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1.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 278-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression following resection of diffuse low-grade glioma has rarely been described. Location of the tumor and surgical route are potential causes. Lesion network mapping (LNM), leveraging high-quality resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from large samples of healthy adults, has been used to explore the broader network connectivity for given lesions. However, LNM has not been applied to large intra-axial masses or surgical lesions. We used LNM to examine a potential cause of postoperative depression in a patient with a cingulate diffuse low-grade glioma (zones I-III). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 34-year-old woman underwent surgery for medically refractory seizures attributable to diffuse low-grade glioma. Near-total resection was attained via a single-stage, transcortical route through the medial prefrontal cortex. Despite freedom from seizure and lack of tumor growth at 42 months of follow-up, she developed symptoms of major depressive disorder soon after surgery that persisted. To identify functional networks potentially engaged by the surgical corridor and tumor resection cavity, both were segmented separately and used as seeds for normative resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity mapping. To study depression specifically, networks associated with the tumor and surgical approach were compared with networks associated with subgenual cingulate deep brain stimulation. LNM results suggested that the surgical corridor, rather than the tumor, had greater overlap with deep brain stimulation-based depression networks (32% vs. 8%). CONCLUSIONS: Early postoperative development of major depressive disorder following resection of a cingulate region tumor, although likely multifactorial, should be considered and patients appropriately counseled preoperatively. Further validation of LNM as a viable methodology for correlating symptoms to lesions could make it a valuable tool in selection of surgical approach and patient counseling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Glioma/cirurgia , Giro do Cíngulo/cirurgia , Convulsões/cirurgia , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Feminino , Glioma/complicações , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia
2.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562962

RESUMO

Laughter has a major role in daily social interactions; consequently, its biologic bases have been previously studied. Nevertheless, its cerebral representation remains unclear. The most accepted hypothesis has postulated that laughter has 2 components: mirth, related to the temporal and frontal neocortical areas, and motor aspect, related to the limbic system and brainstem. Furthermore, in prior studies, laughter has been elicited during electric stimulation with depth electrodes in the supplementary motor area and the cingulum. This Video 1 reports resection of a right superior frontal gyrus diffuse astrocytoma (isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant, World Health Organization grade II) with awake intraoperative electric cortical and subcortical stimulation mapping. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, including all the tracts in relation to the tumor, was obtained preoperatively and postoperatively. Stimulation of the cingulum medially and inferiorly to the tumor elicited a patient's smile and laugh without mirth or merriment. Also, this point correlated with the reconstructed cingulum in the intraoperatively navigated DTI tractography. In conclusion, these findings support the anatomic subdivision of the laughter's mechanism and the role of the cingulum in its motor component. Furthermore, smiles and laughter could be useful functional landmarks to identify the cingulum during subcortical mapping. Although it remains unclear whether pursuing resection beyond this point would have caused permanent postoperative deficits, considering laughter's role in social interaction and other emotion-processing functions associated with the cingulum, in the future it could be potentially considered a functional limit of the resection of intrinsic tumors.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Riso/fisiologia , Sorriso/fisiologia , Astrocitoma/patologia , Astrocitoma/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Humanos
3.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(12): 878-83, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) signal and neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the prefrontal cortex area after acupuncture or Von Frey filament stimulation (epidermal stimulation) at the right Hegu (LI4). METHODS: A total of 76 healthy volunteers (23 men and 53 women, 24.5±1.4 years in age) were recruited in the pre-sent study. Each volunteer received two sessions of fMRI magnetic resonance scanning (MRS) examinations, with an interval of one week between two sessions. The MRI scan sequences included pre-task MRS, resting state BOLD and task MRS, BOLD. A region of Interest (ROI) of 35 mm×30 mm×25 mm was located at the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex areas. In the two sessions of examinations, the right LI4 point was stimulated by manual acupuncture or Von Frey filament-pressing. The tasks were designed as the block design. Each block contained 3 intermittent acupoint stimulations, lasting 30 s in each stimulation and with two minutes' pause between two stimulations. The MRS data were processed by using Linear Combination (LC) Model software (for assessing GABA content), and the BOLD data of fMRI was analyzed by using SPM12 software (comparison within each group), REST1.8 (comparison between two groups), separately. RESULTS: Extensive deactivations were induced by both stimulations, mainly involving the midline regions as the medial prefrontal lobe, and limbic lobe. The deactivation effect of manual acupuncture stimulation was more extensive and intensive than that of Von Frey filament stimulation, especially in the medial prefrontal lobe. Data from 66 volunteers (after exclusion of 10 participants due to bigger standard deviation of GABA/Glx) showed no marked correlation between the GABA concentration and BOLD activation in the anterior cingulate cortex area in both groups(manual acupuncture stimulation group: r=-0.07, -0.08, 0.04; P=0.57, 0.88, 0.74; Von Frey filament epidermal stimulation group: r=-0.10, -0.09, -0.01; P=0.43, 0.46, 0.96). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture of LI4 elicits a stronger and broader negative activation effect in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network including the medial prefrontal cortex in comparison with Von Frey filament stimulation, but no apparent correlation was found between the GABA concentration and BOLD activation in the anterior cingulate cortex after manual acupuncture and Von Frey stimulation.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Encéfalo , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
4.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 237, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a key structure of the pain processing network. Several structural and functional alterations of this brain area have been found in migraine. In addition, altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been repeatedly implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine, although the exact mechanism is not known. Thus, our aim was to investigate the relationship between acute increase of brain serotonin (5-HT) level and the activation changes of the ACC using pharmacological challenge MRI (phMRI) in migraine patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-seven pain-free healthy controls and six migraine without aura patients participated in the study. All participant attended to two phMRI sessions during which intravenous citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or placebo (normal saline) was administered. We used region of interest analysis of ACC to compere the citalopram evoked activation changes of this area between patients and healthy participants. RESULTS: Significant difference in ACC activation was found between control and patient groups in the right pregenual ACC (pgACC) during and after citalopram infusion compared to placebo. The extracted time-series showed that pgACC activation increased in migraine patients compared to controls, especially in the first 8-10 min of citalopram infusion. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a small increase in 5-HT levels can lead to increased phMRI signal in the pregenual part of the ACC that is involved in processing emotional aspects of pain. This increased sensitivity of the pgACC to increased 5-HT in migraine may contribute to recurring headache attacks and increased stress-sensitivity in migraine.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Citalopram/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4704, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624264

RESUMO

The subjective sense of certainty, or confidence, in ambiguous sensory cues can alter the interpretation of reward feedback and facilitate learning. We trained rats to report the orientation of ambiguous visual stimuli according to a spatial stimulus-response rule that must be learned. Following choice, rats could wait a self-timed delay for reward or initiate a new trial. Waiting times increase with discrimination accuracy, demonstrating that this measure can be used as a proxy for confidence. Chemogenetic silencing of BLA shortens waiting times overall whereas ACC inhibition renders waiting times insensitive to confidence-modulating attributes of visual stimuli, suggesting contribution of ACC but not BLA to confidence computations. Subsequent reversal learning is enhanced by confidence. Both ACC and BLA inhibition block this enhancement but via differential adjustments in learning strategies and consistent use of learned rules. Altogether, we demonstrate dissociable roles for ACC and BLA in transmitting confidence and learning under uncertainty.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Incerteza , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Ratos Long-Evans , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Recompensa
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1883-1891, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570859

RESUMO

When making decisions we often face the need to adjudicate between conflicting strategies or courses of action. Our ability to understand the neuronal processes underlying conflict processing is limited on the one hand by the spatiotemporal resolution of functional MRI and, on the other hand, by imperfect cross-species homologies in animal model systems. Here we examine the responses of single neurons and local field potentials in human neurosurgical patients in two prefrontal regions critical to controlled decision-making, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). While we observe typical modest conflict-related firing rate effects, we find a widespread effect of conflict on spike-phase coupling in the dACC and on driving spike-field coherence in the dlPFC. These results support the hypothesis that a cross-areal rhythmic neuronal coordination is intrinsic to cognitive control in response to conflict, and provide new evidence to support the hypothesis that conflict processing involves modulation of the dlPFC by the dACC.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
8.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(9): 1174-1180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to explore the relationship between preoperative anxiety and chronic postoperative pain. METHODS: A total of forty rats were divided into four groups, control, single-prolonged stress alone, Hysterectomy alone, and SPS+ Hysterectomy. The paw withdrawal mechanical thresholds (PWMT) were examined. qRT-PCR and western blotting assay were performed to detect the GFAP expression in astrocytes isolated from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) region. In addition, the long-term potentiation (LTP) in ACC was examined. RESULTS: Rats in the SPS group or the Hysterectomy alone group had no significant effect on chronic pain formation, but SPS can significantly induce chronic pain after surgery. Astrocytes were still active, and the LTP was significantly increased three days after modeling in the SPS+Hysterectomy group. CONCLUSIONS: anxiety can induce chronic pain by activating astrocytes in the ACC region.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/complicações , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Animais , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Membro Posterior , Histerectomia , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/psicologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4287, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537795

RESUMO

Performance anxiety can profoundly affect motor performance, even in experts such as professional athletes and musicians. Previously, the neural mechanisms underlying anxiety-induced performance deterioration have predominantly been investigated for individual one-shot actions. Sports and music, however, are characterized by action sequences, where many individual actions are assembled to develop a performance. Here, utilizing a novel differential sequential motor learning paradigm, we first show that performance at the junctions between pre-learnt action sequences is particularly prone to anxiety. Next, utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we reveal that performance deterioration at the junctions is parametrically correlated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Finally, we show that 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dACC attenuates the performance deterioration at the junctions. These results demonstrate causality between dACC activity and impairment of sequential motor performance due to anxiety, and suggest new intervention techniques against the deterioration.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Ansiedade de Desempenho/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade de Desempenho/terapia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ansiedade de Desempenho/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 1803624, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396292

RESUMO

In this review, we explore current literature and assess evidence linking secondary (acquired) alexithymia to aberrant humor processing, in terms of their neurobiological underpinnings. In addition, we suggest a possible common neuropathological substrate between secondary alexithymia and deficits in humor appreciation, by drawing on neurophysiologic and neuroradiological evidence, as well as on a recent and unique single-case study showing the cooccurrence of secondary alexithymia and deficit in humor appreciation. In summary, what emerges from the literature is that the cortical midline structures, in particular the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insular cortex, seem to play a crucial role in the expression of both alexithymia and defective humor processing, while though to a lesser extent, a right hemisphere and bilateral frontoparietal contribution becomes evident. Neurobiological evidence of secondary alexithymia and aberrant humor processing points to the putative role of ACC/mPFC and the insular cortex in representing crucial processing nodes whose damage may produce both the above clinical conditions. We believe that the association of secondary alexithymia and aberrant humor processing, especially humor appreciation deficit, and their correlation with specific brain regions, mainly ACG/mPFC, as emerged from the literature, may be of some heuristic importance. Increased awareness on this topic may be of aid for neurosurgeons when accessing emotion-relevant structures, as well as for neuropsychologists to intensify their efforts to plan evidence-based neurorehabilitative interventions to alleviate the deleterious effects of such interpersonal communication deficits.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/genética , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
12.
Neuropsychology ; 33(6): 795-807, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and chronic pain are widespread conditions with extensive public health burden. This review seeks to describe neuroanatomical links and major mediating influences between AUD and chronic pain, in the service of identifying factors that predict the risk of chronic pain in precipitating or facilitating AUD. METHOD: We review the neural bases of pain and the influence of AUD on processes involved in pain perception. We propose potential mechanisms involved in the development of chronic pain in AUD, and we consider implications for pain management in recovery from AUD. RESULTS: Pain is a multidimensional and subjective experience that, in its acute form, is essential for survival, but in chronic form, pain is a disorder that negatively impacts quality of life. Neural substrates involved in initiating and maintaining chronic pain include dysfunction in descending pain pathways and reward network circuitry. AUD involves preoccupation or craving, intoxication, withdrawal, and negative affect. Neural substrates of AUD involve widespread mesocorticolimbic and cerebrocerebellar networks. Both conditions involve dysfunction of extended reward and oversight circuitry, particularly prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The interrelationship between chronic pain and AUD resides in the intersection of etiological influences, mental experiences, and neurobiological processes. Characterization of the connection between brain and behavioral abnormalities in AUD's precipitation of chronic pain-and vice versa-allows for early detection and treatment of patients at risk for developing either or both of these conditions and for preemptive interventional approaches to reduce the risk of consequent vulnerabilities and harm. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Fissura , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Vias Neurais , Manejo da Dor , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Recompensa
13.
World Neurosurg ; 132: 314-320, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whereas transient, self-limiting seizures are an infrequent but known complication of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation surgery, stimulation itself has occasionally been reported to result in seizure activity at delayed time points. The neural circuitry implicated in stimulation-induced seizures is unknown. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 47-year-old woman underwent chronic subcallosal cingulate DBS for treatment of refractory anorexia nervosa and experienced seizure with stimulation onset. Supratherapeutic voltage caused a generalized seizure. The patient subsequently experienced a full recovery. We reviewed the literature for other cases of delayed postoperative DBS seizures associated with stimulation. We also investigated whether the higher voltage may have recruited networks implicated in epilepsy. The supratherapeutic voltage stimulated a larger area and engaged vulnerable networks, including bilateral hippocampi, cingulate gyrus, and temporal lobes. Literature review identified 20 studies reporting delayed seizure after DBS surgery, 13 of which demonstrated a robust association with mostly nonmotor DBS stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Nonmotor DBS targets, particularly in patients with epilepsy, may be more vulnerable to stimulation-induced seizures; as such, extra caution should be used when programming stimulation parameters at these DBS targets.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/etiologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lamotrigina/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia
14.
Neurochem Res ; 44(9): 2123-2138, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376053

RESUMO

Number of ligations made in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) neuropathic pain model has raised serious concerns. We compared behavioural responses, nerve morphology and expression of pain marker, c-fos among CCI models developed with one, two, three and four ligations. The numbers of ligation(s) on sciatic nerve shows no significant difference in displaying mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia throughout 84 days. All groups underwent similar levels of nerve degeneration post-surgery. Similar c-fos level in brain cingulate cortex, parafascicular nuclei and amygdala were observed in all CCI models compared to sham-operated group. Therefore, number of ligations does not impact intensity of pain symptoms, pathogenesis and neuronal activation. A single ligation is sufficient to develop neuropathic pain, in contrast to the established model of four ligations. This study dissects and characterises the CCI model, ascertaining a more uniform animal model to surrogate actual neuropathic pain condition.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neuralgia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Constrição Patológica/complicações , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo/metabolismo , Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo/patologia , Ligadura , Masculino , Neuralgia/etiologia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/patologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Neuropatia Ciática/etiologia , Neuropatia Ciática/metabolismo , Neuropatia Ciática/patologia , Neuropatia Ciática/fisiopatologia
15.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330962

RESUMO

Both glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) are known to exist in plasma and brain. However, despite the assumed relationship between brain and plasma, no studies have clarified the association between them. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was sequentially performed twice, with a 60-min interval, on 10 males and 10 females using a 3T scanner. Blood samples for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to measure Gln and Glu concentrations in plasma were collected during the time interval between the two MRS sessions. MRS voxels of interest were localized at the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and cerebellum (Cbll) and measured by the SPECIAL sequence. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the association between brain and plasma metabolites. The Gln concentrations in PCC (mean of two measurements) were positively correlated with Gln concentrations in plasma (p < 0.01, r = 0.72). However, the Glu concentrations in the two regions were not correlated with those in plasma. Consideration of the different dynamics of Gln and Glu between plasma and brain is crucial when addressing the pathomechanism and therapeutic strategies for brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and hepatic encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Glutamina/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Cerebelo/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Glutamina/sangue , Giro do Cíngulo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(8): 1223-1234, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332372

RESUMO

Social deficit is a core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unclear. We demonstrate that structural and functional impairments occur in glutamatergic synapses in the pyramidal neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in mice with a mutation in Shank3, a high-confidence candidate ASD gene. Conditional knockout of Shank3 in the ACC was sufficient to generate excitatory synaptic dysfunction and social interaction deficits, whereas selective enhancement of ACC activity, restoration of SHANK3 expression in the ACC, or systemic administration of an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor-positive modulator improved social behavior in Shank3 mutant mice. Our findings provide direct evidence for the notion that the ACC has a role in the regulation of social behavior in mice and indicate that ACC dysfunction may be involved in social impairments in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Comportamento Social , Animais , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Glutâmico , Asseio Animal , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Relações Interpessoais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Optogenética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Células Piramidais/patologia , Receptores de AMPA/agonistas , Sinapses/patologia
17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317903

RESUMO

AIM: To study structural correlates of apathy in patients with late-life depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients (≥60 y.o.) with late-onset depression and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers underwent high resolution brain MRI-scanning, and a comprehensive neuropsychiatric examination including HAM-D and the Apathy Scale. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A morphometric analysis showed that apathy was associated with atrophy of the lateral prefrontal cortex and reduced grey matter volume of the caudate nucleus on the right, and the nucleus accumbens on the left. Depression correlated with reduced thickness of the medial orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally, rostral anterior cingulate gyrus on the left, isthmus cingulate gyrus on the right, and larger surface area of the entorhinal cortex. Total grey matter volume, grey/white matter volumes of the cerebellum, and cortical thickness in temporal and occipital regions were negatively correlated with both apathy and depression severity. Thus, atrophy of basal ganglia and lateral prefrontal cortex, well known neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in different psychiatric and neurological conditions, characterized it in late-life depression too. This supports the idea of independent pathophysiology of apathetic syndrome.


Assuntos
Apatia , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
18.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(9): 2367-2385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292696

RESUMO

The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has been implicated in a host of cognitive and behavioral processes in addition to serving as a central hub in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, the PCC has been shown to be involved in a range of psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, very little is known about the specific activated/deactivated functional profiles of the PCC. Here, we employed a dual analytic approach using robust quantitative meta-analytical connectivity modeling (MACM) and ultra-high field, high resolution resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to identify state-specific functional activity patterns of the human PCC. The MACM results provided evidence for regions of convergence for PCC co-activation and co-deactivation (i.e., left medial frontal gyrus, left amygdala, and left anterior cingulate) as well as regions of divergence specific to either PCC activation (i.e., bilateral inferior frontal gyri) or PCC deactivation (i.e., left parahippocampal gyrus). In addition, exploratory MACMs on dorsal and ventral subregions of the PCC revealed differential functional activity patterns such as greater co-activation of the right PCC and left inferior parietal lobule with the dorsal PCC and greater co-activation of right precuneus with the ventral PCC. Resting state connectivity analyses showed widespread connectivity similar to that of the PCC co-activation-based MACM, but also demonstrated additional regions of activity, including bilateral superior parietal regions and right superior temporal regions. These analyses highlight the diverse neurofunctional repertoire of the human PCC, provide additional insight into its dynamic functional activity patterns as it switches between activated and deactivated states, and elucidates the cognitive processes that may be implicated in clinical populations.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Conectoma , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Conectoma/métodos , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
PLoS Biol ; 17(7): e3000045, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295254

RESUMO

In primates, both the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are key regions of the frontoparietal cognitive control network. To study the role of the dACC and its communication with the dlPFC in cognitive control, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the dlPFC before and during the reversible deactivation of the dACC, in macaque monkeys engaging in uncued switches between 2 stimulus-response rules, namely prosaccade and antisaccade. Cryogenic dACC deactivation impaired response accuracy during maintenance of-but not the initial switching to-the cognitively demanding antisaccade rule, which coincided with a reduction in task-related theta activity and the correct-error (C-E) difference in dlPFC beta-band power. During both rule switching and maintenance, dACC deactivation prolonged the animals' reaction time and reduced task-related alpha power in the dlPFC. Our findings support a role of the dACC in prefrontal oscillatory activities that are involved the maintenance of a new, challenging task rule.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Atenção/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
20.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(7): 777-787, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269203

RESUMO

Mindfulness meditation training has been shown to increase resting-state functional connectivity between nodes of the frontoparietal executive control network (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]) and the default mode network (posterior cingulate cortex [PCC]). We investigated whether these effects generalized to a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course and tested for structural and behaviorally relevant consequences of change in connectivity. Healthy, meditation-naïve adults were randomized to either MBSR (N = 48), an active (N = 47) or waitlist (N = 45) control group. Participants completed behavioral testing, resting-state fMRI scans and diffusion tensor scans at pre-randomization (T1), post-intervention (T2) and ~5.5 months later (T3). We found increased T2-T1 PCC-DLPFC resting connectivity for MBSR relative to control groups. Although these effects did not persist through long-term follow-up (T3-T1), MBSR participants showed a significantly stronger relationship between days of practice (T1 to T3) and increased PCC-DLPFC resting connectivity than participants in the active control group. Increased PCC-DLPFC resting connectivity in MBSR participants was associated with increased microstructural connectivity of a white matter tract connecting these regions and increased self-reported attention. These data show that MBSR increases PCC-DLPFC resting connectivity, which is related to increased practice time, attention and structural connectivity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Meditação/psicologia , Atenção Plena , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso , Substância Branca , Adulto Jovem
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