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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281274

RESUMO

It has been recognized that serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A) agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amphetamine (DOI) impairs serotonergic homeostasis. However, the mechanism of DOI-induced serotonergic behaviors remains to be explored. Moreover, little is known about therapeutic interventions against serotonin syndrome, although evidence suggests that ginseng might possess modulating effects on the serotonin system. As ginsenoside Re (GRe) is well-known as a novel antioxidant in the nervous system, we investigated whether GRe modulates 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI-induced serotonin impairments. We proposed that protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) mediates serotonergic impairments. Treatment with GRe or 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL11939 significantly attenuated DOI-induced serotonergic behaviors (i.e., overall serotonergic syndrome behaviors, head twitch response, hyperthermia) by inhibiting mitochondrial translocation of PKCδ, reducing mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and mitochondrial oxidative stress in wild-type mice. These attenuations were in line with those observed upon PKCδ inhibition (i.e., pharmacologic inhibitor rottlerin or PKCδ knockout mice). Furthermore, GRe was not further implicated in attenuation mediated by PKCδ knockout in mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ is a therapeutic target for GRe against serotonergic behaviors induced by DOI.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Síndrome da Serotonina/prevenção & controle , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Anfetaminas/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C-delta/deficiência , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Serotonina/fisiologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia , Síndrome da Serotonina/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome da Serotonina/fisiopatologia
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199025

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rk1 and Rg5 are minor ginseng saponins that have received more attention recently because of their high oral bioavailability. Each of them can effectively inhibit the survival and proliferation of human liver cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 yielded 142 potential targets, and shared 44 putative targets associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Enrichment analysis of the overlapped genes showed that G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 may induce apoptosis of liver cancer cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathways. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to confirm the inhibition of cell viability with G-Rk1 or G-Rg5 in highly metastatic human cancer MHCC-97H cells. We evaluated the apoptosis of MHCC-97H cells by using flow cytometry and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The translocation of Bax/Bak led to the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c and Smac. A sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed after that. The levels of anti-apoptotic proteins were decreased after treatment of G-Rk1 or G-Rg5 in MHCC-97H cells. Taken together, G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 promoted the endogenous apoptotic pathway in MHCC-97H cells by targeting and regulating some critical liver cancer related genes that are involved in the signal pathways associated with cell survival and proliferation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070099

RESUMO

Wild ginseng has better pharmacological effects than cultivated ginseng. However, its industrialization is limited by the inability to grow wild ginseng on a large scale. Herein, we demonstrate how to optimize ginseng production through cultivation, and how to enhance the concentrations of specific ginsenosides through fermentation. In the study, we also evaluated the ability of fermented cultured wild ginseng root extract (HLJG0701-ß) to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as its neuroprotective effects and antioxidant activity. In invitro tests, HLJG0701-ß inhibited AChE activity and exerted neuroprotective and antioxidant effects (showing increased catalyst activity but decreased reactive oxygen species concentration). In invivo tests, after HLJG0701-ß was orally administered at doses of 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg in an animal model of memory impairment, behavioral evaluation (Morris water maze test and Y-maze task test) was performed. The levels of AChE, acetylcholine (ACh), blood catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain tissues were measured. The results showed that HLJG0701-ß produced the best results at a dose of 250 mg/kg or more. The neuroprotective mechanism of HLJG0701-ß was determined to involve the inhibition of AChE activity and a decrease in oxidative stress. In summary, both invitro and invivo tests confirmed that HJG0701-ß administration can lead to memory improvement.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fermentação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Catalase/sangue , Catalase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Galactose , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Camundongos , Teste do Labirinto Aquático de Morris , Ovariectomia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Escopolamina
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16567-16576, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stem cell aging, characterized by elevated p16INK4a expression, decreases cell repopulating and self-renewal abilities, which results in elevated inflammation and slow recovery against stress. METHODS: Biopsied muscles were analyzed at baseline and 24 h after squat exercise in 12 trained men (22 ± 2 y). Placebo (PLA) and immunostimulant Rg1 (5 mg) were supplemented 1 h before a squat exercise, using a double-blind counterbalanced crossover design. RESULTS: Perceived exertion at the end of resistance exercise session was significantly lowered after Rg1 supplementation. Exercise doubled endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) (p < 0.001) and decreased p16INK4a mRNA to 50% of baseline (d = 0.865, p < 0.05) in muscle tissues, despite p16INK4a+ cell and beta-galactosidase+ (ß-Gal+) cell counts being unaltered. Rg1 further lowered p16INK4a mRNA to 35% of baseline with greater effect size than the PLA level (d = 1.302, p < 0.01) and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) mRNA to 39% of baseline (p < 0.05). A strong correlation between MPO and p16INK4a expression in muscle tissues was observed (r = 0.84, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: EPC in skeletal muscle doubled 1 d after an acute bout of resistance exercise. The exercised effects in lowering EPC aging and tissue inflammation were enhanced by immunostimulant Rg1, suggesting the involvement of immune stimulation on EPC rejuvenation.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3252-3264, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146399

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rc is one of the cardinal bioactive components of Panax ginseng. The present study aimed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rc exerted protective effects against acute cold exposure-induced myocardial injury in rats. Forty rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Control, model, ginsenoside Rc 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg groups. Rats were intragastrically administrated with ginsenoside Rc (10, 20 mg/kg) or vehicle daily for 7 days. On the seventh day, all rats except the control group were exposed to low temperature. Cardiac function, myocardial enzyme activities, hemorheology, and inflammatory response were detected. Histopathological examination and apoptosis of cardiac tissues were performed. The expressions of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), procaspase-3, and the mRNA (messenger RNA) level of SIRT1 were measured by western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Ginsenoside Rc significantly improved cardiac function, diminished the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), and regulated abnormal hemorheology in acute cold-exposed rats (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Furthermore, ginsenoside Rc could attenuate myocardial histological changes and structural abnormalities, decrease apoptotic cells and reduce the mRNA levels and activity of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and IL-6 (p < 0.01). In addition, ginsenoside Rc upregulated the expressions of SIRT1, Bcl-2, and procaspase-3 and downregulated that of Bax (p < 0.01). The changes in both the mRNA and protein expression levels of SIRT1 were similar. The results of the current study suggested that ginsenoside Rc could alleviate acute cold exposure-induced myocardial injury in rats by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis via regulating SIRT1 expression and attenuating the inflammatory responses. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The current study indicated that ginsenoside Rc could alleviate acute cold exposure-induced myocardial injury in rats. Ginsenoside Rc could be potentially used as a bioactive ingredient in processed functional food products or food supplements to prevent from acute cold exposure-induced myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Temperatura Baixa , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Panax/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(21): 6073-6086, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014666

RESUMO

Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) extract has been reported to inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE); however, the possible inhibitory action of most of its constituents (ginsenosides) against ACE remains unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated ginsenoside derivatives' inhibitory effect on ACE. We assessed the activities of 22 ginsenosides, most of which inhibited ACE significantly. Notably, protopanaxatriol, protopanaxadiol, and ginsenoside Rh2 exhibited the most potent ACE inhibitory potential, with IC50 values of 1.57, 2.22, and 5.60 µM, respectively. Further, a kinetic study revealed different modes of inhibition against ACE. Molecular docking studies have confirmed that ginsenosides inhibit ACE via many hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with catalytic residues and zinc ion of C- and N-domain ACE that block the catalytic activity of ACE. In addition, we found that the active ginsenosides stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-resistant C2C12 skeletal muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the most active ginsenosides' reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) scavenging properties were evaluated, in which IC50 values ranged from 1.44-43.83 to 2.36-39.56 µM in ONOO- and ROS, respectively. The results derived from these computational and in vitro experiments provide additional scientific support for the anecdotal use of ginseng in traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Angiotensinas , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Panax/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112353, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034046

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is acute uncontrolled inflammation of lung tissue that leads to high fatality both in human and animals. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) could be an opportunistic, versatile bacterial etiology of ALI. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is extracted from the Panax ginseng, which displays a wide range of biological and pharmacological effects. However, protective effects of Rb1 in S. aureus-induced ALI though endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and death receptor-mediated pathways have not yet been reported. Therefore, present study was planned with the aims to investigate the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of Rb1 through regulation of ER stress as well as death receptor-mediated pathways in ALI induced by S. aureus in mice. In this study, four groups of healthy Kunming mice (n = 48) were used. The S. aureus (80 µl; 1 ×107 CFU/10 µl) was administered intranasally to establish mice model of ALI. After 24 h of onset of S. aureus-induced ALI, the mice were injected thrice with Rb1 (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally six hours apart. Histopathology, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay were employed in the current study. Our results suggested that Rb1 administration save lungs from pulmonary injury by reducing wet to dry (W/D) ratio, protein levels, total cells, neutrophilic count, reactive oxygen species (ROS), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)1 depletion. Meanwhile, Rb1 therapy ameliorated histopathology alteration of lung tissue and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. The gene expression of ER stress marker (PERK, AFT-6, IRE1 and CHOP) were upregulated markedly (P < .05) in S. aureus-instilled groups, which was reduced by Rb1 administration that is reveled from the result findings of the RT-qPCR and immunoblot assay. The results of immunohistochemistry for CHOP indicated the increased expression in S. aureus groups which in turn ameliorated by Rb1 treatment. The mRNA expression demonstrated that death receptor-associated genes (FasL, Fas, FADD and caspase-8) showed up-regulation in S. aureus group. The similar findings were observed for the protein expression of caspase-8, FADD and Fas. Rb1 treatment markedly (P < .05) reversed protein and mRNA expression levels of these death receptor-associated genes when compared to the S. aureus group. Taken together, Rb1 attenuated S. aureus-induced oxidative damage via the ER stress-mediated pathway and apoptosis through death receptor-mediated pathway. Conclusively, our findings provide an insight into preventive mechanism of Rb1 in ALI caused by S. aureus and hence proven a scientific baseline for the therapeutic application of Rb1.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Glutationa Peroxidase , Pulmão/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Panax , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Morte Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112333, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058674

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is considered to be a grave threat to humans and animals. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) has been reported for its antioxidant potential and medicinal properties. However, the shielding effects of Rb1 and the precise molecular mechanisms against DON-induced immunotoxicity in mice have not been reported yet. In the present research, 4-weeks old healthy C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n = 12), viz., CON, DON 3 mg/kg BW, Rb1 50 mg/kg BW and DON 3 mg/kg + Rb1 50 mg/kg BW (DON + Rb1). Feed intake and body weight gain were monitored during the entire experiment (15 d). Our results demonstrated that Rb1 markedly increased the ADG (30%) and ADFI (25.10%) of mice compared with DON group. Furthermore, Rb1 alleviated the DON-induced immune injury by relieving the splenic histopathological alteration, enhancing the T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+, CD8+), the levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α), as well as production of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG). Moreover, Rb1 ameliorated DON-inflicted oxidative stress by reducing the ROS, MDA and H2O2 contents and boosting the antioxidant defense system (T-AOC, T-SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px). Additionally, Rb1 significantly reversed the DON-induced excessive splenic apoptosis via modulating the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in mice, depicting the decreased percentage of splenocyte apoptotic cells by 26.65%, down-regulated the mRNA abundance of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and protein expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and Cyt-c. Simultaneously, Rb1 markedly rescued both Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression levels. Taken together, Rb1 mitigates DON-induced immune injury by suppressing the oxidative damage and regulating the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in mice. Conclusively, our current research provides an insight into the preventive mechanism of Rb1 against DON-induced immune injury in mice and thus, presents a scientific baseline for the therapeutic application of Rb1.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Imunotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153549, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside-Rg2 (G-Rg2) is a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside isolated from ginseng. It has been found to exhibit various pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the anticancer effects of G-Rg2 on estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer (BC) cells, and the underlying mechanisms involving in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: Cell viability, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and ROS production were measured following exposure to G-Rg2. The protein expression levels of p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, PARP, p-Rb, cyclin D1, CDK6, and p-AMPK were quantified using western blot analysis. The in vivo activity of G-Rg2 was assessed in a xenograft model. Immunohistochemistry staining for p-Rb and p-AMPK was performed in tumor tissues. RESULTS: G-Rg2 significantly decreased cell viability but increased cell apoptosis. In MCF-7 cells, G-Rg2 increased ROS production by inhibiting ERK1/2 and Akt activation. G-Rg2-induced ROS induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and AMPK phosphorylation. In the xenograft model, the 5 mg/kg G-Rg2-treated group showed decreased tumor volume and weight, similar to the 5 mg/kg 4-OHT-treated group, compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that G-Rg2 treatment decreased Rb phosphorylation, while increasing AMPK phosphorylation in tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: G-Rg2 has potential anticancer effects by increasing the ROS-AMPK signaling pathway and inhibiting ERK1/2 and Akt activation-mediated cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in MCF-7 BC cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916022

RESUMO

Korean Red ginseng (KRG), commonly used in traditional medicine, has anti-inflammatory, anti- oxidative, and anti-tumorigenic properties. Asian sand dust (ASD) is known to aggravate upper and lower airway inflammatory responses. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to ASD with or without KRG or ginsenoside Rg3. Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), MUC5B, and MUC8 mRNA and protein expression levels were determined using quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activator protein 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase expression and activity were determined using western blot analysis. ASD induced MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC8 mRNA and protein expression in BEAS-2B cells, which was significantly inhibited by KRG and Rg3. Although ASD-induced mucin expression was associated with NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, KRG and Rg3 significantly suppressed only ASD-induced NF-κB expression and activity. KRG and Rg3 inhibited ASD-induced mucin gene expression and protein production from bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggest that KRG and Rg3 have potential for treating mucus-producing airway inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Poeira , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Mucinas/genética , Panax/química , Areia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ginsenosídeos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Mucina-5AC/biossíntese , Mucina-5AC/genética , Mucina-5B/biossíntese , Mucina-5B/genética , Mucinas/biossíntese , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807927

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming one of the most common chronic liver diseases in the world. One of the features of NAFLD is hepatic fat accumulation, which further causes hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation. Saponins, the major pharmacologically active ingredients isolated from Panax notoginseng, contain several ginsenosides, which have various pharmacological and therapeutic functions. However, the ginsenoside-specific molecular mechanism of saponins in NAFLD remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of ginseng saponin extract and its ginsenosides on hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation and their underlying action mechanism in NAFLD. Mice were fed a fast food diet (FFD) for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD and then treated with saponin extract (50 or 150 mg/kg) for the remaining nine weeks to determine the effects of saponin on NAFLD. Saponin extract administration significantly alleviated FFD-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation. Particularly, saponin extract, compared with conventional red ginseng, contained significantly increased amounts of ginsenosides (Rh1 (10.34-fold) and Rg2 (7.1-fold)). In vitro Rh1 and Rg2 treatments exerted an anti-steatotic effect in primary hepatocytes, an antifibrotic effect in hepatic stellate cells, and anti-inflammatory and pro-mitophagy effects in immortalized mouse Kupffer cells. Mechanistically, saponin extract alleviated lipopolysaccharide-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting mitophagy. In conclusion, saponin extract inhibited inflammation-mediated pathological inflammasome activation in macrophages, thereby preventing NAFLD development. Thus, saponin extract administration may be an alternative method for NAFLD prevention.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia
12.
Biomaterials ; 273: 120827, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910079

RESUMO

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on a global scale urges prompt and effective countermeasures. Recently, a study has reported that coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is associated with a decrease in albumin level, an increase in NETosis, blood coagulation, and cytokine level. Here, we present drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent to resolve the clinical outcomes observed in severe SARS-CoV-2 patients. PEGylated nanoparticle albumin-bound (PNAB) was used to promote prolonged bioactivity of steroidal ginsenoside saponins, PNAB-Rg6 and PNAB-Rgx365. Our data indicate that the application of PNAB-steroidal ginsenoside can effectively reduce histone H4 and NETosis-related factors in the plasma, and alleviate SREBP2-mediated systemic inflammation in the PBMCs of SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients. The engineered blood vessel model confirmed that these drugs are effective in suppressing blood clot formation and vascular inflammation. Moreover, the animal model experiment showed that these drugs are effective in promoting the survival rate by alleviating tissue damage and cytokine storm. Altogether, our findings suggest that these PNAB-steroidal ginsenoside drugs have potential applications in the treatment of symptoms associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 patients, such as coagulation and cytokine storm.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ginsenosídeos , Nanopartículas , Albuminas , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Polietilenoglicóis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917440

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a set of chronic inflammatory diseases caused by the accumulation of Gram-negative bacteria on teeth, resulting in gingivitis, pocket formation, alveolar bone loss, tissue destruction, and tooth loss. In this study, the contents of ginsenosides isolated from Panax ginseng fruit extract were quantitatively analyzed, and the anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in human periodontal ligament cells. The major ginsenosides, Re, Ra8, and Rf, present in ginseng fruit were simultaneously analyzed by a validated method using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector; Re, Ra8, and Rf content per 1 g of P. ginseng fruit extract was 1.01 ± 0.03, 0.33 ± 0.01, and 0.55 ± 0.04 mg, respectively. Ginsenosides-Re, -Ra8, and -Rf inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory factors and the expression of important cytokines in periodontitis by inducing the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), promoting osteoblast differentiation of periodontal ligament cells, suppressing alveolar bone loss, and promoting the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, such as alp, opn, and runx2. An inhibitory effect of these ginsenosides on periodontitis and alveolar bone loss was observed via the regulation of HO-1 and subsequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Silencing EGFR with EGFR siRNA confirmed that the effect of ginsenosides on HO-1 is mediated by EGFR. In conclusion, this study evaluated the contents of ginsenosides-Re, -Ra8, and -Rf isolated from P. ginseng fruit extract. Therefore, these results provide important basic data for future P. ginseng fruit component studies and suggest that ginsenosides Re, Ra8, and Rf have potential as future treatment options for periodontitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Porphyromonas gingivalis/química , Análise de Regressão , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 422: 115555, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915122

RESUMO

Sodium valproate (SVP) is one of the most commonly prescribed antiepileptic drugs. However, SVP is known to induce hepatotoxicity, which limits its clinical application for treating various neurological disorders. Previously, we found that ginsenoside compound K (G-CK) demonstrated protective effects against SVP-induced hepatotoxicity by mitigating oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, as well as downregulating the expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in rats. This study aimed to assess the effect of G-CK on SVP-induced cytotoxicity in human hepatocytes (L02 cell line), as well as the effect of the downregulation of sEH expression on both the hepatotoxicity of SVP and the hepatoprotective effects of G-CK. We observed that G-CK significantly ameliorated the decrease of cell viability, elevated ALT, AST and ALP activities, significant oxidative stress, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by SVP in L02 cells. G-CK also inhibited the SVP-mediated upregulation of sEH expression. Transfection of the L02 cells with siRNA-sEH led to a partial improvement in the L02 cytotoxicity caused by SVP by mitigating cellular oxidative stress without recovering the reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, the combination of siRNA-sEH and G-CK had better inhibitory effects on the SVP-induced changes of all detection indices except mitochondrial membrane potential than G-CK alone. Together, our results demonstrated that the combination of siRNA-sEH and G-CK better suppressed the SVP-induced cytotoxicity in L02 cells compared to either G-CK or siRNA-sEH alone.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1308: 137-160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861443

RESUMO

Programmed cell death processes such as apoptosis and autophagy strongly contribute to the onset and progression of cancer. Along with these lines, modulation of cell death mechanisms to combat cancer cells and elimination of resistance to apoptosis is of great interest. It appears that modulation of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with specific agents would be beneficial in the treatment of several disorders. Interestingly, it has been suggested that herbal natural products may be suitable candidates for the modulation of these processes due to few side effects and significant therapeutic potential. Ginsenosides are derivatives of ginseng and exert modulatory effects on the molecular mechanisms associated with autophagy and ER stress. Ginsenosides act as smart phytochemicals that confer their effects by up-regulating ATG proteins and converting LC3-I to -II, which results in maturation of autophagosomes. Not only do ginsenosides promote autophagy but they also possess protective and therapeutic properties due to their capacity to modulate ER stress and up- and down-regulate and/or dephosphorylate UPR transducers such as IRE1, PERK, and ATF6. Thus, it would appear that ginsenosides are promising agents to potentially restore tissue malfunction and possibly eliminate cancer.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Ginsenosídeos , Apoptose , Autofagossomos , Autofagia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico
16.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2753-2765, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928646

RESUMO

25-Hydroxylprotopanaxadiol-3ß, 12ß, 20-triol (25-OH-PPD or AD-2) belongs to dammarane ginsenoside, and is commonly obtained from the acidic hydrolysate of total ginsensides of Panax ginseng. This study investigated the potential mechanism of AD-2 toward improving thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Mice were divided into seven groups: control group, TAA model group, TAA + AD-2 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) groups, TAA + silymarin (100 mg/kg) group, and TAA + Fu Fang Biejia (FFBj; 300 mg/kg) group. All mice were treated to intraperitoneal TAA injection to establish a hepatic fibrosis model, and drugs were administered orally. The mechanism and related pathways underlying the AD-2-mediated action against hepatic fibrosis were explored by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. After AD-2 treatment, the expression levels of Lipin-1, SREBP1, and F4/80 significantly decreased, meanwhile the protein expressions levels of IL1ß, IL1R1, IL18, Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, and cFlips also decreased. Furthermore, AD-2 inhibited RAF and MEK pathways. The results demonstrate that AD-2 can alleviate hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism is likely related to the regulation of lipid accumulation, inflammatory response, apoptosis pathway, and Raf-MEK signaling pathways, which provide a basis for clinical research for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Ginsenoside is one of the main active ingredients of ginseng, and can alleviate the symptoms of various diseases, for example, hepatic fibrosis. This paper mainly used Western blotting to explore its possible mechanism of action. The goal was to provide a reference for the development of traditional Chinese medicines for hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Quinases raf/metabolismo , Animais , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Panax/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 23(3): 294-306, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771049

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major bioactive component of ginseng. Limited information is available regarding Rg1 concentrations in the central neural system and the corresponding relationship of plasma/intracerebral concentrations, and intracerebral effects of Rg1. Awake Aß model rats received a single subcutaneous administration of Rg1. Concentrations of unbound Rg1 and acetylcholine in the brain extracellular fluid and Rg1 in plasma were then determined. An Emax-two compartment pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model without effect compartment was finally obtained by evaluating three mechanism-based models. The corresponding relationship between the plasma PK and PD of Rg1 can be described as E = 119.05•C/(73.42 + C).[Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Acetilcolina , Ginsenosídeos , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Plasma , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 339: 109430, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676887

RESUMO

Connexin-40 (Cx40) and Cx43 are the principal components of gap junctions. Dysregulation of connexin expression is clinically related to cardiac pathologies. 25-Hydroxy protopanaxadiol [25-OH-PPD, 20 (R)-dammarane-3ß, 12ß, 20, 25-tetrol], known as AD2, is a novel protopanaxadiol extracted from Panax ginseng that exhibits many pharmacological activities, but its effects on cardiac gap junctions are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AD2 on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced Cx40 and Cx43 dysregulation. In this study, isolated beating rat atria were perfused with Ang II (5 µM) for 1 h to induce Cx40 and Cx43 dysregulation. The effects of AD2 (1.6, 16, and 160 µg/100 g body weight) on Ang II-induced hemodynamics in rats were analyzed by biological recorder, and changes in proteins levels were analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that AD2 ameliorated Ang II-induced hyper hemodynamics and abnormal P-waves, and prevented fibrotic collagen deposition (3.77% ± 1.64%-26.31% ± 1.64% with Ang II, 5.76% ± 0.94% with AD2). Ang II upregulated expression of nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein 1, and transforming growth factor ß1, and downregulated of Cx40 and Cx43 expression, which were inhibited by AD2 concomitantly with increased of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression via liver kinase B1 activation. The present findings suggest that AD2 inhibited Ang II-induced dysregulation of Cx40 and Cx43 via activation of AMPK signaling, thus highlighting the promise and utility of AD2 for treatment of connexin dysregulation-related heart disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Conexinas/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671522

RESUMO

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators that regulate the inflammatory response in inflammation-related diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate different New Zealand (NZ)-grown ginseng fractions on the productions of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Four NZ-grown ginseng fractions, including total ginseng extract (TGE), non-ginsenoside fraction extract (NGE), high-polar ginsenoside fraction extract (HPG), and less-polar ginsenoside fraction extract (LPG), were prepared and the ginsenoside compositions of extracts were analyzed by HPLC using 19 ginsenoside reference standards. The THP-1 cells were pre-treated with different concentrations of TGE, NGE, HPG, and LPG, and were then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-ß1), were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGE at 400 µg/mL significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 productions. NGE did not show any effects on inflammatory secretion except inhibited IL-6 production at a high dose. Furthermore, LPG displayed a stronger effect than HPG on inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) productions. Particularly, 100 µg/mL LPG not only significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6, but also remarkably enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. NZ-grown ginseng exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, which is mainly attributed to ginsenoside fractions (particularly less-polar ginsenosides) rather than non-saponin fractions.


Assuntos
Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Citocinas/análise , Citocinas/biossíntese , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células THP-1
20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(3): 2639-2652, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661439

RESUMO

Panax ginseng, an ancient herb, belonging to Chinese traditional medicine, is an important herb that has a remarkable impact on various diseases. Ginsenoside Rg3, one of the most abundant ginsenosides, exerts significant functions in the prevention of various types of cancers with few side effects. In the present review, its functional molecular mechanisms are explored, including the improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties, immune regulation, induction of tumor apoptosis, prevention of tumor invasion and metastasis, tumor proliferation and angiogenesis, and reduction of chemoresistance and radioresistance. On the other hand, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and clinical indications of Rg3 are also discussed. The biological functional role of ginsenoside Rg3 may be associated with that it is a steroid glycoside with diverse biological activities and many signaling pathway can be regulated. Many clinical trials are highly needed to confirm the functions of ginsenoside Rg3.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacocinética , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico
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