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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246450, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278532
2.
Chemosphere ; 298: 134308, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302001

RESUMO

Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicide with high efficiency, low toxicity and broad-spectrum. In recent decades, increasing evidence suggests that glyphosate may cause adverse health effects on human beings. However, until now, there is little data on the human metabolic changes. Since occupational workers are under greater health risks than ordinary people, the understanding regarding the health effects of glyphosate on occupational workers is very important for the early warning of potential damage. In this study, serum metabolic alterations in workers from three chemical factories were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess the potential health risks caused by glyphosate at the molecular level. It was found that the levels of 27 metabolites changed significantly in the exposed group compared to the controls. The altered metabolic pathways, including amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism (glycolysis and TCA cycle) and glutathione metabolism (oxidative stress), etc., indicated a series of changes occur in health profile of the human body after glyphosate exposure, and the suboptimal health status of human may further evolve into various diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, renal and liver dysfunction, hepatocellular carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. Subsequently, 4 biomarkers (i.e., benzoic acid, 2-ketoisocaproic acid, alpha-ketoglutarate, and monoolein) were identified as potential biomarkers related to glyphosate exposure based on the partial correlation analyses, linear regression analyses, and FDR correction. Receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses manifested that these potential biomarkers and their combinational pattern had good performance and potential clinical value to assess the potential health risk associated with glyphosate exposure while retaining high accuracy. Our findings provided new insights on mechanisms of health effects probably induced by glyphosate, and may be valuable for the health risk assessment of glyphosate exposure.


Assuntos
Glicina , Herbicidas , Metaboloma , Biomarcadores , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Metabolômica
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269866

RESUMO

Glyphosate is a component of commonly used herbicides for controlling weeds in crops, gardens and municipal parks. There is increasing awareness that glyphosate-based herbicides, in addition to acting on plants, may also exert toxicity in wildlife and humans. In this study, male and female adult zebrafish were exposed to 700 µg/L of glyphosate (GLY), for 28 days. We used the metabolomic approach and UHPLC-ESI-MS to analyze liver samples to investigate the adverse effects of glyphosate on hepatic metabolism. The impact of GLY was found to be sex-specific. In female, GLY exposure affected purine metabolism by decreasing the levels of AMP, GMP and inosinic acid, consequently increasing uric acid levels with respect to the control (CTRL). Exposure to GLY also caused a decrease of UMP levels in the pyrimidine metabolism pathway. In male, GLY exposure decreased the aminoadipic acid within the lysine degradation pathway. Transcript analysis of genes involved in stress response, oxidative stress and the immune system were also performed. Results demonstrated an increased stress response in both sexes, as suggested by higher nr3c1 expression. However, the hsp70.2 transcript level was increased in female but decreased in male. The results demonstrated reduced sod1, sod2, and gpx1a in male following exposure to GLY, indicating an impaired oxidative stress response. At the same time, an increase in the cat transcript level in female was observed. mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory interleukins litaf and cxcl8b.1 were increased in female. Taken together, the results provide evidence of disrupted nucleotide hepatic metabolism, increased stress inflammatory response in female and disruption of oxidative stress response in male.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fígado , Masculino , Peixe-Zebra/genética
4.
Int J Toxicol ; 41(2): 126-131, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240877

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most used herbicides in the world. Despite being widely used, a dispute exists whether glyphosate-based herbicides have a negative effect on human health, particularly genotoxic effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate glyphosate genotoxicity on cultured human lymphocytes. Cultured human lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (20, 40, and 200 µmol/L). Four toxicity measures were examined: frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs), frequency of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), production of 8-OHdG, and cell kinetics analysis. The results show that glyphosate induced significant (P < 0.05) increases in the levels of SCE at the highest used concentration (200 µmol/L). However, no significant elevation in SCE levels was observed at the lower examined concentrations (20 and 40 µmol/L). No significant changes in CA were detected at all examined concentrations (P = 0.86). Also, glyphosate did not induce changes to the normal level of 8-OHdG at all examined concentrations (P = 0.98). Last, no significant changes in either mitotic index or proliferative index were observed at any examined concentrations (P > 0.05). The results collectively indicate a lack of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of glyphosate in cultured human lymphocytes when dealing with environmentally relevant concentrations (20 and 40 µmol/L). However, being exposed to higher concentrations (200 µmol/L) led to slightly higher level of SCE. Therefore, we recommend cautionary measures when dealing with glyphosate-based herbicides for individuals, such as farmers, who may be extensively exposed to high concentrations of these herbicides.


Assuntos
Glicina , Herbicidas , Células Cultivadas , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Dano ao DNA , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Linfócitos , Troca de Cromátide Irmã
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257039, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293479

RESUMO

The active ingredient glyphosate is the most commercialized herbicide on the world market due to its capability in eliminating weeds. However, it can harm the development of non-target organisms and threaten environmental quality. This study analyzed the effects of potentially toxic concentrations of glyphosate on germination, growth, cell cycle and genomic stability of Lactuca sativa L., and identified the most sensitive variables for assessing the toxicity of this herbicide to this biomonitor. Seeds of L. sativa were germinated in Petri dishes containing a sheet of filter paper moistened with 5 mL of a concentration of glyphosate (1.34, 3.35, 6.70, 10.05, 13.40 mg L-1). Controls consisted of distilled water (negative) and 3 mg L-1 CuSO4 (positive). Macroscopic and microscopic variables were analyzed. The germination of L. sativa was not affected by the concentrations of glyphosate. Root length and shoot height of the plants and the mitotic index decreased from the lowest concentration tested on. The chromosomal anomaly index and frequency of micronuclei increased by 3.2 and 22 times, respectively, with the presence of the lowest concentration of glyphosate compared to the negative control. The observed phytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects demonstrate the negative influence that glyphosate has on the development of L. sativa. Root length and microscopic variables showed the highest sensitivity. This study warns of the possible harmful effects that glyphosate can have on non-target organisms and suggests greater control over the use of this herbicide to mitigate its environmental impact.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Alface , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Sementes
6.
Environ Manage ; 69(5): 871-886, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212795

RESUMO

Glyphosate is controversially discussed because of its alleged harmful effects on human health and the environment. Although it is approved until December 2022 in the European Union, the Austrian government discusses a national ban. Research on farmers' intentions to deal with upcoming pesticide policy changes is limited and planned responses to a national glyphosate ban may inform accompanying measures and the development of weed management alternatives. Therefore, we have conducted 41 qualitative semi-structured interviews with farmers to explore their intended weed management if glyphosate-based herbicides were no longer available in Austria. The interviews were systematically analyzed, whereby the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with its three social-psychological constructs served as guidance, i.e., attitude toward the planned behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control toward the planned behavior. We grouped farmers based on differences in their behavioral intentions toward glyphosate-free weed management, and identified four types of farmers by assigning group-specific attributes of the TPB constructs to the groups of farmers with similar behavioral intentions. Given a national glyphosate ban, the farmers intend to implement either mechanical or chemical alternatives, which would be solely applied or combined with changes in cultivation. Attitude toward the planned behavior, descriptive norms, and perceived behavioral control affect behavioral intentions, whereas injunctive norms do not differ much between the interviewed farmers. What unites the four types of farmers is that they would rather accept a glyphosate ban, if weed management alternatives with similar effectiveness and costs were available.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Glicina , Áustria , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Intenção
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 122: 67-70, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091027

RESUMO

Glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide active substance worldwide, has raised many scientific, political and public debates in the context of its recent re-registration in the European Union, highlighting in particular a lack of data concerning its potential generational effects. In this study, we investigated the intergenerational toxicity of this active substance used alone or coformulated in glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) on the ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to face a viral challenge. Juvenile trout from parents exposed for eight months to four different chemical exposure conditions (non-exposed control, pure glyphosate, Roundup Innovert®, and Viaglif Jardin® were experimentally infected with the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNv). Various enzymatic and hemato-immunological markers were assessed before and after the viral challenge. Chemical contamination with GBHs strongly modulated viral trout susceptibility. Pure glyphosate induced a cumulative mortality of 35.8%, comparable to the control (37.0%), which was significantly reduced with Roundup Innovert® (-9.9%) and increased (+14.8%) with Viaglif Jardin®. No modification was observed for the biomarkers analysed for any conditions. These results demonstrate that the nature of the co-formulants associated to glyphosate in GHBs can modulate the susceptibility of fish to pathogens.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Herbicidas , Vírus da Necrose Hematopoética Infecciosa , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae , Animais , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária
8.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol ; 62: 617-639, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990202

RESUMO

Glyphosate (GLYP) is a widely used pesticide; it is considered to be a safe herbicide for animals and humans because it targets 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. However, there has been increasing evidence that GLYP causes varying degrees of toxicity. Moreover, oxidative stress and metabolism are highly correlated with toxicity. This review provides a comprehensive introduction to the toxicity of GLYP and, for the first time, systematically summarizes the toxicity mechanism of GLYP from the perspective of oxidative stress, including GLYP-mediated oxidative damage, changes in antioxidant status, altered signaling pathways, and the regulation of oxidative stress by exogenous substances. In addition, the metabolism of GLYP is discussed, including metabolites,metabolic pathways, metabolic enzymes, and the toxicity of metabolites. This review provides new ideas for the toxicity mechanism of GLYP and proposes effective strategies for reducing its toxicity.


Assuntos
Glicina , Herbicidas , Animais , Antioxidantes , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(10): 14443-14452, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617223

RESUMO

Glyphosate and 2,4-D are two herbicides commonly used together. Since there is little information about the interactions between these pesticides, the aim of this study was to evaluate the single and joint lethal toxicity of the glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) ATANOR® (43.8% of glyphosate, isopropylamine salt) and the 2,4-D-based herbicide (2,4-DBH) Así Max 50® (602000 mg/L of 2,4-D) on Rhinella arenarum larvae. Equitoxic and non-equitoxic mixtures were prepared according to the recommendation for their combination and analyzed with a fixed ratio design at different exposure times and levels of lethality (LC10, LC50, and LC90). GBH (504h-LC50=38.67 mg ae/L) was significantly more toxic than 2,4-DBH (504h-LC50=250.31 mg ae/L) and their toxicity was time-dependent. At 48h, the equitoxic mixture toxicity was additive and from the 96h was antagonistic at LC10 and LC50 effect level. The non-equitoxic mixture toxicity was additive at LC10 effect level from the 48h to the 168h, and synergistic from the 240h. At LC50 and LC90 effect level, the mixture interaction resulted synergistic for all exposure times. This is the first study to report the synergistic interactions between GBH and 2,4-DBH on amphibians, alerting about its negative impact on aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Larva , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade
10.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 79: 105291, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864054

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in the world. Controversial studies exist on its effect on the male reproductive system. We used the validated BioAlter® model to test the effects of low concentrations of Glyphosate. Pubertal rat seminiferous tubules were treated with Glyphosate 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 µM or 50 µM over a 3-week culture period. The Trans-Epithelial Electrical Resistance was not modified by any of the concentrations. The decrease of Clusterin mRNAs suggested that glyphosate would target the integrity of Sertoli cells. The decrease of the numbers of germ cells from day 14 onward highlighted the chronic effect of glyphosate at 50 nM, 500 nM or 5 µM. No consistent effect of glyphosate was observed on the numbers of spermatogonia or on their specific mRNA levels. However, those low concentrations of glyphosate targeted young spermatocytes and middle to late pachytene spermatocytes resulting in a decrease of the numbers of round spermatids, the direct precursors of spermatozoa. This study underlines that the effect of a toxicant should be also studied at low doses and during the establishment of the blood-testis barrier.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Túbulos Seminíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Clusterina/genética , Clusterina/metabolismo , Glicina/toxicidade , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogônias/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
11.
Theriogenology ; 179: 197-203, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891125

RESUMO

The growing and widespread use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) has raised an intense public debate about the impact of environmental contamination on animal and human health, including male fertility. The aim of this study was to deepen the impact of glyphosate (Gly) and GBHs on mammalian sperm investigating the effect of in vitro exposure of stallion spermatozoa to Gly and to its commercial formulation Roundup® (R). Spermatozoa were incubated at 37 °C with different Gly or R concentrations (from 0.5 to 720 µg/mL Gly or R at the same Gly-equivalent concentrations). After 1 h of incubation motility, viability, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity and ROS production were assessed. Gly, at all the concentrations tested, did not induce any detrimental impact on the sperm quality parameters evaluated. Conversely, R starting from 360 µg/mL (Gly-equivalent dose) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased total and progressive motility, viability, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity and the percentage of live spermatozoa with intact mitochondria not producing ROS. Our results indicate that the commercial formulation R is more toxic than its active molecule Gly and that the negative impact on stallion sperm motility might be likely due to a detrimental effect mainly at membrane and mitochondrial level and, at least in part, to redox unbalance. Moreover, based on the data obtained, it can be hypothesized a species-specificity in sperm sensitivity to Gly and GBHs as horse spermatozoa were negatively influenced at higher concentrations of R compared to those reported in literature to be toxic for human and swine male germ cells.


Assuntos
Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Acrossomo , Animais , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Cavalos , Masculino , Suínos
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 159: 112695, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813928

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) have been associated with endocrine disrupting effects on reproductive organs. We examined whether postnatal exposure to GBH affects developmental programming of the uterus with long-term consequences. Female Wistar pups received vehicle (control) or GBH (2 mg of glyphosate/kg/day) from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND7, where the developing uterus is highly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Short-, mid- and long-term effects were evaluated on PND8, PND120 and PND600, respectively. GBH induced hyperplasia and epigenetic alterations in the uterus of neonatal females (PND8). DNA hypermethylation, enrichment of H3K9me3 and reductions of H3K27me3 at regulatory regions of the morphoregulatory gene Hoxa10 resulted in gene downregulation. In young adult females (PND120), GBH increased 17ß-estradiol (E2) and decreased progesterone (P4) serum levels, altering estrous cyclicity. Aged females (PND600) exposed to GBH developed leiomyoma and pre-neoplastic glandular lesions in the uterus. Vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma and intrahepatic bile duct adenoma were also observed. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to GBH altered the expression and induced hypermethylation of the Hoxa10 gene in uterine tissue at early life, and increased E2/P4 ratio serum level at middle-age. We propose that epigenetic reprogramming of Hoxa10 in association with hormonal imbalance could be among the possible mechanisms underlying the long-term adverse effects detected in GBH-exposed rats.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glicina/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(1): 168-177, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773558

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the effect of the glyphosate on Hymenaea courbaril L. A randomized block design with five replications was implemented. Each experimental unit was composed of one plant in a 5 L container. The treatments were 0 "control"; 96; 240; 480; and 960 g ha-1 "corresponding to 10, 25, 50, and 100% of the commercial dose of glyphosate recommended for Caryocar brasiliense crop, respectively". The evaluations were performed at 24 h and 60 days after application. Visual and anatomical evaluations did not change regardless of the dose, while the histochemical evaluation showed an accumulation of starch grains in leaf tissues. There was an increase in the photosynthetic rate, in the electron transport rate, and in the effective quantum yield of photosystem II at 24 h after application. At 60 days after the application of the treatments, the photosynthetic rate showed a slight decrease and the transpiratory rate showed quadratic behavior. An increase in plant height was observed up to the dose of 480 g ha-1, a linear increase in stem diameter and a decrease in the number of leaves with increasing glyphosate doses. These results show that the cuticle protected the plant, and that the little absorbed glyphosate increased photosynthesis and transpiration to favor the plants. We can conclude that the H. courbaril species is able to survive after contact with glyphosate during the evaluated time, with no visual and/or anatomical damage, showing increases in growth and physiological characteristics for the tested doses.


Assuntos
Glicina , Hymenaea , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fotossíntese
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(2): 2707-2717, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378135

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are widely used worldwide. Glyphosate (GLP) is the main active component of GBHs. The presence of GBH residues in the environment has led to the exposure of animals to GBHs, but the mechanisms of GBH-induced nephrotoxicity are not clear. This study investigated the effects of GBHs on piglet kidneys. Twenty-eight healthy female hybrid weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) with an average weight of 12.24 ± 0.61 kg were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n=7 piglets/group) that were supplemented with Roundup® (equivalent to GLP concentrations of 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) for a 35-day feeding trial. The results showed that the kidneys in the 40-mg/kg GLP group suffered slight damage. Roundup® significantly decreased the activity of catalase (CAT) (P=0.005) and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P=0.029). Roundup® increased the level of cystatin-C (Cys-C) in the plasma (linear, P=0.002 and quadratic, P=0.015). The levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in plasma increased linearly (P=0.007) and quadratically (P=0.003) as the dose of GLP increased. The mRNA expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the 20-mg/kg GLP group was increased significantly (P<0.05). There was a significant increase in the mRNA levels of pregnenolone X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A3 (UGT1A3) (P<0.05). Our findings found that kidney nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NXRs) may play an important role in defense against GBHs.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Animais , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Suínos , Xenobióticos
16.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118382, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666097

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) -the most widely used herbicides in agriculture worldwide-are frequently generalized by the name of "glyphosate". However, GBH encompass a variety of glyphosate salts as active ingredient and different adjuvants, which differ between products. These herbicides reach water bodies and produce diverse impacts over aquatic communities. Yet, the risk assessment assays required for the approval focus mostly on active ingredients. Herein, we compared the effect of five different GBH as well as of monoisopropylamine salt of glyphosate (GIPA) on aquatic microbial communities from natural shallow lakes that were mixed and allowed to evolve in an outdoor pond. We performed an 8-day long assay under indoor control conditions to evaluate the effects of exposure on the structure of nano-plus microphytoplankton (net phytoplankton, with sizes between 2 and 20 µm and >20 µm, respectively) and picoplankton (size ranging between 0.2 and 2 µm) communities through microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Significantly different effects were evident on the structure of microbial communities dependent on the GBH, even with herbicides sharing similar active ingredients. Each GBH evoked increases of different magnitude in bacterioplankton abundance. Furthermore, GIPA and a formulation decreased the abundance of a phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) picocyanobacteria (Pcy) cytometric population and GIPA further altered Pcy composition. Also, two GBH increased net phytoplankton total abundance and, unlike the tested GBH, no apparent effect of GIPA was detected on this community structure. These results demonstrate that GBH effects on aquatic microbial communities should not be summarized as "glyphosate" effects considering that the formulations have effects beyond those exerted by the active ingredients alone. This work intends to alert on the lack of real knowledge regarding the consequences of the variety of GBH on natural aquatic ecosystems. Indeed, the wide use of the term "glyphosate effect" should be thoroughly rethought.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Microbiota , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/análise , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fitoplâncton
17.
Environ Res ; 203: 111811, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339697

RESUMO

Human exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Most existing studies on health effects of glyphosate have focused on occupational settings and cancer outcomes and few have examined this common exposure in relation to the health of pregnant women and newborns in the general population. We investigated associations between prenatal glyphosate exposure and length of gestation in The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES), a multi-center US pregnancy cohort. Glyphosate and its primary degradation product [aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)] were measured in urine samples collected during the second trimester from 163 pregnant women: 69 preterm births (<37 weeks) and 94 term births, the latter randomly selected as a subset of TIDES term births. We examined the relationship between exposure and length of gestation using multivariable logistic regression models (dichotomous outcome; term versus preterm) and with weighted time-to-event Cox proportional hazards models (gestational age in days). We conducted these analyses in the overall sample and secondarily, restricted to women with spontaneous deliveries (n = 90). Glyphosate and AMPA were detected in most urine samples (>94 %). A shortened gestational length was associated with maternal glyphosate (hazard ratio (HR): 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.71) and AMPA (HR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.00-1.73) only among spontaneous deliveries using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In binary analysis, glyphosate and AMPA were not associated with preterm birth risk (<37 weeks). Our results indicate widespread exposure to glyphosate in the general population which may impact reproductive health by shortening length of gestation. Given the increasing exposure to GBHs and the public health burden of preterm delivery, larger confirmatory studies are needed, especially in vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Nascimento Prematuro , Criança , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
18.
Food Chem ; 370: 131031, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509153

RESUMO

To determine whether high spraying concentrations of Zn sources increase the Zn concentration in waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina Kulesh) seeds without compromising agronomic performance, field experiments were conducted between 2018 and 2020. Excess ZnSO4 application caused foliar burn, barren ear tip, and grain yield loss. ZnEDTA and Glycine-chelated Zn (ZnGly) caused less foliar burn, but Glycine-mixed Zn caused more foliar burn than ZnSO4. The seed Zn concentration increased with spraying Zn concentration. ZnEDTA (≤0.8%) had a higher threshold concentration than ZnGly (≤0.4%). Nevertheless, Zn biofortification efficacy did not significantly differ between 0.4% ZnGly and 0.8% ZnEDTA, and the grain Zn recovery rate of 0.4% ZnGly was much higher than that of 0.8% ZnEDTA. Additionally, dual-isotope labelling tests confirmed that 15N-glycine and 68Zn in ZnGly interacted. In the future, chelating technology is essential for developing new Zn fertilizers to optimize Zn biofortification efficacy.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Sulfato de Zinco , Animais , Abelhas , Glicina/toxicidade , Ceras , Zea mays , Zinco
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150368, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543792

RESUMO

Glyphosate (GLY), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can result in gut microbiota dysbiosis intimately involving various diseases. The latest research has shown an association between gut microbiota alteration and defective spermatogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate whether GLY-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis contributed to male reproductive toxicity. Data showed that GLY-exposed rats exhibited male reproductive dysfunction, evidenced by impaired testis architectural structure, reduced sperm motility, together with increased sperm malformation ratio. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that GLY exposure altered the composition of gut commensal microbiota, of which the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla was significantly changed. Unexpectedly, the increased abundance of Prevotella_1 and Bacteroides genera was negatively correlated with sperm quality. Mechanistically, the pathological changes in GLY-exposed testis were accompanied by the increased interleukin (IL)-17A production, probably due to gut microbes-derived Th17 cell migration. Furthermore, activation of IL-17A signaling triggered testicular oxidative damage. Taken together, these findings uncover an underlying mechanistic scenario that gut microbiota dysbiosis-driven local IL-17A production is one reason responsible for male reproductive toxicity induced by GLY, which provides new insights into the male reproductive toxicity of GLY in mammals.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Motilidade Espermática
20.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 89: 103787, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896630

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate and the mixture of both on oxidative stress, genotoxicity and the rates of fertilization, hatching and larval normality in silver catfish. Exposure to glyphosate and the mixture of herbicides significantly decreased the fertilization of oocytes and the hatching of eggs. The different concentrations of 2,4-D and glyphosate, in addition to the mixture of both, did not affect the rates of larval normality, the activity of CAT, GST, LPO, and PCO. SOD activity was not evident in any of the treatments. Exposure to 2,4-D and the mixture of herbicides caused damage to the genetic material of larvae silver catfish. Our results show that although high concentrations of the herbicides were used, changes caused by them were detected in only some of the tested biomarkers.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Peixes-Gato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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