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2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at determining the EEG correlates of concentration on either low or high-distressed tinnitus. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients (36 women, mean age = 50.34 ± 12.94 years) with chronic tinnitus were assigned to either a high (HD) or low (LD) tinnitus-related distress group based on THI results. All participants took part in the EEG study comprising two 3-4 min blocks of focusing on either tinnitus (Tinnitus Focus Condition, TFC) or the sensations from one's own body (Body Focus Condition, BFC). The absolute power and current density of 8 frequency bands in 7 clusters were compared between conditions and groups. RESULTS: The most pronounced differences were found in the HD patients in the TFC, relative to the BFC, i.e. reduced power of frontally distributed low alpha (8-10 Hz) and posterior high alpha (10-12 Hz) as well as lower current density of 8-10 Hz rhythm over the right frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and higher middle beta (15-18 Hz) density in the precuneus. The HD, relative to LD patients, in both conditions, exhibited increased low beta (12-15 Hz) power over the left middle area and greater higher beta (15-25 Hz) power in the left posterior region. CONCLUSIONS: The present study contrasted bioelectrical activity, acquired when concentrating on tinnitus with EEG data collected whilst patients focused on their body. Decreased alpha power and current density in the frontal/cingulate cortex when listening to bothersome tinnitus might reflect greater cortical arousal whereas increased beta power and density in the precuneus/posterior cingulate activity in this condition could be indicative for elevated tension or augmented cognitive/emotional processing of tinnitus sound. Enhanced beta rhythm in patients with high versus low tinnitus distress, observed independently of the study condition, may be due to greater self-focused attention or more active processing of sensations derived from the own body.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zumbido/complicações , Zumbido/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 101-105, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743999

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the disturbance of brain network dysfunction after sleep deprivation (SD). Methods: The experimental design of self-control was used in the study. All 16 subjects received 2 times of 24 h SD with an interval of 3 weeks. After the first normal sleep, 24 h SD and transcranial electrical stimulation (true or false stimulation) intervention (the current magnitude of true and false stimulation was 1 mA, and the action time was 20 min and 2 s, respectively. The intervention experiment lasted for 20 min. ) and the resting magnetic resonance imaging data were collected after the second transcranial electrical stimulation (sham or true stimulation). The resting fMRI data were collected as baseline before SD, the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex in the default mode network was selected as the seed point, and the functional connectivity between the seed points and the whole brain was calculated. Results: Compared with the rest wakefulness, the functional connectivity among bilateral posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral thalamus and hippocampus was increased (P<0. 01), but connected with the right precuneus, bilateral insula was decreased after 24 h SD (P<0. 01). Compared with the sham tDCS group, the functional connectivity between left posterior cingulate cortex seed point and right precuneus of tDCS group was increased (P<0. 01); but decreased with the bilateral thalamus, insula and right cerebral cortex (P<0. 01). There was a decrease in the functional connectivity among the right posterior cingulate cortex and the bilateral thalamus, right insula, and cerebral cortex(P<0. 01). Conclusion: 24-hours sleep deprivation can cause functional connection disorder of bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, and transcranial electrical stimulation can improve the functional connection disorder after sleep deprivation to some extent.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
4.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 301: 111102, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447185

RESUMO

To reconcile the inconsistency of the association between the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and cognitive performance in healthy and depressed groups due to high variance of both measures, we proposed a Bayesian spatio-temporal model to precisely and accurately estimate the RSFC in depressed and nondepressed participants. This model was employed to estimate spatially-adjusted functional connectivity (saFC) in the extended default mode network (DMN) that was hypothesized to correlate with cognitive performance in both depressed and nondepressed. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the relationship between DMN saFC and cognitive performance scores measured in the following four cognitive domains while adjusting for age, sex, and education. In ROI pairs including the posterior cingulate (PCC) and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortex regions, the relationship between connectivity and cognition was found only with the Bayesian approach. Moreover, only the Bayesian approach was able to detect a significant diagnostic difference in the association in ROI pairs, including both PCC and ACC regions, due to smaller variance for the saFC estimator. The results confirm that a reliable and precise saFC estimator, based on the Bayesian model, can foster scientific discovery that may not be feasible with the conventional ROI-based FC estimator (denoted as 'AVG-FC').


Assuntos
Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 141: 109750, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388138

RESUMO

Although not widely studied, behavioral host manipulation by various pathogens has been documented. Host manipulation is the process by which a pathogen evolves adaptations to manipulate the behavior of the host to maximize reproduction (Ro) of the pathogen. The most notable example is rabies. When a host is infected with the rabies virus it gets into the host's central nervous system and triggers hyper aggression. The virus is also present in the rabid animal's saliva so being bitten transmits the infection to a new host and the old host is left to eventually die if untreated. Toxoplasmosis is another example. When mice are infected they demonstrate a fearlessness toward cats, thus increasing their chances of being eaten. Toxoplasmosis needs the digestive tract of the feline to survive. Recent studies have shown that exposure to toxoplasmosis in humans (e.g., through cat feces) has also been associated with behavioral changes that are predicted to enhance the spread of the pathogen. Even the common influenza virus has been shown to selectively increase in-person sociality during the 48-hour incubation period, thus producing an obvious vector for transmission. Here we hypothesize that the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, which produces the COVID-19 disease may produce similar host manipulations that maximize its transmission between humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Animais , Doenças Assintomáticas/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Feto/virologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 10015-10023, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312809

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a highly prevalent disease with poorly understood pathophysiology. In particular, the brain mechanisms mediating the transition from acute to chronic pain remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a subcortical signature of back pain. Specifically, subacute back pain patients who are at risk for developing chronic pain exhibit a smaller nucleus accumbens volume, which persists in the chronic phase, compared to healthy controls. The smaller accumbens volume was also observed in a separate cohort of chronic low-back pain patients and was associated with dynamic changes in functional connectivity. At baseline, subacute back pain patients showed altered local nucleus accumbens connectivity between putative shell and core, irrespective of the risk of transition to chronic pain. At follow-up, connectivity changes were observed between nucleus accumbens and rostral anterior cingulate cortex in the patients with persistent pain. Analysis of the power spectral density of nucleus accumbens resting-state activity in the subacute and chronic back pain patients revealed loss of power in the slow-5 frequency band (0.01 to 0.027 Hz) which developed only in the chronic phase of pain. This loss of power was reproducible across two cohorts of chronic low-back pain patients obtained from different sites and accurately classified chronic low-back pain patients in two additional independent datasets. Our results provide evidence that lower nucleus accumbens volume confers risk for developing chronic pain and altered nucleus accumbens activity is a signature of the state of chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Dor nas Costas/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Accumbens/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco
7.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 300: 111081, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344156

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive, compulsive behaviors. While a cortico-striatal-limbic network has been implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the neural correlates of this network in OCD are not well understood. In this study, we examined resting state functional connectivity among regions within the cortico-striatal-limbic OCD neural network, including the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, thalamus and caudate, in 44 OCD and 43 healthy participants. We then examined relationships between OCD neural network connectivity and OCD symptom severity in OCD participants. OCD relative to healthy participants showed significantly greater connectivity between the left caudate and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We also found a positive correlation between left caudate-bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex connectivity and depression scores in OCD participants, such that greater positive connectivity was associated with more severe symptoms. This study makes a significant contribution to our understanding of functional networks and their relationship with depression in OCD.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Anesthesiology ; 133(1): 165-184, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain-derived estrogen is implicated in pain-related aversion; however, which estrogen receptors mediate this effect remains unclear. This study hypothesized that the different estrogen receptors in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex play distinct roles in pain-related aversion. METHODS: Formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance and place escape/avoidance paradigms were used to evaluate pain-related aversion in rodents. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect estrogen receptor expression. Patch-clamp recordings were used to examine N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rostral anterior cingulate cortex slices. RESULTS: The administration of the estrogen receptor-ß antagonist 4-(2-phenyl-5,7-bis [trifluoromethyl] pyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) phenol (PHTPP) or the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 antagonist (3aS*,4R*,9bR*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta [c] quinolone (G15) but not the estrogen receptor-α antagonist 1,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy) phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP) into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex blocked pain-related aversion in rats (avoidance score, mean ± SD: 1,3-bis [4-hydroxyphenyl]-4-methyl-5-(4-[2-piperidinylethoxy] phenol)-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP): 47.0 ± 18.9%, 4-(2-phenyl-5,7-bis [trifluoromethyl] pyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) phenol (PHTPP): -7.4 ± 20.6%, and [3aS*,4R*,9bR*]-4-[6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl]-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta [c] quinolone (G15): -4.6 ± 17.0% vs. vehicle: 46.5 ± 12.2%; n = 7 to 9; P < 0.0001). Consistently, estrogen receptor-ß knockdown but not estrogen receptor-α knockdown by short-hairpin RNA also inhibited pain-related aversion in mice (avoidance score, mean ± SD: estrogen receptor-α-short-hairpin RNA: 26.0 ± 7.1% and estrogen receptor-ß-short-hairpin RNA: 6.3 ± 13.4% vs. control short-hairpin RNA: 29.1 ± 9.1%; n = 7 to 10; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the direct administration of the estrogen receptor-ß agonist 2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) or the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 agonist (±)-1-([3aR*,4S*,9bS*]-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta [c]quinolin-8-yl)-ethanone (G1) into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex resulted in conditioned place avoidance (avoidance score, mean ± SD: 2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN): 35.3 ± 9.5% and (±)-1-([3aR*,4S*,9bS*]-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta [c]quinolin-8-yl)-ethanone (G1): 43.5 ± 22.8% vs. vehicle: 0.3 ± 14.9%; n = 8; P < 0.0001) but did not affect mechanical or thermal sensitivity. The activation of the estrogen receptor-ß/protein kinase A or G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1/protein kinase B pathway elicited the long-term potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that estrogen receptor-ß and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 but not estrogen receptor-α in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex contribute to pain-related aversion by modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Receptores Estrogênicos , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/farmacologia , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Estrogênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética
9.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 300: 111066, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244111

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in anxiety disorders and enhance psychotherapy, possibly by reducing the retrieval of fear memories and enhancing the consolidation of new corrective memories. Glucocorticoid signaling in the basolateral amygdala can influence connected fear and memory-related cortical regions, but this is not fully understood. Previous studies investigated specific pathways moderated by glucocorticoids, for example, visual-temporal pathways; however, these analyses were limited to a-priori selected regions. Here, we performed whole-brain pattern analysis to localize phobic stimulus decoding related to the fear-reducing effect of glucocorticoids. We reanalyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a previously published study with spider-phobic patients and healthy controls. The patients received glucocorticoids or a placebo before the exposure to spider images. There was moderate evidence that patients with phobia had higher decoding of phobic content in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the left and right anterior insula compared to controls. Decoding in the ACC and the right insula showed strong evidence for correlation with experienced fear. Patients with cortisol reported a reduction of fear by 10-13%; however, there was only weak evidence for changes in neural decoding compared to placebo which was found in the precuneus, the opercular cortex, and the left cerebellum.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Fóbicos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Aranhas
10.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 300: 111079, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283474

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV), a measurement of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, has been found reduced in schizophrenia. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is important in regulating the ANS, is structurally and functionally affected in schizophrenia. We investigate the relationship between HRV and functional and structural connectivity of the ACC in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Ten patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and ten healthy controls were recruited. Heart rate was monitored in a naturalistic out-of-clinic setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, including resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower HRV compared to controls. A positive correlation between ACC connectivity with the bilateral cerebellum and HRV was found in the patients. HRV was also positively correlated with amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the cerebellum, and with axial diffusivity in the middle cerebellar peduncle, in the patients. There was a significant negative relationship between antipsychotic medication dosage, HRV and all neuroimaging measures related to HRV. We conclude that ACC connectivity seems to be affected in schizophrenia, both structurally and functionally, and that the ACC-cerebellum connectivity, as well as cerebellar function, is associated with ANS regulation in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(8): 716-726, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: New antidepressant treatments are needed that are effective, rapid acting, safe, and tolerable. Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation treatment that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment-resistant depression. Recent methodological advances suggest that the current iTBS protocol might be improved through 1) treating patients with multiple sessions per day at optimally spaced intervals, 2) applying a higher overall pulse dose of stimulation, and 3) precision targeting of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) circuit. The authors examined the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of Stanford Accelerated Intelligent Neuromodulation Therapy (SAINT), an accelerated, high-dose resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI)-guided iTBS protocol for treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: Twenty-two participants with treatment-resistant depression received open-label SAINT. fcMRI was used to individually target the region of the left DLPFC most anticorrelated with sgACC in each participant. Fifty iTBS sessions (1,800 pulses per session, 50-minute intersession interval) were delivered as 10 daily sessions over 5 consecutive days at 90% resting motor threshold (adjusted for cortical depth). Neuropsychological testing was conducted before and after SAINT. RESULTS: One participant withdrew, leaving a sample size of 21. Nineteen of 21 participants (90.5%) met remission criteria (defined as a score <11 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale). In the intent-to-treat analysis, 19 of 22 participants (86.4%) met remission criteria. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated no negative cognitive side effects. CONCLUSIONS: SAINT, an accelerated, high-dose, iTBS protocol with fcMRI-guided targeting, was well tolerated and safe. Double-blinded sham-controlled trials are needed to confirm the remission rate observed in this initial study.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Indução de Remissão/métodos
12.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 29, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase of headache frequency is associated with higher headache related disability and lower quality of life in patients with migraine. However, the pathophysiology of migraine progression, persistence, or remission is elusive. The purpose of this study is to identify the brain signatures that are predictive of the long-term outcomes among patients with high-frequency migraine (HFM: 10-30 headache days/month). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with HFM and healthy controls and collected their baseline clinical profiles and brain-MRI data at first visit. We longitudinally followed the patients and determined their outcomes at 2-year follow-up. Good outcome was defined as ≥50% reduction of baseline headache days and poor outcome was defined as reduction < 50% or frequency increase. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study gray matter volume (GMV), and structural covariance was used to investigate structural connectivity. RESULTS: Among 56 patients with HFM, 37 had good outcome and 19 poor outcome. Compared to the healthy controls (n = 37), patients with poor outcome had decreased GMV over the left posterior cingulate gyrus, and increased GMV over the bilateral cerebellum and the right precentral gyrus. Further, patients with poor outcome had greater GMV over the right and the left cerebella compared to patients with good outcome, and the GMVs of the cerebella were correlated to 2-year headache frequencies (right: r = 0.38, P = 0.005; left: r = 0.35, P = 0.009). Structural connectivity were increased between the cerebellum and the cuneus, the calcarine cortex, and the temporal lobe, respectively, in patients with poor outcome, and was decreased between the cerebellum and the prefrontal cortex in patients with poor outcome. The structural covariance integrities between the right cerebellum and the right cuneus were correlated to 2-year headache frequencies (r = 0.36, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Structural volume and connectivity changes of the cerebellum may underlie headache persistence in patients with HFM.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
13.
Phys Ther ; 100(6): 946-962, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the main symptoms associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and can be associated with changes to the central nervous system (CNS). PURPOSE: This article provides an overview of the evidence relating to CNS changes (structural and functional) associated with pain in SCIs. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was performed, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations, on PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science in March 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were selected if they concerned changes in the CNS of patients with SCI, regardless of the type of imagery. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by 2 blinded reviewers. DATA SYNTHESIS: There is moderate evidence for impaired electroencephalographic function and metabolic abnormalities in the anterior cingulate in patients experiencing pain. There is preliminary evidence that patients with pain have morphological and functional changes to the somatosensory cortex and alterations to thalamic metabolism. There are conflicting data regarding the relationships between lesion characteristics and pain. In contrast, patients without pain can display protective neuroplasticity. LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSION: Further studies are required to elucidate fully the relationships between pain and neuroplasticity in patients with SCIs. However, current evidence might support the use of physical therapist treatments targeting CNS plasticity in patients with SCI pain.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Neuralgia/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Viés de Seleção , Córtex Somatossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Somatossensorial/patologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiopatologia , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/metabolismo
14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 90: 110-118, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171591

RESUMO

Navigation processes that are selectively mediated by functional activity in the entorhinal cortex may be a marker of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we tested if a short path integration paradigm can detect the strongest genetic-risk phenotype of AD in large sample of apolipoprotein E (APOE)-genotyped individuals. We also examined the associations between APOE-mediated navigation process, subjective cognitive decline, and rest-stating network connectivity. Navigation discrepancies classified 77% the APOE-genotyped cohort into their respective low-risk ε3ε3 and high-risk ε3ε4 categories. When connectivity strength between entorhinal and the posterior cingulate cortices (also a functional correlate of strongest APOE-dependant behavioral characteristics) was considered, this classification accuracy increased to 85%. Our findings present a whole picture of at-genetic-risk AD, including select impairment in path integration, self-report cognitive decline, and altered network activity that is reminiscent of the pathological spread of preclinical AD disease. These findings may have important implications for the early detection of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Cognição , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1017, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094367

RESUMO

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have social interaction deficits and difficulty filtering information. Inhibitory interneurons filter information at pyramidal neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an integration hub for higher-order thalamic inputs important for social interaction. Humans with deletions including LMO4, an endogenous inhibitor of PTP1B, display intellectual disabilities and occasionally autism. PV-Lmo4KO mice ablate Lmo4 in PV interneurons and display ASD-like repetitive behaviors and social interaction deficits. Surprisingly, increased PV neuron-mediated peri-somatic feedforward inhibition to the pyramidal neurons causes a compensatory reduction in (somatostatin neuron-mediated) dendritic inhibition. These homeostatic changes increase filtering of mediodorsal-thalamocortical inputs but reduce filtering of cortico-cortical inputs and narrow the range of stimuli ACC pyramidal neurons can distinguish. Simultaneous ablation of PTP1B in PV-Lmo4KO neurons prevents these deficits, indicating that PTP1B activation in PV interneurons contributes to ASD-like characteristics and homeostatic maladaptation of inhibitory circuits may contribute to deficient information filtering in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dendritos/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/citologia , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Humanos , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/genética , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Tálamo/citologia , Tálamo/metabolismo
16.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(3): 969-977, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032447

RESUMO

AIMS: We compared brain activation patterns between female multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with voiding dysfunction (VD) and those without. We aim to expand current knowledge of supraspinal correlates of voiding initiation within a cohort of female MS patients with and without VD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight ambulatory female MS patients with stable disease and lower urinary tract dysfunction were recruited for this study. Subjects were divided into group 1, without VD (n = 14), and group 2, with VD (n = 14), defined as postvoid residual urine of ≥40% of maximum cystometric capacity or need for self-catheterization. We recorded brain activity via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with simultaneous urodynamic testing. Average fMRI activation maps (the Student t test) were created for both groups, and areas of significant activation were identified (P < .05). A priori regions of interest (ROIs), identified by prior meta-analysis to be involved in voiding, were selected. RESULTS: Group-averaged blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation maps demonstrated significant differences between groups 1 and 2 during initiation of voiding with group 2 showing significantly lower levels of activation in all ROIs except for the left cerebellum and right cingulate gyrus. Interestingly, group 2 displayed negative BOLD signals, while group 1 displayed positive signals in the right and left pontine micturition center, right periaqueductal gray, left thalamus, and left cingulate gyrus. The activation map of group 1 was similar to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that distinct supraspinal activation patterns exist between female MS patients with VD and those without.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Urinários/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiopatologia , Ponte/diagnóstico por imagem , Ponte/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/etiologia , Micção/fisiologia , Transtornos Urinários/etiologia , Urodinâmica/fisiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 561, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953441

RESUMO

Nonverbal Learning Disability (NVLD) is characterized by deficits in visual-spatial, but not verbal, reasoning. Nevertheless, the functioning of the neural circuits supporting spatial processing have yet to be assessed in children with NVLD. We compared the resting state functional connectivity of a spatial brain network among children with NVLD, children with reading disorder (RD), and typically developing (TD) children. Seventy-five participants (7-15 years old) were included in the study (20 TD, 24 NVLD, and 31 RD). Group differences in global efficiency and functional connectivity among 12 regions comprising a previously defined spatial network were evaluated. Associations with behavior were explored. Global efficiency of the spatial network associated positively with spatial ability and inversely with socioemotional problems. Within the spatial network, associations between left posterior cingulate (PCC) and right retrosplenial cortical activity were reduced in children with NVLD relative to those without spatial deficits (RD and TD). Connectivity between left PCC and right posterior cerebellum (Crus I and II) was reduced in both groups of children with learning disabilities (NVLD and RD) relative to TD children. Functional connectivity of the spatial network was atypically associated with cognitive and socioemotional performance in children with NVLD. Identifying a neurobiological substrate for NVLD provides evidence that it is a discrete clinical entity and suggests targets for treatment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Processamento Espacial
19.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 295: 111020, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790922

RESUMO

Perseverative cognition (i.e. rumination and worry) describes intrusive, uncontrollable, repetitive thoughts. These negative affective experiences are accompanied by physiological arousal, as if the individual were facing an external stressor. Perseverative cognition is a transdiagnostic symptom, yet studies of neural mechanisms are largely restricted to specific clinical populations (e.g. patients with major depression). The present study applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to 43 functional neuroimaging studies of perseverative cognition to elucidate the neurobiological substrates across individuals with and without psychopathological conditions. Task-related and resting state functional connectivity studies were examined in separate meta-analyses. Across task-based studies, perseverative cognition engaged medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex. Resting state functional connectivity studies similarly implicated posterior cingulate cortex together with thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), yet the involvement of ACC distinguished between perseverative cognition in healthy controls (HC) and clinical groups. Perseverative cognition is accompanied by the engagement of prefrontal, insula and cingulate regions, whose interaction may support the characteristic conjunction of self-referential and affective processing with (aberrant) cognitive control and embodied (autonomic) arousal. Within this context, ACC engagement appears critical for the pathological expression of rumination and worry.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ruminação Cognitiva/fisiologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(1): 54-62, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence of cognitive impairment (CI) frequently occurring in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA); however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying CI in patients with MSA remain unclear. METHODS: We enrolled 61 patients with probable MSA and 33 healthy controls (HC). We used degree centrality (DC) analysis to assess changes in the centrality level of MSA-CI related brain nodes. We conducted a secondary seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to investigate dysfunctions in cognitive networks related to MSA. Further, we analysed the correlation between clinical symptoms and acquired connectivity measures. RESULTS: Compared with HC, patients with MSA-CI and those with MSA with normal cognition (MSA-NCI) exhibited lower DC values in the left calcarine and right postcentral regions and higher DC values in the bilateral caudate and left precuneus. There were significant differences in the DC values in the right middle prefrontal gyrus between the MSA-CI and MSA-NCI groups. The mean DC values in the right middle prefrontal gyrus (RMPFG) were correlated with clinical cognitive severity. Consequently, we used this brain region as a seed in secondary seed-based FC analysis and observed FC changes within the right precuneus, inferior parietal lobe, and right insula. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased middle prefrontal cortex activity and its altered functional connectivity with the precuneus, inferior parietal lobe, and insula are possible biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction in patients with MSA-CI. SIGNIFICANCE: Cognitive impairment in MSA is associated with alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex network.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Conectoma , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/complicações , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Descanso/fisiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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