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1.
Rev. venez. oncol ; 33(1): 33-39, mar. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147475

RESUMO

La hemiagenesia tiroidea representa un trastorno congénito caracterizado por la ausencia de desarrollo de uno de los lóbulos tiroideos, asociado o no a ausencia del istmo. Es más frecuente en las mujeres y por lo general se presenta como falta del lóbulo izquierdo, con hipertrofia compensatoria del lóbulo contralateral. Su diagnóstico es generalmente incidental o por manifestaciones del lóbulo tiroideo presente. Se hizo una revisión bibliografía, en donde no se encontraron casos reportados en Venezuela de hemiagenesia o agenesia tiroidea, describiéndose el siguiente. Presentamos a una paciente de 50 años de edad, conocida con hipotiroidismo desde los 31 años, negando cualquier cirugía en el área de cabeza y cuello. Desde febrero 2019 presentó aumento progresivo de volumen en región anterior de cuello. Al examen físico se observó aumento de volumen en región anterior derecha del cuello, palpándose lóbulo tiroideo derecho aumentado de tamaño, de aspecto nodular, no doloroso. En ecosonograma tiroideo se concluyó como bocio tiroideo derecho de aspecto multinodular, con ausencia del lóbulo izquierdo. Perfil tiroideo dentro de límites normales. Se lleva a mesa operatoria corroborándose ausencia del lóbulo izquierdo y presentado en la biopsia definitiva hiperplasia nodular en el lóbulo derecho. Se discute su frecuencia, la forma de presentación y se hace revisión de la literatura(AU)


Thyroid hemiagenesis represents a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of development of one of thyroid lobes, associated or not with absence of isthmus. It is more frequent in women and generally presents as absence of the left lobe, with compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral lobe. Its diagnosis is generally incidental or by manifestations of the present thyroid lobe. A bibliography review was made, where no cases reported in Venezuela of hemiagenesis or thyroid agenesis were found, describing the following. We present a 50-year-old patient, known with hypothyroidism since she was 31, denying any surgery in the head and neck area. Since February 2019, presented a progressive increase in volume in the anterior neck region. On physical examination, an increase in volume was observed in right anterior region of the neck, palpating an enlarged right thyroid lobe, with a nodular appearance and not painful. In a thyroid echo-sonogram, it was concluded as a right thyroid goiter with a multinodular appearance, with the absence of the left lobe. Thyroid profile within normal limits. It is taken to the operating table, confirming the absence of the left lobe and presented in the definitive biopsy nodular hyperplasia in the right lobe. Its frequency, form of presentation, and literature review are discussed(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Bócio , Hipotireoidismo/cirurgia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Tri-Iodotironina , Ultrassonografia
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6752141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521130

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, with a recent global increase of 20% in age-related incidence. Ultrasonography and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are the most widely used diagnostic tests for thyroid nodules; however, it is estimated that up to 25% of thyroid biopsies are cytologically inconclusive. Molecular markers can help guide patient-oriented and targeted treatment of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. Methods: Datasets related to papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) or thyroid carcinoma (GSE129562, GSE3678, GSE54958, GSE138042, and GSE124653) were downloaded from the GEO database and analysed using the Limma package of R software. For functional enrichment analysis, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and Gene Ontology were applied to differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the Metascape website. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built from the STRING database. Gene expression, protein expression, immunohistochemistry, and potential functional gene survival were analysed using the GEPIA website, the Human Protein Atlas website, and the UALCAN website. Potential target miRNAs were predicted using the miRDB and Starbase datasets. Results: We found 219 upregulated and 310 downregulated DEGs, with a cut-off of p < 0.01 and ∣log FC | >1.5. The DEGs in papillary thyroid cancer were mainly enriched in extracellular structural organisation. At the intersection of the PPI network and Metascape MCODEs, the hub genes in common were identified as FN1, APOE, CLU, and SDC2. In the targeted regulation network of miRNA-mRNA, the hsa-miR-424-5p was found to synchronously modulate two hub genes. Survival analysis showed that patients with high expression of CLU and APOE had better prognosis. Conclusions: CLU and APOE are involved in the molecular mechanism of papillary thyroid cancer. The hsa-miR-424-5p might have the potential to reverse the processes of papillary thyroid cancer by modulating the hub genes. These are potential targets for the treatment of patients with papillary thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Biópsia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Análise por Conglomerados , Clusterina/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Ultrassonografia
3.
Endocrinology ; 162(3)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543236

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) produced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is sweeping the world in a very short time. Although much has been learned about the clinical course, prognostic inflammatory markers, and disease complications of COVID-19, the potential interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the thyroid is poorly understood. In contrast to SARS-CoV-1, limited available evidence indicates there is no pathological evidence of thyroid injury caused by SARS-CoV-2. However, subacute thyroiditis caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been reported for the first time. Thyroid dysfunction is common in patients with COVID-19 infection. By contrast, certain thyroid diseases may have a negative impact on the prevention and control of COVID-19. In addition, some anti-COVID-19 agents may cause thyroid injury or affect its metabolism. COVID-19 and thyroid disease may mutually aggravate the disease burden. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection should not ignore the effect on thyroid function, especially when there are obvious related symptoms. In addition, patients with thyroid diseases should follow specific management principles during the epidemic period.


Assuntos
Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Glândula Tireoide/virologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Tireoidite/virologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/uso terapêutico
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24645, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578589

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD)-mania is related to the dysfunction of anterior pituitary gland, but the pituitary-thyroid interaction on the acute stage of BD has been controversial. In order to rule out the effects of drugs, we aimed to determine the upstream interaction of first-episode of BD type I in mania state, and tried to find the relationship between thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL)This study included 70 real-world patients diagnosed with first-episode BD-mania recuited and 70 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and sex from 2016 to 2017 in the same district of Shanghai. We compared the levels of thyroid hormones and prolactin between the two groups, and linear regression and curve estimation were used for the correlation analysis of TSH and PRLThere were differences in triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxin (TT4), and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations between the groups (P's < .05). After being grouped by sex, higher PRL in the male and female BD-mania subgroup were observed compared to each isosexual HC [(P's < .01, Cohen's d = 0.82/1.08, 95%CI (0.33, 1.31)/(0.58, 1.58)]. Higher FT4 in the male BD-mania group was observed compared to the HC males [(P's  < .01, Cohen's d = 0.90, 95%CI (0.41, 1.39)] while the female BD-mania group showed lower TT3 and TT4 compared to the HC females [(P's  < .01, Cohen's d = 0.93/0.88, 95%CI (0.43, 1.42)/(0.39, 1.37)]. In the female BD-mania group, correlation analysis established an inverse relationship between PRL and TSH (r2 = 0.25, F = 11.11, P < .01).The findings demonstrate that sex impacts the concentration of hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary of patients with first-episode BD-mania. The increased PRL may be a putative mechanism that underlies the onset in female patients with a moderate inverse relationship between TSH and PRL. Thyroid hormones and prolactin levels may be developed as potential markers for identifying BD-manic.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adeno-Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , /psicologia , Prolactina/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tireotropina/análise , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111706, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396037

RESUMO

High water iodine concentration in drinking water can lead to excessive iodine, which will affect normal thyroid function, blood glucose, and blood pressure, especially among pregnant and lactating women. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between iodine, thyroid function, blood pressure, and blood glucose level among adults, and pregnant and lactating women in areas that are iodine-adequate (IA) and iodine-excess (IE) with respect to iodine concentrations in drinking water. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 144 pregnant and 237 lactating women in Shanxi Province, and 828 adults in Shandong Province. Water iodine, urinary iodine, thyroid function, blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. Compared with the IA area, the water iodine concentration (WIC) in the IE area was higher (adults, 325.00 µg/L vs. 71.40 µg/L; pregnant and lactating women, 464.80 µg/L vs. 57.50 µg/L). For adults, and pregnant and lactating women, in the IE area, the urinary iodine concentration (UIC), free thyroxine (FT4 [except for lactating women]), and systolic blood pressure (only adults 18-40 years of age) were significantly higher, while the blood glucose level and the prevalence of hyperglycemia (except for adults) was lower, and the free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and hypertension-positive rates of the three populations were not significantly different. For adults, systolic and diastolic pressure were positively correlated with FT3 and FT4, respectively, while the blood glucose level were inversely associated with the WIC. For pregnant women, systolic pressure and the WIC, diastolic pressure and FT4, blood glucose level and FT3 were all positively correlated, while the blood glucose level was inversely associated with TSH, WIC and UIC. For lactating women, systolic pressure was positively correlated with WIC and UIC, while blood glucose level were inversely associated with WIC and UIC. Pregnant and lactating women in the IE area were at lower risk for an association with hyperglycemia. Collectively, our research showed that long-term exposure to high water iodine is a high-risk factor for abnormal blood pressure and a low-risk factor for abnormal blood glucose level, especially for special populations such as pregnant and lactating women. Moreover, enhanced monitoring of blood pressure and blood glucose level in people with abnormal thyroid function in areas with high water iodine is important.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Dietética/análise , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo/análise , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fatores de Risco , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111711, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Salt iodization in Manipur of north-east India failed to prevent endemic goiter, therefore an in depth study carried out to evaluate thyroid functions of goitrous subjects in a randomly selected region. METHODS: Goiter survey conducted in children and women of reproductive ages by palpation followed by measurement of urinary iodine, thiocyanate and house-hold salt iodine to evaluate iodine nutritional status and consumption pattern of bamboo-shoots (BS). In all grade-2 goitrous subjects, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, TSH, TPO and Tg antibodies, thyroid volume and echogenecity by ultrasonography and cytomorphology of thyroid by FNAC studied. RESULTS: Study population was 2486 children and 1506 women, goiter prevalence was 12.59% and 16.27% respectively; median urinary iodine and mean thiocyanate were 166 µg/l and 0.729 ± 0.408 mg/dl while salt iodine was ≥30 ppm. Serum thyroid hormones and TSH profiles of all grade-2 goitrous subjects showed 16.21% were subclinically hypothyroid, 2.16% overt hypothyroid, 4.86% subclinically hyperthyroid and 6.48% overt hyperthyroid, serum TPO- and Tg-antibodies found positive in 41.62%. Ultrasonographic results showed 24% had enlarged thyroid and 86.4% hypoechoic. Cytomorphological studies showed prevalence of colloid goiter (41.08%), lymphocytic thyroiditis (37.83%), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (8.10%), autoimmune thyroiditis (4.32%), sub-acute thyroiditis (2.16%) and 1.62% each papillary, medullary carcinoma, simple diffused hyperplasia and adenomoid nodular goiter. CONCLUSIONS: Grade-2 goitrous individuals in this mild goiter endemic region were affected by hypo- and hyperthyroidism with hypoechoic thyroid and thyroiditis. Thiocyanate that originates from BS even in presence of adequate iodine developed goiter and led goitrous population towards such diseases.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Bócio Endêmico/induzido quimicamente , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Tiocianatos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Bambusa/efeitos adversos , Bambusa/química , Criança , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Bócio Endêmico/diagnóstico , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/imunologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tiocianatos/urina , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111720, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396051

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has been indicated to affect thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in women, but the detailed mechanism behind this effect remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and hepatic transthyretin in the thyroid-disrupting effects of PM2.5. Sprague Dawley rats were treated with PM2.5 (0, 15 and 30 mg/kg) by passive pulmonary inhalation for 49 days; and recovery experimental group rats were dosed with PM2.5 (30 mg/kg) for 35 days, and no treatment was done during the subsequent 14 days. PM2.5 was handled twice a day by passive pulmonary inhalation throughout the study. After treatment, pathological changes were analyzed by performing haemotoxylin and eosin staining, measuring levels of THs and urine iodine (UI) in serum, plasma, and urine samples using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and expression of proteins in the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and liver tissues of rats were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The levels of oxidative stress factors, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in female rats' plasma were also evaluated by ELISA. The results of these analyses revealed that PM2.5 treatment induced pathologic changes in rat thyroid and liver characterized by increased follicular cavity size and decreased amounts of follicular epithelial cells and fat vacuoles, respectively. Serum levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone were significantly decreased, plasma NF-κB level was increased and plasma redox state was unbalanced (enhanced ROS, MDA and Gpx levels; reduced SOD activities) in female rats treated with PM2.5 (P < 0.05). PM2.5 treatment suppressed the biosynthesis and biotransformation of THs by increasing sodium iodide symporter, thyroid transcription factor 1, thyroid transcription factor 2, and paired box 8 protein expression levels (P < 0.05). Additionally, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor and thyroid peroxidase levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Both thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor and thyroid stimulating hormone beta levels were enhanced (P < 0.05). Moreover, transport of THs was inhibited due to reduced protein expression of hepatic transthyretin upon treatment with PM2.5. In summary, PM2.5 treatment could perturb TH homeostasis by affecting TH biosynthesis, biotransformation, and transport, affecting TH receptor levels, and inducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Activation of the HPT axis and altered hepatic transthyretin levels therefore appear to play a crucial role in PM2.5-induced thyroid dysfunction.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pré-Albumina/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111615, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396135

RESUMO

Thyroid tumor and thyroid goiter are prevalent disease around the world. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between exposure to a total of twelve mineral elements and thyroid disease as well as thyroid functions. Participants with thyroid tumor or goiter (N = 197) were matched with a healthy population (N = 197) by age (± 2 years old) and same sex. Questionnaires were used to collect data about the demographic characteristics and information of subjects. Serum and urine samples were collected simultaneously for each of the subjects. Mineral elements, iodine level of urine and levels of the total seven thyroid function indexes in serum were detected respectively. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the associations between mineral elements and the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter through single-element models and multiple-element models. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate relationships between mineral elements and percentage changes of thyroid functions. Higher concentrations of mineral elements in the recruited population were found in this study than other comparable studies, and the levels of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), thallium (Tl) and lead (Pb) in the case group were lower than the control group. According to the single-element models, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl showed significant negative associations with the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter, and, Cd showed nonmonotonic dose response. Cd and mercury (Hg) showed a nonmonotonic percentage change with T4, while Tl was associated with the increased FT4 in the control group. Therefore, Cd, Hg and Tl may disturb the balance of thyroid function to some extent, and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Sb, and Tl may become potential influencing factors for the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter.


Assuntos
Bócio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Bócio/epidemiologia , Bócio/urina , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais Pesados/urina , Minerais/urina , Análise Multivariada , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/urina , Oligoelementos/urina , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(1): 44-49, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443328

RESUMO

Pregnancy leads to many physiological changes, particularly in the thyroid. This implies that the reference values of the thyroid parameters may change according to the trimesters of the pregnancy and that the management of pregnant women differs. Establishing reference values is not easy and can be done in several ways. In our study, we review the reference values of TSH and FT4 of pregnant women followed up at Liege University Hospital compared to control women. This has been achieved using retrospective data from our laboratory. We show that the small decrease in the TSH reference values in pregnant women is barely visible in a small cohort. Our FT4 values confirm what the literature shows, i.e. a slight increase during the first trimester. We emphasize the difficulty and the relevance of making reference values for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Glândula Tireoide , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireotropina , Tiroxina
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111585, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396108

RESUMO

Uranium is a radioactive element that is widely present in aquatic environment. However, limited knowledge is available about the effect of uranium on thyroid system, which plays a key role in the development of animals. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to different environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium (2, 20 and 100 µg/L) for 120 h. The bioaccumulation, developmental toxicities, changes of thyroid hormones (THs) and key genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in larvae were analyzed after exposure. Results showed that uranium could bioaccumulate in zebrafish larvae, with the bioconcentration factors ranging from 49.6 to 523. Consequently, significant developmental toxicities and changes in locomotor activities were observed with a concentration-dependent manner. The levels of triiodothyronine (T3) levels in larvae were substantially decreased, whereas those of thyroxine (T4) were increased in fish bodies. The levels of THs were regulated by the negative feedback loops through HPT axis related genes, most of which (NIS, Deio1, Deio2, TRα, TSHß and UGT1ab) were significantly depressed after exposure to uranium. Our results suggest the potential toxicities and thyroid disruption of uranium on zebrafish, which would provide baseline data set for better understanding the impact of waterborne uranium on aquatic organisms and the associated mechanisms. This study also highlights the key role of thyroid disruption in the ecological risk assessment of uranium pollution.


Assuntos
Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Urânio/toxicidade , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Larva , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111845, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385677

RESUMO

The coexistence of nanoparticles and organic toxicants in the environment modifies pollutant bioavailability and toxicity. This study investigated the influence of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (n-SiO2) on the uptake of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its impact on the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to TBBPA at different concentrations (50, 100, and 200 µg/L) alone or in combination with n-SiO2 (25 mg/L) until 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Chemical measurements showed that both TBBPA and n-SiO2 were bioconcentrated in zebrafish larvae, and the uptake of TBBPA was enhanced by n-SiO2. Furthermore, zebrafish larvae exposed to 200 µg/L TBBPA alone exhibited significantly increased T4 contents and decreased T3 contents, whereas n-SiO2 treatment alone did not have a detectable effect. Furthermore, the thyroid hormone levels changed more upon treatment with 200 µg/L TBBPA combined with 25 mg/L n-SiO2 than upon TBBPA treatment alone. Alterations in gene transcription along the related hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were observed, and expression of the binding and transport protein transthyretin (TTR) was significantly decreased for both TBBPA alone and co-exposure with n-SiO2. Thus, the current study demonstrates that n-SiO2, even at the nontoxic concentrations, increases thyroid hormone disruption in zebrafish larvae co-exposed to TBBPA by promoting its bioaccumulation and bioavailability.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
13.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 60(1): 51-54, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397022

RESUMO

To assess the correlation between thyroid function and glucolipid metabolism in type 1 diabetic adults. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 230 type 1 diabetic adults who were hospitalized in the Department of Endocrinology of Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University from January 2008 to January 2020. It showed that thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) was significantly positively correlated with total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.239), triglycerides (TG) (r=0.166) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r=0.249), respectively (all P<0.05). Free triiodothyronine (FT3) was significantly negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (r=-0.272), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (r=-0.240), TC (r=-0.197) and LDL-C (r=-0.220), respectively (all P<0.05). Free thyroxine (FT4) was negatively correlated with TC (r=-0.171) and LDL-C (r=-0.170), respectively (all P<0.05). TC was an independent predictor of TSH, FT3 and FT4, FT3 and FT4 were independent predictors of HbA1c. TSH was an independent predictor of TC, TG and LDL-C. Thyroid function is closely related to glucolipid metabolism in type 1 diabetic adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireotropina , Tri-Iodotironina
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111957, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493726

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is hazardous to human health and it is also highly detrimental to amphibian life. In this study, Bufo gargarizans larvae were exposed to environmentally relevant Cd concentrations of 5, 100 and 200 µg L-1 from Gosner stage (Gs) 26 to Gs 42 of metamorphic climax about 6 weeks. The results showed thyroid structural injuries and thyroid signaling disruption were induced by high Cd exposure (100 and 200 µg L-1). Moreover, tadpole skeleton including whole body, vertebrata, forelimb and hindlimb was developmentally delayed by high Cd exposure through downregulating the mRNA expressions of genes involved with skeletal ossification and growth pathway. Moreover, liver histopathological injuries were caused by high Cd exposure featured by hepatocytes malformation, nuclear degeneration and increasing melanomacrophage centers. Meanwhile, liver apoptosis rate showed on the rise in a dose-dependent way and Cd stimulated liver apoptosis by upregulating mRNA expressions of genes related to extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Furthermore, high Cd caused hepatic glucometabolism disorder by decreasing the genetic expressions associated with glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, liver lipid metabolism was disrupted by high Cd exposure through downregulating mRNA levels of genes related to fatty oxidation and upregulating mRNA levels of genes related to fatty acid synthesis. We suggested that Cd did great harm to tadpole health by disturbing thyroid function, skeletal growth, liver cell apoptosis signaling and hepatic energy metabolism pathway.


Assuntos
Bufonidae/fisiologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Bufonidae/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Larva/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Oxirredução , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
15.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(1): 64-68, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the maximum dose of continuous mivacurium infusion for intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) and observe the adverse reactions during thyroid surgery under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing IONM during thyroid surgery received continuous infusion of mivacurium at the initial rate of 14.97 µg · kg-1 · min-1. The infusion rate was adjusted in the next patient based on the response of the previous patient in IONM. The depth of anesthesia was maintained with propofol and remifentanil during the surgery. The EC50 and 95%CI of mivacurium were calculated with Brownlee's up- and-down sequential method. During the operation, body movement and skin flushing of patient was monitored, and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HP) were recorded immediately (T0) and at 5 min (T1) after injection of muscle relaxant for anesthesia induction, immediately (T2) and at 10 min (T3) and 20 min (T4) after initiation of intraoperative infusion of the muscle relaxant. RESULTS: The EC50 for continuous infusion of mivacurium without affecting IONM was 18.9 µg · kg-1 · min-1(95%CI: 17.3-20.5 µg · kg-1 · min-1) during thyroid surgery under TIVA. One patient (3.3%) developed transient facial skin redness after induction. Intubation difficulties or body motions occurred in none of the patients during the surgery. Pair-wise comparison showed no significant variations in MAP or HR of the patients at the 5 time points (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing thyroid surgery under TIVA, the EC50 for continuous infusion of mivacurium is 18.9 µg · kg-1 · min-1 (95%CI: 17.3-20.5 µg · kg-1 · min-1), which does not affect IONM or causes serious adverse reactions during the operation.


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Propofol , Humanos , Mivacúrio , Remifentanil , Glândula Tireoide
16.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 48: e20202557, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503138

RESUMO

The thyroidectomy is the most frequently executed procedure in head and neck surgery. Since its first description by Kocher, the transverse cervical incision has been the main access to the thyroid site, as it provides broad exposure of the central neck compartment. Despite the meticulous suture of the incision, the development of a scar with variable dimensions is unavoidable and, hence, some patients might not agree to the approach, due to this consequence. The transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular access (TOETVA) gains importance as an alternative to the traditional surgery, since it avoids the formation of visible scars. The objective of this study is to develop a systematic review on the currently available literature to evaluate possible complications related to the TOETVA. The systematic review was based on the databases of Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and Scielo/Lilacs, resulting in the selection of six studies, which were compared in regard of the type of study duration of the study and identified complications. Our study showed that TOETVA is related to complications similar to the ones identified in the conventional approach, such as hematoma, seroma, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, surgical site infection. The TOETVA was associated to a higher risk of thermic injury of the skin and mentual nerve paresthesia. Moreover, it was possible to conclude that TOETVA is a safe procedure for well selected patients, with favorable conditions and concerned about the aesthetic outcome. The risk of complications of the procedure should always be explained to those patients.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Hematoma , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 143914, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333401

RESUMO

Endocrine disruption (ED) can trigger far-reaching effects on environmental populations, justifying a refusal of market approval for chemicals with ED properties. For the hazard assessment of ED effects on the thyroid system, regulatory decisions mostly rely on amphibian studies. Here, we used transcriptomics and proteomics for identifying molecular signatures of interference with thyroid hormone signaling preceding physiological effects in zebrafish embryos. For this, we analyzed the thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) and the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (6-PTU) as model substances for increased and repressed thyroid hormone signaling in a modified zebrafish embryo toxicity test. We identified consistent gene expression fingerprints for both modes-of-action (MoA) at sublethal test concentrations. T3 and 6-PTU both significantly target the expression of genes involved in muscle contraction and functioning in an opposing fashion, allowing for a mechanistic refinement of key event relationships in thyroid-related adverse outcome pathways in fish. Furthermore, our fingerprints identify biomarker candidates for thyroid disruption hazard screening approaches. Perspectively, our findings will promote the AOP-based development of in vitro assays for thyroidal ED assessment, which in the long term will contribute to a reduction of regulatory animal tests.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores , Embrião não Mamífero , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide , Toxicogenética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética
18.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128012, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182161

RESUMO

Due to global restriction on perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the use of long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, C > 8) and their environmental occurrences have increased. PFOS and PFOA have been known for thyroid disruption, however, knowledge is still limited on thyroid disrupting effects of long-chain PFASs (C > 10). In this study, two long-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), i.e., perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), were chosen and investigated for thyroid disrupting effects, using zebrafish embryo/larvae and rat pituitary cell line (GH3). For comparison, PFOA was also added as a test chemical and also investigated for its thyroid disruption potential. Following a 5 d exposure to PFTrDA, zebrafish larvae showed upregulation of the genes responsible for thyroid hormone synthesis (tshß, nkx2.1, nis, tpo, mct8) and (de)activation (dio1, dio2). In contrast, both PFUnDA and PFOA induced no regulatory changes except for upregulation of a thyroid metabolism related gene (ugt1ab). Morphological changes such as decreased eyeball size, increased yolk sac size, or deflated swim bladder, occurred following exposure to PFUnDA, PFTrDA, and PFOA. In GH3 cells, exposure to PFUnDA and PFTrDA upregulated Tshß gene, suggesting that these PFCAs increase thyroid hormone synthesis through stimulation by Tsh. In summary, both long-chain PFCAs could cause transcriptional changes of thyroid regulating genes that may lead to increased malformation of the zebrafish larvae, but the pathway of thyroid disruption appears to be different by the chain length. Confirmation and validation in adult fish following long term exposure are warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Decanoicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Hipófise/metabolismo , Ratos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética
19.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116046, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333402

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants (FRs) in China for decades, even after they were identified as persistent organic pollutants. In this study, serum samples were collected from 172 adults without occupational exposure who were residents of a well-known FR production region (Laizhou Bay, north China), and PBDE congeners were measured to assess their occurrence, congener profile and influencing factors in serum. Moreover, the relationships between serum concentrations of PBDEs and thyroid/liver function indicators were analyzed to evaluate whether human exposure to PBDEs would lead to thyroid/liver injury. All 8 PBDE congeners were detected at higher frequencies and serum concentrations than those found in general populations. The median levels of ∑PBDEs, BDE-209 and ∑3-7PBDEs (sum of tri-to hepta-BDEs) were 64.5, 56.9 and 7.2 ng/g lw (lipid weight), respectively, which indicated that deca-BDE was the primarily produced PBDE in Laizhou Bay and that the lower brominated BDEs were still ubiquitous in the environment. Gender was a primary influencing factor for some BDE congeners in serum; their levels in female serum samples were significantly lower than those in male serum samples. Serum PBDE levels showed a downward trend with increased body mass index (BMI), which might reflect the increasing serum lipid contents. Serum levels of some BDE congeners were significantly positively correlated with certain thyroid hormones and antibodies, including free triiodothyronine (fT3), total triiodothyronine (tT3), total thyroxine (tT4) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab). Levels of some congeners were significantly negatively correlated with some types of serum lipid, including cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total triglyceride (TG). Other than serum lipids, only two liver function indicators, total protein (TP) and direct bilirubin (DBIL), were significantly correlated with certain BDE congeners (BDE-100 and BDE-154). Our results provide new evidence on the thyroid-disrupting and hepatotoxic effects of PBDEs.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Adulto , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Fígado/química , Masculino , Glândula Tireoide
20.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128176, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297144

RESUMO

One of the most widely used UV filters, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), has been widely detected in the environment. While its endocrine disruption potential has often been reported, toxicological information on EHMC is limited. This study was conducted to determine the thyroid, neurological and renal toxicity potentials of EHMC in adult male and embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). Following 21 d of exposure, plasma T3 concentration decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in adult zebrafish. Several genes related to thyroid hormone regulation were also downregulated in the brain, thyroid, and liver of the adult fish. In addition, upregulation of syn2a in the brain and downregulation of podocin and wt1a in the kidney were observed following the exposure in adult fish. In zebrafish larvae, following 120 h exposure to EHMC, whole-body T3 and T4 contents decreased, and thyroid hormone-related genes were downregulated. However, several genes showed different patterns of transcription in the larvae; for example, mbp and etv1 genes were downregulated and podocin was upregulated. Unlike adult fish, the larval fish showed significant genetic changes related to neurotoxicity. The hypothyroidism induced in the larval fish by the exposure might be potentially associated with the neurotoxic potential of EHMC. The implications of the observed hormonal and transcriptional-level changes in zebrafish at different life stages following long-term exposure warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Glândula Tireoide , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Cinamatos , Larva/genética , Masculino , Hormônios Tireóideos , Proteínas WT1 , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
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