusively in male cones that is similar to a system reported in Ginkgo, suggesting that a sex determination mechanism controlled by MADS-box genes may have originated in the common ancestor of cycads and Ginkgo. The C. panzhihuaensis genome provides an important new resource of broad utility for biologists.


Assuntos
Cycas , Cycadopsida/genética , Cycas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Filogenia , Sementes/genética
5.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 38(4): 305-310, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442771

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) after cataract surgery, and the impact of hyaluronic acid and ginkgo biloba eyedrops (HA-GB). Methods: Forty patients with no DED received Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, assessment of conjunctival hyperemia and epithelial damage, fluorescein tear break-up time (TBUT) at baseline, day 1, week 1, and 4; adherence and tolerability were checked at weeks 1 and 4. At day 0 patients underwent cataract surgery and were randomized to standard postoperative care (control group) or standard postoperative care + HA-GB 3 times a day for 4 weeks (HA-GB group). Results: At baseline, TBUT was 9.6 ± 2.6 sec in controls and 9.0 ± 1.6 in HA-GB; thereafter it was higher in HA-GB group: 5.8 ± 2.3 versus 7.8 ± 3.2 (week 1, P = 0.03) and 6.4 ± 2.3 versus 8.5 ± 2.5 (week 4, P = 0.009). OSDI and conjunctival hyperemia were better in HA-GB group at week 4; respectively, 9.0 ± 5.7 versus 14.8 ± 7.3 (P = 0.004) and 5% versus 35% (P = 0.04). In the last 2 visits 50% of controls were symptomatic (OSDI of 13 or higher) compared with 16% on HA-GB group (P < 0.001). In addition, tolerability was higher in HA-GB group (week 1: 0.81 ± 0.20 versus 0.70 ± 0.24, P = 0.007; week 4: 0.93 ± 0.17 versus 0.80 ± 0.28, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Treatment with HA-GB is effective in reducing DED signs and symptoms in patients receiving cataract surgery, with high tolerability and safety profiles. clinicaltrials.gov (ID number NCT05002036).


Assuntos
Catarata , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Hiperemia , Catarata/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/efeitos adversos , Hiperemia/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Oftálmicas/uso terapêutico , Lágrimas , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(5): 1293-1299, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343157

RESUMO

This study established a method for rapid quantification of terpene lactone, bilobalide, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide A and ginkgolide B in the chromatographic process of Ginkgo Folium based on near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). The effects of competitive adaptive reweighting sampling(CARS), random frog(RF), and synergy interval partial least squares(siPLS) on the performance of partial least squares regression(PLSR) model were compared to the reference values measured by HPLC. Among them, the correlation coefficients of prediction(Rp) of validation sets of terpene lactone, bilobalide, and ginkgolide C were all higher than 0.98, and the relative standard errors of prediction(RSEPs) were 5.87%, 6.90% and 6.63%, respectively. Aiming at ginkgolide A and ginkgolide B with relatively low content, the genetic algorithm joint extreme learning machine(GA-ELM) was used to establish the optimized quantitative analysis model. Compared with CARS-PLSR model, the CARS-GA-ELM models of ginkgolide A and ginkgolide B exhibited a reduction in RSEP from 15.65% to 8.52% and from 21.28% to 10.84%, respectively, which met the needs of quantitative ana-lysis. It has been proved that NIRS can be used for the rapid detection of various lactone components in the chromatographic process of Ginkgo Folium.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Lactonas/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
7.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 38(4): 318-323, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285758

RESUMO

AIMS: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has been widely applied in the treatment of cerebrovascular and neurological diseases. However, the effect of EGb761 on ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a vascular disorder and life-threatening complication of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection therapy (IVF/ICSI), has not been evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty female Wistar rats aged 22-days old (D22) were divided into eight groups: Control rats received intraperitoneal injection of saline for five consecutive days (D22-D26); OHSS model group received 10 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for four consecutive days (D22-D25) and 30 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the 5th day (D26); Prophylactic treatment group received three doses of EGb761 (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) 1 h before injection of eCG (hCG) for seven consecutive days; Therapeutic treatment group received three doses of EGb761 (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) 48 h after injection of eCG (hCG) for seven consecutive days. RESULTS: All three doses of EGb761 therapeutic medication significantly reduced ovarian mass index of OHSS model rats (p ≤ .01). Furthermore, therapeutic treatment group exhibited improved vascular permeability, decreased estradiol and progesterone levels, lower corpus luteum, and higher follicle numbers compared with the OHSS model. Elevated protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) in both ovary and kidney of the OHSS model was restrained by EGb761 therapeutic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: EGb761 therapeutic medication decreases vascular permeability in OHSS rat model by inhibiting VEGF and VEGFR expression, which may contribute to the treatment of OHSS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana , Animais , Permeabilidade Capilar , Gonadotropina Coriônica , Feminino , Ginkgo biloba , Cavalos , Humanos , Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
8.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1850): 20210229, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306884

RESUMO

Sex chromosomes or sex-determining regions (SDR) have been discovered in many dioecious plant species, including the iconic 'living fossil' Ginkgo biloba, though the location and size of the SDR in G. biloba remain contradictory. Here we resolve these controversies and analyse the evolution of the SDR in this species. Based on transcriptome sequencing data from four genetic crosses we reconstruct male- and female-specific genetic maps and locate the SDR to the middle of chromosome 2. Integration of the genetic maps with the genome sequence reveals that recombination in and around the SDR is suppressed in a region of about 50 Mb in both males and females. However, occasional recombination does occur except a small, less than 5 Mb long region that does not recombine in males. Based on synonymous divergence between homologous X- and Y-linked genes in this region, we infer that the Ginkgo SDR is fairly old-at least of Cretaceous origin. The analysis of substitution rates and gene expression reveals only slight Y-degeneration. These results are consistent with findings in other dioecious plants with homomorphic sex chromosomes, where the SDR is typically small and evolves in a region with pre-existing reduced recombination, surrounded by long actively recombining pseudoautosomal regions. This article is part of the theme issue 'Sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in land plants'.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Ginkgo biloba , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Plantas/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349934

RESUMO

Amino acids (AAs) are important metabolites that are related with diabetes. However, their roles in the initiation and development of diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in the treatment of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBE) have not been fully explored. Thus, we investigated the roles that AAs played in the progression and GBE supplementation of DM rat induced by streptozotocin. The rats were randomly divided into a normal control group treated with drug-free solution, a normal control group treated with GBE, a DM group treated with drug-free solution, and DM group treated with GBE; and maintained on this protocol for 9 weeks. Rat plasma was collected from the sixth week to the ninth week and then analyzed with the optimized hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method. A total of 17 AAs with differential levels were monitored to indicate dysfunction of AAs metabolism to confirm the occurrence and development of DM. Treatment with GBE partially reversed the changes seen in seven AAs including leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, glutamic acid, asparagines, lysine and alanine in DM rats, indicating that GBE could prevent the occurrence and development of DM by acting on AAs metabolism. The improvement of those AAs metabolism disorders may play a considerable role in the treatment of GBE on the occurrence and development of DM. Those findings potentially promote the understanding of the pathogenic progression of DM and reveal the therapeutic mechanism of GBE against DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Ginkgo biloba , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Ginkgo biloba/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 149: 112805, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276465

RESUMO

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is a traditional economic tree species in China. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is widely used in combination to treat hypertension and complications in clinical practice. However, the antihypertensive effect of GBE alone is weak and it is also difficult to study the mechanism because of its complex composition. This study was to prepare a new component group of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBLCG) with clear chemical structures, and to investigate its effect on reducing blood pressure and improving myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats with GBE and amlodipine as positive controls. The results showed that total flavonoid aglycones (TFAs) of GBLCG was mainly composed of quercetin (QCT), kaempferol (KMF) and isorhamnetin (ISR); Total terpenoid lactones (TTLs) of GBLCG might be a novel cocrystal composed of Ginkgolide A (GA), Ginkgolide B (GB) Ginkgolide C (GC), Ginkgolide J (GJ) and bilobalide (BB). The hypotensive activity of GBLCG (4.4 mg/kg) group was better than that of GBE group (p < 0.05), and the effect of improving myocardial hypertrophy was better than that of amlodipine besylate group (p < 0.01). GBLCG might reduce blood pressure and improve myocardial hypertrophy by promoting the synthesis and release of NO in endothelial cells, reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting platelet aggregation and promoting lesion circulation. Eventually, we hope to introduce GBLCG as a new drug for hypertension.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Hipertensão , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Células Endoteliais , Ginkgo biloba/química , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Ginkgolídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrofia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
11.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(1): 83-89, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE50) in the treatment of dizziness caused by cerebral arteriosclerosis. METHODS: This was a multi-center, double-blind, double-dummy, positive-controlled, parallel randomized controlled clinical trial with 1? allocation. We recruited 404 patients with dizziness caused by cerebral arteriosclerosis (blood stasis symptom pattern) in 10 hospitals in China. GBE50 group received GBE50 and Naoxinqing tablet (NXQ) of mimetic agent, control group received NXQ and GBE50 of mimetic agent. The main outcome was Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) symptom pattern score of blood stasis after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes were changes in the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) score, vertigo visual analogue scale (VAS) score, the university of California vertigo questionnaire (UCLA-DQ) score and single-item symptom score of TCM from baseline to 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Safety indicators included the incidence of adverse events, severe adverse events and laboratory examination including blood routine, liver function, renal function, and so forth. RESULTS: The total effective rate of TCM symptom pattern score in the GBE50 group after 6 weeks of treatment was higher than that in the control group, the difference in rate was statistically significant (92.67% vs 83.07%, P = 0.004). Compared with the control group, there was no difference in the incidence of adverse reactions (9.95% vs 14.85%, P = 0.136). CONCLUSION: The treatment of dizziness caused by cerebral arteriosclerosis with GBE50 is effective, safe and reliable.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana , Tontura/tratamento farmacológico , Tontura/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vertigem/tratamento farmacológico , Vertigem/etiologia
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9973678, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35126824

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by loss of memory and cognitive impairment via dysfunction of the cholinergic nervous system. In cholinergic dysfunction, it is well known that impaired cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling are major pathological markers and are some of the strategies for the development of AD therapy. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating whether a mixture comprising Ginkgo biloba L. leaf (GL) and Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. (HE) fruit extract (GH mixture) alleviated cognitive impairment induced in a scopolamine-induced model. It was discovered that GH reduced neuronal apoptosis and promoted neuronal survival by activating BDNF signaling in an in vitro assay. In addition, the GH (p.o. 240 mg/kg) oral administration group significantly restored the cognitive deficits of the scopolamine-induced mouse group (i.p. 1.2 mg/kg) in the behavior tests such as Y-maze and novel object recognition task (NORT) tests. This mixture also considerably enhanced cholinergic system function in the mouse brain. Furthermore, GH markedly upregulated the expressed levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), CREB, and BDNF protein levels. These results demonstrated that GH strongly exerted a neuroprotective effect on the scopolamine-induced mouse model, suggesting that an optimized mixture of GL and HE could be used as a good material for developing functional foods to aid in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba/química , Hericium/química , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Hericium/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Chin J Nat Med ; 20(1): 54-66, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101250

RESUMO

Hallmarks of the pathophysiology of glaucoma are oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) with multi-target, multi-pathway functions has been reported to exert positive pharmacological effects on oxidative stress and damaged RGCs. However, the ingredients and anti-apoptotic targets of EGb in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in-depth analysis is necessary for further research. Ginkgo biloba-related and anti-apoptotic targets were identified and then combined to obtain the intersection, representing the potential anti-apoptotic targets of Ginkgo biloba. In addition, compound-anti-apoptotic target and OAG-target protein-protein interaction network were merged to obtain five core genes and compound-OAG-anti-apoptotic target protein-protein interaction network. Consequently, the active compounds and anti-apoptotic targets of Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of OAG were identified, namely luteolin, ß-sitosterol, kaempferol, stigmasterol, quercetin, and p53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, respectively. For the anti-apoptotic targets of Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of OAG, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were executed to confirm the gene functions of Ginkgo biloba in antagonizing apoptosis of RGCs. The pathway enrichment was mainly involved in transcriptional activation of p53 responsive genes, activation of caspases and apoptotic processes. Finally, we confirmed the results of the network analysis by H2O2 treated RGC-5 cells in vitro. The results demonstrated that EGb protection can effectively diminish H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting p53 acetylation, reducing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and suppressing the expression of specific cleavage of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais , Células Ganglionares da Retina
14.
Food Chem ; 382: 132408, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176549

RESUMO

The Ginkgo biloba has astonished scholars globally with enormous bioactives, with sales exceeding $10 billion since 2017. The Ginkgo biloba seed (GBS) is an essential part of culinary culture. Nevertheless, toxins in fresh Ginkgo biloba seed (GBS) have limited GBSs' daily consumption. Ginkgotoxin and ginkgotoxin-5-glucoside cause poisoning, tonic-clonic convulsions, and neurotoxic effects. Ginkgolic acid causes cytotoxicity and allergies. Allergic glycoprotein in GBS causes nausea, seizures, dyspnea, mydriasis, vomiting, and bellyache. The amygdalin-derived hydrocyanic acid cause dizziness, vomiting, cramping, and sleeping disorders. Food products are frequently exposed to various processing techniques to increase food safety and functionality. As a result, this review focused on the technologies that have been used to minimize toxins in GBS. In addition, a comparison of these techniques was made based on their benefits, drawbacks, feasibility, pharmacological activities, and future direction or opportunities to improve current ones were provided.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Hipersensibilidade , Cianetos , Glucosídeos , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Piridoxina/análogos & derivados , Salicilatos , Sementes
15.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159288

RESUMO

(1) Background: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been widely used to treat central nervous system and cardiovascular diseases. Accumulating evidence has revealed the therapeutic potential of GBE against Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, no systematic evaluation has been performed; (2) Methods: a total of 17 preclinical studies and 20 clinical trials assessing the therapeutic effects of GBE against AD were identified from electronic databases. The data in the reports were extracted to conduct a meta-analysis of the AD-related pathological features or symptoms; (3) Results: For the preclinical reports, 45 animals treated with GBE, in six studies, were subjected to cognitive function assessments by the Morris water maze. GBE was shown to reduce the escape latencies in several studies, in both rats and mice (I2 > 70%, p < 0.005). For the clinical trials, eight trials, including 2100 individuals, were conducted. The results show that GBE improved the SKT and ADAS-Cog scores in early-stage AD patients after high doses and long-term administration; (4) Conclusions: GBE displayed generally consistent anti-AD effects in animal experiments, and it might improve AD symptoms in early-stage AD patients after high doses and long-term administration. A lack of sample size calculations and the poor quality of the methods are two obvious limitations of the studies. Nevertheless, the preclinical and clinical data suggest that further large-scale clinical trials may be needed in order to examine the effects of long-term GEB administration on early-stage AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Ginkgo biloba , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Cognição , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 86(2): 703-709, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have demonstrated a significant effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba therapy versus placebo in patients with dementia. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to analyze the impact of Ginkgo biloba drug prescriptions on dementia incidence in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a real-world setting. METHODS: This retrospective study was based on the IQVIA Disease Analyzer database and included patients aged 65 or older with a first diagnosis of MCI from January 2000 to December 2019. Each patient was followed for up to 20 years after MCI diagnosis until February 2021. Date of the first diagnosis of dementia or loss to follow-up, whichever occurred first, was noted. To estimate the association between Ginkgo biloba prescriptions during the follow-up and dementia incidence, a multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed, adjusted for age, sex, health insurance, documented co-diagnoses, and prescription of cholinesterase inhibitors. RESULTS: Overall, 24,483 MCI patients (mean age: 77.0 years, 56.3% women) were included. It was found that > 2 prescriptions of Ginkgo biloba were significantly associated with a reduced dementia incidence (HR: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55-0.91), p = 0.007), as compared with no Ginkgo biloba prescription. The effect of receiving > 3 Ginkgo biloba prescriptions was even stronger, with an HR of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.48-0.86), p = 0.003), while for > 4 prescriptions the HR was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.41-0.82) (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: All-cause dementia incidence decreased with higher numbers of Ginkgo biloba prescriptions in MCI patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Prescrições , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 211: 114595, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074563

RESUMO

The identification of chemical constituents can assist the discovery of active ingredients and can differentiate herbs with multiple cultivars. In this study, a diagnostic ion and neutral loss filtering strategy was developed for the qualitative analysis of ginkgo leaf. The strategy is based on an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. A large number of (110) of GL compounds were identified, including 8 potentially novel compounds and 42 previously unreported GL constituents. Moreover, 64 available compounds in 48 GL cultivars were analyzed via a combined multicomponent quantitative analysis and statistical analysis. The distribution of the 64 compounds among different cultivars was clarified in a principal component analysis and hot map visualization. Via a variable-importance-for-prediction score analysis, ten main differential compounds were found among the different cultivars. Collectively, these results indicated the usefulness of our approach in chemical profiling and discrimination of herbs with multiple botanical origins. This strategy can also help chemists rapidly identify novel compounds from a complex matrix.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ginkgo biloba , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 278: 118811, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973721

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to optimize the separation and purification technology of water-soluble Ginkgo biloba leaves polysaccharides (WGBP), analyze its composition characteristics, observe its hair-growth promoting effect in alopecia areata mice, clarify the polysaccharide fraction with bioactive activities, and explore its anti-inflammation mechanism. We isolated acidic polysaccharides (WGBP-A2) and purified a RG-I type polysaccharide (WGBP-A2b) with a molecular weight of 44 kDa. Results showed that WGBP-A2 could significantly increase the contents of VEGF and HGF in the skin tissue of alopecia areata mice, decrease the contents of Inflammatory factors in the serum. On a cellular level, the expressions of p-p65 and p-IκBα, TNF-α and IL-1ß in HUVECs treated with WGBP-A2b were down-regulated. The bioinformatic analysis showed that the inflammation signaling pathway was significantly changed. Its specific mechanism may be related to its regulating the expression of p-p65 p-IκBα, TNF-α and IL-1ß proteins in the inflammation signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba/química , Cabelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Phytochemistry ; 196: 113102, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063795

RESUMO

To investigate the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory mechanisms of lignans in plants, the actual distributions of lignans and lignan glucosides in flash-frozen stems of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) were studied using cryo time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry coupled with scanning electron microscopy (cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM). Four lignans and four lignan glucosides were successfully characterized. Quantitative HPLC measurements were conducted on serial tangential sections of freeze-fixed ginkgo stem to determine the amount and approximate distribution of lignan and lignan glucosides. (-)-Olivil 4,4'-di-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (olivil DG) was the most abundant lignan glucoside in ginkgo and was distributed mainly in the phloem, ray parenchyma cells, and pith. The comparative accumulation of olivil DG revealed its possible transport pathways and storage sites in ginkgo. Although not all relevant enzymes have been identified, understanding the distributions of lignan and lignan glucosides in ginkgo stems provides significant insight into their biological functions.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Lignanas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ginkgo biloba/química , Glucosídeos/química , Lignanas/química , Sementes
20.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056747

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba is a popular medicinal plant widely used in numerous herbal products, including food supplements. Due to its popularity and growing economic value, G. biloba leaf extract has become the target of economically motivated adulterations. There are many reports about the poor quality of ginkgo products and their adulteration, mainly by adding flavonols, flavonol glycosides, or extracts from other plants. In this work, we developed an approach using two-trace two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2T2D COS) in UV-Vis range combined with multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) to detect potential adulteration of twenty G. biloba food supplements. UV-Vis spectral data are obtained for 80% methanol and aqueous extracts in the range of 245-410 nm. Three series of two-dimensional correlation spectra were interpreted by visual inspection and using MPCA. The proposed relatively quick and straightforward approach successfully differentiated supplements adulterated with rutin or those lacking ginkgo leaf extract. Supporting information about adulteration was obtained from the difference between the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of both extracts and from chromatographic (HPLC-DAD) fingerprints of methanolic samples.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ginkgo biloba/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Quimioinformática/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Quempferóis/análise , Polônia , Análise de Componente Principal , Quercetina/análise , Rutina/análise
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