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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17591, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCII) is a common complication of spinal surgery as well as thoracic and abdominal surgery. Acute cytotoxic edema is the key pathogenic alteration. Therefore, avoiding or decreasing cellular edema has become the major target for SCII treatment. METHODS: The antiedema activity of ginsenoside Rb1 on aquaporin (AQP) 4, nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression was detected by western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction under conditions of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in a rat astrocyte model in vitro. In addition, the cellular membrane permeability of AQP4 overexpressing cells or AQP4 small interfering RNA-transfected cells was detected. RESULTS: Ginsenoside Rb1 significantly prevented OGD/R-induced AQP4 downregulation in rat astrocytes. In addition, ginsenoside Rb1 treatment or AQP4 overexpression in rat astrocytes significantly attenuated the OGD/R-induced increase of cellular membrane permeability. Moreover, ginsenoside Rb1 obviously prevented the OGD/R-induced decrease of NGF and BDNT expression in rat astrocytes. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that ginsenoside Rb1 can relieve spinal cord edema and improve neurological function by increasing AQP4 expression.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/genética , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Aquaporina 4/biossíntese , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , RNA/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3758-3762, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602950

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rh_2,firstly isolated from red ginseng,is protopanaxadiol type of steroidal saponin. Rh_2 possessed variety of activities,but bioavailability of oral administration Rh_2 was extremely low due to poor absorption. Moreover,ginsenoside Rh_2 exhibited toxicity on human normal cells. Therefore,to improve stronger anti-tumor activity and attenuate toxicity,it was essential to design and optimize chemical structure of ginsenoside Rh_2. Through n-octanoylchloride modifications,a novel ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh_2 named caprylic acid monoester of Rh_2( C-Rh_2) was designed and synthesized. Structure of novel ginsenoside derivative was identified by1 D and 2 D NMR,as well as ESI-MS analyses. Anti-tumor effect of C-Rh_2 was tested on H22 tumor bearing mice. C-Rh_2 displayed certain anti-tumor activities and exhibited less toxicity than Rh_2. In the present study,C-Rh_2 as ester form of ginsenoside Rh_2 showed better anti-tumor activity and less toxicity,but the specific mechanism needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/síntese química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Caprilatos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Saponinas
3.
Life Sci ; 236: 116948, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a destructive trauma accompanied with local injury. Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts anti-apoptosis and anti-autophagy properties. Our goal was to study the protective mechanism of Rg1 in attenuating cell injury. METHODS: MiR-216a-5p inhibitor was transfected into PC-12 cells to verify the growth promoting roles of miR-216a-5p, then cells were pre-treated by Rg1 for 24 h and treated by 300 µM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 1 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were tested through Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry, respectively. Expression of miR-216a-5p and cell damage relative factors was tested via qRT-PCR and Western blot experiments. RESULTS: H2O2 induced cell activity suppression, apoptosis and clear autophagy well at the concentration of 300 µM Rg1 attenuated H2O2-induced cell injury at the concentration of 200 µM that it elevated cell activity, attenuated apoptosis and autophagy and activated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/AMP-activated protein kinase (AKT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathways. Further, miR-216a-5p was up-regulated by Rg1. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that Rg1 attenuated H2O2-caused cell injury through positively regulated miR-216a-5p.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Oxidantes/toxicidade , Células PC12 , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10245-10255, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389238

RESUMO

Ginseng has been widely used as a functional food in the world because of its well-defined health benefits. Previous studies have confirmed that AD-1, a new ginsenoside derived from ginseng, can ameliorate thioacetamide-induced liver injury and fibrosis in mice. Simultaneously, amino acid supplementation is getting more attention as an important adjuvant therapy in the improvement of hepatopathy. The aim of this study was to conjugate AD-1 with several selected amino acids and investigate the cytotoxicity of the obtained conjugates in activated t-HSC/Cl-6 cells and normal human liver cells (LO2). Structure-activity relationships of conjugates and underlying mechanisms of the effect are also explored. The results indicated that conjugate 7c remarkably inhibited cell proliferation in activated t-HSC/Cl-6 cells (IC50 = 3.8 ± 0.4 µM) and appeared to be nontoxic to LO2. Besides, conjugate 7c had a relatively good plasma stability. Further study demonstrated that inducing S-phase arrest and activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis were included in the mechanisms underlying the efficiency of conjugate 7c. These findings provided further insight into designing functional foods (ginsenoside and amino acid) for the application in prevention or improvement of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Aminoácidos/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411316

RESUMO

Many compounds of ginsenosides show anti-inflammatory properties. However, their anti-inflammatory effects in intervertebral chondrocytes in the presence of inflammatory factors have never been shown. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are generally associated with the degradation and death of chondrocytes; therefore, finding an effective and nontoxic substance that attenuates the inflammation is worthwhile. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissues, and the cells were treated with ginsenoside compounds and IL-1ß, alone and in combination. Cell viability and death rate were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry methods, respectively. PCR, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, and the interactions between proteins, respectively. Monomeric component of ginsenoside Rd had no toxicity at the tested range of concentrations. Furthermore, Rd suppressed the inflammatory response of chondrocytes to interleukin (IL)-1ß by suppressing the increase in IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and retarding IL-1ß-induced degradation of chondrocytes by improving cell proliferation characteristics and expression of aggrecan and COL2A1. These protective effects of Rd were associated with ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), blocking the stimulation of IL-1ß to NF-κB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that NEDD4, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, and ITCH most likely target IL1RAP. Rd increased intracellular ITCH level and the amount of ITCH attaching to IL1RAP. Thus, IL1RAP ubiquitination promoted by Rd is likely to occur by up-regulation of ITCH. In summary, Rd inhibited IL-1ß-induced inflammation and degradation of intervertebral disc chondrocytes by increasing IL1RAP ubiquitination.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Agrecanas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Dor Lombar/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Núcleo Pulposo/citologia , Núcleo Pulposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Pulposo/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
6.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(3): 228-231, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ginsenoside-Rg2 on mechanical allodynia, heat hyperalgeia, depressive state of rats with chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury. METHODS: Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank control group (Normal, normal + saline),sham operation group (Sham, sham operation + saline),chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve group (CCI, CCI + saline),ginsenoside-Rg2 low dose group (CCI + Rg2 5 mg/kg), and ginsenoside-Rg2 high dose group (CCI + Rg2 10 mg/kg).After the CCI model was established,drug were injected into the abdominal cavity through the syringe once a day,for 14 consecutive days.The mechanical shrinkage foot reflex threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency(TWL) were determined at 1 d before the operation and at 1,3,5,7,10 and 14 d after the operation.Light-dark transition test, forced swimming test were determined at 1 d before the operation and at 14 d after the operation. RESULTS: Compared with the sham group, the MWL and TWL of the CCI rats were decreased significantly (P<0.01), time in the light compartment and number of transition were decreased (P<0.01), the immobility time in FST was also prolonged significantly (P<0.01). At 14 days after CCI operation, the MWL and TWL of the ginsenoside-Rg2 groups were increased significantly (P<0.01), time in the light compartment and number of transition were also shortened significantly (P<0.01), the immobility time in FST was also shortened significantly (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside-Rg2 can inhibit the mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity of CCI rats,and can relieve depressive state.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Animais , Constrição , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900188, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298488

RESUMO

Panaxadiol is a dammarane-type ginsenoside having high ginseng content. The 3-hydroxy group of panaxadiol (PD) was modified by fatty acids and diacids. The modified panax glycol had enhanced anticancer activity. Twelve PD derivatives were evaluated and purified by chemical synthesis, column chromatography, co-synthesis, and identification. The human leukemia cells THP-1, HL-60, and human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 were evaluated; PD derivatives were tested and evaluated in vitro by MTT assay. The results showed that the antitumor activities of some derivatives on three tumor cell lines were better than those of PD.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Panax/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ginsenosídeos/síntese química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Células PC-3 , Panax/metabolismo
8.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104279, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356850

RESUMO

20(R)-25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol (25-OH-PPD) is a natural compound showing a variety of anti-tumor effects. In an attempt to search for a new anti-cancer compound with higher antitumor activities, we designed and synthesized a series of 25-OH-PPD derivatives. Cytotoxicity assay of these derivatives towards MCF-7, A549, U87, HO-8901, Hela cancer cell lines and normal IOSE144 cell lines were tested by MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 25-OH-PPD, Compounds 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 showed strong anticancer activity, and all compounds showed low toxicity or no toxicity for normal cells. In particular, compound 6 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in all cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A549, U87, HO-8901, and Hela) with IC50 values of 5.04 µM, 1.36 µM, 3.24 µM, 3.47 µM, 4.57 µM, respectively. Among the five cell lines, all the compounds showed strong inhibition on A549 cells. Further studies showed that Compound 6 significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells by inducing apoptosis. Our results indicate that Compound 6 is a potential anticancer inhibitor and provides a theoretical basis for further research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Acilação , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ginsenosídeos/síntese química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2348-2352, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359662

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of SIRT1/TSC_2 signal axis on leukemia stem cell senescence induced by ginsenoside Rg_1. CD34~+CD38~- leukemia stem cells(CD34~+CD38~-LSCs) was isolated by magnetic cell sorting(MACS) and divided into two groups. The control group cells were routinely cultured, 40 µmol·L~(-1) ginsenoside Rg_1 was added to the control group for co-culture in Rg_1 group. The effect of Rg_l to induce CD34~+CD38~-LSCs senescence were evaluated by senescence-associated ß-Galactosidase(SA-ß-Gal) staining, cell cycle assay, CCK-8 and Colony-Assay. The expression of senescence associated SIRT1, TSC_2 mRNA and protein was examined by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(FQ-PCR) and Western blot. The results showed that the CD34~+CD38~-LSCs could effectively be isolated by MACS, and the purity of CD34~+CD38~-LSCs is up to(95.86±3.04)%. Compared with the control group, the percentage of positive cells expressed SA-ß-Gal in the Rg_1 group is increased, the senescence morphological changes were observed in the CD34~+CD38~-LSCs in the Rg_1 group. The proliferation inhibition rate and the number of cells entered G_0/G_1 phase in the Rg_1 group were increased, but the colony-formed ability was decreased, Rg_1 could significantly inhibit the proliferation and self-renewal ability of CD34~+CD38~-LSCs. The expression of SIRT1 and TSC_2 mRNA and protein were down regulated in the Rg_1 group compared with the control group. Our research implied that Rg_1 may induce the senescence of CD34~+CD38~-LSCs and SIRT1/TSC_2 signal axis plays a significant role in this process.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Life Sci ; 233: 116525, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired wound healing in diabetes foot ulcers (DFUs) brings a great burden to diabetic patients. Pro-angiogenesis through elevating nitric oxide (NO) is beneficial to the wound healing process. Ginsenoside Rg1, the main active in Notoginseng, is reported to regulate the angiogenesis in endothelial cells through modulating miR-23a. However, the effect of Rg1 in diabetes remains elusive. METHODS: High fat diet combined with streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with Rg1. Then incision area and tissue NO level were measured to evaluate the wound closure efficacy of Rg1. Then high glucose cultured HUVECs were employed to mimic diabetic environment in vitro. Overexpression and knockdown plasmids of miR-23a or IRF-1 were constructed and transfected in HUVECs. qPCR and western blot were used to determine the mRNA and protein level, respectively. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was utilized to determine the interaction of IRF-1/miR-23a. RESULTS: Rg1 accelerated the wound closure speed in diabetic rats and increased NO level through elevating iNOS expression. Knockdown of iNOS reversed Rg1-induced VEGF expression, cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic efficacy and cell migration ability in high glucose cultured HUVECs. Further investigation revealed that Rg1 mediated iNOS through miR-23a. miR-23a inhibited the expression of IRF-1, a protein which could directly bind to the iNOS mRNA 3'UTR. CONCLUSION: Rg1 promoted angiogenesis in diabetic wound healing process through NO signaling via miR-23a, providing a novel candidate for DFUs treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Pé Diabético/etiologia , Pé Diabético/metabolismo , Pé Diabético/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 364-371, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is the main saponin isolated from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae). This study explored the protective effects of NGR1 on human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell inflammatory damage caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as possible internal molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using CCK-8 assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI Apoptosis Detection kit, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was tested using DCFH-DA staining. qRT-PCR was used to measure microRNA-26a (miR-26a), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expressions. miRNA transfection was conducted to knock down miR-26a. The protein expression levels of key molecules related to cell apoptosis, inflammatory response and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway were detected using western blotting. RESULTS: LPS stimulation caused human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell viability reduction, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines expression. NGR1 treatment protected human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from LPS-caused viability reduction, ROS level elevation, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines expression. Mechanistically, NGR1 enhanced miR-26a expression in LPS-treated human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Knockdown of miR-26a reversed the protective effect of NGR1 on LPS-treated cells. Besides, NGR1 inactivated NF-κB pathway in LPS-treated human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells via up-regulating miR-26a. CONCLUSION: NGR1 protected human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from LPS-caused inflammatory damage at least partially via up-regulating miR-26a and then inactivating NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110642, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247261

RESUMO

Although glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory drugs, they are often accompanied by adverse effects, which are mainly due to the transactivation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) target genes. In order to screen novel plant-derived GR ligands (phytocorticoids) capable of separating transrepression from transactivation, this work focuses on the estimation of 20(R, S)-protopanaxadiol [PPD(R, S)] and 20(R, S)-protopanaxatriol [PPT(R, S)] for their dissociated characteristics. The reporter gene assay shows that ginsenosides cannot enhance glucocorticoid-responsive element-driven genes. The cytotoxicity assay shows that PPT(S), PPT(R), and PPD(S) can inhibit cell proliferation while PPD(R) does not suppress cell growth at available concentration. Further analysis of transactivation and transrepression activities indicates that PPD(R) can repress the transcription of GR target transrepressed gene without activating the expression of the GR target transactivated gene. Results of molecular docking suggest that PPD(R) yields more hydrogen bond interactions and a lower binding energy than its counterparts, resulting in tighter binding between PPD(R) and GR. In addition, PPD(R) achieves stability in the pocket after 2 ns, thereby facilitating exerting its regulatory role of GR target genes. By contrast, other ginsenosides fluctuate drastically during the simulations. In conclusion, PPD(R) may serve as a potential selective GR modulator (SEGRM).


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/química , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 302-312, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059756

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is clinically characterized by excessive inflammation leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), having high morbidity and mortality both in human and animals. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is a major primary bioactive component extracted by Panax ginseng, which has numerous pharmacological functions such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of Rb1 in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced ALI in mice have not been investigated. The aim of the current study was to determine the anti-inflammatory influence of Rb1 on S. aureus-induced ALI in mice, and to explore its possible underlying principle mechanisms in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The results of physical morphology, histopathological variation and wet-to-dry weight ratio of lungs revealed that Rb1 significantly attenuated S. aureus-induced lung injury. Furthermore, qPCR results displayed that Rb1 inhibited IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α production both in vivo and in vitro. The activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) by S. aureus was inhibited by application of Rb1 as confirmed by results of immunofluorescence assay. The expression of NF-kB and MAPK signaling proteins revealed that Rb1 significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of p65, ERK, as well as JNK. Altogether, the results of this experiment presented that Rb1 has ability to protect S. aureus-induced ALI in mice by attenuating TLR-2-mediated NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, Rb-1 might be a potential medicine in the treatment of S. aureus-induced lung inflammation.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/microbiologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Panax/química , Pneumonia , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5201790, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080820

RESUMO

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute, high fatal contagious disease induced by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) with acute severe hepatic injury and causes huge economic loss worldwide. In order to develop an effective and reliable drug to treat this disease in clinic, a prescription formulated with baicalin, linarin, icariin, and notoginsenoside R1 (BLIN) according to the theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment in traditional Chinese veterinary medicine was applied to investigate its curative effects against RHD in vivo. The preliminary study results showed that BLIN prescription exerted good curative effect on RHD therapy. To further validate the curative effect and to investigate the possible related curative mechanisms of this drug, the survival rates, the plasma biochemical indexes of hepatic function, the plasma evaluation indexes of oxidative injury, and the RHDV gene expression levels were detected and then the correlation among these indexes was also analyzed. These results showed that BLIN prescription could significantly increase the survival rate, reduce the hepatic injury severity, alleviate the oxidative injury, and decrease the RHDV gene expression level in rabbits infected with RHDV. All these results indicate that BLIN prescription possesses outstanding curative effect against RHD, and the curative mechanism may be related to its antioxidant and anti-RHDV activities. Therefore, this prescription can be expected to be exploited into a new candidate for RHD therapy in clinic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/sangue , Infecções por Caliciviridae/patologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Coelhos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 1808-1814, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed inflammatory response is closely associated with the severity of Spinal cord injury (SCI). Herein, the function and molecular mechanism of notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) in the in vitro model of SCI inflammation injury were explored. METHODS: PC-12 neuronal cells were subjected with LPS to construct a cell-based model of SCI inflammatory injury. NGR1 was applied in this cell model. miR-132 was silenced by transfection with miR-132 inhibitor. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed, respectively. Then, the expression changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines and JNK pathway were examined. RESULTS: In this model, LPS was neurotoxic, with inhibiting PC-12 cell viability, inducing apoptosis, and enhancing concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. However, NGR1 weakened the influence of LPS on PC-12 cells via elevating cell viability, decreasing apoptosis, decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, and suppressing activation of JNK signalling pathway. miR-132 was up-regulated by NGR1 treatment. Silence of miR-132 eliminated the influence of NGR1 on LPS-stimulated PC-12 cells. CONCLUSION: NGR1 relieved PC-12 cells from LPS-triggered inflammatory damage via elevating miR-132 and hereafter suppressing JNK pathway.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Células PC12 , Ratos
16.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 48-52, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078152

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Compound K, an active metabolite of ginsenosides, is reported to exhibit anti-cancer property in various types of human malignancies. The present study investigated the role of compound K on glucose metabolism in NSCLC cells and its underlying mechanism. Our study found that compound K dose-dependently inhibited the cell viability of NSCLC cells. Moreover, administration with compound K decreased glucose uptake and lactate secretion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Consistently, the expression of key enzymes (HK II, PDK1 and LDHA) involved in glucose metabolism were inhibited in compound K-treated tumor cells. In addition, compound K inhibited the expression of HIF-1α and its downstream gene GLUT1. On the contrary, overexpression of HIF-1α elevated metabolic reactions and partly attenuated the inhibitory role of compound K on NSCLC cell growth. These results demonstrate that compound K suppresses NSCLC cell growth via HIF-1α mediated metabolic alteration, contributing to novel anticancer therapy by targeting glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética
17.
Cell Prolif ; 52(4): e12627, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Based on previous reports that ginsenosides have been shown to exert better preventive effects on cisplatin-induced kidney injury, the present work aims to evaluate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rb3 (G-Rb3) on cisplatin-induced renal damage and underlying mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protective effect of G-Rb3 on cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in ICR mouse model and HEK293 cell model was investigated, and the underlying possible mechanisms were also explored. For animal experiment, renal function, kidney histology, inflammation, oxidative stress, relative protein molecules involved in apoptosis and autophagy signalling pathways were assessed. In addition, rapamycin (a specific inhibitor of mTOR), compound C (a specific inhibitor of AMPK) and acetylcysteine (NAC, a specific ROS scavenger) were employed to testify the effects of AMPK/mTOR signal pathway on the protective effects of G-Rb3 in HEK293 cells. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with G-Rb3 at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg for ten days significantly reversed the increases in serum creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Histopathological examination further revealed that G-Rb3 inhibited cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. G-Rb3 diminished cisplatin-induced increase in protein expression levels of p62, Atg3, Atg5 and Atg7, and decrease in protein expression level of p-mTOR and the ratio of LC3-I/LC3-II, indicating that G-Rb3 suppressed cisplatin-induced activation of autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy induced inactivation of apoptosis, which suggested that autophagy played an adverse effect on cisplatin-evoked renal damage. Further, we found that G-Rb3 might potentially modulate the expressions of AMPK-related signal pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings clearly suggested that G-Rb3-mediated alleviation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was in part due to regulation of AMPK-/mTOR-mediated autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Linhagem Celular , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(8): 1648-1653, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090330

RESUMO

This paper aimed to study the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on endotoxin(LPS)-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells and its mechanism of action. Mouse lung epithelial cells(MLE-12) were first treated with LPS. The autophagy changes and apoptosis and the relationship with concentration and time of LPS were observed. Then,the level of autophagy in MLE-12 was regulated at a specific concentration and action time of LPS,and the changes of apoptosis were observed. Secondly,ginsenoside Rg_1 and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA were added respectively at the same concentration and action time of LPS. The lung epithelial cells were grouped to observe the effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on LPS-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells and its mechanism. In the animal experiment,the mice were grouped and tested by apoptosis protein,lung injury score and HE staining section to verify whether ginsenoside Rg_1 has a protective effect on LPS-induced lung injury. The results showed that apoptosis and autophagy increased as the rise of concentration after treatment with LPS for 12 h. The apoptosis increased gradually,and the autophagy increased first and then decreased over time at the LPS concentration of 25 g·L-1. The apoptosis of LPS group was higher than that of control group,and LPS+3-MA group increased further,while apoptosis decreased significantly in LPS+RAM(rapamycin,autophagy promoter) group. The autophagy increased in LPS group,decreased in LPS+3-MA group and increased in LPS+RAM group. The apoptosis of LPS group was higher than that of control group,and the apoptosis of LPS+Rg_1 group decreased. The apoptosis of LPS+Rg_1+3-MA group increased again. The autophagy of LPS group further increased after administration of ginsenoside Rg_1,but decreased after administration of 3-MA. In the in vivo experiments in mice,the apoptosis of LPS group increased significantly compared with the control group,while LPS + ginsenoside Rg_1 group decreased. Lung injury score and HE staining also conformed to the above trend. LPS can induce the apoptosis of lung epithelial cells in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. The autophagy of lung epithelial cells increases with the rise of LPS concentration. At the specific concentration of LPS,autophagy increases first and then decreases after 12-16 hours. Proper increase of autophagy in lung epithelial cells within a certain period of time can reduce the apoptosis induced by LPS,while inhibition of autophagy can increase apoptosis. Ginsenoside Rg_1 has a protective effect on lung cancer epithelial cell apoptosis induced by autophagy.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Autofagia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Pulmão/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos
19.
Life Sci ; 229: 210-218, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102746

RESUMO

AIMS: Hair follicles play a critical role in the process of hair growth. The dermal papilla cells (DPCs) are an important component in the hair follicle regeneration and growth. This study investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on the growth of cultured mink hair follicles and DPCs. MAIN METHODS: The mink hair follicles were treated with ginsenoside Rb1 for 9 days and their lengths were measured every three days. Real-time PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of vascularization endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) and TGF-ß1. In addition, the levels of proteins were detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was determined by immunofluorescence staining of proliferation marker Ki-67 and cell cycle analysis was performed on flow cytometry. Moreover, cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. KEY FINDINGS: Ginsenoside Rb1 promoted the growth of hair follicles, and proliferation and migration of DPCs. Ginsenoside Rb1 improved the expression levels of VEGFA and VEGF-R2, while attenuated the TGF-ß1 expression both in hair follicles and DPCs. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rb1 facilitated the activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3ß signaling pathway in hair follicles and DPCs. SIGNIFICANCE: The results reveals a crucial role of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3ß signaling pathway in ginsenoside Rb1-induced growth of hair follicles and DPCs.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Folículo Piloso/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Vison , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Cicatrização
20.
Int J Oncol ; 54(6): 2069-2079, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081060

RESUMO

Advanced metastatic melanoma is a malignant tumor for which there is currently no effective treatment due to resistance development. Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin component extracted from ginseng roots, has been shown to reduce melanoma cell proliferation by decreasing histone deacetylase 3 and increasing p53 acetylation. The availability of data on the role of Rg3 in melanoma is currently extremely limited. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the effects of Rg3 on B16 melanoma cells and the underlying molecular events. The findings demonstrated that Rg3 suppressed the proliferation and DNA synthesis of B16 cells. Rg3 exposure induced tumor cell cycle arrest at the S phase and reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Rg3 treatment also decreased metastasis of B16 cells in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that this reduction was due to downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)­2 and MMP­9. Moreover, Rg3 inhibited melanoma­induced angiogenesis, most likely by downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in B16 cells. Rg3 exposure decreased the expression of VEGF in B16 cells and the VEGF downregulation further suppressed angiogenesis by attenuating the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Finally, the western blotting data demonstrated that Rg3 reduced the expression of extracellular signal­regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) in vitro and in vivo. This result indicated that the antimelanoma effects of Rg3 may be mediated through suppression of ERK and Akt signaling. Further research is required to assess the value of Rg3 as a novel therapeutic strategy for melanoma in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Regulação para Baixo , Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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