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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(31): 2462-2466, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819064

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the protective mechanism of ginsenoside Rb-1 on the brain in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, low-dose Rb-1 group (Rb-1: 25 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1)) and high-dose Rb-1 group (Rb-1:50 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1)). Morris water maze was designed to observe the changes of learning and memory ability in rats. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53, Bax, cytochrome C (Cyto C), Caspase-3 and caspase-9) and anti-oxidative stress-associated genes (nuclear Factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (keap-1), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) and NADPH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1)).The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by relevant kits. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The learning and memory ability of rats in the model group was lower than that of the control group (P<0.01).The learning and memory ability of rats in the high-dose Rb-1 treatment group was significantly higher than that of the model group [(80±8) s vs (100±11) s, t=5.390, P<0.01]. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53, Bax, Cyto C, caspase-3 and caspase-9) in the model group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01), while the expression levels of these genes in low-dose and high-dose Rb-1 groups were significantly lower than those of the model group (P<0.01). The expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 genes in the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), while the expression of these genes in low-dose and high-dose Rb-1 groupswere significantly higher than those of the model group (P<0.01). The activities of CAT, GSH-Px and SOD in the model group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01), however the activities of CAT, GSH-Px and SOD in low-dose and high-dose Rb-1 groups were higher than those of model group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Both low-dose and high-dose Rb-1 have protective effect on memory and cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease rats by reducing the damage and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, down-regulating the expression levels of p53, Bax, Cyto C, caspase-3 and caspase-9, up-regulating the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 genes, and increasing the activities of CAT, GSH-Px and SOD. Moreover, the protective effect of Rb-1 on rat brain may be dose-dependent.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase
2.
Life Sci ; 258: 118107, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682919

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment has been widely recognized as a common symptom of chronic stress. Ginsenoside Rd (GRd), the major active compound in Panax ginseng, was previously reported in various neurological researches. However, little research is available regarding on the effect of GRd on cognitive improvement in mice subjected to chronic stress. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GRd in chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive deficits and explored the potential mechanism in male C57BL/6J mice. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of GRd for 28 days markedly increased the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze and the relative discrimination index in novel object or location recognition tests following CRS. Additionally, GRd treatment considerably increased the antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus. The expression levels of hippocampus and serum inflammation factors in the CRS groups were also counter-regulated by GRd treatment. Meanwhile, GRd treatment could reverse CRS-induced the decrease in phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), camp-reflecting element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expression in the hippocampus. These findings provided evidences that GRd improves cognitive impairment in CRS mice by mitigating oxidative stress and inflammation, while upregulating the hippocampal BDNF-mediated CREB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Restrição Física , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doença Crônica , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
3.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 51-54, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg5 on the proliferation, cycle and invasion of gastric carcinoma cell lines, providing experimental evidence for the anti-tumor mechanism of ginsenoside Rg5. METHODS: In this experimental study, the human immortalized normal gastric mucosa cell GES-1 and gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS and MKN-45 were treated with Rg3 and Rg5 at the concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 µmol/L for 24 h, 3 parallel holes were set for each group. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, transwell assay, ELISA and immunoblotting were performed. RESULTS: The viabilities of AGS and MKN-45 were suppressed by Rg3 and Rg5 in a concentration-dependent manner. The activity of Rg5 against gastric cancer cells was stronger than that of Rg3, and its toxicity to GES-1 was lower than that of Rg3. After the treatment of 20 µmol/L of Rg5 for 24 h, Rg5 could generate cell cycle S phase arresting by decreasing the CyclinA1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) complex production and increasing the P21CIPI. Rg5 inhibited the migration of MNK-45 cells by reducing the expressions of MMP2 and MMP9. WB results showed that Rg5 inhibited the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer mainly by inhibiting the expression of Notch1 protein to regulate its downstream cycle and invasion related proteins. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Rg5 exhibits stronger anti-cancer activity than Rg3 in gastric cancer cells, and has higher anti-gastric cancer cell activity than Rg3 and inhibits cell proliferation and migration by regulating the Notch1 pathway.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(6): e9346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401923

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common vascular disease, which can cause apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is considered an anti-AS drug. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to play a vital role in cell apoptosis and angiogenesis. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of NGR1 for treating AS through miRNAs. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate. The levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1ß were detected using ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using corresponding assay kits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was performed to detect miR-221-3p expression. Dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to examine the relationship between miR-221-3p and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). Also, western blot analysis was performed to determine the levels of TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 alleviated the negative effect of ox-LDL through promoting the expression of miR-221-3p in HUVECs. TLR4 was a target of miR-221-3p, and its overexpression could reverse the inhibition effects of miR-221-3p on apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 improved miR-221-3p expression to inhibit the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. NGR1 decreased ox-LDL-induced HUVECs apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress through increasing miR-221-3p expression, thereby inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. This study of the mechanism of NGR1 provided a more theoretical basis for the treatment of AS.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
5.
Life Sci ; 254: 117776, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437790

RESUMO

AIMS: Rg1 is the most active component of traditional Chinese medicine ginseng, having anti-aging and anti-oxidative stress features in multiple organs. Cellular senescence of hepatocytes is involved in the progression of a wide spectrum of chronic liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits and mechanism of action of Rg1 on aging-driven chronic liver diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group; Rg1 group; Rg1+d-gal group; and d-gal group. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected for determination of liver function, biochemical and molecular markers, as well as histopathological investigation. KEY FINDINGS: Rg1 played an anti-aging role in reversing d-galactose induced increase in senescence-associated SA-ß-gal staining and p53, p21 protein in hepatocytes of mice and sustained mitochondria homeostasis. Meanwhile, Rg1 protected livers from d-galactose caused abnormal elevation of ALT and AST in serum, hepatic steatosis, reduction in hepatic glucose production, hydrogenic degeneration, inflammatory phenomena including senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) IL-1ß, IL-6, MCP-1 elevation and lymphocyte infiltration. Furthermore, Rg1 suppressed drastic elevation in FOXO1 phosphorylation resulting in maintaining FOXO1 protein level in the liver after d-galactose treatment, followed by FOXO1 targeted antioxidase SOD and CAT significant up-regulation concurrent with marked decrease in lipid peroxidation marker MDA. SIGNIFICANCE: Rg1 exerts pharmaceutic effects of maintaining FOXO1 activity in liver, which enhances anti-oxidation potential of Rg1 to ameliorate SASP and to inhibit inflammation, also promotes metabolic homeostasis, and thus protects livers from senescence induced fatty liver disease. The study provides a potential therapeutic strategy for alleviating chronic liver pathology.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Galactose/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Life Sci ; 254: 117793, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416164

RESUMO

AIMS: Oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) injury contributes to the pathophysiology after ischemic stroke, which needs to urgently develop treatment strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy in reperfusion period exerted adverse effects on the cerebral ischemic injury. Ginsenoside monomer compound K (CK) is the main intestinal metabolite of ginseng that exerts the pharmacological activities and has a protective effect against cerebral OGD/R injury. However, the specific molecular mechanism of CK protects against OGD/R injury in neurons is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, Ca2+ overload, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, autophagy and apoptosis were investigated in OGD/R-induced neuronal cells injury after pretreatment with CK and in combination with BML-275 or rapamycin. KEY FINDINGS: Our study found that pretreatment with CK protected neurons against OGD/R injury by increasing cell viability and decreasing the ROS generation, mitochondrial damage, and Ca2+ overload. Moreover, CK cut down autophagy-mediated apoptosis via promoting the process of forming autophagosomes into phagocytic precursors. Furthermore, our study clarified the neuroprotective of CK against OGD/R-induced neural autophagy and apoptosis through the regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our study provides credible experimental evidence and explains the potential molecular mechanism of CK as one of the main bioactive ingredients of ginseng for the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Morte Celular Autofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glucose/deficiência , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Hipóxia/complicações , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(4): 967-985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431178

RESUMO

Inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been documented to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Ginsenoside Rb2 has been reported to exhibit antidiabetic effects. However, the effects of Rb2 on atherosclerotic responses such as inflammation and ER stress in endothelial cells and monocytes remain unclear. In this study, the expression of inflammation and ER stress markers was determined using a Western blotting method. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF[Formula: see text]) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in culture media were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and apoptosis was evaluated by a cell viability assay and a caspase-3 activity measurement kit. We found that exposure of HUVECs and THP-1 monocytes to Rb2 attenuated inflammation and ER stress, resulting in amelioration of apoptosis and THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) condition. Increased AMPK phosphorylation and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression, including GPR120 expression were observed in Rb2-treated HUVECs and THP-1 monocytes. Downregulation of both, AMPK phosphorylation and HO-1expression rescued these observed changes. Furthermore, GPR120 siRNA mitigated Rb2-induced AMPK phosphorylation. These results suggest that Rb2 inhibits LPS-mediated apoptosis and THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs by GPR120/AMPK/HO-1-associated attenuating inflammation and ER stress. Therefore, Rb2 can be used as a potential therapeutic molecule for treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inflamação , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276345

RESUMO

Gastric ulcer (GU), a prevalent digestive disease, has a high incidence and is seriously harmful to human health. Finding a natural drug with a gastroprotective effect is needed. Ocotillol, the derivate of ocotillol-type saponins in the Panax genus, possesses good anti-inflammatory activity. The study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of ocotillol on acetic acid-induced GU rats. The serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO), the gastric mucosa levels of epidermal growth factor, superoxide dismutase and NO were assessed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of gastric mucosa for pathological changes and immunohistochemical staining of ET-1, epidermal growth factor receptors and inducible nitric oxide synthase were evaluated. A UPLC-QTOF-MS-based serum metabolomics approach was applied to explore the latent mechanism. A total of 21 potential metabolites involved in 7 metabolic pathways were identified. The study helps us to understand the pathogenesis of GU and to provide a potential natural anti-ulcer agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Metabolômica , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Endotelina-1/sangue , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/sangue , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
9.
Life Sci ; 252: 117642, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259600

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine whether ginsenoside Rg1 is involved in scratch wound healing through altered expression of related molecules in astrocytes and improved functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Astrocytes were isolated from rats, followed by Rg1 treatment. The wound healing test was performed to observe the scratch wound healing in different groups. The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway were detected by western blot. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the altered expression of laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN). A revised Allen's method for the SCI model was performed, followed by Rg1 treatment. Then, functional scoring was conducted to evaluate the functional recovery. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining showed changes in the void area. Finally, western blot assessed the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). KEY FINDINGS: Rg1 mediated scratch wound healing through inducing an increased release of LN, FN, NGF, GDNF, and bFGF in vitro. Additionally, Rg1 activated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and promoted the functional recovery of hindlimb movement in rats. Furthermore, Rg1 significantly reduced the void area and downregulated the expression of GFAP and CSPGs. SIGNIFICANCE: Rg1 not only enhanced the scratch wound repair in vitro through the release of astroglial neurotrophic factors, adhesion factors, and inhibitory factors, but it also improved the functional recovery in vivo following SCI.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
10.
Life Sci ; 252: 117669, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298740

RESUMO

Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically relevant psychosocial stress animal model and has been widely used in depression studies. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is the major active ingredients of ginseng with low toxicity and neuroprotective effects. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant effects of Rg1 in CSDS mice and explore its molecular mechanism. We found that Rg1 (20 or 40 mg/kg, i.g.) administration significantly alleviated depressive-like behaviors caused by 4-week CSDS exposure, as measured by social interaction test and sucrose preference test, tail suspension test and forced swim test. Additionally, Rg1 treatment inhibited CSDS-induced production of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß, decreased the expression of iNOS, COX2, and caspase-9 and -3, and inhibited microglial activation (Iba1) in the hippocampus. Rg1 was found to significantly downregulate p-JNK1/2 and p-P38 MAPK levels, upregulate p-ERK1/2 levels and inhibit the expression of phosphorylated NF-κB in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, Rg1 regulated SIRT1 and decreased the levels of acetylated p65 (ac-p65) in the hippocampus. Moreover, the reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in CSDS mice was reversed by Rg1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Rg1 prevents depressive-like behavior in CSDS-exposed mice, partially through the downregulation of hippocampal neuroinflammation and the upregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that these changes presumably occur through increased anti-inflammatory effects and the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine and neurotoxic mediator expression and microglial activation, which is partly mediated by the regulation of the MAPK and SIRT1 signaling pathways and results in the inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1142-1148, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237458

RESUMO

Serum metabonomic profiles of the model of focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion is established with the suture-occluded method by Longa to study the effect of ginsenosides. In this study, 48 rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham-operated group, pathological model group, positive drug group(6 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and high, medium, low-dose ginsenosides groups(200, 100, 50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). They are given intragastric administration respectively with same amount of 0.5% CMC-Na,nimodipine and ginsenoside for 5 days. At 2 h after the final administration, the model was established with the suture-occluded method, and free radical-scavenging activity changes of ginsenoside were observed by maillard reaction, and Longa was possible used as a renoprotective agent-occluded method. At the end of 24 h after the reperfusion, the hemolymph of rats in each group was collected, and the ~1H-NMR spectrum was collected after being treated by certain methods, and analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA). Compared with sham-operated group, pathological model group showed significant increases in the levels of lactate, glutamate, taurine, choline, glucose and methionine, but decreases in the levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate and phosphocreatine/creatine in serum. After treatment with ginsenosides, lipid, 3-hydroxybutyrate and phosphocreatine/creatine were increased in the serum of ginsenosides group rats, but with decreases in lactate and glutamate. The results showed that ginsenosides could regulate metabolic disorders in rats with focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion, and promote a recovery in the process of metabolism. It's helpful to promote the metabolic changes in rats with focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion via ~1H-NMR, and lay a foundation to develop ginsenosides as a new drug to treat ischemic cerebral paralysis.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Metaboloma , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Creatina , Hemolinfa , Fosfocreatina , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107873, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165146

RESUMO

Ginsenoside-Rh2 and cucurbitacin-B (CuB) are secondary metabolites of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Cucurbitaceae plants respectively. We assessed the anticryptosporidial activity of these two functional compounds in a cell culture model of cryptosporidiosis. The highest concentration of each compound that was not toxic to the host cells was used to assess the activity against C. parvum during infection/invasion and growth in HCT-8 cell monolayers. Monolayers were infected with pre-excysted C. parvum oocysts. Infected monolayers were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and 48 h in the presence of different concentrations of each test compound. A growth resumption assay was performed by incubating infected monolayers in the presence of compounds for 24 h followed by a second 24-h incubation in the absence of compound. To screen for invasion inhibiting activity, freshly excysted C. parvum sporozoites were pre-treated with different concentrations of compounds prior to adding them to the cell monolayers. Paromomycin, a known inhibitor of C. parvum, and DMSO were used as positive and negative control, respectively. The level of infection was initially assessed using an immunofluorescent assay and quantified by real-time PCR. Both compounds were found to strongly inhibit C. parvum intracellular development in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values of 25 µM for a 24 h development period and 5.52 µM after 48 h development were measured for Rh2, whereas for CuB an IC50 value of 0.169 µg/ml and 0.118 µg/ml were obtained for the same incubation periods. CuB also effectively inhibited resumption of growth, an activity that was not observed with Rh2. CuB was more effective at inhibiting excystation and/or host cell invasion, indicating that this compound also targets extracellular stages of the parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbitacinas/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cryptosporidium parvum/citologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbitaceae/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Panax/química , Paromomicina/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Solventes
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 324: 109062, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198087

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient extracted from the roots of ginsenoside, and an α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced rat model of intrahepatic cholestasis was used to investigate the protective effect of Rg1 on cholestasis. 48 SD male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group, model group, UDCA group (ursodeoxycholic acid), low-dose Rg1 group (10 mg/kg), medium-dose Rg1 group (20 mg/kg) and high-dose Rg1 group (40 mg/kg). The model group, the UDCA group and all the Rg1 group were then intragastrically administered with 80 mg/kg ANIT, and the control group were given equal volume of olive oil. Then the pathological changes in liver tissue were observed, the secretion of bile in the bile duct was measured, and the biochemical markers in serum were quantified, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamyl transfer peptidase (GTP) and the content of total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), total bile acid (TBA). The contents of inflammatory mediators in serum were quantified, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), γ-interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver homogenate were quantified. Expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), transporters and metabolic enzymes in liver tissue was monitored. Rg1 treatment improved liver tissue pathological damage, promoted bile secretion and significantly reduced serum levels of the intrahepatic cholestasis markers ALT, AST, ALP, GTP, TBIL, DBIL and TBA. Rg1 increased the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in liver homogenate, while, reducing the serum levels of MDA and inflammatory mediators. Rg1 also regulated the expression of FXR, bile acid transporters and metabolic enzymes. Overall, Rg1 alleviated liver injury by improving secretion of bile and normalizing the activity of enzymes in the serum. The protective mechanism appeared to be related to the activation of FXR and regulation of liver transporters and metabolic enzymes.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , 1-Naftilisotiocianato , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colestase Intra-Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Colestase Intra-Hepática/patologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Phytomedicine ; 69: 153197, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146298

RESUMO

BACKGOUND: Ginsenoside Rb1, the main active constituent of Panax ginseng, displays significant anti-inflammatory activity, although the mechanism has not been clearly unraveled. In this study, Rb1's mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects were investigated. METHODS: The flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were empolyed to detect pro-inflammatory cytokines release. The related protein and gene expression was investigated by western blotting and qRT-PCR. The dimerization of TLR4 was measured by co-immunoprecipitation and molecular docking assays. Cellular thermal shift assay was used for the determination of the binding of Rb1 and TLR4. For animal moldels, LPS- or cantharidin-induced acute kidney injury, LPS-induced septic death, and dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema were employed to investigate Rb1's anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. RESULTS: Rb1 significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and BMDMs, as well as COX-2 and iNOS amounts. Rb1 reduced LPS-associated calcium influx, ROS production, and NO generation. The NF-κB and MAPK axes participated in Rb1's anti-inflammatory effects. Molecular docking simulation indicated Rb1 bound to TLR4 to prevent TLR4 dimerization, as confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and cellular thermal shift assay. Furthermore, MyD88 recruitment and TAK1 expression were altered by reduced TLR4 dimerization, indicating the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB/MAPK pathways contributed to Rb1's anti-inflammatory process. In animal models, Rb1 markedly alleviated LPS- or cantharidin-induced acute kidney injury, rescued LPS-induced septic mice from death, and inhibited dimethyl benzene-induced mouse ear edema. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings demonstrate Rb1 exhibits marked anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting Rb1 represents an optimal molecule for treating inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Cantaridina/toxicidade , Ginsenosídeos/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/química
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(4): 783-792, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the discovery of thermogenic adipocytes in humans, it has been hypothesized that enhancing adaptive thermogenesis may improve obesity. Although many studies have found that ginseng can improve obesity, the beneficial effects of ginsenoside Rd on obesity and its mechanisms have not been studied. METHODS: High-fat diet-induced obese mice were used as the study subjects, with intraperitoneal injection of Rd daily at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Body weight and energy metabolism were observed. The effects of Rd on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and cold tolerance were tested. The expression of genes associated with thermogenesis was analyzed. Finally, the mechanisms by which Rd regulates adaptive thermogenesis were studied. RESULTS: Rd ameliorated obesity and insulin resistance. Rd increased cold tolerance through enhancing thermogenic gene expression in brown adipose tissue and increased the browning of white adipose tissue induced by cold stress. Rd increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content. Decreasing intracellular cAMP levels by an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase SQ22536 abolished the promoting effects of Rd on the expression of thermogenic genes. CONCLUSIONS: Rd improves obesity and insulin resistance. The upregulation of thermogenesis by Rd is dependent on the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
16.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 11, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a severe condition that leads to the death of advanced cancer patients, and approximately 50~80% of cancer patients have cancer cachexia. Ginseng extract has been reported to have substantial anticancer and immune-enhancing effects; however, no study has reported the use of ginseng alone to treat cancer cachexia. Our study's purpose was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ginseng-related monomers or mixtures on a cancer cachexia mouse model. METHODS: We selected BALB/c mice and injected the mice subcutaneously with C26 colon cancer cells to construct a cancer cachexia experimental animal model. The water extract of ginseng (WEG), two types of ginseng extracts (ginsenosides at doses of 5 mg/kg (GE5) and 50 mg/kg (GE50)) and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) were used to treat cancer cachexia mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to analyze the inhibitory effects on two key inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). RESULTS: Our experimental results show that GE5, GE50 and Rb1 significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.01), which are closely related to cancer cachexia; however, WEG, GE5, GE50 and Rb1 did not significantly improve the gastrocnemius muscle weight or the epididymal fat weight of mice with cancer cachexia. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GE5, GE50 and Rb1 may be useful for reducing symptoms due to inflammation by reducing the TNF-α and IL-6 cytokine levels in cancer cachexia mice, thereby ameliorating the symptoms of cancer cachexia. Our results may be beneficial for future studies on the use of Chinese herbal medicines to treat cancer cachexia.


Assuntos
Caquexia/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Caquexia/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Panax/química
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 44, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of ginsenosides on the growth and apoptosis of human lens epithelial (HLE) B3 cells exposed to H2O2 was investigated. In addition, the effect of ginsenosides on gene expression in HLE-B3 cells was analyzed using microarray assays to determine its molecular mechanism. METHODS: HLE-B3 cells were treated with 1.75 M H2O2 in the presence or absence of 5, 10 or 20 µM ginsenosides. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined by MTT assays and flow cytometry, respectively, at 24 to 120 h after the treatment. Furthermore, HLE-B3 cells were treated with 20 µM ginsenosides for 8 days and total RNA was isolated and analyzed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Array. Principal component analysis was performed to visualize the microarray data. RESULTS: Addition of ginsenosides significantly alleviated the growth inhibitory effect of H2O2 on HLE-B3 cells and the percentage of viable cells was increased by more than 3 folds. Flow cytometric analysis showed that 6.16 ± 0.29% of H2O2-treated HLE-B3 cells were early apoptotic cells, and the percentage was reduced to 4.78 ± 0.16% (P < 0.05) in the presence of 20 µM ginsenosides. Principal component analysis revealed that ginsenoside caused extensive changes in gene expression in HLE-B3 cells. A total of 6219 genes showed significant differential expression in HLE-B3 cells treated with ginsenoside; among them, 2552 (41.0%) genes were significantly upregulated, whereas 3667 (59.0%) genes were significantly downregulated. FOXN2, APP and RAD23B were the top three upregulated genes while WSB1, PSME4 and DCAF7 were the top three downregulated genes in HLE-B3 cells treated with ginsenosides. CONCLUSION: Ginsenosides induce extensive changes in the expression of genes involved in multiple signaling pathways, including apoptotic signaling pathway and DNA damage response signaling pathway. Ginsenosides alleviate H2O2-induced suppression of the growth of HLB cells and inhibit H2O2-induced apoptosis of HLB cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Cristalino/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Cristalino/citologia , Panax notoginseng
18.
Oncol Rep ; 43(3): 886-896, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020217

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is one of the most malignant bone tumors, and its major threats are aggressive invasion and early tumor metastasis, which result in a poor prognosis and high mortality. Accumulating evidence indicates that ginsenoside compound K (CK) has a significant antitumor effect, particularly on the inhibition of proliferation and invasion of numerous human tumors. In the present study, it was revealed that CK inhibited the viability and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, it was demonstrated that CK induced apoptosis and inhibited the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells via apoptotic staining, Annexin V/PI staining, and Transwell invasion assays. Furthermore, at the molecular level, the present results confirmed that apoptosis and invasion­related proteins were regulated by CK, which was possibly related to the blockade of the PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathway. In summary, the present findings indicated that CK inhibited viability and proliferation, induced apoptosis, and inhibited the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells through the PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(1-2): 41-49, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031984

RESUMO

The overexpression of sialic acids and sialyltransferases (STs) during malignant transformation and progression could result in the aberrant sialylation of cancer cells. Therefore, interfering the sialic acid synthesis might be an effective pathway in cancer therapy. In this study, we assessed that the antitumor inhibitors of 20(S)-ginsenosides Rg3, 20(R)-ginsenosides Rg3, 20(S)-ginsenosides Rh2, and 20(R)-ginsenosides Rh2 could block the sialoglycans in liver cancer cells HepG2. The results showed that these four compounds could inhibit the expressions of the total and free sialic acid at different levels in HepG2, respectively; also, it showed dose dependence. In addition, the results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the above four compounds can inhibit the expression of STs significantly. We also found that these compounds could mediate the block of sialylation of α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids in HepG2 cells by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, the results of the molecular docking investigation showed that these compounds showed strong interaction with ST6GalI and ST3GalI. These results verified that the ginsenosides have a powerful inhibiting aberrant sialylation, and it laid a theoretical foundation for further research on the investigation of ginsenosides as the target inhibitors on STs.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Sialiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sialiltransferases/química
20.
Life Sci ; 245: 117337, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), and impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may cause or exacerbate the occurrence of metabolic and psychiatric disorders. It has been reported that ginseng saponin extract (GSE) has an inhibitory effect on the hyperactivity of the HPA axis induced by stresses and increased corticosterone level induced by intraperitoneal injection of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GSE and its active ginsenosides inhibit corticosterone secretion remain elusive. MAIN METHODS: Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells were treated with ACTH for up to 60 min to establish a cell model of corticosterone secretion. After treatment with different concentrations of GSE or ginsenoside monomers for 24 h prior to the addition of ACTH, analyses of cAMP content, PKA activity, and the levels of steroidogenesis regulators, melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) in ACTH-induced Y1 cells were performed. RESULTS: We demonstrated that GSE inhibits ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production in Y1 cells by inhibiting factors critical for steroid synthesis. Ginsenoside Rd, an active ingredient of GSE, inhibits corticosterone secretion in the cells and impedes ACTH-induced corticosterone biosynthesis through down-regulation of proteins in the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. In addition, Western blot and qPCR analyses showed that ginsenoside Rd attenuated the induction of MC2R and MRAP by ACTH. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ginsenoside Rd inhibits ACTH-induced corticosterone production through blockading the MC2R-cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in adrenocortical cells. Overall, this mechanism may represent an important therapeutic option for the treatment of stress-related disorders, further supporting the pharmacological benefits of ginseng.


Assuntos
Córtex Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Receptor Tipo 2 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Suprarrenal/citologia , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Pregnenolona/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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