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1.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(25): 2334-2347, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648643

RESUMO

The dried root of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer or Panax quinquefolius L.) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to manage cancer symptoms and chemotherapy side effects in Asia. The anti-cancer efficacy of ginseng is attributed mainly to the presence of saponins, which are commonly known as ginsenosides. Ginsenosides were first identified as key active ingredients in Panax ginseng and subsequently found in Panax quinquefolius, both of the same genus. To review the recent advances on anti-cancer effects of ginsenosides against breast cancer, we conducted a literature study of scientific articles published from 2010 through 2018 to date by searching the major databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Science Direct, Springer, Google Scholar, and CNKI. A total of 50 articles authored in either English or Chinese related to the anti-breast cancer activity of ginsenosides have been reviewed, and the in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on ginsenosides are summarized. This review focuses on how ginsenosides exert their anti-breast cancer activities through various mechanisms of action such as modulation of cell growth, modulation of the cell cycle, modulation of cell death, inhibition of angiogenesis, inhibition of metastasis, inhibition of multidrug resistance, and cancer immunemodulation. In summary, recent advances in the evaluation of ginsenosides as therapeutic agents against breast cancer support further pre-clinical and clinical studies to treat primary and metastatic breast tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Panax/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
2.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137483

RESUMO

Wild ginseng is known to contain additional physiologically and pharmacologically active substances than common ginseng. The utilization of this herb can be maximized by altering its composition via tissue culture generating adventitious roots. We enriched the content of specific ginsenosides and investigated their role in ameliorating memory impairment. Cultured wild ginseng root was subjected to extraction, steaming, and fermentation using Pediococcus pentosaceus HLJG0702 to enhance the levels of ginsenosides Rg5 /Rk1. The analysis of product, HLJG0701, confirmed target ginsenosides. We analyzed the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg5/Rk1, HLJG0701 and the raw material on acetylcholinesterase. Further, we performed Morris water maze, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks with mice exhibiting memory deficit induced by scopolamine, and we analyzed the concentrations of acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine in their brains. Studies showed that the levels of ginsenosides Rg5 /Rk1, not found in the raw material, were enhanced in HLJG0701. Ginsenosides and HLJG0701 significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase unlike the raw material. In all behavioral tasks, HLJG0701 showed memory improvement. It reduced acetylcholinesterase, whereas, it preserved acetylcholine in brain. In conclusion, cultured wild ginseng root extract fermented by P. pentosaceus HLJG0702 contains the distinctive ginsenosides Rg5/Rk1, which may ameliorate memory impairment via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine levels in the brain.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/metabolismo , Pediococcus pentosaceus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fermentação , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Panax/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Escopolamina
3.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018484

RESUMO

Cutaneous wound healing is a well-orchestrated event in which many types of cells and growth factors are involved in restoring the barrier function of skin. In order to identify whether ginsenosides, the main active components of Panax ginseng, promote wound healing, the proliferation and migration activities of 15 different ginsenosides were tested by MTT assay and scratched wound closure assay. Among ginsenosides, gypenoside LXXV (G75) showed the most potent wound healing effects. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of G75 on wound healing in vivo and characterize associated molecular changes. G75 significantly increased proliferation and migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and promoted wound closure in an excision wound mouse model compared with madecassoside (MA), which has been used to treat wounds. Additionally, RNA sequencing data revealed G75-mediated significant upregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which is known to be produced via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway. Consistently, the increase in production of CTGF was confirmed by western blot and ELISA. In addition, GR-competitive binding assay and GR translocation assay results demonstrated that G75 can be bound to GR and translocated into the nucleus. These results demonstrated that G75 is a newly identified effective component in wound healing.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Fármacos Dermatológicos/química , Fármacos Dermatológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Gynostemma/química , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transporte Proteico , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/lesões , Pele/metabolismo , Ferida Cirúrgica/genética , Ferida Cirúrgica/metabolismo , Ferida Cirúrgica/patologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia
4.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018583

RESUMO

Polysaccharides are a main active substance in Panax ginseng; however, microwave-assisted extraction used to prepare P. ginseng polysaccharides (MPPG) has rarely been reported, and knowledge of the bactericidal activity of P. ginseng polysaccharides remains low. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the extraction of P. ginseng polysaccharides by using two methods-hot water extraction and microwave-assisted extraction-and compare their chemical composition and structure. In addition, their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were also determined. The data implied that P. ginseng polysaccharides extracted by microwave-assisted extraction possessed a higher extraction yield than hot water extraction (WPPG) under optimized conditions, and the actual yields were 41.6% ± 0.09% and 28.5% ± 1.62%, respectively. Moreover, the preliminary characterization of polysaccharides was identified after purification. The WPPG with the molecular weight (Mw) of 2.07 × 105 Da was composed of Man, Rib, Rha, GalA, Glu, Gal, and Arab, and the typical characteristics of polysaccharides were determined by IR spectra. Compared with WPPG, MPPG had a higher Mw, uronic acid content, and Glu content. More importantly, the antioxidant activity of MPPG was higher than WPPG, which was probably ascribed to its highly Mw and abundant uronic acid content. Besides, both of them exhibited high bactericidal activity. These results demonstrate that microwave-assisted extraction is an effective method for obtaining P. ginseng polysaccharides, and MPPG could be applied as an antioxidant and antibacterial agent.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Análise Fatorial , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Alta , Extração Líquido-Líquido/instrumentação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micro-Ondas , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ácidos Urônicos/química , Ácidos Urônicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Urônicos/farmacologia , Água/química
5.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(3): 222-231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red ginseng is a traditional medicine that has been used to treat numerous metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Probiotic administration has been established to have beneficial effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a combination of Korean red ginseng (KRG) and probiotics could synergistically reduce NAFLD and liver inflammation compared with the effects reported for each individual product. METHOD: db/db and C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal chow diet and high-fat diet (HFD), respectively, and were treated with KRG, probiotics, or both. Samples were examined for lipid content, kinase protein phosphorylation, and gene expression patterns. RESULTS: KRG- and probiotic-treated HFD-fed mice exhibited a reduction in body weight and a decrease in inflammatory cytokine secretion compared with the non-treated control mice. The same treatment was less successful in improving NAFLD parameters in the db/db mice while the combination of both products did not enhance their therapeutic potential. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that KRG and probiotics administration ameliorated NAFLD symptoms in a mouse model of dyslipidemia by reducing weight gain and liver inflammation. Coadministration of both products did not enhance their efficacy, and further research should be conducted to clarify their mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Panax , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 236: 220-230, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849506

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been traditionally used to treat diabetes. Ginsenosides are considered as the major bioactive components mediating anti-diabetic effects of KRG. However, considering that ginsenosides account for only about 3-4% of ginsengs, other fractions of KRG may also carry potential anti-diabetic effects. There is no study reporting the differentiated effects of ginsenosides (Spn) and non-saponin fractions (NSpn) of KRG on glycemic control. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the effects of KRG, Spn, and NSpn on the indications of glycemic control and sought to elucidate physiological factors contributing their effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human T2DM mimicking Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda (NSY/hos) mice were given KRG, Spn, or NSpn admixed in rodent diet at 200 mg/kg/day for 24 weeks. Glycemic and obesity indications, blood lipid profile, systematic and local oxidative stress markers in metabolically important organs, and systematic inflammatory markers were assessed. Molecular assessments associated with glycemic control in liver and skeletal muscle were further performed. RESULTS: KRG attenuated deterioration in glucose homeostasis as evidenced by significantly lower fasting blood glucose from 22nd week and AUC during GTT at the end of the experiment compare to control. Spn enhanced insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation and reduced protein level of glycogen phosphorylase in liver. On the other hand, NSpn ameliorated oxidative stress and inflammation. Some beneficial effects of Spn and NSpn were reflected in KRG treated mice. KRG also attenuated the accumulation of malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle and, accordingly, enhanced insulin responsiveness compare to control. CONCLUSION: Anti-diabetic properties of KRG are not solely determined by the contents of ginsenosides but the harmonic functions of its different fractions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1597: 142-148, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922720

RESUMO

A new strategy based on synergistic effect of the carbon dots and their precursor was proposed to enhance the selectivity of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). In this work, polyethyleneimine (PEI) and PEI-functionalized carbon dots (PEICDs) mix-grafted silica packing material was prepared to act as a novel HILIC stationary phase. Both inner and outer surface of the porous silica are decorated with the mixture of PEI and carbon dots. This stationary phase, namely Sil-PEI/CDs, demonstrate enhanced retention ability and selectivity toward polar analytes, with which 11 nucleosides and nucleobases and 9 ginsenosides can be nicely separated. The Sil-PEI/CDs (RSD 0.12% - 0.54%) exhibited even better stability than the traditional PEI modified stationary phase (RSD 0.39% - 0.87%) within 40 h of continuously elution. And excellent column efficiency was observed from Sil-PEI/CDs (∼65,000 plates/m for cytidine). The strategy of mixed stabilization revealed a new method to prepare good performanced carbon dots based chromatographic column.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/instrumentação , Polietilenoimina/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentação , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nucleosídeos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(5): 1138-1146, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768081

RESUMO

Ginsenoside extracts are often used as raw materials for various pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food supplement products. Development of a direct, rapid, cheap, and comprehensive measurement tool for the quality assessment of ginsenoside extracts, and indeed all herbal extracts, is urgently needed. In addition, a bioactivity-based assessment should be linked with quality control. In this report, we try to develop a novel quality control tool using ginsenoside extracts as an example. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect nine principal ginsenosides in 11 batches of ginsenoside extracts. Delayed luminescence (DL) was used to analyze the same ginsenoside extract samples. DL measurements showed the same results in terms of differentiating 11 ginsenoside extract samples compared with chemical analysis, and DL properties could be closely linked to index ginsenosides in the quality control of ginsenoside extracts. Next, a zebrafish tail-fin amputation model was used to study differences in anti-inflammatory effect between the ginsenoside extract batches. The results indicate that both chemical analysis and DL measurements could partially reflect biological activity. Thus, DL may serve as a rapid, direct, sensitive, and systemic tool for studying the overall properties of ginsenoside extracts. Our proposal for linking bioactivities as a tool for evaluation of the quality of ginsenoside extracts opens a new direction for quality control.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Ginsenosídeos/química , Luminescência , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Qualidade , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Molecules ; 24(4)2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795582

RESUMO

Ionic liquids (ILs) are recognized as a possible replacement of traditional organic solvents, and ILs have been widely applied to extract various compounds. The present work aims to extract ginsenosides from Panax ginseng flower buds using aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (IL-UAE). The extraction yields of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anions and alkyl chains were evaluated. The extraction parameters of eight ginsenosides were optimized by utilizing response surface methodology (RSM). The model demonstrated that a high yield of total ginsenosides could be obtained using IL-UAE, and the optimum extraction parameters were 0.23 M [C4mim][BF4], ultrasonic time of 23 min, temperature of extraction set to 30 °C, and liquid-solid ratio of 31:1. After that, an aqueous biphasic system (ABS) was used to separate ginsenosides further. The nature and concentration of salt, as well as the value of pH in ionic liquid were evaluated, and the optimal conditions (6.0 mL IL extract, 3 g NaH2PO4, and pH 5.0) were obtained. The preconcentration factor was 2.58, and extraction efficiency reached 64.53%. The results indicate that as a simple and efficient method, an IL-UAE-ABS can be considered as a promising method for extracting and separating the natural active compounds from medicinal herbs.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Panax/química , Solventes/química , Água/química , Análise Fatorial , Flores/química , Ginsenosídeos/classificação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Sonicação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 29(1): 55-72, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513224

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ginseng, Panax ginseng, has been used for various diseases and proven its great efficacy in managing central nervous system diseases. AREAS COVERED: This article covers the therapeutic potential of patents on ginseng and its active constituents to develop therapies for neurodegenerative and neurological disorders, since 2010. The literature review was provided using multiple search engines including Google Patent, Espacenet and US Patent in the field of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive, and neurological disorders. EXPERT OPINION: The gathered data represented outstanding merits of ginseng in treatment of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. These effects have been mediated by neurogenesis, anti-apoptotic and antioxidant properties, inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, amyloid beta aggregation, and microglial activation as well as neurotransmitters modulation. However, these compounds have limited clinical application of for the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. This might be due to incomplete data on their clinical pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties, and limited economic investments. There is an increasing trend in use of herbal medicines instead of chemical drugs, so it is time to make more attention to the application of ginseng, the grandfather of medicinal plants, from basic sciences to patients' bed.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Patentes como Assunto , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
11.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 49(5): 419-426, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561220

RESUMO

Ginseng stems and leaves (GSAL) are abundant in ginsenosides compounds. For efficient utilization of GSAL and the enhancement of total ginsenosides (TG) compound yields in GSAL, TG from GSAL were extracted, using dynamic-microwave assisted extraction coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (DMAE-EH) method. The extraction process has been simulated and its main influencing factors such as ethanol concentration, microwave temperature, microwave time and pump flow rate have been optimized by response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design(BBD). The experimental results indicated that optimal extraction conditions of TG from GSAL were as follows: ethanol concentration of 75%, microwave temperature of 60°C, microwave time of 20 min and pump flow rate of 38 r/min. After experimental verification, the experimental yields of TG was 60.62 ± 0.85 mg g-1, which were well agreement with the predicted by the model. In general, the present results demonstrated that DMAE-EH method was successfully used to extract total ginsenosides in GSAL.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Panax/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Celulase/química , Etanol/química , Ginsenosídeos/química , Hidrólise , Micro-Ondas , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Análise de Regressão , Solventes/química , Temperatura
12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(3): 400-405, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594431

RESUMO

To increase the contents of medicinally effective ginsenosides, we used high-temperature and high-pressure thermal processing of ginseng by exposing it to microwave irradiation. To determine the anti-melanoma effect, the malignant melanoma SK-MEL-2 cell line was treated with an extract of microwave-irradiated ginseng. Microwave irradiation caused changes in the ginsenoside contents: the amounts of ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd were disappeared, while those of less polar ginsenosides, such as Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1, were increased. In particular, the contents of Rk1 and Rg5 markedly increased. Melanoma cells treated with the microwave-irradiated ginseng extract showed markedly increased cell death. The results indicate that the microwave-irradiated ginseng extract induced melanoma cell death via the apoptotic pathway and that the cytotoxic effect of the microwave-irradiated ginseng extract is attributable to the increased contents of specific ginsenosides.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Micro-Ondas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosilação , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Estrutura Molecular , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1574: 82-90, 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217383

RESUMO

The lack of standard substances is a bottleneck for quality control in traditional and alternative medicine. Development of the HPLC-UV approaches combined with single standard for quantitative analysis of multi-component system (QAMS) allowed determination of several plant biomarkers by implementation of the relative response factors (RRFs). Robustness and ruggedness of such methods are commonly demonstrated by performing the analysis in changing analytical conditions on the different HPLC equipment and columns. The nature of MS detection is much more complicated and dependent on the instrumentation. Therefore, this study was conducted to justify the use of RRFs for HPLC-MS determination of bioactive compounds from plants. Protopanaxatriol (PPT), protopanaxadiol (PPD) and ocotillol (OT) ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) were successfully separated on a reversed-phase PFP-column with high group selectivity. Fragmentation patterns for these groups of compounds were established on different HPLC-ESI-MS systems and at varied declustering potentials (DPs). The use of sapogenin fragmentation ions in positive detection mode along with group reference standards was shown to be an optimal way to perform quantification. The performance of the developed group targeted HPLC-MS-QAMS approach was tested in the course of measurements conducted on the different instrumentation. The differences between QAMS and external standard method (ESM) quantification results were below 15% for all determined saponins.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Qualidade
14.
Electrophoresis ; 39(19): 2439-2445, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027576

RESUMO

An on-line large volume sample stacking with polarity switching (LVSS) method was proposed for simultaneously determining lignanoids and ginsenosides in MEEKC. The parameters including the pH value and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, organic modifier, oil phase, running voltage, and temperature as well as injection time, sample matrix, stacking voltage, and time influencing separation and stacking were systematically optimized. The method was verified by performing precision, accuracy, stability, and recovery. Its reliability was proved by separating and quantifying two lignanoids and three ginsenosides in Shengmai injectionSMI. The sensitivity of these compounds was improved by MEEKC-LVSS method for 6-11 times than conventional MEEKC. Thus, this developed on-line MEEKC-LVSS method was sensitive, practical, and reliable.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Lignanas/análise , Emulsões/química , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Photochem Photobiol ; 94(5): 1040-1048, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779217

RESUMO

Notoginseng is a traditional herbal medicine widely used for medicinal therapy in Asia, as it contains numerous ginsenosides with pharmacological effects. In this study, we submitted Notoginseng stem-leaf (NGL) ginsenosides to an enzyme to create a reaction with the monomer products of ginsenoside C-Mx and then investigated the ability of ginsenoside C-Mx to protect the skin against ultraviolet B-induced injury in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Ginsenoside C-Mx alleviated UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), MMP-1 and IL-6 expression while accelerating TGF-ß and procollagen type I secretion. In addition, ginsenoside C-Mx reversed UVB-induced procollagen type I reduction by regulating the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway. Moreover, ginsenoside C-Mx inhibited activation of AP-1 transcription factor, an inducer of MMPs. Ginsenoside C-Mx displayed an outstanding antioxidant capacity, increasing expression of cytoprotective antioxidants such as HO-1 and NQO-1 expression by enhancing the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Interestingly, application of ginsenoside C-Mx treatment (1, 10, 20 µm) significantly diminished UVB-induced suppressed NF-κB expression, decreasing the over-released inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, our findings indicated that ginsenoside C-Mx may act as a promising natural cosmetic ingredient for prevention and treatment of UVB-induced skin damage.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Panax/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Protetores contra Radiação/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 23(2)2018 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382138

RESUMO

A new ginsenoside, named ginsenoside Rh23 (1), and 20-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-3ß,6α,12ß,20ß,25-pentahydroxydammar-23-ene (2) were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. Compounds were isolated by various column chromatography and their structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including high resolution quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (HR-QTOF/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. To determine anti-melanogenic activity, the change in the melanin content in melan-a cells treated with identified compounds was tested. Additionally, we investigated the melanin inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rh23 on pigmentation in a zebrafish in vivo model. Compound 1 inhibited potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells with 37.0% melanogenesis inhibition at 80 µM and also presented inhibition on the body pigmentation in zebrafish model. Although compound 2 showed slightly lower inhibitory activity than compound 1, it also showed significantly decreased melanogenesis in melan-a cell and in zebrafish model. These results indicated that compounds isolated from hydroponic P. ginseng may be used as new skin whitening compound through the in vitro and in vivo systems. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based compound 1 for the quantitative analysis. Ginsenoside Rh23 (1) was found at a level of 0.31 mg/g in leaves of hydroponic P. ginseng.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Ginsenosídeos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 100: 52-63, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421582

RESUMO

During the last few decades, cancer has mushroomed as a major health issue; and almost all drugs used for its therapy are very toxic with lethal side effects. Complementary and alternative medicines gain popularity among health professionals in recent era owing to its preventive mechanism against side effect chemotherapeutic drugs. Efforts are focused by scientists to isolate compounds from medicinal plant that have chemotherapeutic attributes; and ability to neutralize the side effects of chemotherapy. Ginseng is an oriental medicinal recipe from Araliceae family and Panax species. The chemotherapeutic effect of ginsenoside is resultant of its appetites, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The anticancer effect of ginseng is proven in various types of cancer, including; breast, lung, liver, colon and skin cancer. It increases the mitochondrial accumulation of apoptosis protein and downregulate the expression of anti-apoptotic protein. It also aids in the reduction of alopecia, fatigue and nausea, the known side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of the present review is to provide the brief review of the recent researches related to mechanism of action of ginseng in different types of cancer as complementary and alternative medicine on different body organs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 216: 47-56, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366768

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polysaccharides and small molecules commonly co-exist in decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Our previous study outlined that ginseng polysaccharides (GP) could interact with co-existing ginsenosides to produce synergistic effect in an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model via gut microbiota involved mechanisms. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to verify the interactions by examining the impact of GP on oral pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), the dominant protopanoxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenoside in Ginseng, on a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced experimental colitis model which was characterized by gut dysbiosis, and to delineate the underlying mechanisms in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats received drinking water (normal group), 5% DSS (UC group), or 5% DSS plus daily oral administration of GP (GP group) for 7 days and fecal samples were collected on day -3, 0 and 6. On day 7 all animals received an oral dosage of Rb1 and blood samples were withdrawn for pharmacokinetic study. The in vitro metabolism study of Rb1 in gut microbiota from normal and UC rats and the transport study of Rb1 across Caco-2 cell monolayer were carried out in presence/absence of GP. Rb1 and its bacterial metabolites ginsenoside Rd (Rd), ginsenoside F2 (F2), Compound K (CK) and PPD were determined using LC-MS/MS. Total and target bacteria in fecal samples were determined by using 16S rRNA-based RT-PCR. ß-Glucosidase activity was determined by measuring 4-nitrophenol formed from 4-nitrophenyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside hydrolysis. RESULTS: DSS induction did not alter AUC0-t and Cmax of Rb1, which, however, were doubled together with elevated AUC0-t of the metabolites, in particular Rd and CK, in GP group. GP influenced the microbial composition and showed a prebiotic-like effect. Accordingly, GP treatment could partially restore the ß-glucosidase activity which was reduced by DSS induction. The presence of GP resulted in quicker microbial metabolism of Rb1 and higher Rd formation in first 8 h of incubation, while the impact on F2 and CK formation/conversion became obvious after 8 h. More interestingly, GP slightly stimulated Caco-2 cell growth and facilitated Rb1 transport across the Caco-2 monolayer in both directions, increasing the Papp of Rb1 from 10-7 cm/s to 10-6 cm/s. CONCLUSIONS: GP alleviated DSS-induced colitis-like symptoms and enhanced the systemic exposure of Rb1 through enhancing microbial deglycosylation and intestinal epithelial absorption of Rb1. These findings further demonstrated the important role of gut microbiota in the multifaceted action of polysaccharides in the holistic actions of traditional decoction of TCMs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Células CACO-2 , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Disbiose , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacocinética , Glicosilação , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Panax/química , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Am J Chin Med ; 46(1): 137-155, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298510

RESUMO

Ginseng has been reported to have diverse pharmacological effects. One of the therapeutic claims for ginseng is to enhance sexual function. Ginsenosides are considered as the major active constituents. A steaming process can alter the ginsenoside profile of ginseng products. The structure-function relationship of ginsenosides in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated yet. In this work, 15 different processed ginsengs are produced by steaming, and 13 major ginsensosides are quantified by liquid chromatography with UV detection, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rf, Rk3, Rh4, 20S-Rg3, 20R-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5. Their anti-ED activities are screened using hydrocortisone-induced mice model (Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome in Chinese Medicine) and primary corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs). A processed ginseng with steaming treatment at 120[Formula: see text]C for 4[Formula: see text]h and five times possesses abundant ginsenosides Rk1, Rk3, Rh4 and Rg5 transformed via deglycosylation and dehydroxylation, and produces optimal activity against ED. The number of sugar molecules, structure of hydroxyl groups and stereoselectivity in ginsenosides affect their anti-ED activity. Among the 13 ginsenosides, Rk1, Rk3, Rh4 and Rg5 are the most efficient in decreasing intracellular calcium levels by inhibiting phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) to reduce the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in CCSMCs. Rg5 also restrain hypoxia inducible factor-1[Formula: see text] (HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in hypoxia state, and increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in isolated rat cavernous tissue. These observations suggest a role for steamed ginseng containing two pairs of geometric isomers (i.e., Rk1/Rg5 and Rk3/Rh4) in the treatment of ED.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Panax/química , Vapor , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Temperatura
20.
J Proteome Res ; 17(2): 813-821, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302971

RESUMO

Different components of Panax ginseng have different properties and medicinal effects. Metabonomics was a prospective approach to analyze the global response of endogenous metabolites to physiological and pathological processes. In this study, an untargeted metabonomics method using GC/TOFMS combined with multivariate statistical techniques was applied to compare entire metabolite differences and the antistress variations among four components of P. ginseng, namely, total ginsenosides (TG), panaxadiol (PD), panaxatriol (PT), and ginseng polysaccharide (PS), in Wistar rats. The results of metabolite analysis showed that numerous urine metabolites involving neurotransmitters, amino acids, organic acids, and gut microbiota metabolites were changed after administration of the four components of P. ginseng, with TG having the least impact on urinary metabolites. The urinary metabolite profiling of these rats exposed to acute combined stress (forced swimming and behavior restriction) demonstrated that the four ginseng components attenuated urine metabolite changes involving gut microbiota metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and energy metabolites, and organic acids to different degrees, with TG improving most of the metabolites altered by stress.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Aminoácidos/urina , Animais , Ansiolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Carboxílicos/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Imobilização , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/urina , Natação
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