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1.
Vet J ; 262: 105503, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792097

RESUMO

The cessation of milking at the end of lactation is a routine management practice in dairy herds, and the importance of the dry period for milk production and udder health, has long been recognized. Among countries and herds, drying-off practices differ and include various milk cessation methods, such as changes in milking frequency and in feeding, the use of antibiotic dry cow therapy and teat sealants, and changes in housing. Published studies reporting methods of stopping milk production are scarce, and there are no uniform recommendations on optimal procedures to dry cows off for good udder health, cow welfare, and milk production. This review describes methods to stop mik production to prepare cows for the dry period and their effects on mammary involution, udder health, and dairy cow welfare. Milk yield at dry-off (the final milking at the end of lactation) is important for rapid involution, which stimulates the immune system and promotes good udder health and cow welfare. Based on the findings of this review, gradual cessation of milking over several days before the final milking can effectively reduce milk yield at dry-off and accelerate mammary gland involution while maximizing cow comfort and welfare. Data from this review indicate a target production level of 15 kg/day of milk or less at dry-off.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7188-7198, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505398

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate new udder health traits based on data from automatic milking systems (AMS) for use in routine genetic evaluations. Data were from 77 commercial herds; out of these, 24 had equipment for measuring online cell count (OCC), whereas all had data on electrical conductivity (EC). A total of 4,714 Norwegian Red dairy cows and 2,363,928 milkings were included in the genetic analyses. Electrical conductivity was available on quarter level for each milking, whereas OCC was measured per milking. The AMS traits analyzed were log-transformed online cell count (lnOCC), maximum conductivity (ECmax), mean conductivity (ECmean), elevated mastitis risk (EMR), and log-transformed EMR (lnEMR). In addition, lactation mean somatic cell score (LSCS) was collected from the Norwegian dairy herd recording system. Elevated mastitis risk expresses the probability of a cow having mastitis and was calculated from smoothed lnOCC values according to individual trend and level of the OCC curve. The udder health traits from AMS were analyzed as repeated milkings from 30 to 320 DIM, and LSCS as repeated parities. In addition, both ECmax and lnOCC were analyzed as multiple traits by splitting the lactation into 5 periods. (Co)variance components were estimated from bivariate mixed linear animal models, and investigated traits showed genetic variation. Estimated heritabilities of ECmean, ECmax, and lnEMR were 0.35, 0.23, and 0.12, respectively, whereas EMR and lnOCC both showed heritabilities of 0.09. Heritability varied between periods of lactation, from 0.04 to 0.13 for lnOCC and from 0.12 to 0.27 for ECmax, although standard errors of certain periods were large. Genetic correlations among the AMS traits ranged from 0 to 0.99. The genetic correlations between EC-based traits and OCC-based traits in AMS were 0. Genetic correlations with LSCS were favorable, ranging from 0.37 to 0.80 (±0.11-0.22). The strongest correlation (0.80 ± 0.13) was found between LSCS and lnEMR. Results question the value of ECmax and ECmean as indicators of udder health in genetic evaluations and suggest OCC to be more valuable in this manner. This study demonstrates a potential of using AMS data as additional information on udder health for genetic evaluations, although further investigation is recommended before these traits can be implemented.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Leite/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Condutividade Elétrica , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/veterinária , Lactação/genética , Modelos Lineares , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Risco
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7199-7209, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475675

RESUMO

Records of methane emissions from 1,501 cows on 14 commercial farms in 4 regions of Spain were collected from May 2018 to June 2019. Methane concentrations (MeC) were measured using a nondispersive infrared methane detector installed within the feed bin of the automatic milking system during 14- to 21-d periods. Rumination time (RT; min/d) was collected using collars with a tag that registered time (minutes) spent eating and ruminating. The means of MeC and methane production (MeP) were 1,254.28 ppm and 182.49 g/d, respectively; mean RT was 473.38 min/d. Variance components for MeC, MeP, and RT were estimated with REML using pedigree and genomic information in a single-step model. Heritabilities for MeC and MeP were 0.11 and 0.12, respectively. Rumination time showed a slightly larger heritability estimate (0.17). The genetic correlation between MeP and MeC was high (>0.95), suggesting that selection on either trait would lead to a positive correlated response on the other. Negative correlations were estimated between RT and MeC (-0.24 ± 0.38) and MeP (-0.43 ± 0.35). Methane concentration and MeP had slightly positive correlations with milk yield (0.17 ± 0.39 and 0.21 ± 0.36), protein percentage (0.08 ± 0.32 and 0.30 ± 0.45), protein yield (0.22 ± 0.41 and 0.31 ± 0.35), fat percentage (0.02 ± 0.40 and 0.27 ± 0.36), and fat yield (0.27 ± 0.28 and 0.29 ± 0.28) from bivariate analyses. Rumination time had positive correlations with milk yield (0.41 ± 0.75) and protein yield (0.26 ± 0.57) and negative correlations with fat yield (-0.45 ± 0.32), protein percentage (-0.15 ± 0.38), and fat percentage (-0.40 ± 0.47). A positive approximated genetic correlation was estimated between fertility and MeC (0.10 ± 0.05) and MeP (0.18 ± 0.05), resulting in slightly higher CH4 production when selecting for better fertility [days open estimated breeding values (EBV) are expressed with mean 100 and SD 10, inversely related to days from calving to conception; that is, greater days open EBV implies better fertility]. Positive correlations were also estimated for stature with MeC and MeP (0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.43 ± 0.04, respectively). Other type traits (chest width, udder depth, angularity, and capacity) were positively correlated with methane traits, possibly because of higher milk yield and higher feed intake from these animals. Rumination time showed positive EBV correlations with production traits and type traits, and negative correlations with somatic cell count and body condition score. Based on the genetic correlations and heritabilities estimated in this study, methane is measurable and heritable, and estimates of genetic correlations suggest no strong opposition to current breeding objectives in Spanish Holsteins.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Seleção Genética , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Genômica , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Espanha
4.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(5): 546-558, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341550

RESUMO

Macrophages are diverse immune cells that reside in all tissues. Although macrophages have been implicated in mammary-gland function, their diversity has not been fully addressed. By exploiting high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and flow cytometry, we identified a unique population of tissue-resident ductal macrophages that form a contiguous network between the luminal and basal layers of the epithelial tree throughout postnatal development. Ductal macrophages are long lived and constantly survey the epithelium through dendrite movement, revealed via advanced intravital imaging. Although initially originating from embryonic precursors, ductal macrophages derive from circulating monocytes as they expand during puberty. Moreover, they undergo proliferation in pregnancy to maintain complete coverage of the epithelium in lactation, when they are poised to phagocytose milk-producing cells post-lactation and facilitate remodelling. Interestingly, ductal macrophages strongly resemble mammary tumour macrophages and form a network that pervades the tumour. Thus, the mammary epithelium programs specialized resident macrophages in both physiological and tumorigenic contexts.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Epitélio/fisiologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/fisiologia , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Gravidez
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5485-5494, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229124

RESUMO

In Southern Italy, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk is mostly intended for the manufacture of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheese. Despite the economic boost of the last 2 decades, the buffalo farming system should be improved to maximize the efficiency of the dairy industry, improve yield and quality of milk and cheese, and work toward better animal welfare. Milk somatic cell count (SCC) is used worldwide as an indicator of udder health in individual milk and is useful for monitoring farm hygiene in bulk milk. Mastitis data are currently not available on a large scale in Italy; thus, SCC is essential for identifying animals with suspected udder infection and inflammation. Moreover, high milk SCC is associated with altered composition and acidity, and poor technological properties of milk. However, payment systems of the PDO area are based simply on the delivered volume of milk rather than on quality characteristics. Hence, currently there are no penalties for elevated SCC in bulk milk in the Italian buffalo dairy industry. In addition, SCC for buffalo milk is not mentioned by either the European Community regulations or the PDO protocol, evidencing a lack of rules for the maximum SCC limit. To provide a phenotypic characterization of SCC at the population level and to improve knowledge on buffalo milk quality, 876,299 test-day records of 70,156 buffaloes reared in the PDO area were analyzed. Data revealed that around 11% of herd-test-dates (≥5 animals sampled each) showed average milk SCC ≥400,000 cells/mL (i.e., above the threshold fixed by the European Community for bovine milk). This suggests that there is room to improve SCC at both the farm and individual level. Within first parity, more than 28 and 15% of lactations had average SCC ≥200,000 and ≥300,000 cells/mL, respectively. Both percentages increased with parity and were 39 and 25% in sixth parity, respectively. Supporting this, the proportion of lactations with average SCC ≥500,000 cells/mL increased from 6% in first parity to 12% in sixth parity. Milk yield and SCC were negatively correlated with each other, especially when SCC level was high. An ANOVA was carried out on test-day record milk yield and composition traits, with fixed effects of parity, lactation stage, class of somatic cell score (n = 6), month of calving, and their interactions; buffalo, herd-test-date, and residual were considered random effects. Significantly lower milk yield and lactose percentage were estimated in progressively higher classes of somatic cell score, whereas no significant differences were observed for fat and protein percentages. This is the first attempt to investigate milk SCC in a large data set of Italian dairy buffaloes. These findings may be helpful for defining reliable and effective SCC thresholds to be adopted whenever specific penalties for high SCC are included in milk payment systems. Finally, these results could be used in mastitis monitoring plans aiming to reduce SCC and udder issues at both the individual and farm levels in the Italian buffalo population.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Búfalos/fisiologia , Queijo/normas , Leite/citologia , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Itália , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Leite/normas , Paridade , Fenótipo , Gravidez
6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 3894309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273941

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the reduced milk production during mastitis. We hypothesized that bacterial endotoxin induces hypoxia, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis while inhibiting milk gene expression in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, the left and right sides of the 4th pair of mouse mammary glands were alternatively injected with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS, E. coli 055: B5, 100 µL of 0.2 mg/mL) or sterile PBS through the teat meatus 3 days postpartum. At 10.5 and 22.5 h postinjection, pimonidazole HCl, a hypoxyprobe, was injected intraperitoneally. At 12 or 24 h after the LPS injection, the 4th glands were individually collected (n = 8) and analyzed. LPS treatment induced mammary inflammation at both 12 and 24 h but promoted cell apoptosis only at 12 h. Consistently, H2O2 content was increased at 12 h (P < 0.01), but dropped dramatically at 24 h (P < 0.01) in the LPS-treated gland. Nevertheless, the total antioxidative capacity in tissue tended to be decreased by LPS at both 12 and 24 h (P = 0.07 and 0.06, respectively). In agreement with these findings, LPS increased or tended to increase the mRNA expression of antioxidative genes Nqo1 at 12 h (P = 0.05) and SLC7A11 at 24 h (P = 0.08). In addition, LPS inhibited mammary expression of Csn2 and Lalba across time and protein expression of Csn1s1 at 24 h (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hypoxyprobe staining intensity was greater in the alveoli of the PBS-treated gland than the LPS-treated gland at both 12 and 24 h, demonstrating a rise in oxygen tension by LPS treatment. In summary, our observations indicated that while intramammary LPS challenge incurs inflammation, it induces oxidative stress, increases cell apoptosis and oxygen tension, and differentially inhibits the milk protein expression in the mammary gland.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Endotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4618-4632, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147271

RESUMO

Considerable research has focused on identifying risk factors for intramammary infections, yet mastitis remains a pervasive disease on dairy farms. Increasingly, researchers are appreciating the role of dairy producer mindset in determining management style and thus udder health status of the herd. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes and motivations of Ontario dairy farmers toward udder health in herds with varying bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). In December 2011, 5 focus groups were conducted across Ontario, Canada, with independent groups of dairy producers representing low, medium, and high BMSCC herds. Groups were established based on producer's weighted BMSCC levels as recorded over the summer of 2011. A semi-structured interview guide was followed to discuss topics relating to udder health. Thematic analysis was performed on the interview transcripts. Generally, producers noted management techniques (specifically culling infected cows and monitoring BMSCC), a perceived wealth of information on mastitis control, and a proactive whole-herd management approach engender the perception of control over mastitis. Producers in the low BMSCC group were confident in their level of knowledge and control of mastitis in their herds, whereas high BMSCC producers generally felt lower levels of control. Several areas were identified by producers that counteract this perception, contributing to perceived low levels of control over mastitis. Participants identified that at certain times they do not understand the cause of BMSCC on their farm. This attitude was especially prominent in the high BMSCC group. Other times, producers cited improper sample handling, seasonal issues, perceived milk culture shortcomings, and low herd size as factors that limited their control over mastitis in their herds. Though producers generally have high levels of self-efficacy beliefs when it comes to udder health management, the perception still exists that, under certain situations, mastitis is uncontrollable. This highlights the fact that educational and extension efforts need to focus on ensuring that producers employ proven mastitis diagnostic, prevention, and treatment practices in a systematic manner, with realistic expectations.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Animais , Atitude , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite/citologia , Motivação , Ontário , Estações do Ano
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3668-3682, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008782

RESUMO

The objectives were to study the effect of 2 different automatic cluster remover settings on (1) milking characteristics, (2) milk component yields, (3) teat tissue condition, and (4) udder health. In a randomized controlled field trial, Holstein cows (n = 689) from 1 commercial dairy farm with a thrice-daily milking schedule were allocated to 2 treatment groups. Treatment consisted of a cluster remover take-off milk flow threshold of 1.2 (ACR1.2) or 0.8 kg/min (ACR0.8) for 57 d. Milking characteristics (milk yield; and milking unit-on time, MUOT) were obtained with electronic on-farm milk meters. Composite milk samples were collected and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count. Machine-milking-induced short- and long-term changes to the teat tissue condition were assessed visually. General linear mixed models demonstrated differences in MUOT, whereas no meaningful differences in milk yield were detected. Milk yield (least squares means, 95% confidence interval) was 11.3 (10.9-11.8) and 11.3 (10.8-11.8) kg in groups ACR1.2 and ACR0.8, respectively. The effect of treatment on MUOT was modified by parity. Milking unit-on time in first-, second-, and ≥third-lactation cows, respectively, was 260.7 (252.0-269.4), 257.8 (247.4-268.1), and 260.2 (252.6-267.9) s in group ACR1.2; and 273.7 (264.9-282.5), 279.1 (269.4-288.8), and 295.7 (287.9-303.6) s in group ACR0.8. We detected no meaningful differences in milk component yields or linear somatic cell score. Least squares means in groups ACR1.2 and ACR0.8, respectively, were milk fat yield, 0.42 (0.40-0.44) and 0.42 (0.40-0.44) kg; milk protein yield, 0.36 (0.35-0.37) and 0.37 (0.36-0.37) kg; milk lactose yield, 0.61 (0.60-0.63) and 0.63 (0.61-0.64) kg, and linear somatic cell score, 1.9 (1.8-2.0) and 1.9 (1.8-2.0). A generalized linear mixed model revealed an effect of treatment on machine-milking-induced short-term changes. The odds of short-term changes to the teat tissue were lower for cows in group ACR1.2 [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 0.78 (0.63-0.96)]. No meaningful differences were detected in machine-milking-induced long-term changes between treatment groups. Increasing cluster remover take-off milk flow threshold from 0.8 to 1.2 kg/min decreased individual milking duration and alleviated machine-milking-induced short-term changes to the teat tissue without adversely affecting milking performance or somatic cell count. Future studies are warranted to investigate the effect on milk production and udder health over a whole lactation period.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Lactose/análise , Modelos Lineares , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Leite/química , Leite/citologia , Proteínas do Leite/análise
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2636-2649, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954571

RESUMO

Many cows culled from dairy farms arrive at livestock markets or abattoirs in compromised condition, but it is unknown whether cows are compromised at the time of culling or deteriorate during the marketing process. This study followed cull cows from farm to abattoir, monitored any deterioration, and tested the effect of providing such information on subsequent culling. For 11 mo, data were collected from 20 dairy farms, livestock markets, and abattoirs. Cows' body condition, lameness, and udder condition (as binary outcomes) were assessed at 4 points: when placed on the culling list, before leaving the farm, at auction, and at the abattoir. Based on the first 5 mo of data (baseline period), information materials were provided to 10 randomly selected farms (Informed treatment), and the other 10 served as a Control. Logistic mixed models were used to test differences in cows' condition at the 4 points of assessment, using the assessment before leaving the farm as a reference value and cow-within-farm as a random effect. The effects of providing information on outcome measures (proportion thin, severely lame, with udder edema, poor fitness for transport, euthanized, and died) were tested with a general linear model. As demand for milk increased during the baseline period, additional linear mixed models were fitted to test whether the same outcome measures were affected by time (baseline or treatment period) and treatment (Informed or Control) using farm as a random effect. While cows were on the culling list (before shipping) the odds of being thin or having poor fitness for transport increased. After leaving the farms, cows spent (mean ± standard deviation) 82 ± 46 h in the marketing system before being slaughtered. Shipping from farm to abattoir increased the odds of being thin, having udder edema, or showing poor fitness for transport [odds ratio (OR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval 4.2 to 8.1; OR 14.7, 10.7 to 20.2; and OR 7.3, 5.7 to 9.5, respectively]. Providing this information to farmers (Informed treatment) did not affect the outcome measures. Compared with the baseline, during the treatment period fewer cows were shipped when thin (4.9 versus 9.0%) and with poor fitness for transport (15.7 versus 25.8%), and fewer cows died (5.4 versus 11.9%) or were euthanized (13.3 versus 20.5%). Increased demand for milk appeared to lead to delayed culling, such that more compromised cows were sent to slaughter. The results of this study show a need for clear and specific guidelines to assess fitness for transport of cull dairy cows.


Assuntos
Abate de Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisões , Leite/metabolismo , Matadouros , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Feminino , Lactação , Coxeadura Animal , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Transportes
10.
Development ; 147(4)2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988184

RESUMO

Integrin dimers α3/ß1, α6/ß1 and α6/ß4 are the mammary epithelial cell receptors for laminins, which are major components of the mammary basement membrane. The roles of specific basement membrane components and their integrin receptors in the regulation of functional gland development have not been analyzed in detail. To investigate the functions of laminin-binding integrins, we obtained mutant mice with mammary luminal cell-specific deficiencies of the α3 and α6 integrin chains generated using the Cre-Lox approach. During pregnancy, mutant mice displayed decreased luminal progenitor activity and retarded lobulo-alveolar development. Mammary glands appeared functional at the onset of lactation in mutant mice; however, myoepithelial cell morphology was markedly altered, suggesting cellular compensation mechanisms involving cytoskeleton reorganization. Notably, lactation was not sustained in mutant females, and the glands underwent precocious involution. Inactivation of the p53 gene rescued the growth defects but did not restore lactogenesis in mutant mice. These results suggest that the p53 pathway is involved in the control of mammary cell proliferation and survival downstream of laminin-binding integrins, and underline an essential role of cell interactions with laminin for lactogenic differentiation.


Assuntos
Integrinas/fisiologia , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Hormônios/fisiologia , Integrina alfa3/fisiologia , Integrina alfa6/fisiologia , Integrina beta1/fisiologia , Integrina beta4/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Ovário/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Prenhez , Prognóstico , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1759-1767, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898029

RESUMO

To find out the effect of reducing energy intake during dry period on milk production, udder health, and body condition, the experiment was conducted on 14 Jersey crossbred cows during whole dry period and continued up to 120 days of lactation. Reduction in energy intake was done during far-off period for each dry cow of treatment group as compared to control group. Statistically analyzed data revealed that overall significantly (P < 0.01) lower DMI and WI were recorded in control than treatment group. Overall significantly (P < 0.01) higher total milk production was found in treatment than control group. Overall significantly (P < 0.01) lower milk SCC, MCMT, pH, and EC were found in treatment than control group. Nonsignificant difference in milk fat, SNF, total solid, total protein, and fat:protein ratio was found. Overall significantly (P < 0.01) better quality milk (MBRT) was found in treatment than control groups. BCS during dry period and at calving was significantly (P < 0.01) different between groups. Significantly (P < 0.01) higher plasma NEFA concentration was estimated in control than treatment groups in all stages. No significant difference was found for plasma concentrations of glucose, urea, and total protein. The coefficients of correlation indicated significant (P < 0.01) correlation among BCS, milk production, milk SCC, MCMT, pH, and EC. It can be concluded that reducing energy intake during far-off dry period can lead to achieve optimum BCS at calving. Suitable BCS at calving was beneficial to get higher milk production with improved quality, better maintenance of udder health and body condition of Jersey crossbred cows at tropical lower Gangetic region.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Lactação
12.
Animal ; 14(1): 13-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354121

RESUMO

The success in competitions may be stressful for animals and costly in terms of immune functions and longevity. Focusing on Aosta Chestnut and Aosta Black Pied cattle, selected for their fighting ability in traditional competitions, this study investigated the genetic relationships of fighting ability with udder health traits (somatic cell score and two threshold traits for somatic cells), longevity (length of productive life and number of calvings) and test-day milk, fat and protein yield. Herdbook information and phenotypic records that have been routinely collected for breeding programs in 16 years were used for the abovementioned traits. Data belonged to 9328 cows and 19 283 animals in pedigree. Single-trait animal model analyses were run using a Gibbs sampling algorithm to estimate the variance components of traits, and bivariate analyses were then performed to estimate the genetic correlations. Moderate positive genetic correlations (ra) were found for fighting ability with somatic cell score (ra=0.255), suggesting that greater fighting ability is genetically related to a detriment in udder health, in agreement with the theory. The high positive genetic correlation between fighting ability and longevity (average ra=0.669) suggests that the economic importance of fighting ability (the winning cows get an higher price at selling) had probably masked the true genetic covariances. The genetic correlation between milk yield traits and fighting ability showed large intervals, but the negative values (average ra=-0.121) agreed with previous research. This study is one of the few empirical studies on genetic correlations for the competitive success v. immune functions and longevity traits. The knowledge of the genetic correlations among productive and functional traits of interest, including fighting ability, is important in animal breeding for a sustainable genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bovinos/fisiologia , Longevidade/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Fenótipo
13.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 137(2): 189-199, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515873

RESUMO

Accurate predictive modelling facilitates efficient and effective trait selection in animal breeding and can decrease costs while maximizing profits when raising economically important animals. The objective of this study was to extend a previously developed bioeconomic model and computer program to calculate the marginal economic values (MEVs) and economic weights (EWs) for direct and maternal pig traits affected by new reproductive traits, namely the number of sow functional teats (NFTs) and boar sperm quality traits (SQTs) that included sperm volume, sperm concentration, motility percentage and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa. The MEV of NFTs represented the cost differences between naturally and artificially reared piglets until weaning and the cost differences between naturally and artificially reared finished animals. The MEVs of SQTs expressed the saved costs for artificial insemination, assuming a decreased price per insemination dose when improving the SQTs. The absolute and relative EWs for the newly defined complex of traits in the breeding objectives for pig breeds involved in the Czech national three-way crossing system (Czech Large White [CLW], Czech Landrace [CL] and Pietrain [PN]) were calculated using gene flow methods. The NFT trait was included only for dam breeds, and the relative EW averaged 3.6% of the total economic importance based on the genetic standard deviations of all 19 simultaneously evaluated traits in CLW and CL breeds. The relative EWs of the four SQTs comprised 2.0% of the total economic importance of the 19 traits in the CLW and CL dam breeds and 8% of the total economic importance of the 18 traits in the PN sire breed. Therefore, inclusion of the NFTs for dam breeds and SQTs for sire breeds in the breeding goal is recommended to aid in obtaining ideal outcomes with optimal economic values.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/economia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Fenótipo , Espermatozoides , Suínos/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Modelos Econômicos , Reprodução/genética , Seleção Genética , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia
14.
Anim Biotechnol ; 31(1): 59-66, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431388

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator 5 (STAT5) plays important roles in regulating mammary glandular cell proliferation and milk-protein gene expression. However, the functions of STAT5a and STAT5b genes in lactation of buffalo remain uninvestigated. In this study, full-length STAT5a (2502 bp) and STAT5b (2515 bp) coding sequences were isolated for the first time. The highest STAT5a gene expression was found in buffalo mammary glands and the highest STAT5b gene expression was found in buffalo brains and mammary glands. H&E staining indicated that STAT5a and STAT5b are mainly expressed in epithelial cells of buffalo mammary glands. Next, we investigated the functions of STAT5 by knocking down and overexpressing STAT5 in buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs). According to our results, STAT5 knockdown resulted in inhibited G1/S transition of BuMECs and significantly lower expression of milk-protein genes, whereas overexpression of STAT5 resulted in significantly higher expression of milk-protein genes. In summary, our results demonstrate that STAT5 can regulate the cell cycle transition of BuMECs and affect the expression of milk-protein genes. Our research lays a foundation for further study of the role of STAT5 in mammary gland development and lactation.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Proteínas do Leite/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Búfalos/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética
15.
Dev Biol ; 458(2): 153-163, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697938

RESUMO

To investigate the role of adipose tissue in reproductive function and mammary gland development and function, we have examined lipodystrophic (LD) mice. LD mice of both sexes are sterile, but fertility can be restored with leptin injections. Mammary glands from lipodystrophic mice were rudimentary and lacked terminal end buds. Leptin-injected LD mice were able to become pregnant, showed normal pregnancy-associated glandular proliferation despite a smaller glandular area, were able to produce a small amount of milk that had grossly normal content of milk proteins and neutral lipids, but could not sustain pups to weaning. In order to separate the individual requirements for 1) adipokines such as leptin, 2) estradiol, and 3) physical epithelial-adipocyte interactions, we performed a series of experiments with both lipodystrophic mice and ob (obese mice with a mutation in the lep gene encoding the adipokine leptin) mice that received either estradiol treatment or preadipocyte transplant. The resulting fat pad did not rescue the defect in mammary gland development in lipodystrophic mice. The defect also could not be rescued with estradiol pellets. Ob/ob mice, like LD mice, lack leptin and estradiol, but retain adipose tissue. Ob mice have defective mammary gland development. However, in striking contrast to what was observed in lipodystrophic mice, reconstitution of a WT fat pad in ob mice rescued the defect in mammary gland development. Estradiol treatment did not rescue mammary gland development in ob mice. Therefore direct interaction between mammary gland epithelia and adipocytes is a requirement for full invasion and expansion of the gland, but is not required for glandular proliferation during pregnancy and milk production.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Leptina/metabolismo , Leptina/farmacologia , Lipodistrofia/metabolismo , Lipodistrofia/patologia , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas , Obesidade , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 884-889, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733859

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to validate and apply 2 different methods to record changes in teat tissue related to machine milking. Teat wall diameter was measured via B-mode ultrasound cross sectioning with a 7.5-MHz linear probe. Teat tissue thickness was measured using a cutimeter (spring-loaded caliper, spring constant 6.5 N/cm, 0.5 N at closed jaws). Both methods were applied at the teat barrel, 2 cm above the teat tip. In experiment 1, 24 teats from freshly slaughtered cows were used to perform ultrasound imaging (12 teats) or cutimeter measurements (12 teats) while the teat cisterns were filled with water to increase the intracisternal pressure from 0 to 30 kPa in steps of 1 kPa. Teat tissue thickness did not change at an intracisternal pressure from 0 to 10 kPa but increased with intracisternal pressure at levels >10 kPa. In contrast, teat wall diameter decreased with intracisternal pressure between 0 and 7 kPa but did not significantly change at a pressure ≥7 kPa up to 30 kPa. Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between intracisternal pressure and teat wall diameter were observed from 0 to 7 kPa (r = -0.38), and between intracisternal pressure and teat tissue thickness from 10 to 30 kPa (r = 0.45). In experiment 2, ultrasound and cutimeter measurements were performed in 12 lactating Holstein cows. Measurements before and during milking, immediately after cluster removal, with normal milking or with a 5-min overmilking, were performed and continued at 5-min intervals for 60 min and at 10-min intervals until 120 min. Additionally, with the 5-min overmilking treatment, measurements were continued at 60-min intervals up to 10 h after milking. Teat wall diameter decreased in response to milk ejection, followed by a continuous increase during the course of milking, with highest values after 5 min overmilking. Teat tissue thickness did not change during milking but was significantly increased after overmilking. Teat wall diameter and teat tissue thickness recovered to premilking levels within 35 min after normal milking and within 60 min after overmilking. Until 10 h after overmilking, the teat wall diameter decreased steadily, whereas teat tissue thickness was unfluctuating. In the physiologically relevant range of intramammary pressure, ultrasound measurements of the teat wall were affected by both intramammary pressure and mechanical forces, whereas cutimeter measurements were not affected by the intramammary pressure.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite , Ejeção Láctea , Pressão , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1982-1992, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759600

RESUMO

Little is known about the effects of heat stress during the late gestation period on lactation in dairy goats. For this reason, 32 Saanen goats were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, control (CT; n = 16) or heat stress (HS; n = 16), during late gestation. The HS goats were housed in a climatic chamber before parturition and subjected to heat stress for the last 45 d. After parturition, the HS goats were housed in the same conditions as the CT group. Mammary gland biopsies were performed on 7 goats per treatment at -30, -15, 15, and 30 d relative to parturition, so that the expression levels of several genes could be determined. The HS goats produced less milk than the CT goats did during the first half of lactation, but not during the rest of lactation. Before parturition, apoptosis-related transcripts (TP53 and BAX) were higher in the mammary glands of the HS goats than in those of the CT goats. The HS goats also had higher levels of HSPB1 gene expression during gestation and lactation. However, expression of the prolactin receptor gene was lower after parturition in the mammary glands of HS, suggesting downregulation of prolactin signaling. In summary, heat stress during final gestation reduces milk yield in the subsequent lactation. Although the upregulation of apoptosis signaling in the HS goats suggests that heat stress affects mammary cell number, the loss of the effect on milk production is more compatible with an effect on cell activity, which could be due to a downregulation of prolactin signaling.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cabras/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Cabras/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Parto , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1639-1647, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848833

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance, milk yield and composition, and udder health and conformation traits of Holstein (Ho), F1, and R1 crossbred Ho × Simmental (Sim) cows. Three commercial dairy farms in south Brazil were used as the research units. All farms held Ho, F1, and R1 crossbred Ho × Sim (¾ Ho × » Sim and ¾ Sim × » Ho) cows. The collection of milk samples and evaluation of udder conformation traits occurred during four visits to each farm. In addition to the actively collected data, retrospective reproduction records of the farms served as the basis for the statistical analysis using analysis of variance models using SAS. The F1 crossbred Ho × Sim cows and ¾ Sim (first rotational crossbreeding generation = R1 using Sim semen) cows had a shorter calving interval and calving to first service interval compared to the Ho cows (P < 0.0001). Milk yield did not differ among the genetic groups except for R1 (¾ Sim) that produced approximately 10% less milk than the other groups (P = 0.0245). Fat plus protein yield and somatic cell score did not differ among the genetic groups. Ho cows had shallower udders (P < 0.0001) and a higher udder clearance (P < 0.0001) than the other groups. F1 and R1 crossbred Ho × Sim cows had shorter reproduction intervals than purebred Ho cows. Although udder conformation traits lacked high-quality scores in crossbred cows, somatic cell scores reached the same level as in purebred Ho cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Fazendas , Feminino , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1969-1981, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864734

RESUMO

Eleven mid-lactation Holstein cows were milked twice daily during the first 2 experimental weeks. During wk 3 to 10, the cows were differentially milked: right quarters were milked thrice daily (3×) and left quarters were milked once daily (1×). During wk 11 to 14, all quarters were milked twice daily. After 4 wk of differential milking, the cows received daily i.m. injections of the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOMP; 300 mg; n = 6) or of dimethyl sulfoxide as the control (CTL; n = 5) for 8 wk (wk 7-14). During the differential milking period (wk 3-6), milk production was greater for quarters milked 3× than for those milked 1× but did not differ between DOMP and CTL cows. During the differential milking + injection period (wk 7-10), milk production continued to differ according to milking frequency. However, DOMP injection did not have an effect or interact with milking frequency on milk production. During the injection period (wk 11-14), milk production remained greater in the quarters previously milked 3× and milk production increased in DOMP injected cows but not in CTL cows. Injections of DOMP increased prolactin concentration, which was greater in the serum of DOMP cows than in that of CTL cows during the differential milking + injection and the injection periods. The expression of genes that are directly related to milk synthesis (CSN2, LALBA, and ACACA) was greater in the 3× quarters than in the 1× quarters. In addition, DOMP increased CSN2 expression during the injection period. The expression of both isoforms of the PRLR gene was greater in the 3× quarters during the differential milking + injection and the injection periods. At the protein level, injections of DOMP tended to increase the number of long PRLR isoform during the differential milking + injection period. The number of short PRLR isoform was greater in the 1× quarters than in the 3× quarters during the differential milking, the differential milking + injection, and the injection periods. The total amount of STAT3 protein was greater in the 1× quarters during the differential milking and the differential milking + injection periods. The amount of phosphorylated STAT3 protein was greater in the 1× quarters during the differential milking period. The total amount of phosphorylated STAT5 protein was greater in the 3× quarters during the differential milking and the differential milking + injection periods. The results of this experiment support the hypothesis that the responsiveness of the mammary gland to PRL is modulated by milking frequency, although the underlying mechanism remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Domperidona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Prolactina/sangue , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/química , Fosforilação , Prolactina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Serotonina/análise , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1072-1099, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837797

RESUMO

Compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) are receiving increasing attention as a housing system for dairy cows that has potential to improve animal welfare. This article reviews current scientific knowledge about CBP with the aim of providing a comprehensive tool for producers and researchers using this housing system. In CBP, cows are provided with an open bedded pack area rather than the individual stalls and concrete alleys found in freestall systems. The bedded pack, a mixture of organic bedding and cattle excreta, is cultivated frequently (1-3 times per day) to incorporate fresh manure and air into the pack, thus promoting an aerobic composting process. To function well, CBP generally require a large area per cow. Optimal animal densities over the bedded area range from 7.4 to more than 15 m2/cow depending on several factors, including climate, bedding, pack management, and cow characteristics. Studies have indicated that CBP, compared with conventional systems such as freestall barns, have the potential to improve the welfare of dairy cows. In particular, the main reported benefits include improved comfort during resting, better foot and leg health, and more natural animal behavior. Research has also indicated that adequate udder health can be achieved in CBP. However, because the bedded pack has been shown to contain high bacterial concentrations, proper management is essential to maintain adequate cow cleanliness and reduce the risk of mastitis. Controlling pack moisture is consistently indicated as the most important issue with CBP. Especially under cold and humid weather conditions, large amounts of bedding may be necessary to keep the pack adequately dry and comfortable for the cows. Nevertheless, the improvements in cow health may offset the higher costs of bedding.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Indústria de Laticínios , Abrigo para Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle
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